You are on page 1of 10









May 3,,


DE92 002879









Department of Chemical
IU;nois Institute of Technology,


and J. Ding

Chicago, IL 60616

Rigorous methods of kinetic theory were used to derive particldar
viscosities and granular conductivities.
This new kinetic theory predicted
flow behavior and oscillations in _, complete loop of a CFB. The results were
compared to computations
with in-posed gas phase turbulence in the riser.
The computations
were repeated for production of synthesis gas from char.
The hydrodynamics
of solids processing plants, slmh as circldating fluidized
bed combustors that are being b,lilt to burn high sulfilr coals is not well
As an aid for better design for such systems, a particulate multiphase Navier-Stokes' equation solver w.-_sdeveloped. Partic, tlate viscosities
and solids pressures can be comp,lted by a subroutine that solves a fllmtuating kinetic energy equation for the particles.
Kinetic Theory



Savage (1) and Jenkins and Savage (2) have shown how to obtain constitutive equations and conservation laws for granular flow. Ding and Gidaspow
(3) extended their approach to gas-particle flow. Since Ding and Gidmspow
used a Maxwelfian distribution their approach was restricted to dense flow.
Recently Gidaspow extended this approach to cover dilute and dense particlefluid flow. The mathematics
is very similar to that described in detail in the
classical text on kinetic theory by Chapman and Cowling (4). A summary
of the techniq, ms and the results is pre_nted


Starting with the Boltzmann integral-differential
equation for the freq_mncy
of particle velocity distrib,ttions, f, the dense phase transport theorem shown
below was obtained by the authors cited above.



0--7 < ¢ >) +



=< "f' 37v,.

where F, is the body and the drag force acting on the system,
and < _/, >= l f Cfd£

n = f f(tc





P¢ -- --_go,e,)d_



(¢, - ¢,)/,


fc)dkde, dg.2


(¢, - ¢,)f,f2Vln(-f_)g(e,2



_ *_

_ _



< (4) > +c I) (5) O. The result is the fluctuating energy equation for the granular temperature 0 given by Equation (T1. lations are obtained by setting 7_= rn and _ me.¢' ' (3) The particle conservation of mass and momentum eq. Fig 2 shows that 8 sec. Such reasonable viscosities and particle oscillations were achieved by adjusting the value of the restitution coefficient until the viscosity matched Miller's (5) measurements. CFB LOOP The equations shown in Table 1 were solved for the loop shown in Fig 1.cV i)' + e. simply called viscosity by Ding and Gida.5d). after start-up.2(1 5+ g_pp_. Note that the kinematic viscosity is simply a product of the mean free path times a random velocity.and - / / f + ¢' - - .Idaspow .spow (3).respectively as done by Ding and Glda. 5.6). 5). The standard dilute phase viscosity is given by Equation (T1. Pc = Pcl + Pc't . The 1 m/see velocity is of the order of discharge velocity from hoppers. The new kinetic theory model computations do not differ greatly from Ding's (6) earlier computations using the turbulent viscosity shown in Table 1 and dense kinetic theory (e. There also exists a tangential restitution coefficient associated with particle rotation that was not considered in the theory developed so far.5C) gives this shear viscosity.-'. A conservation equation for this random veiocity can be obtained by substituting ¢ = _1mc into Equation (1). The new part of tlm theory was to note that for the first. The expressions for the viscosity and the granular conductivity given here have been generalized to the first perturbation for the frequency distribution. Fig.V • +7I (6) o.g. They are thus valid for dihlte and dense flow.t£. mtion (2) and the collisional dissipation "7 due to the non. Equation (T1.s shown in Figure 2. perturbation upon the Maxwellian distribution the collision integral given by Equation (2) consists of two integrals which became ms shown below. strong downflow at one wall of the riser. The discharge velocity from the standpipe to the riser is shown in Fig. there is the expected dense flow in the downcomer. pow and previous authors. The restitution coefficient "e" is the normal restitution coefficient. Time averaged Jl 2 Dimitri _. 4.. _. The conductivity given by Equation (T1.c is the coefficient of viscosity. [SI and p.9 Pc2 = 2e._.elasticity of the particles was obtained from Equation (3).6c) was obtained from Eq. a reasonable vahie of the solids granular temperature and viscosity. Miller has also observed the fluctuations of the particle velocities. where _' is the rate of shear tensor. For a Maxwellian distribution the first integral does not contribute to the viscosity since the non-diagonal terms of < CC > vanish. as computed in Fig.

t 1300°K. _-mnductivit. 4.D. k. _. S. 36.qpecies n M m. volumO. re ten.rgy ._. fraction of gn. Table 2 summarizes the energy and the species equations while Table 3 gives the principal reactions. At the riser bottom a mixt_ire of 40% 0= and 60% H20 entered at 700°K. Figure 10 shows typical mole fractions profiles in the reactor 1.qor C fluchtating minus bydrodynnmic velocity q flux vector of fluctlmt. The CFB was initially filled with the N2 a. Fig..p.ric heat. Meyer.._co_ity p den..y of granular temperaf.ilibri. gas and sr. S.of reaction Greek Letters [¢'.. Academic Press. Chapman. 13___0. numlmr _/ effect. y S deformation rate t_." FED-Vol."2nd Etl. Savage.. 187 (198.qof species n h. D._ral..T.. Fluid Mech.anf.J. weight.O.. Jenkins. the bed is denser near the inlet. Jaya. _nd Savage.emcient of . trrmsfer coefficient t time h enthalpy AH ° standard heat. particle diameter r i reaction rate D diffusivit.qtoichiometric ec... Thesis. 3. 6 to 9.. temperature of gas and solid g gravity t:q.wophn. thermal conductivities of the gas nrel solid 7. Miller._edrag coemcient Kr._. American Society of MechanicM Engineering. at a pressure of 3.q anti solid vol.AIChE Journal.q eq.B.ivene. andT.i rate consf.pport. 47 (1990) 0 gran.._mlmr dj.lecular weight. 5. REACTIONS Ding's (6) turbulence model and dense kinetic theory were llsed to simulate the reactions of char particles for the conditions given in Fig.B. DE-FG-22- NOTATION c fluct.J. 2._). of reaction i 7 colli.values of the Figs.qs factor for renctinn i _.T.. Dc'part. _* ga..q study w_..lid vel. ed hy a U.71 atm. Ph.ating velocity of particle P press. 11 shows hot spots. after some state ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Thi. Char was assumed to consist of 88% carbon. 12 shows that the exit compositions reach a near steady 10 seconds after start-up..intg energy C. Ding and U.t'ity vector g... Gidaspow.ct. lm 3 Dimitri Gidaspow .m cnn. geometry. 6. Ding. Reynolds n. nction Y. Aubrey. 523 (1990)._intml ent."cd. J. Illinois Institute of Technology.of reaction _ f. R.nsor e coefficient of restitution Tq. Cambridge Univ. A color video shows structure of the particles as a function of time.lro p presmre lt shear viscosity ( bulk vi.S.5 seconds start-up. Fig..qipnt.ant. J. Press (1961).mo fracti.t drag cnemcient R. Chicago 1991. The oxygen was ali consumed near the inlet. Cowling.ment of Energy 89PC89769.. solids concentrations and velocities are given in At 2 m/see there is a strong asymmetry caltsed by the inlet expected. grant. 1.E..S.itm k 9. lar temperatltre = I < C 2 > LITERATURE CITED 1.. 91. radial di."the MalhemalicalTheory of Non-UniformGase. Gid:tspcvs._trihution and D._. As the turbulent COAL mass fluxes._ particle Nusselt. in "Theory of Dispersed Mulliph. in "NumeticMMethods for Multiphase Flows..t_eFlow._ Nu gn. .

8 (ha.._.6d) (T_. = pj._.x (! 21. < 0.e')'_..qo.t.ctua_in_ Viscosity •S__v_. = .(l 4 ._.Sb) EnrrRy Fl._..xprt.2.6b) ! .63 Soli.atinlg cr!.e ('_. 1' (7"1 . = _.. (TI..for .ct.ari- l.. > O.d_.7n) on empirical corre- lation) 24 _ [I . FI..e). I_[OMENTIJM EQIIATION PHASE k(-.'0. (TI. .s._ Pr_..'. = 0.).i) 3.-) DRAG COEFFI- For _3 2 r.7b) "..la_po..dl ..O) -v.] (7"l.'b0 with r.ol /'. v/_PrdrF3t (7"1._. = g ! . n _( EnorRy (7"!.1y"ry.( O )_ .i../_y(2.oation) 1.a._-7 Collisional e)( O---) I_...r'_l". qo(__ _)(_)t (Wl.)..l d.) Cidaspo_ .¢._.R (based q Cond..q.7.g.. _q T.x._g-.ctivity F.. 96 ll...)_.._(I 4 I e) 2 II (t'. (w....v'l C.75e':'l flI.5e) r.< lO0..iar 7_"_5_..d_ + For r._..(_)I . Ca = 0.l..n. Gna Phone Strpsa _¢ = 2r..I Mn Ergnn eq..q.a.44..¢.t. t-_}(.s._) Solids Pha.0[I +_(i _).SOLID gn0re:y q_ _cail= 7.7c) Re n > lO00 (7'1.ONSTITUTIVE FOR STRESS EQ[JATION 4.p.q.'nt agn only) _hore J-v ._ipation 7 7 = 3( i . flow) Sollrl_ Pha.n._. 19.V ' "..".. 1' + g.gT63 of Fl._p..l. I:KINETIC CONT|NUITY PIIASE k(= TIIEORY MODEL EQIJATION FOR MUI._e.nction _. exten_ion oi"19li0 Sav.n) I)i...(14 __.te _.a.....9. Irh. =/. + t.P. ! p..ql Gid_qpow's.--_ •_. Pha. GAS CIENTS ( 4. . !) ['or rnml. whr're .._e Ihflk Viscosity _.Shear Viscosity !'.p..1.) t)i_.. - = r.. FOIl..'d (TI.TABLE 1. t.") C._a) 50':"' .q) ('ond.O) F V •(. _ (_ _-.UCTIIATING _ < C_ >) EQUATION ENERGY (6) = and dense.g. Solh] Phase Stress glnr'tic "l'hr'ory Modr'l ((.adiAi Di_trihntlon of Fl.l-_s fl = _ -a _I _ (TI.. = _. : V.l"_He 6 Dtmitri (TI.lg_3 and toDinll_ and r. C.) {7"1. [ 1 t. I-.O)| Solid..) q=-. (Tl.ssions di2 I.7d) 3C ":.1 and A = x/_._) FOP.ctivity (7'i. ISR n I fnrRr_. }._.q..TIPIIASg FLOW 2. t._e Dil._.:e. ' (7"1.-O. R% = _P.I Vi_ro_ily ([l_.h Pha-_.

..84 pc.= ¢._ _.v...dp/k e 3.0 2.l_.. Re >_200 TABLE and N%. - -_(.3) Gas .8 • ?Iuv = (2 + 0..a.-Vr.5ooo) K...) +he(Ts-Ts ) where +v-(t.AIIo+h..)+V.16 Ren_z).123 _ dp ] "l.CO_ ---* 2C0 7860) K..3 K.qp.qAND ENERGY EQUATION OF GAS COMPONENT # .775exp( -8421._ = 930*'xp( R. ENERGY (2.p..--_ ' ) Plt_Pco = exp(17. WATER 16326.3 )paS. _..)+ V.) +c2__r._t_.II_ -4.o)_ s -27000 lO exp(R----ff_) 3._T.7t4) ( l . = 8. zm )( ! .% = 0.2.o. (2.}.e = 0._<200 (.ts -45000 K.61ReonvS_. 2" CONSERVATION CONSERVATION OF SPECIF. KEY REACTIONS _..-t )4-2(-2S...1 T.(..p. 0p Re.--_ = t.) Nu.p.OS°t= -9. -'_-Afl"._1=9S% = (..(T. = 0.)+ v. _ 5 II q Dlmltrl Gldaspow .ll_ An°._ x t0' _p(-4°'_°°" moo.7)(2>.v.. ) All°. = 1.1) EQUATIONS He > 2000 N. oel.t. (.1Re°'_Pr})Sp.c_..41_98°k = 32.(kt(VT.v.h.t (a)C 4.ash._ (2coztt. 2. I 4. = h.VT.06fte°'4ssT._ = (l. . K.t -.3 1.(p._.ll=O _ CO_ 4.o) = m..4 and p_.. Ts o =co.4 SIIIFT REACTION Co _(_-4-.TABLE 1..0.. COMBUSTION REACTION C+_/tO_ ---* 2(1." 2oo< n_< 2ooo "n" N% -.Pmrtlele Heat Trnnsfer For _ < 0. Gas Phase _ > 0.p.di#_{i-a)/rf I=.79x (b)C 4.8. O (_. = 930exp(_) An°l..--_7-.l Ils h.) (2. 6 N% = (24-1. (4R_°*__".O ---* CO 4.ll.027 exp(-_--. Re > I000 Re--dppsi"s .l - K.(.) + v."ts) 4...Tr)CO + (2"!!.OSat = 40._. GASIFICATION REACTIONS rs = 0.2) Solid Phnse 200 < Re _<lO00 Nu. _ v..4exp( CO_ 2-It .h.) rl ----" di# 4.1)C02 where"ft lJ determined by _ CO 2(1 7t) 10_.pph.V_)t.2Ren_Sp.Fp.

...._.1".l. \1. .:_:_ II xe_x P x.--_ & Dlmitrl Cldaspow o ._ _ |q.. vr'lncil.... .0_'I0"') n_ "' I::: .. lnciLy - 2..__.g¢19 • -- 0.y .il --.. -- --'_ I . ".5_:_... . (ri_er)w..---- ..../q ...._ Z "_ I0 "- = 9._.rlillr.nm .fect on Solid_ Irrnm the l_ff 111'tll ni' the oi Restitution Vl_eo_ty Hifar (eta) I _-----J " _.qLn.I Fig. Miller'.-.Z Prank'le Co.. men_.m II. C1FRLeap lndudlnS InllUI andInlet ....h. Veladlle_.cil._.---li_l_°"-_n .. I FIOURI_.._1 .._ Coefficient Figure 6 II :_..ll..I..v..._.mle FIOURR I._entrmlan. F. : I0 "' (Y|_ee)slty fr--..... ..9 e = O._l_ft. Or_ulerTemper_ture_ (_nA_) _ _nd _Id Vl_mn_Itles_ (Pol_e) _ __ ! ._ • e = : O.5 rm/e (Mi.O _.._ Vw. 2...ipe ---.'Infl Rm_l.f parLiclo.. !.pwelM fi L MPe ..F... o I _/i--" l_.. "|_rmln_l vel...gggog 0..._lt Inlet (/n. (_q flow r_Le aL hnLt..._j il ..I m/_ I I I_"_'_"_"'/'_'__'e_ li j....q .irli_aLin..._ll_l -|| Air inlel. ._ ---.rement.e.y) . Ill_t_nee 3.

. r Hew 14..... Volume Frxcllon Profile DISCLAIMER Th...nee ('ii " _! m/li) I)lnl°I lilodel wttil lllnlI'll M_l_41.ll. nor any of their employees.i Rtnor (..._1 'pllli'l_li'I7 'iii At __ ll.d*_ew| o_l_ ll-.. Reference herein to any specific commercial product.--___ -' _ _ AveniledIll(lbl Itlm.) (% .Imlll.llill Tllrk. or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its (.._--ilr'-i_ -'--'illl ... IMintl iJ!ll'l' IAll _ _ I.l.itlr'l_l-'irlll lo lanl #-.o -.1wtlh Tilrkilll. or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy. • • Ill) "_'__ nine-."ll (.lob l... or process disclosed..) # ' '_ _ _ 't JI--..Ii.<.lliht -- II1 (i.. u.-lm/oi Hod-1 .-O. { _ \\\ PlY_ANt_IRI .-11_l--"-- i1_3--'- 1!I/o F1('IIIRE .I (itlh . fir... manufacturer. Neither the UrAted States Government nor any agency thereof..m... I. Iii. completeness. apparatus.l... _i_tf"--'---_'-lll_ Ill--TR ill.• I. __ :ii . 2 m m/.'"i l_ICtUli! "#.. Tlme AversBed R_Hal . express or implied.Ni)(n L'-'l_l. tillrhliii'n¢'-I (. N#".il_I.. or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof..4. _lnmll. S..l.Ilk t.-- in o..- _- -# i i (.111 ._olidl Velodty Profile "nn'..000) in lod#l . product..._l_S!. .ll.i'e il..I rll. _ _ lllni'9 Ib. ii _ _ _ l0 '.|(. or usefulness of any information. state or reflect those of the m .4ol (. \ "" - -- rt . = ifpliihl ni. II. -... recommendation. trademark..1 mini i lA .-li'n/ni -. l'_rlie from Sinndl'_pe '.'lm/I lie._I---'-_--'---illl---_-*i_l_'--'_ . Mllm Fliri I'l_..4oI . I lltq'Tlltt:l_.1 (..J4. "_'""t-.at_ of authors expressed herein do not nexessarily Government or any agency thereof...6. _ _l llpllht ii "II Ilflit Ill_lpr ni_il % % li.--L-llr_--11_r---. FIOURE I ..z_idllVolume Frllc"iloePiffle i .4.:s report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. i_ (.I r--. lt:rtr (-ml 9. l*llrilrlill..m) - Dtitl'O __ I)#nii'l __ lte.l (* II. nell (l i ..lie-..ii.."11n_ Avei_lecl Illldllll Y.lflks -tlh T. _ LIIII'T llllllJ. Bt_clrANIL-I_.I _---_. or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. or service by trade name..I / -i_-_' FIGURE _l /J_AL lll_llllL Mil.. _ I_IGUlllP_.lm _n4 iimlm i.llt._lf--"-lqlii lltlP'lr vail._4. The views and opinions Unit_.I • O IOO} (wOk tllrh..-.. makes any warranty.Illl -.. Areil Averaged Axial _ .l'..l. I'll_l'l_l'il_tl ill_r Id. process._l.".I 8.*-) 0ro. i ' tj\ I'- I t olen lwl I ....

.. r' Dimitr_ C.8 ['_00 t 1 1450-] t..4 = .. _ _ _ n._/_... ....Id aspow ' I! .. '"- 71 '..... . Outlet Gas Comlx_itions for the CFB Synthesis Gas Producer II.. or mse:e / : _o3 .. - . _...-:.:...---_"--..: _'. (sr.-.... .. :' : .s FIGURE 12. 1350 _ -.. "0_- : ......... .. 3 1400 _d .. i -.. t300 ... .. 1 ... 0 5 I0 _uv..A_ T_I4PERATURE AT IIEl_lrr : 4. '. - ....c) FIGURE ' ' OOTL_ _UZ r_cxzo_o. COt __co -- Mi.. ...-.t .....B | 1 0. ....._-._ '._(m) HF.ClIT ealJ.....D _.__// "" _. t ........ _ WALLn_ ms_e . 0. • 15 s m (ssc1 lo .. Gas Temperature 8 Ii o s i " '.S __ c£1¢re:i_ nv RISER ": _o0.AR 0...

i l .

IPI ' n i .