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LTE, an abbreviation for Long-Term Evolution, commonly marketed as 4G LTE, is a standard

for wireless communication of high-speed data for mobile phones and data terminals. It is based
on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA network technologies, increasing the capacity and speed
using a different radio interface together with core network improvements.[1][2] The standard is
developed by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) and is specified in its Release 8
document series, with minor enhancements described in Release 9.
LTE is the natural upgrade path for carriers with both GSM/UMTS networks
and CDMA2000 networks. The different LTE frequencies and bands used in different countries
will mean that only multi-band phones will be able to use LTE in all countries where it is
supported.
Although marketed as a 4G wireless service, LTE (as specified in the 3GPP Release 8 and 9
document series) does not satisfy the technical requirements the 3GPP consortium has adopted
for its new standard generation, and which were originally set forth by the ITU-R organization in
its IMT-Advanced specification. However, due to marketing pressures and the significant
advancements that WiMAX, HSPA+ and LTE bring to the original 3G technologies, ITU later
decided that LTE together with the aforementioned technologies can be called 4G technologies.
[3]
The LTE Advanced standard formally satisfies the ITU-R requirements to be considered IMTAdvanced.[4] To differentiate LTE Advanced and WiMAX-Advancedfrom current 4G
technologies, ITU has defined them as "True 4G".[5][6]
Contents
[hide]

1 Overview

2 Features

3 Voice calls
o

3.1 Enhanced voice quality

4 Frequency bands

5 Patents

6 Devices

7 See also

8 References

9 Further reading

10 External links
o

10.1 White papers and other technical information

Overview[edit] See also: LTE timeline and List of LTE networks Telia-branded Samsung LTE modem HTC ThunderBolt. the second commercially available LTE smartphone LTE stands for Long Term Evolution[7] and is a registered trademark owned by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) for the wireless data communications technology and a development of the GSM/UMTS standards. However other nations and companies do play an .

2011 offering the Sierra Wireless AirCard® 313U USB mobile broadband modem. The LTE services were launched by major North American carriers as well. but all the major CDMA operators (such as Verizon. The evolution of LTE is LTE Advanced. Rogers Wireless was the first to launch LTE network on July 7.Bell and Telus in Canada. SK Telecom in South Korea and China Telecom/China Unicom in China) have announced that they intend to migrate to LTE after all.[8] In May 2007. supports seamless handovers for both voice and data to cell towers with older network technology such as GSM.[19] The LTE specification provides downlink peak rates of 300 Mbit/s. called the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and designed to replace the GPRS Core Network. [17] Initially.[20] The simpler architecture results in lower operating costs (for example.4 MHz to 20 MHz and supports both frequency division duplexing(FDD) and time-division duplexing (TDD).active role in the LTE project. au by KDDI in Japan.[15][16] In Canada.[9][10] The LTE standard was finalized in December 2008. 2011[13][14] both offered by MetroPCS and HTC ThunderBolt offered by Verizon starting on March 17 being the second LTE smartphone to be sold commercially. The IPbased network architecture. so that it must be operated on a separate radio spectrum. and studies on the new standard officially commenced in 2005. known as the "LTE Rocket™ stick" then followed closely by mobile devices from both HTC and Samsung. uplink peak rates of 75 Mbit/s and QoS provisions permitting a transferlatency of less than 5 ms in the radio access network. with the Samsung SCH-r900 being the world’s first LTE Mobile phone starting on September 21. 2010[11][12] and Samsung Galaxy Indulge being the world’s first LTE smartphone starting on February 10. and the first publicly available LTE service was launched by TeliaSonera in Oslo and Stockholm on December 14.[18] Services are expected to commence in 2013.0% . 2009 as a data connection with a USB modem. UMTS and CDMA2000. from 1. The LTE wireless interface is incompatible with 2G and 3G networks. which was standardized in March 2011. Sprint and MetroPCS in the United States. Below is a list of countries by 4G LTE penetration as measured by Juniper Networks in 2013 and published by Bloomberg. CDMA operators planned to upgrade to rival standards called UMB and WiMAX.[22][23] Rank 1 Country/Territory South Korea Penetration 62. LTE has the ability to manage fast-moving mobiles and supports multi-cast and broadcast streams. The goal of LTE was to increase the capacity and speed of wireless data networks using newDSP (digital signal processing) techniques and modulations that were developed around the turn of the millennium. each E-UTRA cell will support up to four times the data and voice capacity supported by HSPA[21]). LTE supports scalable carrier bandwidths. LTE was first proposed by NTT DoCoMo of Japan in 2004. A further goal was the redesign and simplification of the network architecture to an IP-based system with significantly reduced transfer latency compared to the3G architecture. the LTE/SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI) alliance was founded as a global collaboration between vendors and operators with the goal of verifying and promoting the new standard in order to ensure the global introduction of the technology as quickly as possible.

Its main features are:  Peak download rates up to 299. E-UTRA is the air interface of LTE. as it transits from the existing UMTS circuit + packet switching combined network.1% 7 United Kingdom 5.1% 4 United States 19. Five different terminal classes have been defined from a voice centric class up to a high end terminal that supports the peak data rates.0% Features[edit] See also: E-UTRA Much of the LTE standard addresses the upgrading of 3G UMTS to what will eventually be 4G mobile communications technology. to an all-IP flat architecture system.0% 10 Philippines 1. A large amount of the work is aimed at simplifying the architecture of the system.3% 3 Australia 21.Rank Country/Territory Penetration 2 Japan 21.0% 5 Sweden 14.0% 8 Germany 3.4 Mbit/s depending on the user equipment category (with 4×4 antennas using 20 MHz of spectrum).6 Mbit/s and upload rates up to 75.0% 6 Canada 8. . All terminals will be able to process 20 MHz bandwidth.0% 9 Russia 2.

g.  Support for inter-operation and co-existence with legacy standards (e.1 miles) is the optimal cell size. Voice calls[edit] . 10 MHz. Support for all frequency bands currently used by IMT systems by ITU-R. Users can start a call or transfer of data in an area using an LTE standard. and. (W-CDMA has no option for other than 5 MHz slices. 5 km (3. This feature can deliver services such as Mobile TV using the LTE infrastructure. leading to some problems rolling-out in countries where 5 MHz is a commonly allocated width of spectrum so would frequently already be in use with legacy standards such as 2G GSM and cdmaOne. and up to 100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performance. Support for MBSFN (Multicast-Broadcast Single Frequency Network). Low data transfer latencies (sub-5 ms latency for small IP packets in optimal conditions). In the lower frequency bands to be used in rural areas..  Improved support for mobility.)  Support for cell sizes from tens of metres radius (femto and picocells) up to 100 km (62 miles) radius macrocells. higher frequency bands (such as 2.   Packet switched radio interface. continue the operation without any action on their part using GSM/GPRS or W-CDMA-based UMTS or even 3GPP2networks such as cdmaOne or CDMA2000. UMTS and CDMA2000). lower latencies for handover and connection setup time than with previous radio access technologies. cell sizes may be 1 km (0. Support for both FDD and TDD communication systems as well as half-duplex FDD with the same radio access technology. and is a competitor forDVB-H-based TV broadcast. 30 km (19 miles) having reasonable performance.[24]    OFDMA for the downlink. GSM/EDGE.  Supports at least 200 active data clients in every 5 MHz cell.62 miles) or even less. exemplified by support for terminals moving at up to 350 km/h (220 mph) or 500 km/h (310 mph) depending on the frequency band. 5 MHz. 15 MHz and 20 MHz wide cells are standardized.4 MHz. 3 MHz.[25]  Simplified architecture: The network side of E-UTRAN is composed only of eNode Bs. In city and urban areas.6 GHz in EU) are used to support high speed mobile broadband. In this case.  Increased spectrum flexibility: 1. SC-FDMA for the uplink to conserve power. should coverage be unavailable.

with the LTE mode providing data services and the circuit switched mode providing the voice service. carriers will have to re-engineer their voice call network. and therefore. The disadvantage of this solution is that the phone can become expensive with high power consumption. which defines the protocols through which a mobile handset can perform voice calls over a customer's private Internet connection. so with the adoption of LTE. usually over wireless LAN. using applications like Skype and Google Talk to provide LTE voice service. Simultaneous voice and LTE (SVLTE) In this approach.cs domLTE CSFB to GSM/UMTS network interconnects The LTE standard supports only packet switching with its all-IP network. UMTS and CDMA2000 are circuit switched.[28] The idea was to use the same principles as GAN (Generic Access Network. The lack of software support in initial LTE devices as well as core network devices however led to a number of carriers promoting VoLGA (Voice over LTE Generic Access) as an interim solution. [27] Most major backers of LTE preferred and promoted VoLTE from the beginning. VoLTE will also require Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) in order to be able to smoothly perform a handover to a 3G network in case of poor LTE signal quality. However. and when a voice call is to be initiated or received. also known as UMA or Unlicensed Mobile Access). albeit at the cost of having to upgrade the entire voice call infrastructure. the handset works simultaneously in the LTE and circuit switched modes. One additional approach which is not initiated by operators is the usage of over-thetop content (OTT) services. operators just need to upgrade the MSC instead of deploying the IMS. it will fall back to the circuit-switched domain.[26] Three different approaches sprang up: Voice over LTE (VoLTE) Main article: VoLTE Circuit-switched fallback (CSFB) In this approach. which does not have special requirements on the network and does not require the deployment of IMS either. When using this solution. This is a solution solely based on the handset. Voice calls in GSM. VoLGA however never gained much support. the disadvantage is longer call setup delay. can provide services quickly. LTE just provides data services. because VoLTE (IMS) promises much more flexible services.[29] .

each of which is designated by both a frequency and a band number. 40). 11. 7.While the industry has seemingly standardized on VoLTE for the future. 5. 13. This codec is mandated in 3GPP networks that support 16 kHz sampling.[32] Frequency bands[edit] See also: E-UTRA § Frequency bands and channel bandwidths The LTE standard covers a range of many different bands.5 kHz and upcoming wideband audio services branded as HD Voice up to 7 kHz. both the caller and recipient's handsets as well as networks have to support the feature. 7. In North America. 40). 750.[39] so that "any analysis of essential LTE patents should take into account more than ETSI declarations. When placing or receiving a voice call. Patents[edit] According to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute's (ETSI) intellectual property rights (IPR) database. 2600 MHz in Europe (bands 3. [39] The ETSI has made no investigation on the correctness of the declarations however. holding essential patents covering the LTE standard. also known asHD Voice. 7. 1900."[40] Devices[edit] . 17. 2500 and 2600 MHz (Rogers Communications. Full-HD Voice supports the entire bandwidth range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz.[38] As a result.[30] Fraunhofer IIS has proposed and demonstrated "Full-HD Voice". 3GPP demands at least AMR-NB codec (narrow band). Enhanced voice quality[edit] To ensure compatibility. 12. 26. 3. 4. but the recommended speech codec for VoLTE is Adaptive Multi-Rate Wideband. the demand for voice calls today has led LTE carriers to introduce CSFB as a stopgap measure. For endto-end Full-HD Voice calls to succeed however. 700.[31] Where previous cell phone voice codecs only supported frequencies up to 3. 20). 25. Users will need a multi-band capable phone for roaming internationally. 41). 1800. 850. an implementation of the AAC-ELD (Advanced Audio Coding – Enhanced Low Delay) codec for LTE handsets. 1700/2100 (AWS).[33][34] 1800 and 2600 MHz in Asia (bands 1. 700. 800. 2500 MHz in South America. 900. phones from one country may not work in other countries. about 50 companies have declared. as of March 2012. Bell Canada) are used (bands 2. 8. LTE handsets will fall back to old 2G or 3G networks for the duration of the call. 13. 800.[35] and 1800 MHz and 2300 MHz in Australia[36][37] and New Zealand (bands 3.

Brand Name Note iPhone 5 [41] iPhone 5C [42] iPhone 5S [43] iPhone 6 [44] [45] iPhone 6 Plus [46] [45] iPad (3rd generation) [47] iPad (4th generation) [48] iPad Air [49] iPad Air 2 [50] iPad Mini (1st generation) [51] iPad Mini 2 [52] iPad Mini 3 [53] Lenovo A6000 [54] Apple Lenovo .

Brand Fujitsu Name Note Arrows NX HTC Desire Eye HTC One (2013) HTC HTC One (M8) [55] HTC One Mini [56] HTC One Mini 2 [57] Ascend D2 LTE Huawei Ascend P7 LG G Flex G Pro G2 .

Brand Name Note G3 Isai VL Nexus 5 LG Gx Optimus LTE 2 Optimus LTE III Optimus Vu 2 Vu 3 Droid Turbo Motorola Moto G Nexus 6 Nokia Lumia 830 [58] .

Brand OnePlus Name One Vega Iron Vega N°6 Pantech Vega R3 Vega Secret Note Samsung Galaxy A5 Galaxy Avant Galaxy Golden Galaxy Grand Galaxy Light Galaxy Note II LTE Galaxy Note 3 Note .

Brand Name Galaxy Note 10.1 LTE Galaxy Note Edge Galaxy Note 4 Galaxy Pop Galaxy Round Galaxy S III LTE[59] Samsung Galaxy Core LTE [60] Galaxy S4 Galaxy S4 Active Galaxy S4 mini LTE Galaxy S4 Zoom Galaxy S5 Note .

Brand Name Galaxy S6 Galaxy S6 Edge Galaxy S5 Active Galaxy Win Aquos Pad Sharp Aquos Zeta Disney Mobile on docomo Sony Xperia SP M35t Xperia ZL C6506 Xperia Z1 Xperia Z2 Xperia Z2 Tablet Note .

Brand Name Note Xperia Z3 Xperia Z3 Compact Xperia Z4 Tablet LTE [61] .