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You are on page 1of 3

:

Definition of Convergence of a Sequence:

Given any sequence {an}, the sequence is convergent if

lim a n

n

=L

**Squeeze Theorem for Sequences
**

If an bn cn for all n N, and if

lim a n

n

lim c n

= n

lim bn

= L, then n

=L

Geometric Sequence:

A geometric sequence { ar n 1 } is convergent if −1 < r 1 and divergent for all other values of r.

an

If −1 < r < 1, then lim

n

0

**Tests for Convergence of a Series:
**

**Definition of Convergence of a Series: Given any series a n , the series is convergent if the sequence
**

n 1

n

sn S where

of partial sums {sn} is convergent to a number S; that is lim

n

sn

ai

i 1

**Evaluating the (Limit of) Partial Sum
**

If you are lucky and you find an explicit general formula the nth partial sum,

terms of n, then you can

series.

sn

evaluate nlim

If the limit of the partial sum exists,

n

sn

ai expressed in

i 1

to see if it approaches a number S to find the sum of the

**lim sn S , then the series is convergent with sum S.
**

n

**If the limit of the partial sum does not exist, then the series is divergent.
**

Test for Divergence

an 0 or does not exist, then the series

Given any series an , if lim

n

a

n

is divergent.

an 0

*** Test for divergence fail to conclude if lim

n

Special Series :

a ar

n 1

**is convergent for −1 < r < 1 and is divergent for r −1 or r 1.
**

a

n 1

*** If an infinite geometric series ar is convergent, then its sum is S

1 r

1

p – Series: an p is convergent for p >1 and is divergent for p 1.

n

Geometric Series:

n

Integral Test Suppose f(x) is a continuous. The comparison tests require that you have a known convergent or known divergent series you can compare on a term by term basis to the terms of a b n n Ratio Test: Given a series an : n1 If < 1. then n is divergent and an bn n n Limit Comparison Test Suppose an and bn are series with positive terms an > 0 and bn> 0 for all n 1 : an C for some finite number C > 0. positive. the test gives no information about convergence or divergence of an The ratio test is useful for series whose terms contain factorials. decreasing function on the interval [1. a n n1 that . n is convergent and an bn for all n 1. ) and with an = f(n) for all integers n 1 : then a n 1 n then a n 1 n is convergent if and only if is divergent if and only if 1 1 a n is a series f ( x)dx is convergent . then series a n is absolutely convergent and therefore also convergent. n1 If > 1 or lim an 1 = . then the series n If lim n *** an a n is divergent. then a is also divergent. Comparison Test Suppose an and are series with positive terms an > 0 and bn> 0 for all n 1 : b If b If a is also convergent. then either both series converge or both n bn If lim series diverge. f ( x)dx is divergent . n1 an 1 = 1 . for all n 1. C .

If you can find a test that works for series with positive terms to show that a converges. 1) bn 0 for all n 1 bn 0 2) lim n 3) bn+1 < bn for all n 1 . consider {bn} where bn = |an| : bn The series converges if all the 3 conditions are satisfied. then this test does not give you any information about the convergence or n1 divergence of the alternating series a n . You need to find another test of convergence. converges absolutely if n n Alternating Series Test Suppose an is an alternating series an (1) n 1 . n1 If a n diverges. n1 converges. the series is "absolutely convergent" which is a stronger condition that n1 convergence. n1 a *** An alternating convergent series a *** An alternating convergent series n n a also converges converges conditionally if a diverges. then this test tells you that n n1 a n also converges. then so does n1 If a n a n .Absolute-Convergence Test Suppose an is an alternating series: If an converges.

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