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# FALL 2014

## MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
MDM 528 COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW
HOMEWORK 2
1. A normal shock wave occurs in an air flow at a point where the velocity is 680 m/s, the static
pressure is 80 kPa and the static temperature is 600C. Find the velocity, static pressure and
static temperature downstream of the shock. Also find the stagnation temperature and
stagnation pressure upstream and downstream of the shock. (Ans. 277.3 m/s, 309.2 kPa,
524.8 K, 563.1 K, 503.2 kPa, 563.1 K, 395.6 kPa)
2. A perfect gas flows through a stationary normal shock. The gas velocity decreases from 480
m/s to 160 m/s through the shock. If the pressure and the density upstream of the shock are
62 kPa and 1.5 kg/m3, find the pressure and density downstream of the shock and the specific
ratio of the gas. (Ans. 292.4 kPa, 4.5 kg/m3, 1.3)
3. Show the downstream Mach number of a normal shock approaches a minimum value as the
Mach number increases towards infinity. What is this minimum Mach number for a gas with
a specific heat ratio of 1.67. (Ans. 0.4479)
4. A normal shock wave propagates at a speed of 2600 m/s down a pipe that is filled with
hydrogen. The hydrogen is at rest and at a pressure and temperature of 101.3 kPa and 250C,
respectively, upstream of the wave. Assuming hydrogen to behave as a perfect gas with
constant specific heats, find the temperature, pressure and velocity downstream of the wave.
(Ans. 1607 m/s, 445.7 kPa, 505.5 K)
5. As a result of a rapid chemical reaction, a normal shock wave is generated which propagates
down a duct in which there is air at a pressure of 100 kPa and a temperature of 300C. The
pressure behind this shock wave is 130 kPa. Half a second after the generation of this shock
wave, a second normal shock wave is generated by another chemical reaction. This second
shock wave follows the first one down the duct, the pressure behind this second shock wave
being 190 kPa. Find the velocity of air and the temperature behind the second shock wave.

Also find the distance between the two waves at a time of 0.7 s after the generation of the
first shock wave.

## (Ans. 168.5 m/s, 364.8 K, 174.8 m)

6. A normal shock wave, across which the pressure ratio is 1.45, moves down a duct into still
air at a pressure of 100 kPa and a temperature of 200C. Find the pressure, temperature and
velocity of the air behind the shock wave. If the end of the duct is closed, find the pressure
acting on the end of the duct after the shock is reflected from it. (Ans. 145 kPa, 326.3 K,
93.8 m/s, 207 kPa)
7.

A normal shock wave moves down a shock tube at a velocity of 700 m/s into the air with
a pressure of 150 kPa and a temperature of 350 K. At the end of the tube, a piston is moving
in the opposite direction at a velocity of 50 m/s. Determine
a) the velocity of the reflected normal shock wave, and
b) the pressure and the temperature behind the reflected normal shock wave.
(Ans. a) 425 m/s, b) 2244 kPa, 873.9 K)

8. Air flows through a duct with a constant cross-sectional area. The pressure, temperature and
Mach number at the inlet to the duct are 180 kPa, 300C and 0.25, respectively. If the Mach
number at the exit of the duct has risen to 0.75 as a result of friction, determine the pressure,
temperature and velocity at the exit. Assume that the flow is adiabatic. (Ans. 57.2 kPa,
275.9 K, 249.7 m/s)
9. Air flows through a 5 cm diameter pipe. Measurements indicate that at the inlet to the pipe
the velocity is 70 m/s, the temperature is 800C and the pressure is 1 MPa. Find the
temperature, pressure and Mach number at the exit of the pipe if the pipe is 25 m long.
Assume that the flow is adiabatic and that the mean friction factor is 0.005. (Ans. 350.3 K,
695.2 kPa, 0.2665)
10. Air flows from a large tank, in which the pressure and temperature are 100 kPa and 300C,
respectively, through a 1.6 m long pipe with a diameter of 2.5 cm. The pipe is connected
to a short convergent nozzle with an exit diameter of 2.1 cm. The air from this nozzle is
discharged into a large tank in which the pressure is maintained at 35 kPa. Assuming that
the friction factor is equal to 0.002, find the mass flow rate through the system. The flow
in the nozzle can be assumed to be isentropic and the pipe can be assumed to be heavily
insulated. (Ans. 0.0726 kg/s)
2

11. Air enters a pipe at a Mach number of 2.5, a temperature of 400C and a pressure of 70 kPa.
The pipe has a diameter of 2.0 cm and the flow can be assumed to be adiabatic. A shock
occurs in the pipe at a location where the Mach number is 2. If the Mach number at the exit
from the pipe is 0.8 and if the average friction factor is 0.005, find the distance of the shock
from the entrance to the pipe and the total length of the pipe. Also, find the pressure at the
exit of the pipe. (Ans. 0.127 m, 0.6423 m, 308.4 kPa)
12. Air is stored in a tank at a pressure and temperature of 1.6 MPa and 200C, respectively.
What is the maximum possible mass flow rate of flow from the tank through a pipe with a
diameter of 1.2 cm and a length of 30 cm? The pipe discharges to the atmosphere and the
atmospheric pressure is 101 kPa. The average friction factor can be assumed to be 0.006
and the flow in the pipe can be assumed to be 0.006 and the flow in the pipe can assumed
to be subsonic and adiabatic. (Ans. 0.1895 kg/s)
13. Air flows through a constant area combustion chamber which has a diameter of 0.15 m.
The inlet stagnation temperature is 335 K, the inlet stagnation pressure is 1.4 MPa and the
inlet Mach number is 0.55. Find the maximum rate at which heat can be added to the flow.
Neglect the effects of friction. (Ans. 4.392 MW)
14. Air enters a constant area duct at a Mach number of 0.15. a pressure of 200 kPa and a
temperature of 200C. Heat is added to the air that flows through the duct at a rate of 60
kJ/kg of air. Assuming that the flow is steady and that the effects of wall friction can be
ignored, find the temperature, pressure and Mach number at which the air leaves the duct.
Assume that the air behaves as a perfect gas. (Ans. 351.9 K, 198.6 kPa, 0.1655)
15. At the inlet to a constant area combustion chamber, the Mach number is 0.2 and the
stagnation temperature is 120C. What is the amount of heat transfer to the gas per unit
mass if the Mach number is 0.7 at the exit of the chamber. What is the maximum possible
amount of heat transfer? The gas can be assumed to have the properties of air. (Ans. 1675
kJ/kg, 1884 kJ/kg)