You are on page 1of 25

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA


ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
(CHE485)

NAME
STUDENT NO.
GROUP
EXPERIMENT

: SYAIFUL ALIF SYAZLI BIN TUKIRAN


: 2012215124
: EH2202A
:DETERMINATION OF THE CONCENTRATION OF ACETIC
ACID IN VINEGAR
DATE PERFORMED : 23.3.2013
SEMESTER
:2
PROGRAMME / CODE : CHEMICAL ENGINEERING / EH220
SUBMIT TO
: PUAN RABIATUL ADWIYYAH

NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

TITLE
ABSTRACT/SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
AIMS
THEORY
APPARATUS
METHODOLOGY/PROCEDURE
RESULTS
CALCULATIONS
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
RECOMMENDATIONS
REFERENCE / APPENDIX
TOTAL REMARK

Remarks:
Checked by :
--------------------------Date :

ALLOCATE MARKS (%)


5
10
5
10
5
10
10
10
20
5
5
5
100

MARKS

ABSTRACT

Vinegar is a dilute solution of a acetic acid. Both molarity and percent by mass of a
acetic acid in a vinegar solution can be determined by performing titration. A titration is a
process in which small increments of a solution of known concentration are added to a specific
volume of a solution of unknown concentration until the stoichiometry for that reaction is
attained. The purpose of titration is to determine the equivalence point of the reaction. The
equivalence point is reach when the added quantity of one reactant is the exact amount necessary
for stoichiometric reaction with another reactant.
In this experiment, the molarity of a solution and the percent by mass of acetic acid in
vinegar is determine by titration of a vinegar sample with a standardized sodium hydroxide,
NaOH solution will be performed. I am required to find out how to prepare a 500 mL, 0.6M
NaOH stock solution. To standardize the NaOH solution, potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHP
solution will be titrated with 0.6M NaOH solution. Prepare KHP solution by dissolving 1.5
grams of KHP in 30mL of distilled water.

INTRODUCTION

Concentration of solution is the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent. A concentrated


solution contains a relatively large quantity of solute in a given amount of solvent. Dilute
solutions contain relatively little solute in a given amount of solvent. There are two specific
terms to express concentration, namely molarity and percent by mass:
Molarity is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
Molarity (M) =

moles of solute
Liter of solution

Percent by mass is the mass in grams of solute per 100 grams of solution
Percent solute =

grams of soute

x 100 %

Grams of solution
Vinegar is a dilute solutionof a acetic acid. The molecular formula for acetic acid is CH3COOH.
Both molarity and percent by mass of aceric acid in a vinegar solution can be determined by
performing a titration. A titration is a process in which small increments of a solution of known
concentration are added to a specific volume of a solution of unknown concentration until the
stoichiometry for that reaction is attained. Knowing the quantity of the known solution required
to complete the titration enables calculation of the unknown solution concentration. The purpose
of titration is to determine the equivalence point of the reaction. The equivalence point is reach
when the added quantity of one reactant is the exact amount necessary for stoichiometric reaction
with another reactant.

AIMS
Determine the molarity of a solution and the percent by mass of acetic acd in vinegar by
titration with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution.

THEORY
In the titration process, a burette is used to dispense a small, quantifiable increment of solution of
known concentration . A typical burette has the smallest calibration unit of 0.1mL, therefore the
volume dispensed from the burette should be estimated to the nearest 0.05mL.

In this experiment, the equivalence point occurs when the moles of acid in the solution equals the
molesof base added in the titration. For example, the stoichiometri amount of 1 mole the strong
base, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), is necessary to neutralize 1 mole of the weak acid, acetic acid
(CH3COOH) as indicated in equation:
NaOH (aq) + CH3COOH (aq)

NaCH3CO2 (aq) + H2O (l)

The sudden change in the solution pH shows that the titration has reached the equivalence point.
pH in an aqeous solution is related to its hydrogen ion concentration. Symbolically, the hydrogen
ion concentration is written as [H3O+]. pH is defined as the negative of the logarithm of the
hydrogen ion concentration.
pH = -log10[H3O+]
pH scale is a method of expressing the acidity or basicity of a solution. Solution with pH < 7 are
acidic, pH = 7 are neutral, pH > 7 are basic. For example, a solution having an H3O+
concentration of 2.35 x 10-2 M would have a pH of 1.629 ad is acidic. pH electrodes will be used
in this experiment. The titration is initiated by inserting pH electrode into a beaker containing
the acid solution ( pH within 3-5 ). As sodium hydroxide, NaOH is incrementally added to the
acid solution , some of the hydrogen ions will be neutrtalized. As the hydrogen ion concentration
decreases, the pH of the solution will gradually increase. When sufficient NaOH is added to
completely neutralize the acid ( most of the H3O+ ions are removed from the solution), the next
drop of NaOH added will cause a sudden sharp increases in pH . the volume of based required to
completely neutralized the acid is determined at the equivalence point of titration.

In this experiment, titrion of a vinegar sample with a sample with a standardized sodium
hydroxide solution will be performed to standardize the sodium hydroxide solution, a primary
standard acid solution is initially prepared. In general, primary standard solutioins are produce by
dissolving a weighed quantity of pure acid or base in a known volume of solution. Primary
standard acid or bases have several common charaateristics:

They must be available in at least 99.9 purity


They must have a high molar mass to minimize error in weighing
They must be stable upon heating
They must be soluble in the solvent of interest

Potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHC8H4O4, and oxalic acid, (COOH)2, are common
primarystandard acids. Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, is the most commonly used base. Most acids
and bases ( e.g HCL, CH3COOH, NaOH, and KOH ) are mostly available in primary standard
form. To standardize one of these acidic or basic solutions, titration of the solution with aprimary
standard should be performed. In this experiment, NaOH solution will be titrated with potassium
hydrogen phthalate (KHP). The reaction equation for this is:

KHC8H4O4 (aq) + NaOH (aq)

KNaC8H4O4 (aq) + H2O (l)

Once the sodium solution has been standardized it will be titrated with 10.00mL aliquots of
vinegar. The reaction equation for vinegar with NaOH is:
CH3COOH (aq) + NaOH (aq)

NaCH3COO (aq) + H2O(l)

Knowing the standardized NaOH concentration and using the equation, we can determine the
molarity and percent by mass of acetic acid in the vinegar solution.

APPARATUS
Equipment:
Calibrated analytical balance with sensitivity 0.001 g, burette 20 mL, retort stand, conical flask,
beaker 100 mL , volumetric flask 1 L , pH meter, gloves and safety glasses.
Chemical material:
Sodium hydroxide, NaOH solid, distilled water, potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHC8H4O4
solid.

PROCEDURE

Standardization of sodium hytdroxide solution


1. 500 mL of approximately 0.6 M sodium hydroxide solution from NaOH solid prepared. The
solution prepared in beaker, the calculation with the laboratory instructor prior to preparing the
solution calculated. Your calculation recorded.
2. A beaker placed on the balance and it tared. 1.5 grams of KHP to the beaker . The mass of
KHP to the nearest 0.001 g recorded. 30 mL of distilled water to the beaker added. The solution
stirred until the KHP has dissolved completely.
3. This solution with NaOH titrated and the pH with 1 mL additions of NaOH solution recorded.
4. Steps 1 to 3 repeated and two more solutions for NaOH standardization prepared.
5. The graph of pH versus NaOH plotted. From the plots, the volume of NaOH was determined
required to neutalizaed the KHP solution in each titration.
6. The molarity of sodium hydroxide for titration 1,2 and 3 calculated.
7. The average molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution calculated. The resulting sodium
hydroxide concentration was be used in part B of the experiment.

Molarity of acetic acid and mass percent in vinegar


1. 10.00 ml of vinegar transferred to a clean, 250 mL beaker using a 10 mL volumetric pipette
dried. Sufficient water added, 75 to 100 mL, to cover the pH electrode tip during the titration .
2. 1 mL of NaOH to the vinegar solution added and the pH recorded.
3. The above steps twice more repeated.
4. The graph of pH vs NaOH colume added was plotted and from the plots determine the
volume of NaOH required to neutralize the vinegar in each titration. Data recorded.

5. The molarity of acetic acid in vinegar for titration 1, 2and 3 calculated.


6. The average molarity of acetic acid for each titration calculated.
7. The percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar for titrations 1, 2 and 3 calculated.
8. The percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar.

RESULTS

A) Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution


Volume of NaOH
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
11.5
12
12.5
13
14

pH reading 1
4.73
4.92
5.06
5.17
5.21
5.28
5.36
5.47
5.54
5.74
5.86
5.94
5.98
6.03
6.11
6.18
6.27
6.42
6.49
6.52
6.7
6.73
7.51
12.17
12.76
12.98
13.21

pH reading 2
5.06
5.13
5.16
5.21
5.3
5.35
5.42
5.44
5.54
5.63
5.66
5.72
5.79
5.85
5.91
5.98
6.06
6.16
6.23
6.34
6.46
6.58
10.39
12.4
12.76
13.26
13.48

Chart Title
14
12
10
8
pH

6
4
2
0
Volume of NaOH 2

10

12

Figure 2.3 : the graph of pH versus the volume of NaOH solution added for Titration 1
16
14
12
10
pH

8
6
4
2
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415161718192021222324252627

Figure 2.3 : the graph of pH versus the volume of NaOH solution added for Titration 2
B) Molarity of acetic acid and mass percent in vinegar

Volume of NaOH used (mL)


0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
15.0
15.5
16.0
16.5
17.0
17.5
18.0
18.5
19.0
19.5
20.0
20.5
21.0
21.5
22.0

pH reading 1
3.52
3.76
3.97
4.13
4.26
4.34
4.45
4.53
4.60
4.68
4.73
4.78
4.83
4.87
4.93
4.97
5.01
5.05
5.09
5.12
5.14
5.17
5.20
5.23
5.27
5.30
5.37
5.40
5.43
5.47
5.51
5.54
5.57
5.61
5.64
5.69
5.72
5.77
5.83
5.86
5.95
5.99
6.05
6.11

pH reading 2
3.76
3.95
4.10
4.23
4.30
4.42
4.50
4.53
4.57
5.63
4.72
4.79
4.84
4.89
4.93
4.97
5.01
5.05
5.09
5.12
5.15
5.19
5.22
5.26
5.29
5.32
5.36
5.38
5.41
5.45
5.49
5.52
5.55
5.59
5.62
5.66
5.69
5.73
5.77
5.81
5.84
5.89
5.94
5.98

22.5
23.0
23.5
24.0
24.5
25.0
25.5
26.0
26.5
27.0
27.5
28.0
28.5
29.0
30.0
31.0
32.0

6.16
6.24
6.33
6.42
6.54
6.68
6.87
7.23
9.47
11.94
12.23
12.51
12.73
12.94
13.01
12.94
13.01

6.04
6.10
6.16
6.22
6.29
6.39
6.50
6.63
6.79
7.07
7.79
11.76
12.45
12.69
12.85
12.94
13.01

14
12
10
8
pH

6
4
2
0

Figure: the graph of pH versus the volume of NaOH added for titration 1

14
12
10
8
pH
6
4
2
0

Figure: the graph of pH versus the volume of NaOH added for titration 2
CALCULATION

Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution.


For Titration 1;

11.75 mL

NaOH

at equivalence point.

The number of moles of KHP used in the titration;


1.5007 g KHC 8 H 4 O 4

1 mol KHC8 H 4 O4
=0.0073492mol KHC 8 H 4 O4
204.2 g KHC 8 H 4 O4

From Equation , the number of moles of


moles of KHP;

NaOH

needed to neutralize the

0.0073492 mol KHC8 H 4 O4

The molarity of
11.75 mL NaOH

Molarity =

=
=

NaOH

1 mol NaOH
=0.0073492 mol NaOH
1 mol KHP

solution;

1L
=0.01175 L NaOH
1000 mL

Num . of mol(mol)
Volume of solution( L)
0.0073492mol NaOH
0.01175 L NaOH
0.6246 mol /L NaOH

For Titration 2;

11.5 mL

NaOH

at equivalence point.

The number of moles of KHP used in the titration;

1.5004 g KHC8 H 4 O4

1 mol KHC 8 H 4 O 4
=0.0073476 mol KHC 8 H 4 O 4
204.2 g KHC 8 H 4 O 4

From Equation 2.5, the number of moles of

NaOH

needed to neutralize the

moles of KHP;
0.0073476 mol KHC 8 H 4 O 4

The molarity of
11.5 mL NaOH

NaOH

1 mol NaOH
=0.0073476 mol NaOH
1mol KHP

solution;

1L
=0.0115 L NaOH
1000 mL

Molarity =

Num . of mole (mol)


Volume of solution( L)

0.0073476 mol NaOH


0.0115 L NaOH

0.6389 mol/ L NaOH

The average molarity =

=
=

Molarity
Titration1+ Molarity Titration 2
2

( 0.6246+0.6389 ) mol/ L NaOH


2
0.6372 mol/ L NaOH

Molarity of acetic acid and mass percentage in vinegar.


For Titration 1:
26.5 mL

NaOH

at equivalence point.

The number of moles of


26.5 mL NaOH

NaOH

that reacted;

1L
=0.0265 L NaOH
1000 mL

0.0265 L NaOH

0.6372 mol NaOH


=0.01689 mol NaOH
1 L NaOH solution

The number of moles of

CH 3 COOH

neutralized by the number of moles of

NaOH ;

0.01689 mol NaOH

1 mol CH 3 COOH
=0.01689 mol CH 3 COOH
1 mol NaOH

The molarity of the


10 mL CH 3 COOH

Molarity =

CH 3 COOH

solution:

1L
=0.01 L CH 3 COOH solution
1000 mL

Num . of mole (mol)


Vol. of solution (L)

0.01689mol CH 3 COOH
=
0.01 L CH 3 COOH

1.689 mol/ L CH 3 COOH

The mass of

CH 3 COOH

in the solution:

10 mL CH 3 COOH

1L
=0.01 L CH 3 COOH solution
1000 mL

0.01 L CH 3 COOH

1.689 mol CH 3 COOH 60.06 g CH 3 COOH

1 L solution
1 mol CH 3 COOH

1.0144 gCH 3 COOH

The mass of

CH 3 COOH

10 mL CH 3 COOH solution

solution:
1 g CH 3 COOH solution
=10 g CH 3 COOH solution
1 mL CH 3 COOH solution

The percent by mass of acetic acid in the solution:


Percent by mass CH 3 COOH =

mass of CH 3 COOH
100
vol . o f CH 3 COOH

1.0144 g CH 3 COOH
100
10 g CH 3 COOH
10.144 CH 3 COOH

For Titration 2:
27.75 mL

NaOH

at equivalence point.

The number of moles of


27.75 mL NaOH

that reacted:

1L
=0.02775 L NaOH
1000 mL

0.02775 L NaOH

0.6372 mol NaOH


=0.01768 mol NaOH
1 L NaOH solution

The number of moles of


NaOH :

NaOH

CH 3 COOH

neutralized by the number of moles of

0.01768 mol NaOH

1mol CH 3 COOH
=0.01768 mol CH 3 COOH
1 mol NaOH

The molarity of the


10 mL CH 3 COOH

Molarity =

CH 3 COOH

solution:

1L
=0.01 L CH 3 COOH solution
1000 mL

Num . of mole (mol)


Vol. of solution (L)

0.01768mol CH 3 COOH
=
0.01 L CH 3 COOH

1.768 mol/ L CH 3 COOH

The mass of

CH 3 COOH

in the solution:

10 mL CH 3 COOH

1L
=0.01 L CH 3 COOH solution
1000 mL

0.01 L CH 3 COOH

1.768 mol CH 3 COOH 60.06 g CH 3 COOH

1 L solution
1 mol CH 3 COOH

1.0619 g CH 3 COOH

The mass of

CH 3 COOH

10 mL CH 3 COOH solution

solution:
1 g CH 3 COOH solution
=10 g CH 3 COOH solution
1 mL CH 3 COOH solution

The percent by mass of acetic acid int the solution:


Percent by mass CH 3 COOH =

mass of CH 3 COOH
100
vol. of CH 3 COOH

1.0619 g CH 3 COOH
100
10 g CH 3 COOH
10.619 CH 3 COOH

The average molarity =

Molarity
Titration1+ Molarity Titration 2
2

( 1.689+1.768 ) mol / LCH 3 COOH


2

1.7285 mol / LCH 3 COOH

The average percent by mass


Percent by mass
Titration1+ Percent by mass Titration 2
2

( 10.144 +10.619 ) CH 3 COOH


2

10.381 CH 3 COOH

DISCUSSION

From the data recorded, the graph had been ploted. For standardization of sodium hytdroxide
solution, 2 graph has been plotted which that from 2 reading .The graph is ph versus volume of
NaOH The equivalenece point is taken from the halfof the sharp increase which is at 11.75 mL
from the first titration. For the second titration, tge equivalence point is at 11.5 mL. By using the
equation the molatity of NaOH calculated. The average molarity of sodium hydroxide also
calculated by taking from the first and second titration.

From the data recorded for determining the acetic acid concentration in vinegar by titration with
NaOH, the graph had been ploted. 2 graph has been plotted which that from 2 reading .The graph
is ph versus volume of NaOH The equivalenece point is taken from the half of the sharp increase
which for the first titration is at 26.5 mL. For the second titration, tge equivalence point is at
27.75 mL. By using the equation the molatity of acetic acid in vinegar for titration 1 and 2
calculted. The average molarity of acetic acid for each titration is calculated too. From the data
that had been calculated, % by mass and average by mass of actic acid in vinegar for both
calcuted.

CONCLUSION

For the standardizing a based with KHP, the calculatioin has been carried from the graph and
data recorded. The molarity for first titration is 0.6246 mol / L and tor the second titatration is
0.6389 mol / L. The average molarity of sodium hydroxide for both titration is 0.6372 mol/ L
NaOH.
For determining the acetic acid concentration in vinegar by titration with NaOH solution, the
calculation has been carried from the graph and the data recorded. The molarity of acetic acid in
vinegar for the first titration is1.689 mol/ L. For the second titration is 1.768 mol/L. The average
molarity of acetic acid for both titration is 1.7285mol/L CH3COOH .Tthe percent by mass of
acetic acid in vinegar for the first titration is 10.144 %. For the second titration is 10.619 % .Tthe
average of percent by mass of acetic acid is 10.381% CH3COOH.

RECOMENDATION

To get for the more accurate reading, the precaution must be taken by take the reading from the
meniscus of NaOH solution straight to the eye.

REFERENCES

standardbase.vapronet.nl/.../SI01vinegar_revFin_(Tips_for_teachers)
www.chem.vt.edu/RVGS/ACT/lab/.../Exp_21-Vinegar.html
chemcollective.org Home Analytical Chemistry/Lab Techniques
www.baruch.cuny.edu/wsas/academics/natural.../chm.../vinegar.doc