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DETERMINATION_OF_EFFECT_OF_ELLIPTIC_NOTCHES_AND_GROOVES_ON_STRESS_CONCENTRATION_FACTORS_ON_NOTCHED_BAR_IN_TENSION_AND_GROOVED_SHAFT_UNDE-libre.pdf
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You are on page 1of 8

June, 2013

DOI: 10.3329/jname.v10i1.13675

http://www.banglajol.info

**DETERMINATION OF EFFECT OF ELLIPTIC NOTCHES AND
**

GROOVES ON STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS ON

NOTCHED BAR IN TENSION AND GROOVED SHAFT UNDER

TORSION

R. U. Ahsan1, P. Prachurja2, A. R. M. Ali3 and M. A. H. Mamun4

1,2,3,4

**Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000,
**

Bangladesh, Email: 1r.ahsan06me@gmail.com, 2charza@gmail.com, 3armali@me.buet.ac.bd, 4arifhasan@me.buet.ac.bd

Abstract:

Stress concentration of structural members can be reduced considerably by the judicious choice of

elliptic shaped stress raisers like notch and groove. Substantial effort has been given by numerous

researchers to accurately measure the effect of such stress raisers, particularly of semicircular

shaped notch and groove. An exhaustive bibliographical study proved that there is scope to

investigate further and establish an alternative design criteria; concerning the elliptic geometry.

Computational method, primarily the finite element method has been used to analyze the models

under loading.

This paper suggests the use of a modified elliptic shape which gives less stress concentration when

compared to semicircular notch and groove. The ratio of minor and major half axes of the ellipse

should be between 0.3 and 0.4. The introduction of shoulder with elliptic notch and groove even

reduces the stress concentration. The results obtained from FEM analysis propose optimal values of

geometrical design parameters. The study represents not only a precise view of stress distribution, but

also to develop charts that can be used by designer for practical purposes.

Keywords: Notch and groove, stress concentration factor, elliptic notch, finite element, Von-Mises stress.

NOMENCLATURE

Kt

Kts

a, b, c

r

t

W

D

d

**stress concentration factor for normal stress (gross)
**

stress concentration factor for shear stress (gross)

semi-axes of an ellipsoid

radius of semicircular notch or groove

shoulder thickness

width of flat bar in tension

diameter of round shaft under torsion

characteristic length of the least cross sectional area

Greek symbols

max, nom

max, nom

y, y

eq, eq

1, 2, 3

**maximum and nominal normal stress
**

maximum and nominal shear stress

normal and shear yield strength

normal and shear Equivalent stress

principle stresses

Poisson’s ratio

1. Introduction

Machine parts are only strong as its weakest point. In strictly engineering terms, the design of machine elements

is focused reasonably on the regions where stress concentration occurs. Geometrical discontinuities, such as,

notch, groove, keyhole, fillet etc. contribute to the concentration of stress to a considerable extent. Among these

features, U-shaped or semicircular notches and grooves are found in numerous machine elements like, turbine

rotor between blade rows, at seals; in variety of shafts such as, shoulder relieve grooves, retainer for spring

washer etc. The semicircular design of notch and groove are most extensively used as it causes less stress

concentration and are easier to generate compared to other traditional ones. Vigorous researches on other shapes

are not encouraged as a complicated design may increase the cost and intricacy which may overthrow the

advantage of reduced stress concentration. In this paper, a systematic study is presented in pursuit of a design

that meets up both criteria; reduces stress concentration as well as reduced cost and complexity of

manufacturing process. To achieve this, numerical analysis was carried out to establish an accurate and also a

computationally efficient model.

1813-8535 (Print), 2070-8998 (Online) © 2013 ANAME Publication. All rights reserved.

Received on: Feb., 2013

R. U. Ahsan, P. Prachurja, A. R. M. Ali and M. A. H. Mamun/ Journal of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering 10(2013) 25-32

Designers often rely on circular or elliptical profiles, for which the theoretical stress concentration factors are

provided for some standardized geometries Pilkey et al (2008) and Petersen (1974). Recently researchers have

concentrated their focus on determining stress as well as strain concentration factors in 3D models using

numerical schemes. Chiang (2011) numerically determined the stress concentration factor of an oblate

ellipsoidal cavity by using equivalent inclusion method. Numerical results were presented for strongly oblate

cavities and the range of validity of the cases was extended by developing a 2D model and established a

simplified equation for stress concentration factor, Kt as a function of ratios of semi-axes of ellipsoid (b/a, c/b),

Poisson’s ratio () and a dimensionless parameter defined as, =

1.65

1 + 1.464

. Chiang (2011) also

**assured the validity of the model for c/b less than 0.5.
**

Stress field and stress concentration factor in 3D models of elliptic holes in flat rectangular bars were also

studied numerically by Yang (2009), Zhao et al (2008), Snowberger (2008), Pedersen et al (2007) etc. Yang

(2009) showed that the plane stress condition of 3D models is approximately achieved by the 2D ones when the

plate thickness tends to zero. Zhao et al (2008) is a summarized the 3D effect of stress concentrations at notches.

They also concluded that for a plate with notch, the maximum 3D stress concentration factor through the

thickness is always consumedly higher than the corresponding planer solution. Snowberger (2008) searched for

the suitable mesh element size. Two element types were compared, which are the 4-noded quad and the 3-noded

triangle. The results for 4-noded quad were found to be more accurate than results for 3-noded triangle.

Pedersen et al (2007) used a 2D FE model and solved by using a different analysis tool (FORTRAN) to present

the comparison between Kt value associated with geometric irregularities of semicircular and elliptic shape.

They have drawn a conclusion that refers to a clear reduction in K t for elliptic design. The present work utilizes

findings of various researchers as mentioned above and aims to develop design charts which can be directly

used for practical design purposes.

**2. Specimen Geometries and Material Properties
**

We consider a steady two-dimensional laminar free convection flow of an electrically conducting, viscous and

incompressible fluid along a vertical flat plate of length l and thickness b. It is assumed that the temperature at

the outer surface of the plate is maintained at a constant temperature Tb, where Tb > T. Here T the temperature

of the fluid outside the boundary layer. The coordinates system and the configuration are shown in Fig. 1

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1: Geometric models; (a) flat bar with circular notch, (b) round shaft with elliptic groove

3. Mathematical Background

Stress concentration factor is defined as the ratio of maximum stress and nominal stress of an element under

loading. The stress concentration factor for normal and shear stress can be thus expressed as,

σ

(1)

K t = max σnom ; for normal stress (tension and bending)

τ

(2)

K ts = max τnom ; for shear stress (torsion)

where, max and max represents maximum normal and shear stress developed under tension and torsion load; the

nominal stresses nom and nom are the reference normal and shear stress. There exist a considerable number of

theories to limit or determine the maximum stress max in 2D or 3D stress systems. Petersen (1974) reported that

yield tests for ductile materials proved the compatibility of Von-Mises criterion with the results of a variety of

2D conditions. The following equation is known as Von-Mises stress criterion of failure by yielding of a

uniaxially loaded bar made of ductile material:

Determination of Effect of Elliptic Notches and Grooves on Stress Concentration Factors…

26

R. U. Ahsan, P. Prachurja, A. R. M. Ali and M. A. H. Mamun/ Journal of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering 10(2013) 25-32

y

1− 2

=

2+

2− 3

1− 3

2+

2

2

(3)

**where, y is the yield strength and 1, 2, 3 are the principle stresses. According to Pilkey (2008), equation (3)
**

can also be used to determine Equivalent stress, eq. For 2D cases with 3 = 0, equation (3) reduces to give the

value of equivalent stress as belowσy = σeq =

σ12 + σ22 − σ1 σ2

(4)

**For torsion cases with 2 = -1 = y, Von-Mises stress equation becomes,
**

eq

=

y

= 0.577

y

= 0.577

(5)

eq

By replacing the maximum stresses with Von-Mises equivalent stresses in equation (1) and (2), the stress

concentration factors can be calculated using the following equationsσ

K t = eq σnom

τ

K ts = eq τnom

(6)

(7)

The loads are applied after mesh generation followed by mesh refinement. The flat bar models are loaded with

axial force of 1000 N and 100 N-m torque is applied on the round shafts are at both ends. The magnitude of

loads in each case is determined such that the yielding remains within the elastic limits. To simplify the analysis,

the loads are applied in static structural condition and in one step. In Figs. 2(a) and 2(b), example of meshing

and mesh refinement is shown for two model geometries; flat bar with semicircular notch and round shaft with

elliptic groove.

(a)

(b)

**Fig. 2: Sample meshing and mesh refinement of (a) a flat rectangular bar with opposite semicircular notches
**

and, (b) a round shaft with circumferential elliptic groove

**4. Results and Discussion
**

The result of this study as described in the previous section was reached by performing numerical analysis on

finite element models. But before performing rigorous experiments, the models were verified against previously

Determination of Effect of Elliptic Notches and Grooves on Stress Concentration Factors…

27

R. U. Ahsan, P. Prachurja, A. R. M. Ali and M. A. H. Mamun/ Journal of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering 10(2013) 25-32

**established results. The values of stress obtained by numerical method were separately analyzed to calculate the
**

values of stress concentration factor for various geometries as the final outcome. In this section, the results

including the verification of models used in the present study in presented in mostly in graphical form.

**4.1. Verification of finite element model
**

Before performing rigorous numerical analysis, the finite element models required to be verified. The finite

element models presented in this paper is justified by referring to the theoretical values of Kt extracted from

works of Pilkey (2008), Petersen (1974) and conclusion offered by Yang (2009). According to Yang (2009),

stress concentration factors for 2-D designs are in good agreement with 3-D designs as long as the thickness of

the geometry in kept small enough. Based on this comment, the thickness and diameter of the finite element

models analyzed in this paper were kept considerably small.

In Figs. 3(a) and 3(b), the Kt values obtained from finite element analysis are compared to the theoretical values

of Kt [Petersen (1974)], for semicircular notch in flat bar in tension and semicircular groove in round shaft under

torsion. In both cases the values of Kt is found to be in reasonable agreement with those of theoretical Kt.

3.2

1.60

Theoretical Kt

Theoretical K t

3.0

Kt from FE analysis

Kt from FE analysis

1.55

2.8

1.50

2.6

1.45

Kt

2.4

2.2

Kt

1.40

2.0

1.35

1.8

1.30

1.6

1.4

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

r/

d

0.25

0.30

1.25

0.05

0.10

0.15

(a)

0.20

0.25

0.30

r/

d

(b)

**Fig. 3: Verification of FE Model; (a) flat bar with semicircular notch in tension, (b) grooved round shaft in
**

torsion

**4.2. Comparison between semicircular and elliptical shapes
**

In this section, a comparison between the semicircular and elliptic shape of notch and groove is presented. The

design parameters used for assessment are r/d and b/a; for round and elliptic shapes respectively. The

comparison is justified by least cross sectional area, or the area of the cross section having minimum diameter.

In both models, the least cross sectional area is constant. Fig. 4 and 5 shows stress distributions due to tension in

a flat bar and torsion in a round shaft for both types of notch and grooves. For both loading conditions, the

maximum stress in cases of elliptic design is found to be spread over a wider region, but has a considerably

lower magnitude than that of semicircular design.

(a)

(b)

**Fig. 4: Numerical simulation of stress distribution over (a) semicircular notch in flat bar, (b) elliptic notch
**

in flat bar under tensile load of 1000N

Determination of Effect of Elliptic Notches and Grooves on Stress Concentration Factors…

28

(a)

(b)

**Fig. 5: Numerical simulation of stress distribution over (a) semicircular groove in round shaft, (b) elliptic
**

groove in round shaft under torsional load of 100Nm

After repeating the same FE analysis for several times for different r/d and b/a ratio, the results were summed up

in Fig. 6. With small r/d ratio the Kt in semicircular notch is significantly higher than the Kt in elliptic design.

But at higher values of r/d or b/a, the difference decreases. In case of round shaft under torsion, elliptic shaped

grooves provide reduced Kt. However, unlike the flat bar in tension difference in Kt values does not vary much

with increasing r/d or b/a ratio.

3.2

1.7

**Kt (semicircular notch) vs r/d
**

Kt (elliptic notch) vs b/a

3.0

**Kt (semicircular groove) vs r/d
**

Kt (ellipticgroove) vs b/a

1.6

2.8

2.6

1.5

Kt

Kt

2.4

1.4

2.2

2.0

1.3

1.8

1.6

1.4

0.05

1.2

0.10

0.15

r/ or b/

d

a

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

r/ or b/

d

a

(a)

(b)

**Fig. 6: Stress concentration factor Kt as function of relative notch size r/d for semi-circular notch or as ratio of
**

ellipse half axes b/a for elliptic notch, in (a) flat bar in tension and (b) round shaft under torsion.

4.3. Effect of shoulder

In this paper, it is shown by using FE analysis that an elliptic groove combined with a shoulder gives the lowest

value of Kt when compared with groove with no shoulder as illustrated in Fig. 7. The analysis was carried out

for two design parameters of groove; r/d or b/a and D/d. Elliptic shaped grooves with shoulder give lowest

values of Kt among the four cases presented in the figure.

For the cases of specific diameter ratio D/d, the relative groove size is maintained at r/d = 0.25. The results

corresponding to D/d > 1.5 are for deep grooves and those for D/d < 1.5 are for shallow grooves. It should be

noted that optimized stress concentration factor flatten out for shallow groove as the width of design is limited

to that of circular design.

4.4. Design optimization

A parametric study is the practical approach to obtain the optimum result for a specific problem. In Fig. 8(a),

values of Kt for elliptic notch in flat bar subjected to tensile load were plotted against a wide range of L/a,

where, L/a = 1-b/a to fulfill the purpose. Fig. 8(b) was plotted for elliptic groove in round shaft under torsion. In

both cases, the optimum value of b/a is recorded the one for which the K t is minimum. The optimum value lies

between 0.3 < b/a < 0.4.

Determination of Effect of Elliptic Notches and Grooves on Stress Concentration Factors…

29

2.0

Kt (semicir.)

Kt (semicir. with shoulder)

Kt (ellip.)

Kt (ellip. with shoulder)

Kt

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.20

0.22

0.24

0.26

0.28

0.30

r/ or b/

d

a

(a)

2.0

Kt (semicir.)

Kt (semicir. with shoulder)

Kt (ellip.)

Kt (ellip. with shoulder)

1.8

r/d = 0.25

r/d = 0.25

Kt

1.6

b/a = 0.25

1.4

b/a = 0.25

1.2

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

D/

d

(b)

Fig. 7: Effect of shoulder in design of semicircular and elliptic groove in a round shaft under torsion; (a) stress

concentration factor as a function of r/d or b/a, (b) stress concentration factor as a function of D/d

**4.5. Proposed charts for practical design of elliptic shaped notches and grooves
**

In all the loading conditions and model geometries analyzed in this paper, it is shown that stress concentration

can be reduced by adopting elliptic notch and groove to design various machine elements. The final aim of the

paper is to provide some practical rules that can be used as initial design optimization by designers without

performing FE analysis. Figs. 9(a) and 9(b) are charts constructed to facilitate the purpose. In Fig. 9(a), stress

concentration factors are plotted against b/a, for five different values of W/d for elliptic notch in flat bar in

tension. Fig. 9(b) shows stress concentration factors vs. b/a, for three values of D/d for elliptic groove in round

shaft in torsion.

From the design chart for elliptic shaped notch in flat bar in tension, it is observed that for constant geometric

ratio W/d, stress concentration decreases with increase in the value of design parameter b/a ratio. Again as W/d

increases, the value of Kt tends to increase.

Determination of Effect of Elliptic Notches and Grooves on Stress Concentration Factors…

30

3.2

1.6

Kt

Kt

3.0

2.8

1.5

2.6

Kt

Kt

2.4

1.4

2.2

2.0

1.8

1.3

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.0

1.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

L/ = 1 - b/

a

a

L/ = 1 - b /

a

a

(a)

(b)

Fig. 8: Result from parametric study of ratio of ellipse half axes for (a) notch in flat bar in tension, (b) groove

in round shaft under torsion. Kt is lowest for values within 0.3 < b/a < 0.4

1.7

2.8

W/d =

W/d =

W/d =

W/d =

W/d =

2.6

2.4

1.05

1.1

1.2

1.5

3.0

D/d = 1.02

D/d = 1.05

D/d = 1.30

1.6

1.5

Kt

Kt

2.2

2.0

1.4

1.8

1.3

1.6

1.2

1.4

1.2

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

1.1

0.05

0.10

0.15

(a)

0.20

0.25

0.30

b/

a

b/

a

(b)

Fig. 9: Chart for designing elliptic shaped (a) notch in flat bar, (b) groove in round shaft

5. Conclusion

In summary, the FE analysis shows that elliptic notches and grooves produce reduced stress concentration as

expected. The principle findings of the present study can be synthesized as written below:

The FE analysis for all the cases presented in this paper proves the supremacy of elliptic design over

conventional semicircular design on notches and grooves in term of reduced stress concentration at various

b/a.

Using parametric design technique, it is established that least stress concentration occurs within the range of

0.3 < b/a < 0.4.

Finally, charts are also constructed for elliptic notch and grooves which can be directly used for practical design

purposes.

Reference

Chiang, C-R, (2011): A design equation for the stress concentration factor of an oblate ellipsoidal cavity,

Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, Vol. 46, pp. 87-94. doi:10.1243/03093247JSA714

Determination of Effect of Elliptic Notches and Grooves on Stress Concentration Factors…

31

**Pedersen, N.L., Pedersen, P., (2007): Design of notches and grooves by means of elliptic shapes, Journal of
**

Strain Analysis, Vol. 43, issue no. 10.

Petersen, R.E., (1974): Stress Concentration Factors, 1st edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA.

Pilkey, W.D., Pilkey, D.F., (2008): Peterson’s Stress Concentration Factors, 3 rd edition, John Wiley & Sons,

New York, USA. pmid: 17498997

Snowberger, D., (2008): Stress concentration factor convergence study of a flat plate with an elliptic hole under

elastic loading conditions, Master thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Connecticut, USA.

She, C., Zhao, J., Guo, W., (2008): Three-dimensional stress fields near notches and cracks, International

Journal of Fracture, Vol.151, issue no. 2, pp. 151-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10704-008-9247-x

Yang, Z., (2009): The stress and strain concentrations of an elliptical hole in an elastic plate of finite thickness

subjected to tensile stress, International Journal of Fracture, Vol. 155, issue no. 1, pp. 43-54.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10704-009-9320-0

Determination of Effect of Elliptic Notches and Grooves on Stress Concentration Factors…

32

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