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**Mathematical Modeling of Gas Kicks in Deep Water Scenario
**

J.O.L. Nunes, A.C. Bannwart, and P.R. Ribeiro, SPE, UNICAMP

Copyright 2002, IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology

This paper was prepared for presentation at the IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology

held in Jakarta, Indonesia, 9–11 September 2002.

This paper was selected for presentation by an IADC/SPE Program Committee following

review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the

paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the International Association of Drilling

Contractors or the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the

author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the IADC or

SPE, their officers, or members. Papers presented at the IADC/SPE meetings are subject to

publication review by Editorial Committees of the IADC and SPE. Electronic reproduction,

distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written

consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is

restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The

abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was

presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax

01-972-952-9435.

Abstract

Well control has always been a very important issue in

the oil and gas exploitation business, since it involves

money savings, people safety and environment

threatening.

The advancement of the exploration

frontiers from onshore to offshore fields, particularly,

deep and ultra-deep waters, has increased even more

the relevance of kick control and blowout prevention

during drilling operations. Widely used drilling practices

have been optimized and re-evaluated, so have new

technologies been developed to handle specific issues

related to deepwater drilling operations, such as reliable

and efficient well control practices. This effort has great

importance to some countries like Brazil, which have

most part of their oil and gas production (close to 75%)

concentrated on offshore wells, about 70% of those

reserves are located in deep waters. Regarding such

scenario, this article presents a comprehensive and

discussed literature review about well control in deep

and ultra-deep waters, covering the evolution of the

analytical and numerical kick models. A mathematical

model has been developed to predict the pressure

behavior inside the annulus during a gas-kick circulation

out of the well in deep water scenarios. Considerations

regarding the effects of wellbore geometry, frictional

pressure losses, influx expansion, and two-phase flow

models have been implemented in the present model.

The analysis of the effect of some important parameters

in well control in the surface pressure, such as the pit

gain, water depth, mud density and pump flow rate

are presented.

Introduction

The exploitation in deepwater and the development of

concepts related to this activity has been changing a lot

throughout the years. In the sixties, for example, the

exploitation and the development of offshore fields used

to be restricted to 150 ft water depth. Nowadays, depths

up to 1,300 ft are considered as deep water and above

3,300 ft are considered as ultra-deep water.1

Particularly in Brazil, about 75% from the national

production come from the Campos basin, in the north

coast of Rio de Janeiro, with more than 70% of those

reserves located in deep and ultra-deep waters.2 Deep

water drilling in Brazil was stimulated by the discovery of

the Albacora field, in 1984, in a water depth that varies

from 1,000 to 6,500 ft. In 1985, Marlim field was

discovered with the well RJS-219, in 2,750 ft water

depth. In 1994, the Marlin-4 well (3,400 ft water depth)

was completed and its production was started. In 1996,

the giant field of Roncador was discovered, with water

depths varying between 5000 and 10,000 ft. The

brazilian record of water depth is the 1-RJS-543 well,

located at Roncador field, reached in November 1999 in

a 9,300ft water depth.

In deep water drilling operations, an accurate control of

all the drilling parameters, added to a detailed project

and program are factors of extreme importance in the

environmental, economic and security aspects. A

permanent concern in these operations is the control of

kicks and the prevention of blowouts.

Literature Review

The first mathematical model of kick circulation was

proposed in 1968.3 The model disregarded the friction

pressure losses in the annulus, the slippage speed

between the gas and the mud, with a uniform annulus

capacity and the gas insolvable in the mud.

The model of Ref. 4 incorporated the effect of friction

pressure losses in the flow inside the annulus. Even

though there was an improvement regarding the

previous model, it presented results that did not match

field data, properly.

Refs. 5 and 6 presents a model that simulated the

flow dynamic behavior, incorporating the momentum

equations to describe the pressure in a vertical line and

with a constant sectional area. They adjusted the

2

J. NUNES, A. BANNWART, AND P. RIBEIRO

**properties of the two-phase flow region as average
**

properties, in such a way that they could consider the

two-phase flow as a single-phase flow. They applied

Griffith7 correlation and a bubble flux pattern.

Ref. 8 presents a mathematical model for kick

circulation in deepwater considering the slippage

between the gas and the drilling fluid, the friction

pressure losses in the two-phase region and the void

fraction. The model also considered a pattern of bubbles

in the two-phase region and a constant well geometry.

Orkiszewski9 method was used to compute the friction

pressure losses in the two-phase region, considering the

power-law rheological model for the mud. According to

the results, the gas density, the geothermal gradient and

the minimum diameter of the gas bubbles cause a

minimum effect in the circulation of the kick. Otherwise,

variables such as the initial fraction of gas, the well

geometry, the water depth, the diameter of the choke

line, and the mud rheological parameters exert a

moderate effect. The initial volume of the influx and the

specific mass of the drilling mud exert a great effect

during the circulation of the kick.

Ref. 10 presents a model based on the equations of

change for the mass (mud and gas), the momentum

(gas-mud mixture), with an empirical correlation

associating the gas speed with the average speed of the

mixture plus the slippage between the phases, besides

the state equations for the mud and the gas. The model

also considered the effects of the well geometry,

drillstring, bit, mud pumps, and the coupling between the

wellbore and the reservoir.

A well control simulator with similar characteristics of

the previous model was developed11, but with a different

solution method for the differential equations. Instead of

a fixed grid, a moving boundary technique was applied.

Gas kick was modeled in a deep water floating rig,

applying correlations to the two-phase vertical flux of the

mud (Bingham Plastic model) and gas mixture12. The

model can predict the choke line pressure during the

kick control. Beggs-Brill13 correlation was applied to the

calculate

the

friction

pressure

loss

in

the

two-phase region.

A mathematical model for kick control in horizontal

wells was proposed14, based on a previous model10. The

model could predict the pressure behavior in the annular

space, during the circulation of the kick in the well. It

was also presented a simplified theory for the swabbing

effect during the drillstring pull-out of the hole and the

risks of taking a kick during this kind of operation were

demonstrated. The model showed that a horizontal well

has a larger kick tolerance during well shut in than a

vertical one has. That would help to conclude the lower

probability of casing shoe fracture when shutting in a

horizontal well.

Ref. 15 presents the performance tests carried out

with the kick simulator that considered most of the

physical effects related to the kick circulation as well as

IADC/SPE 77253

**to the oil-based and water-based drilling fluids. The
**

surface and bottomhole data were obtained in

Ullandhaug 2 test well (Norway), a 60 degree inclination

and 6,700 ft deep well.

A mathematical model for kick control in deep water

wells was developed16, with a formulation similar

previous studies10. The program was divided in submodels: borehole annulus, gas reservoir, choke line and

two-phase flow region. The development of the natural

gas flux inside the annulus was based on experimental

data from the Louisiana State University test well.

Model Description

The present model17 is analytical, with an iterative

procedure to compute the pressure distribution and

gas/liquid fractions inside the annulus and choke line, at

each time step, for a constant flow rate. The simulation

of the kick circulation in vertical wells in deep and ultradeep waters can be achieved considering the

following aspects:

• Variable

annular

geometry,

with

a

concentric drillstring

• Gas kick

• Driller´s method

• Slippage between mud and gas

• Water base mud (Power Law and Bingham

Plastic rheology)

• Bottomhole pressure is kept constant during

kick circulation

The basic equations applied in the mathematical

formulation can be observed in the appendix.

Results

The validation of the model has been performed by

the comparison with other kick simulators8,12,15. Despite

the capabilities of the codes were different, particularly,

the two-phase flow modeling, the results were

quite satisfactory17.

In order to investigate the effect of some important

parameters in the choke pressure

a basic well

configuration was considered, according to Fig. 1 and

the data presented in Table 1.

Fig. 2 shows that the larger is the pit gain, the larger

is the choke pressure to maintain a constant bottomhole

pressure. This expressive effect in the pressure profile

indicates the need of fast kick detection.

The influence of the water depth is evidenced in Fig.

3. It can be noticed that the choke pressure is reduced

with the increase of the water depth, due to the increase

in the friction pressure losses inside the choke line.

Fig. 4 shows the effect of the pump flow rate in the

pressure profile. It can be observed that for higher pump

flow rates, the kick is removed more quickly from the

IADC/SPE 77253

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF GAS KICKS IN DEEP WATER SENARIO

**well and the pressure profile is lesser, due to the
**

increase of the friction pressure loss.

The mud density is very important, therefore it

determines the differential pressure between the drilling

fluid pressure and the formation pressure, besides being

directly related to the hydrostatic pressure and the

friction pressure loss during the kick circulation. Fig. 5

shows that a small variation in the mud density results in

a significant change in the pressure profile.

Conclusions

The main conclusions that can be drawn at this point

are listed below:

1. The increasing exploitation activity in deep and ultradeep waters in some areas require careful well

planning and reliable well control practices to

minimize blowout risks.

2. The significant evolution of the kick simulators in the

last four decades has allowed the development of

versatile and reliable codes to simulate various

operating

conditions

in

onshore

and

offshore applications.

3. The present model, based on a slug flow pattern and

a simple mathematical formulation, has proved to be

useful for well control simulations in deep waters.

4. The water depth, mud density, pit gain and pump

flow rate have a significant effect in the surface

pressure profile during kick circulation in

offshore wells.

Acknowledgments

The computational resources were provided by the

Department of Petroleum Engineering of the

Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil.

The authors would like to thank the Petroleum National

Agency of the Brazilian Government (ANP) for the

scholarship, and Dr. Otto Luiz Alcantara Santos

(PETROBRAS S.A.) for his important suggestions.

References

1.

2.

**Ohara, S. and Bourgoyne Jr., A. T. Circulating Kick
**

Tolerance for Deepwater Drilling. IADC Well Control

Conference of the Americas, Caracas, Venezuela, Oct.

29-30, 1998.

Martins, F. S. B., Santos, O. L. A. and de Paula, I. L. “Well

Control in Campos Basin-Brazil.” IADC/SPE Drilling

Conference,

New

Orleans,

Louisiana

13-25

February 2000.

**3. LeBlanc, J. L., and Lewis, R. L. “A Mathematical
**

Model of a Gas Kick.” Journal of Petroleum

Technology, p. 888-898, August 1968.

4. Records, L. R. “Mud System and Well Control.”

Petroleum Engineer, v. 44, p. 97-108, May 1972.

5. Hoberock, L. L., e Stanbery, S. R. “Pressure

Dynamics in Wells During Gas Kicks: Part 1 – Fluid

Lines Dynamics.” Journal of Petroleum Technology,

p. 1357-1366, August 1981.

3

**6. Hoberock, L. L., e Stanbery, S. R. “Pressure
**

Dynamics in Wells During Gas Kicks: Part 2 –

Component Models and Results.” Journal of

Petroleum Technology, p. 1367-1378, August 1981.

7. Griffith, P. “The Prediction of Low-Quality Boiling

Void.”

Journal

of

Heat

Transfer,

v.86,

p. 327-333, 1964.

8. Santos, O L. A. “A Mathematical Model of a Gas

Kick When Drilling in Deep Waters”. MS Thesis,

Colorado School of Mines, 1982.

9. Orkizewski, J. Predicting Two-phase Pressure Drops

in Vertical Pipes. Journal of Petroleum Technology,

v.19, p. 829-838, 1967.

10. Nickens, H. V. “A Dynamic Computer Model of a

Kicking Well.” SPE Drilling Engineering, p 158-173,

June 1987

11. Podio, A. L. e Yang, A. P. “Well Control Simulator for

IBM Personal Computer”. IADC/SPE 14737, 1986

12. Negrão, A. F. Controle de Poço em Águas

Profundas. Campinas: Faculdade de Engenharia

Mecânica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas,

1989. 102 p. Dissertação (Mestrado)

13. Beggs, H. D. e Brill, J. P. “A Study of Two-Phase

Flow in Inclined Pipes”. Journal of Petroleum

Technology, p 607-617, May 1973.

14. Santos, O. L. A. “Well Control Operations in

Horizontal Wells.” SPE Drilling Engineering, p. 111117, June 1991.

15. Rommetveit, R., e Vefring, E. H. Comparison of

Results From an Advanced Gas Kick Simulator With

Surface and Downhole Data From Full Scale Gas

Kick Experiments in an Inclined Well. 66th Annual

Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society

of Petroleum Engineers, Dallas, TX, October

6-9, 1991.

16. Ohara, S. Improved Method for Selecting Kick

Tolerance During Deepwater Drilling Operations.

Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1995. 152

p. Tese (Doutorado).

17. Nunes, J.O.L.: “Estudo do Controle de Pocos em

Aguas Profundas e Ultra-Profundas,” M.Sc. thesis,

in Portuguese, Universidade Estadual de Campinas

(UNICAMP), Campinas (SP), Brazil, 2002.

18. Yarborough, L. and Hall, K. R. How to Solve

Equation of State for Z-Factors, Oil and Gas Journal,

p. 86, February 1974.

19. Sadatomi, M., Sato, Y. and Saruwatari, S. Two

Phase Flow in Vertical Noncircular Channels.

International Journal of Multiphase Flow, vol. 8, nº 6,

pp. 641-655, 1982.

20. Harmathy, T. Z. Velocity of Large Drops and

Bubbles in Media of Infinite or Restricted Extent.

AIChE, 6,281, 1960.

21. Zuber, N. and Hench J. Steady State and Transient

Void Fraction of Bubbling Systems and Their

Operating Limit. Part 1: Steady State Operation.

General Electric Report, 62GL100 (1962).

4

J. NUNES, A. BANNWART, AND P. RIBEIRO

**Appendix – Basic Equations
**

The formation pressure is calculated by:

**The gas slip velocity is a function of the two-phase
**

flow pattern. For slug flow, the following equation19

was considered:

**Pf = SIDPP + ρ m ⋅ g ⋅ D ………………………(A-1)
**

Where SIDPP is the Shut-in Drill Pipe Pressure (Pa),

ρm is the mud density (kg/m3), g is the gravitational

acceleration (9.81 m/s2) and D is the vertical depth (m)

The Equation (2) shows the average pressure in the

two-phase region:

dpbi

1 ρm ⋅ g⋅H(i )+ dL −(α(i )⋅A⋅Hk)

⋅ Pb+

⋅(e

−1)

P(i ) =

α(i )⋅ A

α(i )⋅ A⋅Hk

…..(A-2)

dp

ρm ⋅ g⋅H(i )+ bi

dL

−

α(i )⋅ A

Where

dpbi

is the friction pressure loss in the twodL

**phase region, calculated by Beggs-Brill13 correlation,
**

α ( i ) is the void fraction, Hk is the kick length (m),

**H ( i ) is the liquid holdup, and:
**

A=

0.36 ⋅ γ g

T ⋅Z

………………………………………(A-3)

**The Z factor is calculated by Hall-Yarborough18
**

correlation, T is the gas temperature (º C) and γg is the

gas gravity.

The velocity in the two-phase region is calculated

considering the influx as a slug flow pattern, where the

top of gas kick is considered as a Taylor bubble and a

tail of gas kick as a bubble flow.

The rise velocity of gas may be expressed by:

v g = C o ⋅ v m + v sl ………………………...………(A-4)

Where Co is a distribution coefficient, vm is the mud

velocity and vsl is the gas slip velocity (m/s).

IADC/SPE 77253

**v sl = 0.345 ⋅ g ⋅ d ep ………………...…………..(A-5)
**

Where dep is the equiperipheric diameter, expressed

by:

d ep = d e + d i ……………………….…………….(A-6)

The terms di and de are the inside and outside

diameter (mm) of the annulus, respectively.

For bubble flow, the following equation20,21 was

applied:

g ⋅( ρm − ρ g ) ⋅σ

n

v sl = 1.53 ⋅

⋅ ( H l ) ……....(A-7)

2

ρ

m

Where Hl is the liquid holdup, n is a swarm index.

IADC/SPE 77253

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF GAS KICKS IN DEEP WATER SENARIO

TABLE 1. SIMULATION PARAMETERS

Figure 1- Wellbore scheme

5

6

J. NUNES, A. BANNWART, AND P. RIBEIRO

Figure 2 - Pit Gain Effect

Figure 3 - Water Depth Effect

IADC/SPE 77253

IADC/SPE 77253

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF GAS KICKS IN DEEP WATER SENARIO

Figure 4 - Pump Flow Rate Effect

Figure 5 - Mud Density Effect

7

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