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Jawaharlal Nehru

IS 13834-1 (1994): Cranes - Classification, Part 1: General
[MED 14: Cranes, Lifting Chains and Related Equipment]

“!ान $ एक न' भारत का +नम-ण”
Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda

“Invent a New India Using Knowledge”

“!ान एक ऐसा खजाना > जो कभी च0राया नहB जा सकता ह”
है”

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“Knowledge is such a treasure which cannot be stolen”

.

..

.
V

IS 13834( Part 1 ) : 1!994
!s0 4301-1: 188s
( (Reaffirmed
Reaffirmed 1999)
2003)

-.. .

fndkm

standard

CRANES — CLASSIFICATION
PART 1

GENEHAL

@ 61S 1994
BUREAU
MANAK

OF
BHAVAN,

INDIAN

ST

9 BAHADUR
SHAH
NEW DELHI 110002

AN BAR~S
ZAFAR

MAM

Cranes, Lifting Chains and Its Related Equipment Sectional Committee, HMD 14

NATIONAL

FOREWORD

This Indian Standard which is identical with IS0 4301-1 : 1986 ‘Cranes and lifting appliances Classification - Part 1 : General’ issued by International Organization for Standardization ( IS0 ),
was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards on the recommendations of Cranes, Lifting
Chains and Its Related Equipment Sectional Committee and approval of the Heavy Mechanical
Engineering Division Council.
This standard is being published in five parts.

Other parts of this standard are as follows:

Part 2 Mobile cranes
Part 3 Tower cranes
Part 4 Jib cranes
Part 5 Overhead travelling

cranes and portal bridge cranes

The text of IS0 standard has been approved for publication
as Indian Standard without
deviations. Certain terminology and conventions
are, however, not identical to those used in
Indian Standards.
Attention is particularly drawn to the following:
a) Wherever the words ‘International Standard’ appear referring to this standard, they should
be read as ‘Indian Standard’.
b) Comma ( , ) has been used as a decimal marker while in Indian Standards, the current
practice is to use a point ( . ) as a decimal marker.
TEXTUAL ERROR
When adopting
discovered.

the text

Reference to Error
Page 1 Clause 0 Para 3

of the International

-

Standard,

the textual

Text to be Modified
Part 4 Portal and pedestal cranes

error given

-

below

was

Modified Text
Part 4 Jib cranes

IS 13834 (Part 1) : 1994
4301-l

ISO

: 1986

Indian Standard
CRANES -

CLASSIFICATION

PART

0

1

GENERAL

Introduction

2

Cranes play a part in the handling

of materials

Classification

by raising and

ity. There

may, however,

be wide variations

in the duty, both
travelling cranes,

and between
builder’s

different

tower

crane

crane

and

types,

for example

a heavy-lift

design of the crane has to take account
vice, in order to reach an appropriate
life

which

is

Classification.
establishing

in

line

is the
rational

machinery.

with

the

system

dockside

and manufacturer,
may be matched

2.1

a

The

The

of ser-

purchaser’s

used

to

a means

of structures

framework

whole;

and

by the use of which a particular

only the operating
type

of crane

Standards
applicable

in this part of IS0 4301,

conditions

and the way

which

Future

head cranes,

mobile cranes,

tower cranes,

of the

parts

by the purchaser

between

whom

The classification

the overall classification
for contractual

and not for design purposes.

and the

agreement

is
thus

of the crane as a

and technical

reference

The method

of deter-

is set out in clause 3.

Classification
purpose

for design
of classification

is to provide a basis for

and to verify that it is capable of achieving the desired life under
the estimated

range are

application.

(i.e. over-

conditions
As

of service specified for the particular

a. person

skilled

in crane

technology,

the

designer takes the estimated load spectrum data, either provided by the purchaser or predetermined
by the manufacturer

hoists, etc.).

(as is the case in the design of serial equipment),

This part of IS0 4301 is one of a series covering classification of
cranes and lifting appliances.
The series will consist of the
following

as a whole

the designer of the crane to build up his analysis of the design

international

to the various types of lifting appliances

crane,

on the duty of the crane.

The second

considers

will define which parts of the classification

objectives.

it is re-

are independent

it is driven.

a

mining this classification

2.2

as defined

is first applied

it is intended

purposes

quired.
Classification,

of

although

in practice, which

of the appliance

agreed constitutes

of

between

to the service for which

classification

necessary

requirements.

provide

Classification

manufacturer

level of safety and useful

It also serves as a reference

purchaser

crane.

of conditions

bases for the design

appliance

between

has two applications

related can be regarded as separate

moving loads the mass of which is within their nominal capacfor a single crane type, for example overhead

Use of classification

porates it into the assumptions

having regard to all other factors

:

and incor:

on which his analysis is based,
which influence

the propor-

tioning of components.

-

Part 1

: General.
A load spectrum

estimate

form on which the appropriate

can be listed will be developed

-

Part 2

: Mobile cranes.

-

Part 3

: Tower cranes.

-

Part 4

: Portal and pedestal cranes.

-

Part 5

: Overhead travelling and portal bridge cranes.

in a future

International

data
Stan-

dard.

Group classification
as a whole

3

of the crane

The two factors to be taken into consideration for the purposes
of determining the group to which a crane belongs are the class
1

Scope

This part

and field

of IS0 4301

of utilization

of application

establishes

a general

classification

3.1

of

and the state of loading.

Class of utilization

cranes based on the number of operating cycles to be carried
out during the expected life of the crane and a load spectrum

The user expects a certain number of operating cycles from the

factor which

crane during

represents

a nominal state of loading.

its useful life, and this number

basic parameter

of classification.

This part of IS0 4301 does not imply that the same method of

which

stress calculation

by grab, the number

or testing will apply to all types of lifting ap-

pliances which come within

the scope of ISO/TC

lifting appliances

knowledge

96.

1

of cycles is one

In certain specific tasks for

are used, for example bulk unloading

of cycles can readily be derived from a

of the total

number

of working

hours

and the

IS 13834 (Part 1) : 1994
IS0

: 1986

4301-l

where

n::mber of operating cycles per hour. In other cases, for example mobile cranes, the number is less easy to determine
because the crane is used in a variety of duties, and it becomes
necessary to estimate suitable values on the basis of experience. The overall number of operating cycles is the sum
total of all operating cycles during the specified life of the lifting
appliance.

Cj represents the average number of load cycles which occur at the individual load levels,
= c,, CL,

c, . . . c,;

CT is the total of all the individual load cycles at all load
levels,

Determination of an appropriate life requires consideration of
economic, technical and environmental factors, and should
have regard to the influence of obsolescence.

= ZCi
=c,

+ c*+

CJ..

. + c,;

P,

represents the individual load magnitudes (load levels)
characteristic of the duty of the crane,

The probable overall number of operating cycles is related to
the frequency of use of the crane; for convenience the total
range of the possible number of operating cycles has been
divided into ten classes of utilization in table 1. For the purposes of classification, it is considered that an operating cycle
commences when a load is ready for hoisting and ends at the
moment when the crane is ready to hoist the next load.

= P,, P2, P3. . . P,;

P mar is the heaviest load that may be handled by the crane
(rated load);
m=3

Table 1 -

Class of utilization

Maximum number
of operating
cycles

c

1.6

x lti

"1

3.2

x 104

u2

6.3

x lo4

“3

1.25 x 105

"4

2.5

“i

5

x

“6

1

Y 106

2

x 10s

4

x 10s

U7

I

Expanded, equation (1) becomes :

Remarks

I

“ll

t-

of cranes

I

+$(-5-J+...+g$pJ...m

Irregularuse

x lo5

The nominal load spectrum factor for the crane is then
established by matching the calculated load spectrum factor to
the closest (hi.iher) nominal value of K, in table 2.

Regularlight use

105

Regularintermittentuse
Irregularintensiveuse

Table 2 -

Greaterthan
x 106
4

I
State of
loading

3.2

Nominal load spectrum
for cranes, K,
Nominal
load
spectrum
factor

State of loading

The second

basic

I

I
Remarks

KP

parameter

ai -

of classification is the state of

Light

0.125

Cranes which hoist the safe
working load very rarely and,
normally, light loads

a2Moderate

0.25

Cranes which hoist the safe
working loed fairly frequently
and, normally, moderate loads

Q3 - Heavy

0.50

Cranes which hoist the safe
working load frequently and,
normally, heavy loads

loading. which is concei ned with the number of times a load of
a particular magnitude,

factor

in relation to the capacity of the crane,

is lifted. Four nominal values of load spectrum factor (K,) are
listed in table 2, each numerically representative of a corresponding nominal state of loading.
details of the numbers and masses of loads to be lifted
during the design life of the ciane are not known, the selection
of an appropriate nominal state of loading shall be agreed between the manufacturer and purchaser.

i

Where

a4 Very heavy

where
precise
details are available of the
magnitudes of the loads and the number of times these will be
handled during the design life of the crane, the load spectrum
factor for the crane as a whole may be calculated as follows.

Cranes which are regularly
loaded close to the safe working loed

Alternatkely.

The load spectrum

factor

for the crane, K,,

3.3 Determination
crane as a whole

of group classification

of the

Having determined the class of utilization from table 1 and the
state of loading from table 2, the classification of the crane is
determined from table 3.

is given by the

eaua:ion

...

The application of group classification to the design of specific
types of lifting appliance will be dealt with in future International Standards.

(1)

2

IS
IS0

Table

3 -

Group

Nominal
loed
spectrum
factor

State of loading

classification

of the crane

Class of utilization

uo

13834

(Part

4301-l

1) :

1994

: 1986

as a whole

and maximum

number of operating

cycles

Ul

u2

u3

u4

u5

u6

u7

u8

u9

Al

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

A7

A8

Al

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

A7

A8

A8

KP
Light

0,125

Q3 -

Moderate
----__
Heavy

0.25

04 -

Very heavy

Ql Cl2 -

--

4 Group classification
as a whole
4.1 Class of utilization
The class of utilization

0.5

Al

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

A7

1,O

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

A7

A8

of a mechanism

4.2

of a mechanism

is characterized

of IoaJing

of the mechanism

The state of loading specifies to what extent a mechanism is
subjected to its maximum loading or only to reduced loading.
There are four different nominal states of loading as shown in
table 5.

of a mechanism

assumed total duration of use in hours

State

by the

: ten nominal classes are

The load spectrum factor for the mechanism, K,,
the equation

given in table 4.

is given by

The maximum total duration of use may be derived from the
assumed average daily utilization time in hours, the number of
working days per year, and the number of years of expected
service.

(3)

where
For this purpose, a mechanism is considered to be in use only
when it is in motion.
Table 4 Class of
utilization

Class of utilization
Total duration
of use
h

ti represents the average duration of
mechanism at the individual load levels,

of mechanisms

use

of

the

= If, 12, tg . . . I,;
fT is the total of all the individual durations at all load levels,

Remarks

= zt,
= t, + tg + 13 + . . . + 1,;

---

Pi represents the individual loading magnitudes (loading
levels) characteristic of the duty of the mechanism,

T3

1600

T4

3200

Regular light use

T5

6300

Regular intermittent use

T6

12 666

T7

25ooo

T8

5oooo

T9

100000

= P,, Pz, P3. . . P,;

Irregular intensive use

P max is the greatest loading magnitude applied to the

mechanism;
Intensive use

m=3
Expanded, equation (31 becomes :

The total durations of use in the second column are to be considered as theoretical conventional values only, which serve as
a basis for the design of parts of mechanisms for which the
utilization time is a criterion for the choice of the part (for exampie ball-bearings, gears and shafts). They cannot, in any circumstances, be considered as guaranteed.

+a($$#+

3

. ..+$+J

. ..(4)

IS

iso

13834
4301-I

(Part

1) :

1994

: 1986

Table 5 -

The nominal load spectrum factor for the mechanism is then
established by matching the calculated load spectrum factor to
the closest (higher) nominal value of K, given in table 5.

classification

Nominal
load
spectrum

Remarks

factor

of the

Km
Ll -

Having determined the class of utilization and the state of
loading, the group classification of a mechanism can be determined from table 6.

Light

0.125

Mechanisms
subjected
very
rarely to the maximum load
and, normally, to light loads

0,25

Mechanisms
subjected fairly
frequently
to the maximum
load but, normally, to rather
moderate loads

0.50

Mechanisms
subjected
frequently to the maximum load
and, normally,
to loads of
heavy magnitude

---L2Moderate

The application of group classification to the design of specific
types of mechanisms will be covered in future International
Standards.

L3 -

Heavv

1.00

L4 Very heavy

Table 6 -

factor

C

State of
loading
4.3
Determination
of group
mechanism
as a whole

Nominal load spectrum
for mechanisms, K,

Group classification

of the mechanism

Mechanisms
subjected regularlv to the maximum load

as a whole

State of loading

Reprography

Unit, BIS, New Delhi, India

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quality

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amendments

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Issued Since Publication

Text Affected

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