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# Tutorial 2

FAAB 0111 (Introduction to Construction Technology and Material)
Concrete

Section 1 – Planning the Work
 Use of Tools and Equipment
o Manual, mechanical and electrical tools
o Measurement equipment
o Motorized equipment
Tools / Equipment
Groover

Functions
To control the location of cracks
that may form when the slab
"contracts" due to drying
shrinkage or temperature changes

Tampers(Jitterbugs) To push the coarse aggregate in
the concrete below the concrete
surface and consolidate the
concrete

Fresno

To attach to long extension
handles so finishers don't have to
walk out on the slab.

Straightedge

To "strikeoff" or "screed" the
concrete. This process removes
excess concrete and brings the top
surface of the concrete to proper

Diagram

hence the sand is taken as four head pans and the granite represented by 4 in the ratio is taken as eight head pans.1 x 0.6m x 1.236 by the sum of the ratio which is 7. A float also helps bring paste to the surface by pushing down the coarse aggregate.Using images 1 and 2 above and in a bid to also demystify the raft foundation cost. Height of concrete beam is 1. . and smooth the surface in preparation for troweling.236/7=2. multiply 2.Often time concrete are mostly mixed in 1:2:4 ratio. which is important at this stage to permit water to bleed out. Floats also can be used to work in dry-shake color hardener.035 = 66 bags of cement to do all the concrete beams. Divide 2.  Work Organization o Calculation the quantity of materials . therefore total volume of concrete beams =65. the volume of a bag of cement is 0.225 =16. sand and granite that you will use for the foundation.. when you see such specification it simply means one bag of cement to four head pans of sand and eight head pans of granite. add the sum of ratio 1+2+4=7 . floating won't close the surface.035m3. Now divide 16. however don’t forget that cement and sand will also be used for the blinding before the concrete beams are placed.Float Edger To level ridges. To produce a neat rounded edge along the slab perimeter which helps the slab resist chipping and spalling damage after the forms are removed. . .31943m3. Taking a constant.31943 by 0. If we .For the sand reqd. .1m or 1100m from image 2 and width is 0.236. this article will deal extensively on how to calculate your concrete materials like cement.Going by the previous article the total length of trench was taken as 65.225m or 225mm.Notice that first number represent a bag of cement which is equivalent to two head pans.31943m3 by 2 to know the volume since it is in ratio of 1:2:4 Therefore volume of sand requires =4. fill voids.To do this calculation.6m.Calculate the cubic volume of concrete for foundation. .63886m3. Unlike trowel finishing. 16.

9. If we take volume of a tipper as 3. multiply 2.27772.8=1 1/2 trip of 5 tons tipper for the concrete beam.27772/3.31943m3 by 4 to know the volume since it is in the ratio of 1:2:4.- take volume of a tipper as 3. therefore volume of granite requires=9.8m3 then. For the granite use the same ratio of 1 bag of cement to 4 head pans of sand to 8 head pans of granite.63886/3.8m3 then 4. So for granite reqd.8=2 1/2 trips of granite (Disregarding water and other attending expenses o Conditions of the construction site o Layout of materials and equipment .

This displaces some cement production. as the ash and fume act as a cement replacement. additives and reinforcements are included in the mixture to achieve the desired physical properties of the finished material. which bonds the other components together. For this reason it is usually reinforced with materials that are strong in tension (often steel).Section 2 – Placing Concrete  Applying Concrete o Elements of concrete Concrete is a composite material composed mainly of water. “Aggregate” consists of large chunks of material in a concrete mix. or granite. Other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement. The use of these materials in concrete reduces the amount of resources required. and the discovery that such materials often have complementary and valuable properties. a by-product of coal-fired power plants. These ingredients may speed or slow down the rate at which the concrete hardens. and silica fume. "Chemical admixtures" are added to achieve varied properties. an energetically expensive and environmentally problematic process. and cement. which produces a semi-liquid that workers can shape (typically by pouring it into a form). "Cement". The most conspicuous of these are fly ash. "Mineral admixtures" are becoming more popular in recent decades. creating a robust stone-like material. Often. but always has lower tensile strength. o Transportation of concrete . "Reinforcements" are often added to concrete." A range of materials can be used as the cement in concrete. most commonly Portland cement is associated with the general term "concrete. The use of recycled materials as concrete ingredients has been gaining popularity because of increasingly stringent environmental legislation. aggregate. The water reacts with the cement. The concrete solidifies and hardens through a chemical process called hydration. Concrete can be formulated with high compressive strength. and impart many other useful properties including increased tensile strength and water resistance. One of the most familiar of these alternative cements is asphalt. along with finer materials such assand. generally a coarse gravel or crushed rocks such as limestone. Water is then mixed with this dry composite. are sometimes added to Portland cement and become a part of the binder for the aggregate. a byproduct of industrial electric arc furnaces. while reducing the amount of industrial waste that must be disposed of.

Belt conveyor 6. highways and other infrastructure. warehouses. Keep in mind that not all concrete is mixed on the actual construction site and could require some significant travel. Pneumatic placer o Planning the construction site o Consolidation Good concrete consolidation is essential. Wheelbarrow or motorized buggy 2. Bucket or steel skip 4. and poor bonding with the rebar. slump or consistency. On the other hand. rock pockets. o Leveling and flatness tolerances . Truck mixer 3. There are many modes of transportation as shown below: 1. This is most common for ready-mixed concretes.Transporting the concrete mix is defined as the transferring of concrete from the mixing plant to the construction site. Concrete pump 7. It is a cheaper alternative to having replacement concrete poured. improper consolidation can affect the structural integrity of the walls. In extreme cases. and homogeneity are not modified from their intended states.  Leveling Concrete o Landmarks o Concrete leveling Concrete leveling is a procedure that attempts to correct an uneven concrete surface by altering the foundation that the surface sits upon. and is commonly performed at small businesses and private homes as well as at factories. honeycombing. Chute 5. air content. airports and on roads. The main objective in transporting concrete is to ensure that the water-cement ratio. excessive vibration can create bulged walls and blowouts. Lack of consolidation can cause voids.

bringing the smoother "cream" consistency concrete to the surface for better finishing. In addition to removing surface imperfections floating will compact the concrete as preparation for further steps. iii small hand tool(float): iv larger bull float with long handle: v power float(power trowel) with engine: . A float can be a small hand tool. Curing and Protecting Concrete  Finishing Concrete o Floating of concrete i Purpose: to flatten minor ridges and holes. a larger bull float with a long handle or a power float (also called a power trowel) with an engine. as well as embed aggregate particles further into the concrete. ii Tools: A concrete float is a tool used to finish a concrete surface by making it smooth.Section 3 – Finishing.

you will need to build a steel framework using steel. You will also need to add fiberglass to your concrete mixture. your task will require a different technique . and "pencil" rod (up to 1/4 steel rod) welded together in the basic shape of your sculpture. rebar. or part of it will be cast in the shape of the inside of the mold you have created. ii if you want to create a sculpture of a more organic nature using concrete. and the mixture will be a little drier than for pouring as you will be applying it to your framework by hand.o Fresh concrete floor treatement o Shaping of fresh concrete i If the sculpture you want to create is orthogonal in shape you will want to make a form out of plywood and 2x4's in order to contain the concrete until it is set. iii Using mold: iv More organic sculpture shaping: v Shaping edge of concrete using edgers: . When the concrete is set you can remove the form and your sculpture.

 . With high slump concrete.  Most tamping is done with the finisher standing in the wet concretethough there are roller tampers that can be used from outside the forms. and roller)  ii Concrete tampers:  Tampers (sometimes called Jitterbugs) push the coarse aggregate in the concrete below the concrete surface and consolidate the concrete. oscillating.o Tooling of concrete i Straight edges:  Straight edges are used to "strike off" or "screed" the concrete.  This process removes excess concrete and brings the top surface of the concrete to proper grade.  This step in the finishing operation is the most important in producing a true plane surface and takes place immediately after the spreading of the concrete.  Tamping should only be done on low slump concrete.  It must be completed before excess bleed water appears on the surface. the coarse aggregates sink naturally and tamping can cause segregation of the aggregates.  There are a wide variety of scree ding tools-both hand tools (wood and magnesium) and mechanical tools (vibratory.

It should also slightly embed the coarse aggregate to make subsequent finishing operations easier. . sidewalks.  The purpose of darbying or bull floating concrete is to level ridges and fill voids left by the screeding operation.  Be careful when using these tools not to close up or seal the surface of the concrete. or after the concrete has been tamped if tamping was done. On most floors. though it may produce a wavier surface. and driveways. Perform edging after the bleedwater disappears from the concrete surface. but on patios. but before the forms are removed.  Use a bull float for areas too large to reach with a darby. cleaner looking edge that is more resistant to chipping.  iv Edgers:    Edgers produce a neat rounded edge along the slab perimeter which helps the slab resist chipping and spalling damage after the forms are removed.This process should be finished before excess moisture or bleedwater appear on the surface. edging will not be required. curbs.iii Bull Floats and Darbies  Darbying or bull floating should be done immediately after "screeding". which may cause blistering or scaling. it produces a tighter.

the finisher will float and trowel and area before moving his knee-boards. which is important at this stage to permit water to bleed out. The purpose is to control the location of cracks that may form when the slab "contracts" due to drying shrinkage or temperature changes. Troweling can be done by machine or by hand.  vi Floats  Purpose: To level ridges. dense surface and should be done immediately after floating. Joints are most often hand-tooled into sidewalks. highways. Floats also can be used to work in dry-shake color hardener. floating won't close the surface. Look inside tooled joints or sawcuts and you will see the concrete is cracked—The joint did its job and controlled where the concrete cracked. smooth. .  vii Trowels:   Troweling produces a hard. Unlike trowel finishing. driveways and patios and sawcut into floors. and smooth the surface in preparation for troweling. A float also helps bring paste to the surface by pushing down the coarse aggregate. and city streets.v Groovers:   Jointing the concrete is accomplished by grooving tools (unless the slab will be sawcut later). If done by hand. fill voids.

contraction joints should be placed to produce panels that are as square as possible and never exceeding a length to width ratio of 1. iii Concrete slabs-on-ground have consistently performed very well when the following considerations are addressed. The soils or granular fill supporting the slab in service must be either undisturbed soil or well compacted. plastic mass that can be molded into virtually any shape. tensile stresses develop within the concrete section.  o Control joints i Contraction/control joints are placed in concrete slabs to control random cracking. The result is cracking of the concrete.5 to 1 (Figure 1). however. or reinforcement within the concrete. but the absence of random cracks at the concrete surface gives the appearance of an un-cracked section. tensile stresses act against the weakest property of the concrete material. Joints are commonly spaced at distances equal to 24 to 30 times the . A fresh concrete mixture is a fluid. produce the same density or wear resistance that is produced by multiple hand trowelings where the finisher can apply greater pressure to densify the concrete. This produces an aesthetically pleasing appearance since the crack takes place below the finished concrete surface. In effect.viii Fresno:  A fresno is a steel trowel attached to a bull-float handle. While concrete is very strong in compression the tensile strength is only 8 to 12 percent of the compressive strength. The concrete has still cracked which is normal behavior. When shrinkage is restrained by contact with supporting soils. In addition. Fresno trowels do not. adjoining structures. granular fill. but as the material hardens there is a reduction in volume or shrinkage. ii The most widely used method to control random cracking in concrete slabs is to place contraction/control joints in the concrete surface at predetermined locations to create weakened planes where the concrete can crack in a straight line.  Putting a long handle on the trowel allows finishers to trowel the concrete without walking out onto the slab.

For most concrete mixtures. viii . It is important to understand that the longer sawing is delayed the higher the potential for cracks to establish themselves before sawing is complete.slab thickness. Timing is very important. Joint spacing that is greater than 15 feet require the use of load transfer devices (dowels or diamond plates). Proper joint spacing and depth are essential to effective control of random cracking. Contraction/control joints must be established to a depth of ¼ the slab thickness. iv v vi Joints may also be sawed into the hardened concrete surface. Early-entry saws are available which may allow cutting to begin within a few hours after placement. this means sawing should be completed within the first six to 18 hours and never delayed more than 24 hours. vii This means that any cracks that occur before the concrete is sawed will render the sawed joint ineffective. Joints should be sawed as soon as the concrete will withstand the energy of sawing without raveling or dislodging aggregate particles.

Curing is also a key player in mitigating cracks in the concrete. Type 2 . or gravel) and Portland cement. Used where the water or soil is high in alkali. Used where the amount and rate of heat generation must be kept to a minimum. Type 5 . or when heat build-up is a concern. o By humidification i Mist the concrete with a garden hose to keep the top moist while it settles every 12 hours for 3 days. Used when high strength are desired at very early periods.  Curing Concrete Curing is the process in which the concrete is protected from loss of moisture and kept within a reasonable temperature range. sand. acts as a binding agent when mixed with water and aggregates. usually in powder form. This combination. Cover exterior concrete with either building paper or burlap between misting.Low heat portland cement. ii Misting concrete: iii Cover: .Normal portland cement. which severely impacts durability.High early strength. The result of this process is increased strength and decreased permeability. will be poured and harden into the durable material Type 1 . Type 1 is general use cement.Is used for structures in water or soil containing moderate amounts of sulfate. Type 3 .o Bindings i ii iii iv v vi Concrete is made up of three basic components: water. or concrete mix. Type 4 . Cement. aggregate (rock.Sulfate resistant portland cement.

or in conjunction with chemical staining to produce brighter or deeper finished colors. v Precaution: Don't poor concrete on hot days. creating a denser.000 to 4. Surface strength may be increased up to 7.iv Interior concrete doesn't need to be misted. Direct sunlight ruins concrete by causing it to dry too quickly. For improved surface durability. ii Consolideck LS/CS is a penetrating lithium-silicate treatment that reacts with concrete to produce insoluble calcium silicate hydrate within the concrete pores.500 PSI compared to 3. o With chemical products i Colored hardeners . and it renders treated floors dustproof. iii  Protecting concrete o Physical protections against the effects of weather . but you must make sure nothing disturbs it. harder finished surface. hues can be more intense than integrally colored concrete. but the results may vary slightly from batch to batch. It densifies and hardens the concrete. use of colored hardeners is recommended prior to pattern stamping. Moisture seeps from concrete into the powder to activate and monolithically bond it. finely-ground. Because the colorant is concentrated into the top layer.Hardening agents in powder form consist of colored.000 PSI for standard 4" concrete. cementitious aggregates that are sprinkled (or "broadcast") onto freshly placed concrete.

ii This provides a good cure and leaves behind an acrylic membrane to protect the floor from typical construction traffic and debris. depending on the type of product used and the job size. iii Tar paper can also be used.i Exposed surface need to be covered with some type of sheet material to hold moisture in the concrete ii Such as curing paper and plastic film.  Use of equipments i Use a cure-and-seal as part of the finishing process. iv Wet covering material can also be used such as burlap or moisture-retaining fabrics.08 per square foot.04 to \$0. Be sure to confirm that the cure-and-seal is compatible with whatever final finish or coating you plan to use. v . iii A cure-and-seal will cost about \$0. but it normally stains concrete. iv However. it could limit how you finish the concrete and what type of topcoating you can apply.