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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources (10):
"African National Congress." Interview by Robert Vassen. South Africa Overcoming Apartheid.
Michigan State University, n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2015.
Kader Asmal was a non white in South Africa and left the country to pursue a law degree.
From Dublin, Ireland he was a huge supporter of the anti-apartheid movement and came
back to South Africa to help the cause. He shares his story with Robert Vassen and
describes what it is like to grow up during this time. He also shares how Mandela
impacted him and how apartheid changed his life.
"Archive: Mandela Released from Prison." BBC News Africa. BBC, 11 Feb. 1990. Web.
28 Sept. 2014.
Once Nelson Mandela was released from prison after nearly three decades there was huge
news surrounding it. This video shows the emotion of the crowd and the excitement of
black Africans upon his release. This source is trustable because it was an actual video
from the day he was released from prison. It relates to theme because it shows how
Nelson Mandela was already favored by the people before he left the social and political
legacy on South Africa.
Colman, Dan. "Nelson Mandela’s First TV Interview." Open Culture. Open Culture, 05 Dec.
2013. Web. 05 Oct. 2014.
Nelson Mandela’s first TV interview is the most primary source I have found so far. He
sits down with Brian Widlake to talk about why he is leading the fight for equality in
South Africa. This video shows the legacy he left because after he died in 2013, this
website went to find the interview from 1961 and show the world how without even
knowing it, Nelson Mandela was starting a revolution that would leave the country in
peace and inspire other countries to do the same. It took true leadership to allow some
outsider into his secretive location to discuss what the African people want.
Interview With Chief Albert Lethuli. Dir. John Seymor. Perf. Chief Albert Lethuli. BBC, 1954.
Apartheid in South Africa. BBC. Web. 7 Jan. 2015.
This interview done in 1954 shares the perspective of a non white Chief enduring the
oppression of Apartheid Laws. It is important because it is from the time of Apartheid
before Nelson Mandela was released from prison.
Mandela, Nelson. "Letter to F.W De Klerk." Lettes. African National Congress, 09 July 1992.
Web. 13 Oct. 2014.
This letter from Nelson Mandela to President de Klerk states exactly the negotiations the
African National Congress wanted from the National Party. It is important to realize the
impact Nelson Mandela had because if it wasn’t for his leadership and bravery for


standing up for these rights, Africans would not be left with the legacy of equality so
Mandela, Nelson. Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela. Boston:
Little, Brown, 1994. PDF.
Nelson Mandela’s autobiography mainly talks about his fight for equality in South Africa.
It is a quality source because it is written by him about his fight, and no one knows his
fight better than himself. The book may be biased because it is only his perspective and it
was written directly after apartheid laws were dropped.It is useful to get actual
information on things he said and thought. It reflects how Nelson Mandela was a true
leader and left a lasting legacy of equality.
Mandela, Nelson. "Nelson Mandela Letters to Winnie." Frontline. PBS, n.d. Web. 28
Sept. 2014.
This source is letters from Mandela to his wife Winnie, and in them discusses
how he felt during prison and his efforts to lead the African national council while in jail.
It is impressive to have letters written by him to his wife because those are personal and
honest. It shows Mandela’s strong leadership to never give up on his dream even while
being suppressed behind bars.
South Africa. African National Congress. Nelson Mandela's Address to a Rally in Cape
Town on His Release from Prison. By Nelson Mandela. African National Congress, n.d.
Web. 28 Sept. 2014
The African National Congress website has thousands of speeches transcripts and very
impressively detailed records. This source is very useful and respectable and will add a
lot to my research. This speech is directly after Mandela was released from prison and
connects to the theme to show his leadership. First thing he does after being released
from prison after 27 years is talk to his supporters and tell them how they are going to
eliminate the inequality in South Africa.
"The Release of Mandela from Prison." Interview by John Abrahams. South Africa Overcoming
Apartheid. Michigan State University, 26 Nov. 2006. Web. 7 Jan. 2014.
Interviews with people who lived in South Africa during Apartheid provide important
context and help me understand what it was like during that time. John Abrahams was a
white man who was alive when Nelson Mandela was released from prison. He provides
what he and his family thought of it and this can help me get an understanding of what it
was like for white people of that time.
Zuma, Jacob. "Farewell to Nelson Mandela." Nelson Mandela's Funeral. Waterkloof
Airforce Base. 14 Dec. 2013. African National Congress. Web. 28 Sept. 2014.
Another speech from the African National Congress website but this time given


about Nelson Mandela rather than by him. It is the transcript of the speech the current
president of the ANC gave at Nelson Mandela’s funeral. It shows how even gone he still
leaves a lasting legacy to his colleagues and the people of South Africa.
Secondary Sources (15):
ANC. Statement by Mrs Coretta Scott King. Press Statements. African National Congress, n.d.
Web. 13 Oct. 2014.
Speeches like this are what helped Apartheid in South Africa become internationally
known and then forced the National Party in South Africa to change the discriminating
laws against black Africans. Releasing Nelson Mandela from prison was a huge part of the
negotiations between the National Party and the African National Congress, which shows
how greatly the valued him as their leader.
"Apartheid Timeline." UN News Center. UN, n.d. Web. 12 Oct. 2014.
Timelines like this are reliable because it is made by a teacher from a trustworthy source.
It shows the African National Congress and laws made during Apartheid and specifically
mentions Nelson Mandela. It includes laws and events that happened which will help me
deepen my research and know what to look up next. All the events mentioned will help to
prove how Nelson Mandela’s leadership ended Apartheid and how his work left a lasting
legacy in South Africa and around the world.
Campbell, John. "Nelson Mandela Changed South Africa." Interview by Nina Kuhn. 6 Jan. 2015:
1. Print.
I interviewed John Campbell, a history expert specializing in South Africa and Nelson
Mandela. He was hard to reach by phone and did not answer all of my questions but he
did answer one. I wish he could have been available by phone and responded to my
emails because he has so much insight into Apartheid and Nelson Mandela’s impact on it.
"The End of Apartheid." Office of the Historian. US Department of State, n.d. Web. 21
Sept. 2014.
The source is a good and trustworthy overview on the end of apartheid in South
Africa. It is trustworthy because it is written by government historians who can not bias
any work. From this source I learned about the violence and segregation before Nelson
Mandela lead black Africans to a new future. A long legacy was left because Mandela
lead these people from an violent segregated world to one with legal equal opportunity.
Frankel, Glenn. "Long Walk To Freedom." Rev. of A Long Walk To Freedom. n.d.: n. pag.


This book review helped me understand opinions on Nelson Mandela’s novel. Glenn
Frankel agrees that only Nelson Mandela could write a book as dry and informational and
still get great reviews, because he agrees he is one of the greatest leaders of all time.
Freedman, Michelle, Phillip Bonner, and Gail Behrmann. Understanding Apartheid.
Cape Town: Oxford UP Southern Africa, 2006. PDF.
Understanding Apartheid is an informative book that gives all the aspects of
Apartheid from historians knowledge. It was written over a decade later than the end of
Apartheid by trustworthy historians. The book explains apartheid facts and is a good start
to understand what left a dark shadow on black Africans. Nelson Mandela’s peaceful
tactics and civil rights beliefs are shown in a factual and unbiased tone.
Life Under Apartheid. Dir. Thomas Allen Harris. POV. PBS, 19 Sept. 2006. Web. 05 Oct. 2014.
The film does not only talk about Nelson Mandela being one of the most influential
leaders in history, but life under Apartheid and how it has affected many Africans during
the time. It focuses on twelve members of the African National Congress who left their
homes to tell the rest of the world what was going on in South Africa. They risked their
lives to help their leader Nelson Mandela and continued his legacy of non violent protests
for equality.
Nast, Phil. "Resources for Nelson Mandela, Apartheid, and South Africa." Issues and Action.
National Education Association, n.d. Web. 05 Oct. 2014.
This website is very useful because it is written by a retired history teacher and these are
the sources he found reliable and sourceful. It has many sources on not only Nelson
Mandela but Apartheid and South Africa. It does not directly connect to the theme of
leadership and legacy but it does provide links to many websites that do. This source
would have been more useful in the first research check but is still important to gather
information now.
"Nelson Mandela." Nelson Mandela. Government of South Africa, n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2015.
A website created by the South African government is very reliable and holds only factual
information about Nelson Mandela that is very useful for my project. This website
includes links to Nelson Mandela’s previous work, events, all the information on his
funeral, his work as president, and links to learn more. It included numbers to call for
more information, but unfortunately when called the secretary did not understand english.
Nelson Mandela: The Fight For Freedom - Documentary BBC. Dir. Discovery Channel.
YouTube. BBC, 22 Apr. 2014. Web. 12 Oct. 2014.
Even though it is shared on YouTube, this documentary is trustworthy because it was
filmed by BBC, a notable broadcasting company, and then uploaded by the Discovery


Channel, a famous information science and history broadcasting company. It shows the
famous people around the world that loved Nelson Mandela, and that helps to prove that
the legacy he will leave will not only be on South Africa, but on people around the world.
His leadership was admired by millions and this source is an example of how even after
passing away people are still interested in him and his work.
Oosterbroek, Ken, and Catherine Barnes. International Isolation and Pressure for Change in
South Africa (n.d.): n. pag. Picturenet. Conciliation Resources, 2008. Web. 05 Oct. 2014.
In the pdf the author describes the cause and effects of Aparteid in South Africa. Its main
focus is on the international response towards the abuse. It shows that because of the
actions of leader Nelson Mandela and other African National Congress members
international involvement pressured government to repeal the repressive laws. The
actions of the UN and countries helped leave the lasting legacy of civil peace.
Quayle, Michael. "Whiteness, Racism, and Afrikaner Identity in Post-apartheid South Africa."
African Affairs. Oxford Journals, 2012. Web. 7 Jan. 2015.
Student written articles are great to gain inspiration from but are not taken serious for
their information. It is interesting to read and get a wider understanding but not for
gathering its informtion. I used it to gain inspiration from someone else’s information but
would not rely on it for information.
“Resources." Resources. Apartheid Museum, n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2014.
Apartheid Museum website has links to many different resources that I can use in the
future too. It has almost all of the information online as it does in the museum itself. This
information is unbiased because museums only report facts in their information. The end
of apartheid left a long legacy of equality that reshaped the nation of South Africa.
"South African History." South African History Online. SAHO, n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2015.

The national history of South Africa website provides great details in all of South
Africa’s history. It is insightful for the events leading up to Apartheid, Apartheid, Nelson
Mandela, and post apartheid South Africa. It has a broad informational fact and is useful
to help gather more research and to create more question to look up.
Williams, Ogi, and June Makoka. "South Africa 19 Years since the End of Apartheid." YPIA.
Aerospace Leadership Academy, 5 Mar. 2013. Web. 16 Oct. 2014.
This article is written by two South African students who both feel that although the new
system of government is great it has not improved the country and has actually had
negative impacts. It is interesting to hear about the views from two people currently
living in South Africa about how apartheid has affected their lives nearly 20 years later.
This article has a negative connotation to it which should be read and understood in order


to give a well rounded thesis. It is published on a website for young people writing about
international affairs. The content is biased and is considered accordingly.
What Is Mandela Day." Nelson Mandela Day. Ed. Flow Communications. Nelson Mandela
Foundation, n.d. Web. 05 Oct. 2014.
Not only does it show how amazing of a leader Nelson Mandela was, but the amazing
legacy he left behind. July 18th, Mandela’s birthday is a holiday known as Mandela Day
where individuals, groups, or communities are challenge to do 67 minutes (representing
his 67 years of service to the people) of service to their community or country. People all
around the world continue to celebrate his work in South Africa and apply his motos to
their own lives. The idea of having a day dedicated to recognition of your life work really
shows the legacy Nelson Mandela left on not only Africans, but people all around the