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UNIT III

Valve Actuating Mechanism
Design of valve
Main formula

Abbreviation

Assume value

Material Selection
Step-1

Size of the valve port:
v p∗a p = a*v

vp

= Men Velocity Of Gas

flowing through the port (m/s)

ap

=Area Of The Valve Port

Assume

(m/s)

Low speed ( inlet valve =33 to 40
Exhaust valve =40 to 50)

a = Area of the piston
v = Velocity of the piston

v
(¿¿ p)
¿

High speed( inlet valve =80 to 90
Exhaust valve=90 to 100)

Step-2
Thickness of the Valve

t=K

K=0.54( Cast iron)

K= constant

¿d

p√

p=¿
d¿

K=0.42 ( Steel)
Diameter of the port(mm)

σ

p
σb

P= Maximum pressure (N/

mm
σ

2

b

b= (Alloy Steel = 100 to 120

Carbon Steel = 50 to 60)

)

= Bending stress (N/

mm2 )
Step-3
Maximum Lift of the valve

h = maximum lift of the valve

α

= Valve Tapper

30
α =(¿45) in degree

dp

h= 4 cos α

In case of the flat headed valve

20

α =0

07dp Valve head diameter dv = dp+2*width of valve seat Design of valve spring Step-1 Material of the Wall 21 .35 to dp ) /8 + 11 mm Step-5 D= Diameter of the piston Area of the piston π a= 4 * D 2 Step-6 Velocity of the piston V= 2 ln 60 m/s Step-7 Width of valve seat 0.05dp to 0.Step-4 Steam Diameter ( = dp ds /8 + 6.

15 δ max 22 2 ) .Step-2 W=Total loading in spring Mean Diameter of the Spring Coil C=Spring Index τ = K* 8 wC 2 πd d=Diameter C=5or6 τ ( 4 C−1) K= (4 C−4) + 0.615 C =shear stress in (N/ mm D 0 =Outer Diameter D C= d D= Diameter of Standard Size D=C*d D0 = D+d D= Di +d Step-3 n= No of turns of coil Number of Coil w=Total load (N) δ= 8 wC 3 n Gd 2 (N/ mm c=Spring Index ) G =Modulus of rigidity (N/ 2 n’=n+2 mm Step-4 δ = δ max( deflection) ) Free Length of the Spring Lf =¿ n’d+ δ max +0.

Step-5 Pitch of the coil(P) P=free length/(n’-1) Valve Spring Using Twisting Moment Step-1 Valve Spring Material Step-2 D=Mean Diameter Mean Diameter of the Spring Coil τ 8 wC = K* π d 2 ( 4 C−1) K= (4 C−4) D= + Di =Inside Diameter d=Diameter of the spring wire 0.615 C W=valve open(N) Di +d Maximum Twisting Moment of Spring W1*D/2= π /16 * τ 3 * D D C= d D0 = D+d D= Di +d 23 .

15 δ max δ max= δ w 1−w 2 mm δ max= h w 1−w 2 mm Step-5 Pitch of the coil(P) P=free length/(n’-1) Design of Tappet d c = Core Diameter of the Step-1 tappet(mm) The load on Tappet d 2 σ π Fe= /4* (¿¿ c ) * c ¿ σ c =Permissible Compressive (N) Stress 24 σ c =50 (N/ mm2 ) .G =84(N/ mm2 ) Step-3 Number of Turns 8 wC 3 n δ= Gd δ 1 = w 8 2 (N/ mm ) W=W1-W2(N) n’=n+2 Step-4 Free Length of the Spring Lf =¿ n’d+ δ max+0.

7 in mm Step-2 Base Circle =D’+3 in mm Step-3 b sc =Width of the Cam Width of the Cam = Width of the Roller b sc = 0.11*cylinder bore+12 mm Step-4 Prime Circle = Minimum Radius of Cam(d) +1/2Diameter of the Roller mm Design of Rocker & Rocker Shaft 25 .Step-2 Diameter of the Tappet d= d c /0.09* cylinder bore+0.16*Cylinder bore+12.6+0.84 mm Step-3 Depth of the Tappet t = 2* d c mm Design of cam Step-1 Diameter of the Cam shaft(D’) D’= 0.

81 .v ap d 2 π = /4* (¿¿ p) ¿ Step-2 M= Mass of valve Weightt of the Associated part G=Gravity W= m*g A= π /4* D 2 Step-3 W= weight Total Load of the P=Gas load in N P= P1+w Step-4 Spring Force (Fs) d 2 p Fs= π /4* (¿¿ v ) * s -w in ¿ N Step-5 Force due to Acceleration (Fa) Fa= mv *a+w a=acceleration ω=2 π /T T= 26 g= 9.05* d p in mm P1=Gas Load in N d v =¿ Diameter of the valve in mm pc =¿ Pressure in (N/ mm2 ) d p=¿ Diameter of the piston in mm a p * v p =a.Step-1 Find the Gas Load d 2 p P1= π /4* (¿¿ v ) * c in N ¿ d v = d p +2*0.

5 to 6 N/ mm l1=1.25d1 F=¿ R¿ d1+l1+pb 27 2 .Angle of action of cam angleof turned by camshaft 2 a= ω ∗r Angle of Turned by Camshaft speed of the cam shaft = *360 60 2 S=ut+1/2a t Speed of the cam shaft speed = 2 r=h/2 Step-6 P=Gas load in N The Total on the Exhaust Valve Fa=Acceleration Force in N Fe = P+Fa+Fs Fs=Sring Force in N θ=¿ Angle in fulcuram Pin Step-7 Reaction of the Fulcuram Pin 2 d1=Diameter of pin in mm 2 F=¿ √ ( Fe + Fc −2 Fe∗Fc cos θ) R¿ F=¿ d 1∗l1∗pb R¿ l1 = Length of the pin in mm Pb= bearing pressure in (N/ mm2 ) Design Of Fulcrum Pin Step-1 The Load of the Fulcrum Pin d1=Diameter of the fulcrum pin in mm l1= length of the fulcrum pin in mm Pb=3.

G DATA BOOK 6.S.mm Section modulus (Z) Z= 1 3 3 ∗l 1( D 1 −d h ) 12 D1 2 P.Step-2 τ 2 RF = 2 =Shear Stress in N/ mm π 2 4 d1 τ External diameter of the boss D1=2d1 Internal diameter of the hole in the lever dh=d1+2*3 Step-3 Bending Moment M= Fe*l in N.25 d1 2 Pb= Bearing pressure in (N/ mm Fe=Fc FC = 2 π 2 4 d2 τ ) Step-2 Thickness t2=l2/2 28 2 .1 (Or) bh3−h 1 b3 Z=b/6* h Design of Fork End Step-1 Design of Fork End Fc=d 2∗l 2∗Pb d2=Diameter of Roller pin in mm Pb=7 N/ mm l2 = Length of the roller pin = 1.

mm 3 Z=Section modulus in mm σ b =M/Z 5 M= 24 *Fc*l2 π Z= 32 * d 2 3 t2 2 +(2*1.d ) 64 D=0.mm σ b =M/Z 3 Z=Section modulus in mm M=Fe*l M=Fe*(l-d/2) 2 Z=1/6*t1* D1 L=Effective length of rocker arm in mm σ b =70 N/ mm2 t=thickness in mm Design Of Push Rod STEP1 Eulers Formula WC r = π W= Load in N 2 *E*I/ l2 I in M=Factor of Safety N WC r =W*M in N D=Diameter of the push rod I= Moment of Inertia of Push rod( 3 D=1.25d l= Length in mm D= Outer Diameter d= Inner Diameter 29 .8d to 1.5) l3= l2+2 D2=2*d2 Design Of Rocker Arm Cross Sections STEP-1 Bending stress M=Moment in N.25d (For tubular pushrod) mm L=l ) 2 E=Young’s Modulus in N/ mm 4 D 4 π I= ∗¿ .Step-3 Maximum Bending Moment Fc=design of fork end in N M=Moment in N.

(For solid push rod) π I= 64 ∗D4 30 .