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‫‪How to Design a Safe and Economical PC & RC‬‬

‫‪Isolated Footings‬‬
‫‪AYMAN SUMMRA1 , MAGDY ABD EL MOHSEN1‬‬
‫‪Assistant Prof., Al-Azhar University – Cairo – Egypt‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ملخص البحث‬
‫يهدف هذا البحث إليجاد عالقاا يا ب يا ال الداعادع الةادياج حااد لاداد الداعادع المكااحج ا ام ها يح اث ي ا‬
‫م ها الناتج في لاداد الدا ا الماةاادف عا هاا فاي اجااد الهند اج اإلمناال ج ااب النال اج الةما اج افاي م ا‬
‫يكا اد اب ا اخدام أقصي إجهاد تماس ي ب الداعدع الةاديج االداعدع المكاحج ل‬
‫لادا ل لجا الخ‬

‫ال قا‬

‫في لداد ‪ 5‬كجا ‪ /‬اا‪ 2‬اذلا‬

‫امج المكاحج ااكالج لديد الاكا ح يها ‪ .‬اهذه الةالقا تا ا انااجها اب اةادلج اةطاع اب ال د‬

‫األاديي اع عمل الاةديل الااللم لهاذه المةادلاج ل اي تا ائ ماالجهاا يصا دع دق داج ااع تاا الااي محصال عا هاا ااب‬
‫ي مااج إككل اةامد طبدا لا د األا ي ي ‪.‬‬
‫اقاااااد اجاااااد أ هاااااذا الاةاااااديل يةمااااال يصااااا دع امااااااالع لجم اااااع إجهاااااادا الا ياااااج ااااااب ‪ 5.5‬كجاااااا ‪ /‬اااااا‪2‬‬
‫إلى ‪ 3‬كجا ‪ /‬ا‪ 2‬اهي الد ا الاي تدايل المهند ب في الح اع الةما ج‪.‬‬

‫‪1- Introduction‬‬
‫‪There are some rules of thumb used in structural engineering practice to design a plain‬‬
‫‪concrete footing (pad), one of them is‬‬

‫‪a‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪, refer to figure (2) and where q all = allowable bearing capacity, In fact by‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪hf‬‬
‫‪q all‬‬
‫‪using this relation it is found that it does give bigger thickness of plain concrete‬‬
‫‪footing than really required. In this paper more refined relations have been derived‬‬
‫‪which prove themselves to be more accurate, safe and economical and reduces to a‬‬
‫‪large extent the volume of the RC footing.‬‬

refer to figure (1) tan   0. many practical examples have been solved.8 ( see Table 6.9 100q o 1 f ck (1) Where q o = calculated maximum bearing pressure at the base of pc footing in N / mm 2 . (4) ) As a simplification the code gives the relation he a  1.5 may be used.05  c . keeping the contact pressure between the RC footing and the PC footing equal to 5 Kg / cm 2 to minimize the volume of the RC footing as mentioned above. Based on a well documented Excel sheet for design of plain concrete footing.Current Codal Equations for Determination of Plain Concrete Fooling Thickness 2.1 Indian Standard IS 456: 2000 & Explanatory Handbook on IS 456: 1978 IS 456: 2000 given the following equation. and f ck = characteristic strength of concrete at 28 days in N / mm 2 2.1 taken from Ref. All practical values of allowable bearing capacity used in design of isolated footing have been utilized ranging from 0. refer to figure (2) hf a  3 gd (2) f ctd Where:  gd = the design value of the ground pressure f ctd = the design value of the concrete tensile strength ( in the same units as f ctd ) f ctd = f ctk 0.6 General Rules – Plain Concrete Structures DD ENV 1992 – 1 6: 1996 This code gives the following equation. It has been found that the IS equation gives very big .2 Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures part 1.  c = 1.5 Kg / cm 2 to 3 Kg / cm 2 .2.

69 0.5 1. Table 1 hf a Values as per ENV & program q all (  gd ) Eurocode Program % Diff.347 (3)  1. ( Kg / cm 2 ) (1) (2) (1 – 2) / (2) 0.1891 (4)  1.3546 38% 0.5 -20% Correlations have been made to find more refined forms of Eurocode equation which give more close values of PC footing to those obtained by the program.75 0.4359 (5) .98 0. the following modified forms have been obtained hf a hf a hf a  0.82 20% 2.479 44% 2 0.0 1.1 0.5 0.414( 3 gd / f ctd )  0.419 43% 1 0. The relation hf a obtained by Eurocode and program are given in Table 1 for different values of q all and by keeping contact pressure between RC and PC footing equal to 5 Kg / cm 2 . so this equation is not recommended to use in design. and there is a big difference between these values and those obtained by the program. However.488 0.6 0. the Eurocode equation gives a reasonable agreement with values obtained by the program.values of PC footing thickness in all cases.2 1.966 14% 3.033( 3 gd / f ctd )  0. yet it still needs to some modifications.8427 ( 3 gd / f ctd ) 1.

it is noted that Eqns.823 0. (4) give quite close agreement with the program except for  gd = 3 Kg / cm 2 . (4) Eqn.479 0. ) (2) Explanatory Handbook on IS for Plain and Reinforced Concrete ( IS : 456 – 1978 ) (3) Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures Part 1.41 1 0. References (1) IS 456 : 2000.5 0. in RC footing will increase by 15% only .958 0.82 0.5 0. (3).947 1. (3) Eqn. while for  gd = 2. 2005.43 0. so it is advisable to use PC footing under RC footing for  gd up to 2. The Concrete Society.42 0. for  gd = 3 Kg / cm 2 using PC footing under RC footing would not decrease bending moment in RC footing significantly.0 1. . (5) 0.3546 0. Table 2  gd hf a Values as per program and Equation Program Eqn. However.75 0. DD ENV 1992 – 1 – 6: 1996.94 2. (4) Design Aids for Eurocode 2.25 0. (3).315 0.32 0.5 Kg / cm 2 this increase will be 75% . (4).966 0.511 0.419 0.1 3. (5) with those given by program are given in Table 2. Plain and Reinforced Concrete Code of Practice ( 4th Rev.3 ( Kg / cm 2 ) From Table 2.5 1.524 0.05 1.6 General Rules – Plain Concrete Structures.82 0.07 1.5 Kg / cm 2 .M. where without using PC footing under RC footing B.The values obtained by Eqns.54 2 0.