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This brochure accompanies the Pictures o f Facial Affect developed by Drs. Paul Ekman and Wallace V.

Friesen, Human Interaction Laboratory, University o f California Medical Center San Francisco.

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Pictures of Facial Affect
For more than fifty years psychologists have explored relationships between facial expression
and emotions. What emotions can be judged from viewing a face? How reliable are such
judgm ents? How much does context influence judgm ents of emotion in faces? At what ages can
children judge facial expressions o f feelings? Do people o f different cultures interpret facial
expressions differently?
A review o f this research can be found in Ekman, Friesen and Ellsworth (1972). Recently studies
have addressed questions of personality differences in the ability to judge emotions and the
relationship of brain hemisphere laterality to judgm ents of emotion from faces. Another interest
in facial expressions has been to teach the accurate interpretation o f the emotions expressed on
the face. Allport in 1924 did one o f the earliest of such studies. Presently, professionals in a
number of fields are seeking to teach skills in interpreting emotions from facial expressions.
Recently Ekman and Friesen (1975) published an extensively illustrated text designed to help
those wishing to improve their skills in judging emotional reactions from facial expressions.
A major obstacle to all such research and training has been the lack of a comprehensive set of
photographs of different people expressing the different emotions, yielding high inter-rater
reliability, and widely available in pictures of consistently high technical quality. Frois-Wittman
(1930) pioneered a set o f photographs still in use. Unfortunately, the pictures are all posed by
one person and they lack the quality which modern photographic technology can provide. The
more recent Lightfoot Series (Schlosberg, 1954) suffers from the same defects. Both series have
many photos that fail to produce satisfactory consensus among subjects in many studies.
The present set of 110 pictures represents a serious attempt to overcome the limitations of earlier
efforts. With the aid o f the best current technology in lighting and photography, more than a
dozen persons were photographed repeatedly while attempting to express one o f six emotions.
Hundreds of photographs were studied over a period o f several years to obtain a series which
yielded consistent agreement among viewers about the emotion being expressed. The result is the
Pictures o f Facial Affect.
Development of the Pictures
Six frequently-experienced emotions believed to yield characteristic facial expressions were
chosen for study. These were: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust, and surprise. Posers were
trained to contract or relax different facial muscles associated with various facial expressions.
Generally, posers were instructed to activate certain muscles rather than to pose a particular
emotion.
From hundreds of photographs, the present set was finally chosen on the basis o f empirical
studies which measured the consistency of judgm ents of the various pictures. Photographs which
yielded highly consistent judgm ents and which fit the authors’ theory of facial expressions of
affect were finally selected for inclusion in the set, which now provides 14 posers for the six

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or there was not a difference of at least two points between his ratings of two emotions expressed in a picture.emotions (plus one photograph of each poser in a “neutral” expression). V Procedure 1. The percentage o f observers judging each of the six emotions was calculated for each slide. his data were deleted from the analysis for that slide. i. The answer sheet listed the same six emotion words. and the intended emotion at the other. They judged which o f six emotion words best described each photograph. each observer’s ratings were reduced to a single judgm ent for each slide. 59 were correctly judged by more than 90 per cent of the raters. the emotion to which he gave the highest rating. they could rate a slide as showing maximum happiness and neutral on all other scales. It is the only data source where observers could give “neutral” as a judgm ent choice (by circling the zero-point on all six emotion scales. or some degree between the extremes. fear. with neutral or no emotion at one end. The observers selected the one word which best described the emotion expressed in each slide. Reliability Studies The pictures o f each person which the authors thought best represented the expressions o f the six emotions were shown to groups of observers. There were two variations in the judgm ent procedure and the norms were calculated differently for the two procedures to provide comparable normative data across all photographs in this set. 2 . surprise and disgust. or maximum on all six emotions.S. All but 11 were correctly rated more than 80 per cent of the time.e. born college students. Each slide was shown for 10 seconds to small groups of U. but each emotion word was presented on a seven point scale. i. sad. Procedure 2. The answer sheet provided a choice o f six emotions: happy. anger. Again the number of male and female observers was approximately equal. To convert these data to a format comparable to the first procedure.S.) Procedure 2 was used in only one experiment. All photographs in the present set were judged to show the intended emotion by at least 70 per cent of the observers. The number o f male and female observers was approximately equal. Each slide was shown for 10 seconds to small groups of U. The observers rated every slide on each o f the six emotion scales. If he gave the same intensity rating to more than one emotion.e. (This procedure required deleting the data from less than 5 per cent of the observers.) The following table summarizes the results of these studies. born college students.

81-88. F. Social Psychology. 113-151..com. Ekman. P. S. Three dimensions of emotion. Ekman.00 Please order online at www. 13.V. Journal o f Experimental Psychology. & Friesen. under RESEARCH CDs.paulekman. & Ellsworth. 1975. N.Y. 1954.J. The last column (N) showing number of judges appears only in Table 2. Table 3 by the six emotions expressed (plus “neutral”). Schlosberg. * Anger and fear. Fear. P.. Unmasking the Face. Psychological Review. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 6 females 3 . Frois-W ittmann. 1972.. Elmsford. Emotion in the Human Face.. P.H. 1924. No.Table 1. Englewood Cliffs. Table 2 is organized by poser.V. H. Complete data for each photograph are provided in Tables 2 and 3 at the end of this report. References Allport.: Prentice-Hall. Ordering Information Price: CD-ROM $165. 1930. W. of Photographs Achieving Various Levels of Correct Judgments Percent o f correct judgm ents 71-80% 81-90% 91-100% totals" Happy M 9 9 Sad F M 9 9 2 3 8 F 3 4 5 9 Fear M 1 2 4 7 F 1 6 1 8 Anger M 2 3 2 7 F 2 1 7 10 Surprise M F 1 0 Disgust M Am* 5 6 6 8 3 3 7 F 1 2 6 8 * Photos intended to pose a neutral face (N = 14) were not included in this table as some were not used in the experiment which allowed neutral as a choice. W. 6 /. The judgm ent of facial expression. N.: Pergamon Publishing Co. 5 males each. but the data arc identical in the two tables. Friesen.

ID A -1-06 1 2 A-2-06 A -1-14 3 4 A -1-24 A -1-25 5 6 A -1-02 7 C-2-18 C -l-18 8 9 C -l-23 10 C-2-12 11 C -l-10 12 C -1-04 13 C-2-03 EM-4-07 14 EM-4-24 15 16 EM-5-21 17 EM-5-24 E M -5-14 18 19 E M -2-11 20 EM -4-17 21 EM-2-04 22 GS-1-08 23 GS-2-01 24 GS-1-25 25 GS-2-08 26 GS-1-16 27 GS-2-25 GS-1-04 28 29 JB -l-09 30 JB-1-23 31 JB -1-12 32 JB -1-16 33 JB-1-03 34 JJ-4-07 35 JJ-4-08 JJ-5-05 36 37 JJ-5-13 38 JJ-3-12 39 JJ-4-13 41) JJ-3-20 41 JJ-3-04 JM -1-04 42 43 JM-3-11 44 JM-5-03 45 JM -1-16 46 JM-2-08 47 JM-1-09 48 MF-1-06 49 M F-I-30 Ha]2 100* 0 0 0 1 14 99* 2 0 3 1 1 6 100* 0 0 0 0 3 0 25 96* 0 0 0 0 0 13 100* 0 0 0 0 100* 97* 3 0 0 0 0 17 100* 0 0 0 0 63 100* 0 Sad 0 90* 3 0 0 30 0 90* 0 0 0 1 35 0 97* 0 10 0 0 0 3 0 71* 0 0 0 3 21 0 7 3 0 13 0 0 93* 4 0 0 12 47 0 96* 4 0 0 21 0 90* Fear 0 6 0 3 0 II 0 5 88* 0 5 0 0 0 0 92* 83* 0 0 0 3 0 3 77* 4 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 96* 15 3 0 0 0 0 4 4 0 8 0 3 A ns 0 3 97* 0 6 30 1 1 13 74* 1 2 26 0 0 0 3 83* 0 3 0 0 13 0 70* 0 13 21 0 81* 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 76* 0 0 17 0 0 92* 0 3 0 0 0 Sur 0 0 0 97* 0 2 0 0 0 3 94* 0 0 0 3 8 3 3 91* 0 0 4 0 19 0 100* 0 4 0 0 93* 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 97* 0 0 0 0 0 96* 0 0 0 0 Disg 0 0 0 0 93* 13 0 2 0 19 0 96* 32 0 0 0 0 13 3 97* 0 0 13 3 26 0 84* 42 0 11 0 1(H)* 3 0 0 0 0 6 0 88* 20 0 4 0 0 97* 8 0 6 Neu° 0 0 0 0 0 0* 0 0 0 0 0 0 0* 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 69* 0 0 0 0 0 0 0* 0 0 0 0 78* 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0* 0 0 0 0 0 0* 0 0 N 31 31 31 31 146 141 147 145 24 31 147 147 31 32 31 24 30 30 32 30 32 24 31 31 23 24 31 24 32 27 29 30 32 31 31 30 25 33 30 33 30 24 23 24 24 31 24 31 31 4 . Per cent o f Judgm ents o f Each Emotion for Each Photograph (Asterisk shows intended emotion for each picture) Photograph No.Table 2.

50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 101 10 Io: MF-1-26 88* M F -1-27 M F-2-05 MF-2-07 M F -1-09 M F-2-I3 M F -1-02 M O -1-04 M O -1-30 M O -1-23 M O -1-26 MO-2-11 MO-2-13 M O -1-14 MO-2-18 M O -1-05 N R -1-06 NR-2-15 NR-1-19 NR-2-07 NR-1-14 NR-3-29 NR-1-03 PE-2-06 PE-2-12 Ph-2-31 PE-5-07 PE-5-10 PE-3-16 PE-3-21 PE-2-21 PE-6-02 PE-4-05 PE-2-04 PF-1-05 PF-1-06 PF-2-12 PF-2-16 PF-2-30 PF-2-04 PF-1-16 PF-I-24 PF-1-02 S W -3-09 SW-2-16 SW-2-30 SW-4-09 SW-1-16 SW-1-30 S W -3-03 WF-2-11 WF2-12 WF-3-28 83* 17 84* 100* 96* 10 16 90* 10 68 0* 100 * 88 * 88 * 13 88* 100 * 96* 90* 1(H)* 26 92* 61 10 0* 83* 38 0* 94* 10 84* 100* 81* 16 17 97* 17 13 29 100 * 74* 92* 83* 16 13 91* 92* 83* 74* 23 90* 10 16 96* 16 63* 100 * 100* 100 * 1(H)* 79* 21 93* 96* 47 0* 30 100 * 92* 79* 100 * 100* 25 97* 46 100 * 79* 94* 29 0* .

neutral was not an available choice Table 3. ID Happy Photos 1 A -1-06 7 C-2-18 14 EM-4-07 22 O S -1-08 29 JB-1-09 JJ-4-07 34 35 JJ-4-08 42 JM-1-04 48 M F -1-06 57 M O -1-04 66 N R -1-06 73 PE-2-06 74 P E -2-12 84 PF-1-05 PF-I-06 85 SW-3-09 93 100 W F-2-11 101 WF-2-12 Sad Photos 2 A-2-06 8 C -1-18 EM-4-24 15 GS-2-01 23 36 JJ-5-05 43 JM-3-11 49 M F-1-30 58 M O -1-30 67 NR-2-15 75 PE-2-31 PE-5-07 76 77 P E -5-10 86 PF-2-12 87 PF-2-16 94 SW-2-16 102 WF-3-28 103 WF-5-06 Hao Sad Fear An u Sur Dise 100 99 100 96 100 100 97 100 100 100 92 97 100 96 100 100 97 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 0 4 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 90 90 97 71 93 96 90 87 94 74 92 83 100 100 92 79 88 6 5 0 3 0 0 3 4 0 16 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 13 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 4 0 0 0 3 4 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 13 0 4 6 8 0 6 0 13 0 0 8 7 8 Neu* - - 0 - 0 0 0 - - - - 3 0 - - - 0 0 - - 0 - 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 - 6 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 appears in 0 4 0 8 0 24 88* 4 4 4 88* 0 0 25 0 0 100* 0 0 0 30 2 96* 2 0 0 0 45 0 0 9 0 91* 0 69 97* 0 0 3 0 0 29 20 30 0 0 0 80* 0 7 0 28 0 7 59* 29 this column for a p loto intended as neutra .WF-5-06 103 104 W F-3-I6 105 WF-3-01 106 WF-3-04 107 WF-2-16 108 WF-3-11 109 WF-4-22 110 WF-2-05 0 In all cases where a zero in the study (sec text). Per cent of Judgments o f Each Emotion for Each Photograph* (Based on 10 second exposures) Photograph No.

Fear Photos 9 C -l-23 16 EM-5-21 17 EM-5-24 24 GS-1-25 37 JJ-5-13 50 MF-1-26 51 MF-1-27 59 M O -1-23 60 M O -1-26 68 NR-1-19 78 PE-3-16 79 PE-3-21 88 PF-2-30 95 SW-2-30 104 WF-3-16 Anger Photos A -1-14 3 C-2-12 10 18 EM -5-14 25 GS-2-08 30 JB -1-23 JJ-3-12 38 44 JM-5-03 52 MF-2-05 MF-2-07 53 61 M O -2-11 62 M O -2-13 NR-2-07 69 PE-2-21 80 89 PF-2-04 96 SW-4-09 105 WF-3-01 106 WF-3-04 Surprise Photos 4 A -1-24 11 C -l-1 0 19 E M -2-11 26 G S -1-16 31 J B -1-12 39 JJ-4-13 45 JM-1-16 54 MF-1-09 MO-1-14 63 70 NR-1-14 81 PE-6-02 90 P F -1-16 97 S W -1-16 107 WF-2-16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 10 0 4 4 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 4 87 92 83 77 96 87 83 88 88 84 91 92 100 79 88 13 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 2 4 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 7 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 15 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 97 74 83 70 81 76 92 84 100 100 96 100 83 79 100 100 96 | 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5 0 0 3 3 4 0 6 16 23 0 0 9 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 | 0 8 3 19 0 8 17 13 4 3 7 4 0 8 4 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 8 4 0 3 3 0 0 3 0 6 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 19 13 26 11 6 0 3 0 0 4 0 7 21 0 0 2 97 94 91 100 93 97 96 96 90 81 74 93 100 91 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 4 0 3 3 0 0 0 - - - - 0 - - - - - 0 - - 0 - - - - 0 - - - - - - - 0 - - 0 - - - 3 - 0 0 - - - - - - - - 7 .

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 3 13 0 0 3 10 0 17 10 0 6 3 20 14 30 11 30 35 0 26 6 25 3 3 0 21 0 21 13 13 3 3 0 17 47 17 0 21 8 63 0 16 68 3 0 26 61 3 0 17 29 13 0 3 16 16 0 47 7 30 3 25 46 0 0 7 28 0 0 Neutral column. A ll photographs. 8 .Disgust Photos A -1-25 5 12 C -l-04 EM -4-17 20 27 GS-2-25 32 JB-1-16 40 JJ-3-20 46 JM-2-08 55 MF-2-13 64 M O -2-18 71 NR-3-29 82 PE-4-05 91 PF-1-24 98 SW-1-30 108 WF-3-11 WF-4-22 109 Neutral Photos 6 A-1-02 13 C-2-03 21 EM-2-04 28 GS-1-04 33 JB-1-03 41 JJ-3-04 47 JM-1-09 56 M F -1-02 65 M O -1-05 72 N R -1-03 83 PE-2-04 92 PF-I-02 99 SW-3-03 110 WF-2-05 * Where a dash appears in the study (see text). and written m aterial in this series are protected by copyright and m ay not be reproduced in any fo r m by any process w ithout specific written authorization. transparencies. the judges did not have “Neutral” as 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 93 96 97 84 100 88 97 90 100 83 90 96 94 97 80 - - 0 - 0 - - - - - 0 - - 0 - 2 13 32 0 69 0 0 4 42 0 3 78 20 0 8 0 3 10 0 10 4 38 3 0 63 7 7 0 29 7 59 0 an alternative choice in the - - - - - - - - - - Copyright €> 1976 by P aul E km an.