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Villiers. Freudenberg and his co-workers came to the conclusion that the crystalline Schardinger dextrins are built from maltose units and contain only α -(1. Freudenberg. R. the French author. isolated a microorganism (named Bacillus macerans) which produced reproducibly two distinct crystalline substances when cultivated on starch medium [2]. Immel .3 The utilization period: from 1970-onward The first international symposium on CDs was organized in 1981 [6].1 Cyclodextrins 1.1. 1. whilst studying those microorganisms which play a role in the deterioration of foods.1.2 The exploratory period from 1936-1970 After 1930s.1. 4) glycosidic linkages [3]. French published the first fundamental review on cyclodextrins 1957 [5]. F. By the end of 2003. R. 1. the total numbers of CD related papers/publications were over 26000. D. P. Lichtenthaler and S. V. Rao demonstrated by conformation energy map calculations that CDs with less than six members cannot be formed due to steric considerations [7].1. Franz Schardinger about 15 years later.1.1 Discovery Period The first paper was published in 1891 by Villiers that reported the formation of some unidentified crystalline substance during fermentation of starch [1].Introduction CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1. assumed that this substance is some kind of cellulose and named it “cellulosine. An international CD symposium has been organised every 2 nd year from 1984 onwards.1. S. This period from 1891-1936 is called the discovery stage in the history of CDs. Sundrarajan and V. he named them as α-dextrin and β-dextrin Freudenberg and his co-workers elucidated the cyclic structure of these two dextrins in the mid 1930s.1.” An Australian Microbiologist. Cramer and Plieninger were granted a patent in 1953 [4]. γ-CD was discovered and its structure elucidated. In 1950. Because most of their properties were similar to the already known partial degradation products of starch.1 History of Cyclodextrins 1.

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homogeneous. several rare and minor cyclic oligosaccharides. 1.2 Structural features of Cyclodextrins (CDs) Cyclodextrins comprises a family of three well known industrially produced major. BCD. nonhygroscopic substances. C8A) consisting of eight . α-CD. cyclooctaamylose. cyclooctaglucan. β -cyclodextrin (Schardinger’s β-dextrin. cyclomaltohexose. C6A) consisting six gluocopyranose units. β-CD.  Through their inclusion complex forming ability.Introduction coined the term “cyclodextrin” as a generic nomenclature for all the Cyclooligosaccharides depending upon the numbers of glucose units present in a ring [8].  Their initial high price have dropped to levels where they become acceptable for most of the industrial purposes. cyclomaltoheptaose. cyclohexaglucan. The spectacular development of CD technology relies on a series of reasons such as:  They are natural products. cyclohexaamylose. This unprecedented “molecular encapsulation” is utilized in many industrial products. Any of their toxic effects is of secondary character and can be eliminated by selecting the appropriate CD type. The α-cyclodextrin (Schardinger’s α-dextrin. important properties of the complexed substances can be modified significantly.  CDs can consequently be consumed by humans as ingredients of drugs. cycloheptaglucan. cycloheptaamylose.  They are produced in 1000 tons/yr amounts by environmental technologies. which are torus like macro rings built up from gluocopyranose units. C7B) consisting gluocopyranose units and γ-cyclodextrin (Schardinger’s γ-dextrin. GCD. or mode of application. derivative.1. produced form a renewable natural material (starch) by a relatively simple enzymatic conversion. technologies and analytical methods. of seven cyclomaltooctaose. foods and cosmetics. The three major CDs are crystalline. ACD. gluocopyranose units. γ-CD.

4) glycosidic linkages. β-cyclodextrin and γ- . αcyclodextrin.3 Shapes and size of Cyclodextrins (CDs) Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been described as “seductive molecules.1. CDs are water soluble. non-reducing oligosaccharides consisting of D-(+)-gluocopyranose units linked through α-(1.1). cyclic. The major and most common three cyclodextrins. Cyclodextrins have truncated cone or bucket shaped structure (Fig.1.1. appealing to investigators both in pure research and applied technologies. 1.