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LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) LAN TECHNOLOGY

TECHNOLOGY Protocol

10/100/1000 Mbps Ethernet What is a Protocol?


100 Mbps FDDI
A protocol is a set of rules that governs the
155/620 Mbps ATM communications between computers on a network.
4/10/45 Mbps Wireless These rules include guidelines that regulate the
following characteristics of a network:
• access method,
• allowed physical topologies,
• types of cabling, and
• speed of data transfer.

LAN Technology :
LAN TECHNOLOGY : Protocol Ethernet Protocol

Logical topologies are bound to network protocols


and describe how data is moved across the The most widely used
network.
Ethernet uses an access method called CSMA/CD
The Ethernet protocol is a common logical bus (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection), a
topology protocol
system where each computer listens to the cable
before sending anything through the network.
LocalTalk is a common logical bus or star topology
protocol

Token ring is a common logical ring topology


protocol

LAN Technology : LAN Technology :


Ethernet Protocol Ethernet Protocol
LAN Technology : LAN Technology :
Ethernet Protocol Ethernet Protocol

LAN Technology : LAN Technology :


Ethernet Protocol Ethernet Protocol

The Ethernet protocol allows for linear bus, star,


If the network is clear, the computer will transmit the or tree topologies.
data.
Data can be transmitted over wireless access
If some other node is already transmitting on the points, twisted pair, coaxial, or fiber optic cable
cable, the computer will wait and try again when the at a speed of 10 Mbps up to 1000 Mbps.
line is clear to avoid collision.

What you know about collision?

LAN TECHNOLOGY LAN TECHNOLOGY


LOCALTALK PROTOCOL LOCALTALK PROTOCOL

Network protocol that was developed Macintosh LocalTalk is a particular implementation of the
computers. physical layer of the AppleTalk networking
system from Apple Computer.
Using CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with
Collision Avoidance), where a computer signals its LocalTalk specifies a system of shielded
intent to transmit before it actually does so. twisted pair cabling, plugged into self-
terminating transceivers, running at a rate of
230.4 kbit/s.
LAN TECHNOLOGY LAN TECHNOLOGY
self-terminating transceivers
LOCALTALK PROTOCOL LOCALTALK PROTOCOL

Allows for linear bus, star, or tree topologies using


twisted pair cable.

Disadvantage : slow speed (only 230 Kbps).

LAN TECHNOLOGY LAN TECHNOLOGY


LOCALTALK PROTOCOL LOCALTALK PROTOCOL

LAN TECHNOLOGY : LAN TECHNOLOGY


TOKEN RING PROTOCOL Protocol : Token Ring

Developed by IBM in the mid-1980s A single electronic token moves around the ring from
one computer to the next.
Access method involves token-passing
If a computer does not have information to transmit, it
The computers are connected so that the signal travels simply passes the token on to the next workstation.
around the network from one computer to another in a
logical ring.
If a computer wishes to transmit and receives an
empty token, it attaches data to the token.
LAN TECHNOLOGY LAN TECHNOLOGY
Protocol Token Ring Protocol Token Ring

The token then proceeds around the ring until it comes Token ring local area network (LAN) technology
to the computer for which the data is meant- the data was conceived in the late 1960s by Olof
is captured by the receiving computer Söderblom, then working for IBM [1]).

The Token Ring protocol requires a star-wired ring US Patents were awarded in 1981[1] and Token-
using twisted pair or fiber optic cable. Ring was developed and promoted by IBM in the
early 1980s and standardized as IEEE 802.5 by
the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
It can operate at transmission speeds of 4 Mbps or 16 Engineers.
Mbps.

LAN TECHNOLOGY LAN TECHNOLOGY


Protocol Token Ring Protocol Token Ring

Initially very successful, it went into steep


decline after the introduction of 10BASE-T for
Ethernet and the EIA/TIA 568 cabling standard
in the early 1990s

LAN TECHNOLOGY LAN TECHNOLOGY


Protocol Token Ring Protocol Token Ring
LAN TECHNOLOGY LAN TECHNOLOGY
Protocol Token Ring Protocol Token Ring

LAN TECHNOLOGY LAN TECHNOLOGY


Protocol Token Ring Protocol FDDI

Fiber Distributed Data Interface - a network


protocol that is used primarily to interconnect
two or more local area networks, often over
large distances.

Access method involves token-passing.

LAN TECHNOLOGY LAN TECHNOLOGY


Protocol FDDI Protocol FDDI

Uses a dual ring physical topology. Transmission Fiber distributed data interface (FDDI)
normally occurs on one of the rings; if a break provides a standard for data transmission in a
occurs, the system keeps information moving by local area network that can extend in range up
automatically using portions of the second ring to to 200 kilometers (124 miles).
create a new complete ring.
Although FDDI protocol is a token ring
A major advantage of FDDI is speed. It operates over network, it does not use the IEEE 802.5 token
fiber optic cable at 100 Mbps. ring protocol as its basis; instead, its protocol
is derived from the IEEE 802.4 token bus
timed token protocol.
LAN TECHNOLOGY LAN TECHNOLOGY
Protocol FDDI Protocol FDDI

In addition to covering large geographical The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) specifies
areas, FDDI local area networks can support a 100-Mbps token-passing, dual-ring LAN using fiber-
thousands of users.
optic cable.

FDDI is frequently used as high-speed backbone


technology because of its support for high bandwidth
and greater distances than copper.

LAN TECHNOLOGY LAN TECHNOLOGY


Protocol FDDI Protocol FDDI

LAN TECHNOLOGY LAN TECHNOLOGY


Protocol FDDI Protocol FDDI
LAN TECHNOLOGY - CABLING

Cable is the medium through which information / data


CABLE & CABLING usually moves from one network device to another

Several types of cable are commonly used with LANs


Why LANs?

In some cases, a network will utilize only one type of


cable, other networks will use a variety of cable types

LAN TECHNOLOGY – CABLING ;


LAN TECHNOLOGY - CABLING Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
Cable
Types of Cables
The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket.
Each pair is twisted with a different number of
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable twists per inch to help eliminate interference from
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable adjacent pairs and other electrical devices.
Coaxial Cable
Fiber Optic Cable
Wireless LANs (never used cable) – some
of you call it WiFi ☺

LAN TECHNOLOGY – CABLING ; LAN TECHNOLOGY CABLING:


Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
Cable - CATEGORIES Cable
Types Use
Cat 1:
Category 1 Voice (Telephone Cable) Previously used for POTS telephone
communications, ISDN and doorbell wiring.
Category 2 Data to 4 Mbps (LocalTalk)
Cat 2:
Category 3 Data to 10 Mbps (Ethernet) Previously was frequently used on 4 Mbit/s token
ring networks.
Category 4
Data to 20 Mbps (16 Mbps Token Ring)
Category 5 Data to 100 Mbps (Fast Ethernet)
LAN TECHNOLOGY CABLING: LAN TECHNOLOGY CABLING:
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
Cable Cable

Cat 3: Cat 5:
Used for data networks using frequencies up to 16 Provided performance of up to 100 MHz, and was
MHz. Historically popular for 10 Mbit/s Ethernet frequently used on 100 Mbit/s ethernet networks.
networks. May be unsuitable for 1000BASE-T gigabit
ethernet.
Cat 4:
Provided performance of up to 20 MHz, and was
frequently used on 16 Mbit/s token ring networks.

LAN TECHNOLOGY CABLING: LAN TECHNOLOGY – CABLING ;


Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
Cable Cable
The standard connector for unshielded twisted pair
cabling is an (Registered Jack) RJ-45 connector A disadvantage of UTP is that it may be susceptible to
radio and electrical frequency interference.

Why?

Un-shielded Twisted Pair

Pair – Berpasangan || Twisted – Berpintal


Shielded – Balutan || Un - Tidak

LAN TECHNOLOGY CABLING: LAN TECHNOLOGY CABLING:


Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable

STP is a type of cable consists of two individual wires


wrapped in a foil shielding to help provide a more reliable
data communication.

suitable for environments with electrical interference;


however, the extra shielding can make the cables quite
bulky.
often used on networks using Token Ring topology.
LAN TECHNOLOGY CABLING: LAN TECHNOLOGY CABLING:
CO-
CO-AXIAL CABLE CO-
CO-AXIAL CABLE

Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at its


center.

A plastic layer provides insulation between the


center conductor and a braided metal shield

The metal shield helps to block any outside


interference from fluorescent lights, motors, and
other computers.

LAN TECHNOLOGY CABLING: LAN TECHNOLOGY CABLING:


CO-
CO-AXIAL CABLE CO-
CO-AXIAL CABLE

Coaxial Cable Connectors

The most common type of connector used with


coaxial cables is the Bayone-Neill-Concelman (BNC)
connector

Different types of adapters are available for BNC


connectors, including a T-connector, barrel connector,
and terminator.

LAN TECHNOLOGY CABLING: LAN TECHNOLOGY CABLING:


FIBRE OPTICS FIBRE OPTICS

Consists of a center glass core surrounded by several Able to transmit signals over much longer distances than
layers of protective materials coaxial and twisted pair.

It transmits light rather than electronic signals eliminating


the problem of electrical interference.

Ideal for certain environments that contain a large


amount of electrical interference.
LAN TECHNOLOGY CABLING: LAN TECHNOLOGY CABLING
FIBRE OPTICS Summary of Ethernet cabling

Specification Cable Type Maximum length

10BaseT Unshielded Twisted Pair 100 meters

10Base2 Thin Coaxial 185 meters

10Base5 Thick Coaxial 500 meters

10BaseF Fiber Optic 2000 meters

LAN TECHNOLOGY CABLING NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM


Cable & topology (NOS)
Physical Topology Cable Protocol
Software that controls a network and its message (e.g.
Coax Ethernet packet) traffic and queues, controls access by multiple
Linear Bus users to network resources such as files, and provides
Twisted Pair LocalTalk
Fiber for certain administrative functions, including security.
Twisted Pair Ethernet
Star
Fiber LocalTalk
Coordinate the activities of multiple computers across a
Star-Wired Ring Twisted Pair Token Ring network.
Coax
Tree Twisted Pair Ethernet
acts as a director to keep the network running smoothly.
Fiber

NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM


(NOS) (NOS)

A NOS is not the same as the networking tools provided The two major types of network operating systems are :
by some existing OS, Windows XP for instance.
• Peer-to-Peer
An NOS is an OS that has been specifically written to • Client/Server
keep networks running at optimal performance.

Some popular NOS include:


Windows NT , IBM AIX, Sun Solaris, Windows 2000
Server, Windows Server 2003,Inferno Novell NetWare,
Red Hat Linux, BSD, Debian (Linux)
NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM
Peer to Peer Peer to Peer

In a peer-to-peer network, also called a workgroup, The computers in a workgroup are considered
computers directly communicate with each other peers because they are all equal and share
and do not require a server to manage network resources among each other.
resources.
Each user decides which data on his or her
A peer-to-peer network is most appropriate when computer will be shared with the network.
fewer than ten computers are located in the same
general area. By sharing common resources, users can print from
a single printer, access information in shared
folders, and work on a single file without
transferring it to a floppy disk

NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM


Peer to Peer Peer to Peer

In a peer-to-peer network, all computers are considered Designed primarily for small to medium local area networks
equal; they all have the same abilities to use the resources
available on the network
AppleShare and Windows for Workgroups are examples of
programs that can function as peer-to-peer network
Allow users to share resources and files located on their
computers and to access shared resources found on other operating systems.
computers

Do not have a file server or a centralized management


source

NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM


Peer to Peer Peer to Peer

Advantages

Less initial expense - No need for a dedicated server

Setup - An operating system (such as Windows XP/…)


already in place may only need to be reconfigured for
peer-to-peer operations.
NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM
Peer to Peer Client/Server

Disadvantages
Allow the network to centralize functions and applications
Decentralized - No central repository for files and in one or more dedicated file servers
applications.
The file servers become the heart of the system,
Security - Does not provide the security available on a providing access to resources and providing security.
client/server network.

NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM


Client/Server Client/Server

Individual workstations (clients) have access to the


resources available on the file servers.

Novell Netware and Windows 2000 Server are examples


of client/server network operating systems.

LOCAL NETWORK- Logical Protocol LOCAL NETWORK- Logical Protocol

TCP/IP Logical Topology (also referred to as Signal Topology)


is a network computing term used to describe the
AppleTalk
arrangement of devices on a network and how they
Novell IPX communicate with one another
XNS
DECnet How devices are connected to the network through the
Banyan Vines actual cables that transmit data, or the physical structure
of the network, is called the physical topology
LOCAL NETWORK- Logical Protocol LOCAL NETWORK- Logical Protocol

Logical topologies are bound to network protocols and The Ethernet protocol is a common logical bus topology
describe how data is moved across the network. protocol

LocalTalk is a common logical bus or star topology


protocol

Token ring is a common logical ring topology protocol