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Uy, Aljan Auie C.

Define the following,


Climate change
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution
of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time
(i.e., decades to millions of years). Climate change may refer to a change in
average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather around
longer-term average conditions (i.e., more or fewer extreme weather events).
Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations
in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions.
Certain human activities have also been identified as significant causes of
recent climate change, often referred to as "global warming

Global environment and Issues


What is Biodiversity?
The variety of life on Earth, its biological diversity is commonly referred to as
biodiversity.

The number of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms, the


enormous diversity of genes in these species, the different ecosystems on
the planet, such as deserts, rainforests and coral reefs are all part of a
biologically diverse Earth.
Appropriate conservation and sustainable development strategies attempt to
recognize this as being integral to any approach to preserving biodiversity.
Almost all cultures have their roots in our biological diversity in some way or
form.
Loss of Biodiversity and Extinctions
Despite knowing about biodiversitys importance for a long time, human
activity has been causing massive extinctions. As the Environment New Service,
reported back in August 1999 (previous link): the current extinction rate is now
approaching 1,000 times the background rate and may climb to 10,000 times the
background rate during the next century, if present trends continue [resulting in] a
loss that would easily equal those of past extinctions. (Emphasis added)

A major report, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, released in March


2005 highlighted a substantial and largely irreversible loss in the diversity of
life on Earth, with some 10-30% of the mammal, bird and amphibian species
threatened with extinction, due to human actions. The World Wide Fund for

Nature (WWF) added thatEarth is unable to keep up in the struggle to


regenerate from the demands we place on it.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) notes in a video
that many species are threatened with extinction. In addition,

At threat of extinction are


o 1 out of 8 birds
o 1 out of 4 mammals
o 1 out of 4 conifers
o 1 out of 3 amphibians
o 6 out of 7 marine turtles

75% of genetic diversity of agricultural crops has been lost

75% of the worlds fisheries are fully or over exploited

Up to 70% of the worlds known species risk extinction if the


global temperatures rise by more than 3.5C

1/3rd of reef-building corals around the world are threatened with


extinction

Over 350 million people suffer from severe water scarcity

Global sustainability
In ecology, sustainability is how biological systems remain diverse and
productive. Long-lived and healthy wetlands andforests are examples of
sustainable biological systems. In more general terms, sustainability is the
endurance of systems and processes. The organizing principle for
sustainability is sustainable development, which includes the four
interconnected domains: ecology, economics, politics and culture.
[1]
Sustainability science is the study of sustainable development and
environmental science.[2]
Healthy ecosystems and environments are necessary to the survival of
humans and other organisms. Ways of reducing negative human impact
are environmentally-friendly chemical engineering, environmental resources
management andenvironmental protection. Information is gained from green
chemistry, earth science, environmental science andconservation

biology. Ecological economics studies the fields of academic research that


aim to address human economies and natural ecosystems.

Batad rice terraces, The Philippines UNESCO World Heritage site


Moving towards sustainability is also a social challenge that
entails international and national law, urban planning andtransport, local and
individual lifestyles and ethical consumerism. Ways of living more
sustainably can take many forms from reorganising living conditions
(e.g., ecovillages, eco-municipalities and sustainable cities), reappraising
economic sectors (permaculture, green building, sustainable agriculture), or
work practices (sustainable architecture), using science to develop new
technologies (green technologies, renewable energy and
sustainable fission and fusion power), to adjustments in
individual lifestyles that conserve natural resources.
Despite the increased popularity of the use of the term "sustainability", the
possibility that human societies will achieve environmental sustainability has
been, and continues to be, questionedin light of environmental
degradation, climate change, overconsumption, and societies' pursuit of
indefinite economic growth in a closed system.

Tourism Sustainability
"Sustainable tourism is the concept of visiting a place as a tourist and
trying to make only a positive impact on the environment, society and
economy."Tourism can involve primary transportation to the general location,
local transportation, accommodations, entertainment, recreation,
nourishment and shopping. It can be related to travel for leisure, business
and what is called VFR (visiting friends and relatives). There is now broad
consensus that tourism development should be sustainable; however, the
question of how to achieve this remains an object of debate.

Principle 1 .Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable


development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony
with nature.
-the role of man. Humans beings, the top in the food chain, need nature
more than anything else in the planet. In order to continue living our life in
this world, we should know how to preserve, protect, and care for the
environment.

Principle 2: States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations
and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their
own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental
policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their
jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other
States or of areas beyond the limits of national
- state sovereignity. As for the state, which basically controls the number 1 in
the food chain, should be responsible enough when it comes to doing
something especially if it has something to do with the environment. The
state should not interfere witg other state's environment as much as
possible.

Principle 3: The right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably


meet developmental and environmental
needs of present and future generations.
-right to development. The environment must be preserved, or in some
circumstances, be changed or replaced by human beings who will conduct
research or any other kind for the innovation of man.