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INTERNSHIP REPORT

MAKORI EPF- OIL & GAS PLANT


MOL PAKISTAN OIL & GAS CO.B.V

SUBMITTED TO: FIELD INCHARGE


SUBMITTED BY: GUL NIAMAT SHAH (CHEMICAL, UET PESHAWAR)
ZULKEEFAL DAR (MECHANICAL, NUST)
SUBMISSION DATE: 06-AUG-2013

All praise and thanks for Almighty Allah, Who has given me the opportunity to work in a
professional field and gave me the ability to complete this report successfully.
We fully acknowledge the assistance provided to us in understanding of different processes
during our stay at MAKORI. We would like to thank Mr. Hashim Raza and Mr.Saif-ulIslam(Company Men), Mr. Irshad ali,Mr.Ali Arslan, Mr. Aslam Hameed, Mr. Azeem Baig, Mr.
Arsalan and Mr.Kashif Hafeez Shift In-Charge, Makori) for guiding us all the way, without their
support and appreciation this learning could have not been possible. We would also like to thank
every person that has helped and made our stay comfortable.
We would also like to thank Mr. Hedayat Ullah, Mr. Haleem, Mr. Sajid and Mr. Junaid (Trainee
Process Engineers), Mr. Naveed Lodhi, Mr. M Irfan, Mr A.Mutlb, Mr.Ikram and Mr.Haneef
Ullah (Senior Process Operators), Mr. Munir and Mr. Wajid(Senior Technicians) , Mr. Rizwan,
Mr. Wajid and Mr. Waheed( Process operator), Mr. Tahir, Mr. Faheem and Mr. Basit
(Technicians) for their co-operation with us.

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION14
ABOUT MOL ........................................................................................................................... 15
SAFETY ORIENTATION ..................................................................................................... 16
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS (PPE) ............................................................. 17
FIRE HAZARDS ................................................................................................................... 17
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS .......................................................................................... 18
FIRE PUMPS ......................................................................................................................... 18
SPRINKLER SYSTEM ......................................................................................................... 18
FOAM PROTECTION .......................................................................................................... 18
USING ADDITIVES AND INHIBITORS ............................................................................ 19
NON VERBAL SAFETY SIGN ............................................................................................ 20

PROCESS(GUL NIAMAT SHAH).....21


1 PROCESS OVERVIEW .................................................................................................... 22
2 WELL .................................................................................................................................. 23
2.1 WELL CASING ............................................................................................................. 23
2.2 MAKORI- EPF WELL SPECS..................................................................................... 24
2.3 WELL HEAD ................................................................................................................. 24
2.3.1 FUNCTIONS ........................................................................................................ 25
2.4 CHRISTMAS TREE ...................................................................................................... 25
2.4.1 MASTER VALVES .............................................................................................. 26
2.4.2 KILL WING VALVE ........................................................................................... 26
2.4.3 SWAB VALVE:.................................................................................................... 26
2.4.4 PRODUCTION VALVE....................................................................................... 26
2.5 MAKORI 1 ..................................................................................................................... 27
2.6 MAKORI 3 ..................................................................................................................... 27
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2.7 SUB SURFACE SAFETY VALVE (SSSV) ................................................................. 28


2.8 SURFACE SAFETY VALVE ( SSV) .......................................................................... 28
2.9 WELL HEAD CONTROL PANEL ............................................................................... 28
2.10 HYDRATE FORMATION & ITS CAUSE ................................................................. 29
2.11 CHEMICAL INJECTION ........................................................................................... 29
2.12 CHOKE MANIFOLD .................................................................................................. 30
3 STABILIZATION OF CONDENSATE .......................................................................... 32
3.1 CONDENSATE STABILIZATION .............................................................................. 32
3.2 REID VAPOR PRESSURE (RVP) ................................................................................ 32
3.3 SEPARATION PROCESS............................................................................................. 33
3.3.1 THEORY ............................................................................................................... 33
3.3.2 SEPARATORS ..................................................................................................... 34
3.3.2.1 TWO PHASE & THREE PHASE SEPARATORS ..................................... 34
3.3.2.2 INTERNAL FITTINGS OF A SEPARATOR ............................................. 35
3.4 1ST STAGE SEPARATOR ............................................................................................ 36
3.4.1 SPECIFICATION ................................................................................................. 36
3.5 INLET SEPARATER .................................................................................................... 40
3.5.1 SPECIFICATION ................................................................................................. 41
3.6 2ND STAGE SEPARATER ............................................................................................ 41
3.7 CRUDE/CRUDE HEAT EXCHANGER ...................................................................... 42
3.8 CRUDE HEATERS ....................................................................................................... 43
3.8.1 DUTIES ................................................................................................................. 44
3.9 THIRD STAGE DEGASSER ....................................................................................... 44
3.10 CONDENSATE FLOW DIAGRAM ........................................................................... 45
3.11 STORAGE TANKS ..................................................................................................... 45
3.12 SLUG CATCHER ........................................................................................................ 46
3.13 LOADING AREA ........................................................................................................ 48
3.13.1 CENTRIGUGAL PUMPS AT LOADING AREA ................................................... 48
3.13.2 BOWSERS ................................................................................................................ 49
4 GAS CYCLE ....................................................................................................................... 50
4.1 MECHANICAL REFERIGERATION UNIT (MRU) ................................................... 51
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4.1.1 INLET COALESCING FILTER .......................................................................... 51


4.1.2 HYDROCARBON DUE-POINT CONTROL UNIT (HDCP) ............................. 52
4.1.3 REFRIGERATION ............................................................................................... 53
4.1.4 GAS/ GAS EXCHANGER: .................................................................................. 53
4.1.5 GAS/LIQUID EXCHANGER .............................................................................. 54
4.1.6 CHILLER .............................................................................................................. 55
4.1.7 LOW TEMPERATURE SEPARATOR(LTS): .................................................... 55
4.1.8 DE-ETHANIZER .................................................................................................. 56
4.1.9 MYCOM COMPRESSOR .................................................................................... 57
4.2 DETAILED GAS CYCLE ............................................................................................. 58
4.3 GAS DEHYDRATION .................................................................................................. 58
4.4

MONO ETHYLENE GLYCOL (MEG) INJECTION.................................................. 59


4.4.1 PROPERTIES ....................................................................................................... 59
4.4.2 MONO ETHYLENE GLYCOL (MEG) CYCLE ................................................. 59
4.4.2.1 HEAT EXCAHNGER...............60
4.4.2.2 PD-PUMP ..................................................................................................... 60
4.4.2.3 LTS-BOOT .................................................................................................. 60
4.4.2.4 LTS (LOW TEMPERATURE SEPARATOR)............................................ 61
4.4.2.5 GLYCOL FLASH TANK ............................................................................ 61
4.4.2.6 SOCK FILTER & CHARCOAL FILTER ................................................... 61
4.4.2.7 GLYCOL RE-GENERATOR ...................................................................... 62
4.4.2.8 GLYCOL ACCUMULATOR ...................................................................... 63

4.5 PROPANE CYCLE........................................................................................................ 63


4.5.1 PROPERTIES ....................................................................................................... 63
4.5.2 DETAIL DESCRIPTION ..................................................................................... 64
4.5.2.1 CHILLER .................................................................................................... 64
4.5.2.2 MYCOM COMPRESSOR .......................................................................... 64
4.5.2.3 FAN CONDENSER .................................................................................... 64
4.5.2.4 REFRIGERANT ACCUMULATOR ......................................................... 65
4.5.2.5 U-TUBE EXCHANGER............................................................................. 65
4.5.2.6 ECONOMIZER ........................................................................................... 66
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4.5.2.7

HEAT MEDIUM ....................................................................................... 68

5 FLARE & DRAIN SYSTEM ............................................................................................ 70


5.1 HP FLARE HEADER .................................................................................................... 70
5.2 LP FLARE HEADER .................................................................................................... 71
5.3 DRAINAGE SYSTEM .................................................................................................. 72
5.3.1 CLOSED DRAIN HEADER ................................................................................ 72
5.3.2 OPEN DRAIN HEADER...................................................................................... 73
6 GAS METERING .............................................................................................................. 75
6.1 MOISTURE ANALYZER ............................................................................................. 75
6.2

GAS CHROMATOGRAPH ......................................................................................... 75

6.3 ORIFICE METER .......................................................................................................... 76


6.4 METERING PCV-1106 ................................................................................................. 76
6.5 SDV-1110....................................................................................................................... 76
7 PLANT UTILITIES ........................................................................................................... 77
7.1

INSTRUMENT AIR SUPPLY ..................................................................................... 77

7.2 FUEL GAS SUPPLY ..................................................................................................... 78


7.3 ELECTRICITY .............................................................................................................. 78
8 CONTROL DEVICES ....................................................................................................... 79
8.1 CONTROL VALVES .................................................................................................... 79
8.1.1 CONTROL VALVE MAJOR PARTS ................................................................. 80
8.1.2 TYPES OF ACTUATOR ...................................................................................... 80
8.2 FLOW MEASURING METHODS ............................................................................... 82
8.2.1 ORIFICE PLATE .................................................................................................. 82
8.2.2 VENTURI TUBE .................................................................................................. 84
8.2.3 FLOW NOZZLE84
8.2.4 PITOT TUBE ........................................................................................................ 85
8.2.5 ANNUBAR ........................................................................................................... 86
8.2.6 ROTAMETER ...................................................................................................... 86
8.2.7 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT FLOW MEASURING DEVICES ....................... 86
8.2.8 VORTEX FLOW METER .................................................................................... 87
8.2.9 MAGNETIC FLOW METER ............................................................................... 88
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8.3 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT..................................................................................... 88


8.3.1 PRESSURE ........................................................................................................... 88
8.3.2 TYPES OF PRESSURE ....................................................................................... 88
8.3.3 PRESSURE SENSING ELEMENTS ................................................................... 89
8.3.4 TYPES OF PRESSURE TRANSMITTERS ........................................................ 90
8.4 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT ........................................................................... 91
8.4.1 THERMOMETERS .............................................................................................. 91
8.4.2 BIMETALLIC THERMOMETER ....................................................................... 92
8.4.3 THERMOCOUPLE .............................................................................................. 92
8.4.4 RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR (RTD) ....................................... 93
8.4.5 PYROMETER....................................................................................................... 93

MECHANICAL & MAINTENANCE(ZULKEEFAL DAR)...94


1 TOOLS .................................................................................................................................... 95
1.1 BALL PIEN HAMMER .................................................................................................... 95
1.2 COMBINATION SPANNER ............................................................................................ 95
1.3 FILES ................................................................................................................................. 96
1.4 PHILIPS SCREW DRIVER .............................................................................................. 97
1.5 FLAT-HEAD SREW DRIVER ......................................................................................... 97
1.6 ADJUSTABLE WRENCH ................................................................................................ 97
1.7 PIPE WRENCH ................................................................................................................. 98
1.8 PLIERS ............................................................................................................................... 98
1.9 NOTCH PLIERS ............................................................................................................... 99
1.10 WIRE CUTTER ................................................................................................................ 99
1.11 ALLEN KEYS (L KEYS) .............................................................................................. 100
1.12 PUNCH ........................................................................................................................... 100
1.13 SCRAPPER..................................................................................................................... 100
1.14 FEELER GUAGES......................................................................................................... 101
1.15 GRIP PLIERS ................................................................................................................. 101
1.16 SET -SQUARE ............................................................................................................... 102
1.17 C-SPANNER .................................................................................................................. 102
1.18 PTFE TAPES ................................................................................................................. 102
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2 FITTINGS ............................................................................................................................ 104


2.1 MATERIALS ................................................................................................................... 104
2.2 GENDER OF FITTINGS ................................................................................................ 104
2.3 COMMON FITTINGS .................................................................................................... 104
2.3.1 ELBOW ................................................................................................................... 105
2.3.2 COUPLING ............................................................................................................. 106
2.3.3 UNION ..................................................................................................................... 106
2.3.4 REDUCER ............................................................................................................... 107
2.3.5 TEE .......................................................................................................................... 107
2.3.6 CAP .......................................................................................................................... 108
2.3.7 PLUG ....................................................................................................................... 108
2.3.8 NIPPLE .................................................................................................................... 108
2.3.9 FLANGES................................................................................................................ 109
2.3.9.1 HOW DO PIPE FLANGES WORK? ............................................................. 109
2.3.9.2 PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................... 110
1. FLANGE DIMENSIONS ................................................................................ 110
2. FLANGE FACES ............................................................................................ 110
2.3.9.3 TYPES OF PIPE FLANGES .......................................................................... 110
1. BLIND ............................................................................................................. 111
2. LAP JOINT ...................................................................................................... 111
3. SLIP-ON .......................................................................................................... 112
4. SOCKET WELD ............................................................................................. 112
5. THREADED .................................................................................................... 112
6. WELDING NECK ........................................................................................... 113
2.3.9.4 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION ............................................................ 113
2.3.9.5 FLANGE CLASSES ....................................................................................... 114
3 GASKETS ............................................................................................................................. 117
3.1 TYPES OF GASKETS .................................................................................................... 117
1. SPIRAL WOUND GASKET ......................................................................................... 117
2. RING TYPE JOINT (RTJ) GASKET............................................................................ 118
3. ASBESTOS GASKET ................................................................................................... 118
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4. HEAD GASKET ............................................................................................................ 118


4 SEALS ................................................................................................................................... 120
4.1 FUNCTIONS OF SEALS ................................................................................................ 120
4.2 TYPES OF SEALS .......................................................................................................... 120
1. O RINGS ........................................................................................................................ 120
2. PISTON RINGS............................................................................................................. 121
3. MECHANICAL SEAL( CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS) .................................................... 123
4. PACKING ...................................................................................................................... 124
4.3 GLAND PACKING VS MECHANICAL SEAL ........................................................... 124
4.4 WASHER......................................................................................................................... 125
5 VALVES ............................................................................................................................... 126
5.1 GATE VALVES ............................................................................................................... 126
5.2 GLOBE VALVES ........................................................................................................... 128
5.3 BUTTERFLY VALVES .................................................................................................. 131
CONSTRUCTION .............................................................................................................. 131
TYPES OF BUTTERFLY VALVES .................................................................................. 131
WORKING & USES OF BUTTERFLY VALVES ............................................................ 132
5.4 NEEDLE VALVES ......................................................................................................... 132
5.5 NON RETURN (CHECK) VALVES .............................................................................. 134
6 ENGINES & COMPRESSORS .......................................................................................... 136
6.1 COMPRESSOR ............................................................................................................... 136
6.1.1 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS ................................................................... 136
6.1.2 ROTARY SCREW COMPRESSORS .................................................................... 141
6.2 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE .......................................................................... 141
COMBUSTION ................................................................................................................... 143
GASOLINE IGNITION PROCESS: ................................................................................... 143
DIESEL IGNITION PROCESS: ......................................................................................... 143
6.3 COMPRESSORS AND ENGINES AT MPF .................................................................... 144
6.3.1ARIEL COMPRESSOR AND WAUKESHA ENGINE ........................................... 144
6.3.1.1 WAUKESHA ENGINE ................................................................................... 145
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................ 146
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THE SALIENT MECHANICAL PARTS OF THE ENGINE ......................... 146


THE SALIENT SYSTEMS OF THE ENGINE ............................................... 149
TECHNICAL DATA ........................................................................................ 158
PERFORMANCE DATA ................................................................................. 158
6.3.1.2 COOLER......................................................................................................... 159
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................ 159
FAN DATA ...................................................................................................... 159
AIR DATA........................................................................................................ 160
DELTA T ACROSS SIX STAGES OF THE COOLER (T) ......................... 160
6.3.1.3 ARIEL COMPRESSOR ............................................................................... 161
TECHNICAL DATA ........................................................................................ 162
6.3.2 THE GARDNER DENVER ROTARY SCREW COMPRESSOR ....................... 165
COMPRESSION PRINCIPLE ......................................................................... 165
AIR FLOW IN THE COMPRESSOR SYSTEM ............................................. 166
LUBRICATION, COOLING AND SEALING ................................................ 166
COMPRESSOR PARTS................................................................................... 166
CONTROL DEVICES ...................................................................................... 171
MAINTENANCE ............................................................................................. 176
TROUBLESHOOTING .................................................................................... 176
6.3.3 AJAX ENGINE-COMPRESSOR........................................................................... 179
STANDARD FEATURES................................................................................. 180
ENGINE AND COMPRESSOR PARTS .......................................................... 180
SPECIFICATIONS OF AJAX COMPRESSOR-ENGINE AT MPF ............... 188
TEMPERATURES ............................................................................................ 189
TWO-STROKE AJAX ENGINE ADVANTAGE ............................................ 189
6.3.4 MYCOM COMPRESSOR .................................................................................... 190
SPECIFICATIONS ............................................................................................ 190
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF MYCOM COMPRESSOR ............................. 190
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................. 190
REFRIGERANT COMPRESSION MECHANISM........................................... 192
EXPLANATION OF Vi (INTERNAL VOLUMETRIC RATIO) ...................... 194
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REASONS FOR ADJUSTING Vi....................................................................... 195


VARIABLE Vi MECHANISM ........................................................................... 196
OIL FLOW............................................................................................................ 198
USABILITY LIMITS OF V-SCREW COMPRESSOR ...................................... 199
7 GENERATORS.................................................................................................................... 200
7.1 GAS GENRATOR ........................................................................................................... 200
7.1.1 SPECIFICATION OF GAS GENERATOR ........................................................... 201
7.1.2 ENGINE SPECIFICATION ................................................................................... 201
7.1.3 ENGINE DIMENSIONS ........................................................................................ 202
7.1.4 STANDARD ENGINE EQUIPMENT ................................................................... 202
7.2 DIESEL GENERATOR................................................................................................... 207
7.2.1 SPECIFICATION OF DIESEL GENERATOR ..................................................... 207
8 PUMPS...208
8.1 DEFINITION ................................................................................................................... 208
8.2 TYPES ............................................................................................................................. 208
8.2.1 CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS ...................................................................................... 208
8.2.2 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS ................................................................ 210
8.2.2.1 PLUNGER PUMP ........................................................................................ 211
8.2.2.2 DIAPHRAGM PUMP .................................................................................. 211
8.2.2.3 GEAR PUMP ................................................................................................ 212
8.3 PUMPS AT MAKORI ..................................................................................................... 214
8.3.1 SEPARATION UNIT ............................................................................................. 214
8.3.2 FLARE AREA ........................................................................................................ 215
8.3.3 STABILIZATION UNIT ........................................................................................ 218
8.3.4 LOADING AREA .................................................................................................. 220
8.3.5 LARGE CONDENSATE TANK ........................................................................... 224
8.3.6 WELLHEAD CONTROL PANEL(MAKORI-3) .................................................. 225
8.3.7 WELL HEAD(MAKORI-3) ................................................................................... 226
8.3.8 FIRE WATER SYSTEM ........................................................................................ 227
8.3.9 MECHANICAL REFERIGERATION UNIT (MRU) ........................................... 230
8.3.10 OIL WATER SEPARATOR(OWS) ..................................................................... 233
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8.3.11 EVAPORATION POND ...................................................................................... 234

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This report is in the pretext of the activities that we performed during our internship at Makori
Gas plant (EPF).
This report highlights all the events that occurred during my stay at EPF. It also briefly discusses
the processes that are going on in this facility.
The report deals with the processing of condensate, gas and handling of produced water. It is also
provided with the illustrations and flow charts where ever needed so that reader can be able to
fully understand the basics of any process.
Similarly there is also detail description about Maintenance department.

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ABOUT MOL

MOL has been working in Pakistan through its subsidiary MOL Pakistan Oil & Gas Co. since
1999.Makori Gas Plant is situated in a Dist. Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is mainly a gas
production and processing facility but condensate is also produced along with the gas. Currently
the plant is producing around 30 MMSCFD of Gas and 8000bbl of condensate. The gas is sold to
the companys client Sui northern gas pipeline (SNGPL). Whereas the condensate produced is
transported to Attock Refinery and NRL for further processing. The Gas Plant receives its raw
gas from three wells, Makori East-1 and 2 and Makori-3.
As per sales agreement with SNGPL, the following specifications of the sales gas are needed to
be satisfied:

Water content not greater than 7 lb/MMSCF


HCDP should not exceed 32 oF at any pressure including the delivery line pressure
The sales gas should have a Wobbe index not less than 1220 Btu/ MMSCF
The sales gas should have a gross calorific values not less than 950 Btu/ MMSCF
Temperature of the sales gas should not exceed 120 oF
Pressure not more than 1450 psig
Nitrogen content less than 0.6 mol%
CO2 contents should not exceed 3 mol%
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In order to achieve the above mentioned objectives, Propane based refrigeration unit is installed
at Makori Oil Field.

CONDENSATE SPECIFICATIONS

Water content
Carbon content
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Reid Vapor Pressure

<7 lb H2O/MMscf (at atm. Pressure)


< 3% mole
<1% mole
<0.2% mole
<7 psi

The current production rates of Makori EPF are as follows:


Condensate Rate
Produced Water

8000 BPD
600-650 BPD

Total Sales Gas

30 MMSCFD

GAS SPECIFICATIONS
Approximate Flow weighted average gas composition
COMPONENT

MOLE %
0.5270
1.0104
90.1990
5.2201
1.9288
0.4647
0.3832
0.0754
0.1281
0.0001
0.0605
0.0024
0.0000

Nitrogen
Carbon dioxide
Methane
Ethane
Propane
n-butane
I-butane
n-pentane
I-pentane
NeoPentane
C6+
Water
Hydrogen sulfide

SAFETY ORIENTATION
On our arrival at EFP, we were inducted into the Health, Safety and Environment Department.
This orientation included safety requirements at plant. The presentation shown to us consisted of
various safety policies and equipment. We were familiarized with PPE policy, smoking policy,
fire hazards, drugs policy etc. The explanations of these are as follows:
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PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS (PPE)


PPE plays an important role in the safety of an individual in an industry. MOL Pakistan gives
special emphasis on PPE policy. A special PPE policy has been made and notified in every room
of the camp area by HSE department. This and many other such documents are notified to create
awareness in every employee of MOL Pakistan.
These include hard helmets, gloves, goggles, safety shoes, masks etc. Helmet and safety shoes
are essential when in the plant area while other equipments may be used as per required. These
equipments should be kept in good condition so as to avoid any unfortunate incident. Damaged
equipments should be repaired or discarded. Lose clothing should be avoided as they may get
stuck in machinery or may cause other problems. Proper coveralls should be worn by workers all
the time during work.
Special Fire-retardant clothing is also available that can provide safety in areas prone to fire
hazards. Other rubber or neoprene based clothing is also available that can prove helpful when
handling chemicals.
FIRE HAZARDS
Fire is still a major disaster in the oil and gas industry. Proper precautions should be taken to
avoid any sparks/fire, which may take the shape of a major disaster especially in the oil and gas
industry. Therefore it is essential to have proper knowledge of fire causes and we should always
be careful, to prevent any misfortunate incident.
Different classes of fire and the possible ways to extinguish them are as follows:
Class A: catching fire from wood, paper, plastics and cloths.
EXTINGUISHER USED: Class A fire is put off with powder carbon dioxide, liquid foam,
using CO2 cylinder and foam trolley.
Class B: catch fire from gasoline, grease, and oil
EXTINGUISHER USED: Class B fire is put off with carbon dioxide and liquid foam.
Class C: catch fire from electricity or any electrical equipment.
EXTINGUISHER USED: carbon dioxide and dry chemical power.
Class D: Catch fire from any metals.
EXTINGUISHER USED: Class D fire is put off with sodium chloride granules, graphite
powder.

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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


Fire protection systems include components ranging from hand portable fire extinguishers, to
wheeled extinguishers, fire water and fire hydrant systems, fire pumps, sprinkler systems, foam
application systems, deluge systems and possibly other more specialized systems.

FIRE PUMPS
For moderate- to large-sized facilities, fire pumps with a higher capacity rating or the installation
of multiple fire pumps may be required. The fuel supply for these engines should be arranged so
it will not be interrupted during plant emergencies.
SPRINKLER SYSTEM
Buildings are often protected by automatic sprinkler systems. These sprinkler systems are
designed to distribute enough water to either extinguish a fire or to control it until additional
firefighting equipment and personnel arrive. A piping system supplies water to sprinkler heads.
Sprinkler systems must be regularly inspected, tested and maintained.
FOAM PROTECTION
Fixed foam protection should be provided for all atmospheric storage tanks containing
flammable or combustible liquids. The foam lateral control valve or point of connection to a
portable generator should be located outside the wall of the dyke surrounding the tank.

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`
Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an
agent which can be discharged to extinguish a fire. At MPF we have following agents for fire
extinguishers:
Dry chemical Powder
Aqueous foam forming liquids
There are following types of extinguishers in MGP:
Portable
CO2
Trolley
To operate a fire extinguisher a rule of PASS is used it is as below:
PPull the pin.
AAim the nozzle at the base of fire.
SSqueeze the handle.
SSweep on the base of fire.
USING ADDITIVES AND INHIBITORS
The following prompt action must be taken if the inhibitor or additive comes in contact with
eyes, skin, or clothing:
Eyeswash them out immediately with the solution provided and report to the Medical
Department.
Skinwash off thoroughly with soap and water, again report to the Medical Department.

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Clothingremove all contaminated clothing and treat any areas of affected skin. If
clothing (including safety boots) cannot be laundered, it must be destroyed.
Combined emergency water showers and eye baths must be located in areas where dangerous
corrosive substances are used. All persons working on equipment in this area must know the
location and the correct operation of these showers.
NON VERBAL SAFETY SIGN
Some non-verbal safety sign are also present at different location which help the workers.

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PROCESS OVERVIEW
The Makori gas plant facility processes raw gas into marketable gas and condensate oil, the
following processes are used:
Pressure Regulation
Phase separation
Condensate Stabilization
Water Dew point control
Hydrocarbon Dew point control
Gas metering
Water Evaporation
The gas coming from the well is subjected to pressure control for downstream section by choke
manifold. Raw gas after the pressure regulation is subjected to phase separation where it passes
through stage separators, heat exchanger and degasser. In separator the raw gas is divided into
gas, liquid hydrocarbons and produced water. The separated gas is directed inlet coalescers,
gas/gas exchanger and gas/liquid exchanger for further separation and where MEG is also
sprayed for dehydration of gas. The MEG is sent to regeneration unit and gas is sent to HCDP
control process to meet the sale gas specifications. After HCDP process the gas is metered and is
transferred to SNGPL system. The separated hydrocarbon condensate oil from all the separators,
heads to the stabilization unit from where it is sent to storage tanks. The produced water heads to
produce water handling system.

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WELL
2.1 WELL CASING
Casing is a large-diameter pipe that serves as the structural retainer for the walls of oil and gas
wells, or well bore. It is inserted into a well bore and cemented in place to protect both
subsurface formations and the well bore from collapsing and to allow drilling fluid to circulate
and extraction to take place.
Installing well casing is an important part of the drilling and completion process. Well casing
consists of a series of metal tubes installed in the freshly drilled hole.
There are four types of well casing.

Conductor Casing
Surface Casing
Intermediate Casing
Production Casing

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The first three casings are installed for the protection of the production tubing while Production
casing a conduit from the surface of the well to the petroleum producing formation.

2.2 MAKORI- EPF WELL SPECS


Total Depth (TD) of M-3
Size of Production Tubing
Conductor Casing
Surface Casing
Intermediate Casings
Production liners

MAKORI- EPF WELL SPECS


3210 meters
3.5 inches
26 inches
20 inches
(13 3/8 inches , 9 5/8 inches)
(7 inches, 5 inches)

2.3 WELL HEAD


A wellhead is that part of an oil well which terminates at the surface, whether on land or
offshore, where petroleum or gas hydrocarbons can be withdrawn.
A wellhead is a general term used to describe the component at the surface of an oil or gas well
that provides the structural and pressure containing interface for the drilling and production
equipment.
The primary purpose of a wellhead is to provide the suspension point and pressure seals for the
casing strings that run from the bottom of the whole sections to the surface pressure control
equipment.

24

2.3.1 FUNCTIONS
A wellhead serves numerous functions; some of these are:
Provide a means of casing suspension. (Casing is the permanently installed pipe used to
line the well hole for pressure containment, collapse prevention during the drilling phase)
Provides a means of tubing suspension (Tubing is removable pipe installed in the well
through which well fluids pass)
Provides a means of pressure sealing and isolation between casings at surface when many
casing strings are used.
Provides a means of attaching a blowout preventer during drilling
Provides a means of attaching a Christmas tree for well control during production,
injection, or other operations
Provides a reliable means of well access
Provides a means of attaching a well pump
The primary components of a wellhead system are:

Casing Head

Casing Spools
The primary components of a wellhead system are:

Hangers
Packoffs (Isolation) Seals
Bowl Protectors / Wear Bushings
Mudline Suspension Systems
Tubing Heads
Tubing Hangers

2.4 CHRISTMAS TREE


Christmas tree is a combination of the following four valves arrange in tree shape which
resemble Christmas tree; therefore it is called a Christmas tree.

Master valves
Kill wing valve
Swab valve
Production valve

25

Swab
Valve

Production
Valves

Kill wing
valve

Surface safety
valve (SSV)

Master valve

2.4.1 MASTER VALVES


The two lower valves are called master valves. They are called master valves because the flow
first passes through these valves. The lower master valve will normally be manually operated,
while the upper master valve is often hydraulically actuated, allowing it to be a primary means of
well control from the control room.
2.4.2 KILL WING VALVE
The left hand valve is called the kill wing valve. It is used for injection of fluids such as
corrosion inhibitors or methanol to prevent hydrate formation.
We can also use it for killing of well.
2.4.3 SWAB VALVE:
The valve at the top of the Christmas tree is called the swab valve. We use this valve to work
inside the wellhead.
2.4.4 PRODUCTION VALVE
It lies at the right side of Christmas tree. The flow from the wellhead to the plant takes place
through this valve. It is hydraulically actuated.
26

GUAGES AT MAKORI-3

2.5 MAKORI 1
The well was commissioned on January 8, 2006.Well Depth is 4307m.But now it has been
killed,givig no production.

2.6 MAKORI 3
The formation used at Makori 3 is Lockhart. Average pressure and temperature is 3700 psi and
98 oF respectively. The daily gas production is 22.6 MMSCF whereas the daily condensate
production is 204 BBL per day.

.
27

2.7 SUB SURFACE SAFETY VALVE (SSSV)


SSSV is a hydraulically actuated valve installed 200-250 feet below the surface. The valve
remains open under the hydraulic pressure provided by the control panel. In case of emergency
the pressure opening the valve drops down and the valve automatically shuts down closing the
production from well.
The SSSV is used to quickly shut in the well upstream of the choke manifold in the event of fire,
failure, a leak in downstream equipment, or any other well emergency requiring an immediate
shut-in. The SSSV installed at Makori 3 has a hydraulic pressure of 8100 psi.

2.8 SURFACE SAFETY VALVE ( SSV)


Located on the Production line just after the Production Valve, it is Piston controlled Gate Valve
and Hydraulically Operated. Used to shut down the Plant during emergencies and maintenance,
Can be operated from HMI (Human Machine Interface) in CCR, Connected with the logics of
PLC System and operates as per cause and effects .
The SSV installed at Makori 3 has a hydraulic pressure of 3200 psi.

2.9 WELL HEAD CONTROL PANEL


Well head control panel is placed near the well the purpose of this panel is to produce hydraulic
pressure for the SSV & SSSV as it carries two pumps which maintains the pressure of 3200 psi
for SSV and 8100 psi for SSSV we supply almost 60psi of instrument air to both. It also carries
ESD (emergency shutdown button) and pressure gauges of SSSV & SSV hydraulic as well as
header pressure of SSV & SSSV, gauges of instrument air supplied to them.

28

2.10 HYDRATE FORMATION & ITS CAUSE


Hydrate formation occurs when free water present in gas because the water molecules trap with
gas molecules at low temperature high pressure.
Gas molecules easily enters in the crystal lattice of water molecules on lowering the temperature
gas condenses and free water is produced as gas changes its phase first to liquid then to solid and
formation of ice occurs which can block the lines causing explosion , reduces gas capacity or line
capacity.

2.11 CHEMICAL INJECTION


The inlet header incorporates a chemical injection system which includes the injection of an
antifoaming agent, corrosion inhibitor, demulsify, and methanol. Antifoaming Agent, this
chemical is injected into the pipeline just before it enters the system to prevent foam formation

29

which gives false level indications to the level controllers. Corrosion Inhibitor, this is injected to
reduce corrosion rate in the pipelines and the system equipment.

2.12 CHOKE MANIFOLD


The choke manifold is installed to regulate the flow out of a well. The manifold reduces the
mentioned parameters to plant specifications. It consists of four valves for isolation. The chock
has a conical shaped stem. The position of this stem can be changed in case of adjustable choke
where as in case of fixed choke the position of the stem is fixed. Although the pressure value is
reduced there is a little change in the temperature value unlike throttling valves.
The choke is also equipped with temperature and pressure indicating transmitters. These
transmitters are installed before and after the manifold to monitor the flow as well as pressure of
the raw affluent. The pressure at the downstream of choke is maintained by the back pressure of
the plant. A PCV installed at sales gas metering skid has been given a set point. This PCV
regulates the plant pressure and in turn the pressure at the downstream of choke manifold.

30

TYPES OF CHOKES
There are two main types of chokes;
1. Fixed choke
2. Adjustable choke

The adjustable choke installed at Makori 3 well has an opening of 16/64 inches. The pressure
and temperature value at upstream is 3500psi and 130 oF respectively whereas the pressure and
temperature values at downstream are 1024 psi and 96 oF.

CHOKE MANIFOLD
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STABILIZATION OF
CONDENSATE
3.1 CONDENSATE STABILIZATION
Hydrocarbon condensate recovered from natural gas may be shipped without further processing.
The process of increasing the amount of intermediates (C 3 to C 5) and heavy (C + 6)
components in the condensate is called "condensate stabilization." This process is performed
primarily in order to reduce the Ried vapor pressure of the condensate liquids below 7 so that a
vapor phase is not produced upon flashing the liquid to atmospheric storage tanks.

3.2 REID VAPOR PRESSURE (RVP)


Reid vapor pressure (RVP) is a common measure of the volatility of condensate. It is defined as
the absolute vapor pressure exerted by a liquid at 100 F (37.8 C).
In other word, the scope of this process is to separate the very light hydrocarbon gases, methane
and ethane in particular, from the heavier hydrocarbon components.
3.2.1 REID VAPOR PRESSURE TEST
An RVP test is performed to note down the pressure of the condensate. It is basically aimed to
know that how much vapors the condensate will lose (volatility of oil) after it is transferred from
the field site to the refinery. It should be less than 7 psig. The pressure indicates that enough
recovery has been made from the condensate and is safe to transport. This method is used to
determine vapor pressure at 100 F (37.8 C) of crude oil. The procedure followed for the RVP
test is as follows:
PREPARATION OF TEST
1. Verify that the sample container is 70 to 80% filled by suitable means. Discard the
sample if its volume is less than 70%.
2. Put the sample in the chiller for at least one hour.
3. Immerse the vapor chamber fully in water bath and maintain the temperature at 37.8 C.
32

PROCEDURE OF TEST
1. Remove the sample from chiller, and insert chilled transfer tubes into the sample.
2. Remove the liquid chamber from chiller and place it in an inverted position over the top
of the transfer tube.
3. Invert the entire system rapidly so that liquid chamber is now in upright position with end
of transfer tube. Fill the chamber to overflowing and keep withdrawing transfer tube from
the chamber.
4. Now remove the Vapor chamber from the water bath and couple it with liquid chamber
within 10 seconds without spillage.
5. Shake the apparatus vigorously upside down.
6. Keep the apparatus in the water bath for 1hr.
7. Take the apparatus out of the water bath and shake it.
8. After some fixed intervals, observe the reading.
9. The final reading will be the one, when two consecutive observed readings are same.

3.3 SEPARATION PROCESS


3.3.1 THEORY
PRINCIPLE OF SEPARATION
Two factors are necessary for separation to function properly and these are:
1. Insolubility: The fluids that are to be separated must be insoluble with each other, that is,
they will not dissolve.
2. Difference in Density: The fluids must not be of the same mass, that is they must be different
in density.
The difference in density and the effect of gravity segregate the fluids, and if the fluids are
soluble in each other, no separation is possible by gravity alone.
Further the crude oil cannot be separated into its components, this can only be achieved in
distillation process at refineries.

33

The gas is very much lighter, separates within few seconds. Crude oil requires 40 to 70 seconds
to separate from water.
As pressure lowers the density of gas further decreases, makes separation easier.
Gas bubbles in the liquid will break out in most oilfield applications in 30 to 60 seconds;
consequently, the separator is designed so that the liquid remains in the vessel for 30 to
60 seconds.
The length of time that a liquid remains in the vessel is called its residence time.
The fluid produced from a well is usually a mixture of oil, gas, water, and sediment in varying
amounts and at elevated temperatures and pressures. The oil alone is a complex mixture of many
hydrocarbon compounds, including compounds which enter the gas phase during the production
process.
3.3.2 SEPARATORS
Vessel used for separation process is called separator,may be vertical or horizantal.
3.3.2.1 TWO PHASE & THREE PHASE SEPARATORS
These vessels are manufactured in three forms: Spherical, Vertical and Horizontal. Horizontal
and vertical separators are installed at
different location of BPP.
TWO-PHASE SEPARATORS
In both horizontal and vertical two-phase
separators, the well stream enters at the
side or end of the vessel. The lighter
fluid (usually gas) passes out at the top,
and the heavier fluids allowed settling
and being withdrawn from the bottom of
the vessel.
THREE-PHASE SEPARATORS
Flow in a three-phase separator is, that
fluids entering at one end of the vessel
and the liquids being allowed to settle
out in the inlet and outside of the weir in
the vessel.

34

3.3.2.2 INTERNAL FITTINGS OF A SEPARATOR


Separators are used in processing petroleum liquids. Consequently, separators are manufactured
with one, two or several internal fittings.
DEFLECTOR PLATES
These are fitted in front of the inlet to the separator and can be flat or dish-shaped.
Their purpose is to absorb the impact of the incoming fluids and to encourage the
separation of gas and liquids.
They also slow the flow rate of the liquids through the vessel.
WEIRS
A weir is a wall erected inside the vessel.
It has two purposes; it holds the liquid prior to leaving the vessel and helps to increase the
residence time of the liquid.
The liquid must rise above the weir before leaving the outlet port.
Weirs are also used to form the bucket arrangement inside the separator.
VORTEX BREAKERS
Whirlpools develops at the outlet of the oil and create passage for gas to carryover by oil.
A vortex breaker prevent the whirlpools formation.
MIST OR DEMISTER PADS
The separated gas still contains a mist of oil and water which has to coalesce to get large
enough to drops out from the gas phase.
This is achieved by continually change its direction by placing a knitted wire (wire wool)
at the out of the gas flow.
COALESCING PLATES (VERTICAL SEPARATOR)
There are several different forms of coalescing devices, the most common of which are
coalescing plates.
These plates are mounted in the flow stream of the fluids and assist in breaking down oilwater emulsions.
35

The fluid is forced to follow a path that constantly changes direction.


This causes the water droplets to coalesce and fall to the bottom of the separator.
STRAIGHTENING VANES
These are often fitted to horizontal separators to prevent turbulence in the gas stream after
initial separation at the inlet deflector.
FLOAT SHIELD
Internal floats are used as level controllers.
Any agitation of the liquid surface or the effect of coalesced liquids falling on the float
may cause control problems.
Therefore a float shield is fitted to enclose the float, creating an area of still liquid.

3.4 1ST STAGE SEPARATOR


The first component of the processing facility, the produced fluid encounters, is typically some
type of separator. Separators manipulate the stream of produced fluid to take advantage of the
density differences that exist among gas, oil, and water and that cause these phases to separate.
It is a horizontal three phase separator and tagged as 20 v- 01. Its purpose is to separate the raw
gas, effluent from well in to gas, condensate and produced water. The basic mechanism of
separation is explained above.
It is high pressure vessel works under high pressure and high temperature (i.e. 1000 psig and 100
o
F). It can also be used for the sour gas handling as well.
3.4.1 SPECIFICATION

Diameter
Length
Design Capacity
Design Pressure
Test pressure
Max Allowable Pressure
Pressure HI alarm
Pressure LO alarm

SPECIFICATION
42 inches
10 feet
5000 BPD 20 MMSCFD Gas
1440 Psig at 100 0F
2160 psi
1315 Psig at 300 0F
1275 psi
700 PSI

Separators rely on the following processes to separate oil from gas:


Abrupt changes in velocity and flow direction that allow the momentum of the liquid
phase to carry it away from the gas;
36

Impingement of the dispersed oil droplets upon a surface, which facilitates their
coalescence;
Centrifugal force, which takes advantage of the density differences of the oil and gas.

1ST STAGE SEPARATOR


The water being heavier than condensate sets to bottom, on the top of water, condensate is
present and gas being lighter remains on top. The 95% separation occurs in 1st stage separator in
few seconds while condensate water separation takes some time. The condensate maintains its
level of 40% by LCV, and it can be measured by level glass. Water level is monitored by LG
glass and when it reaches to 60% then it is drained towards HP flare drum. The pressure of 1st
stage separator remains 960-1020psi.
The plant is designed for maximum pressure of 1350 psi, when pressure increases from this
value then shut down valve (SDV) come into play.
3.4.2 BASIC COMPONENTS OF A SEPARATOR

Deflector plate
Weir plate
Mist eliminator
Vortex breaker
Coalescing/Dixon plates
Two safety valves
Blow down valve
Pressure control valve
Level controllers

37

Shut down valve

LEVEL GAUGE
Two Level gauges are installed which monitor the water and condensate levels, when water level
reaches 60%, the water is drained so that no water can come in the condensate line. Similarly
when the level of condensate reaches a certain point are drained out in their respectively line.

PRESSURE SAFETY VALVES


Two pressure safety valves (PSVs) are installed at the top of the 1st stage separator. The valves
are shut down valve (SDV) and Blow down valve (BDV). Both are given different set points.
38

There are three types of PSVs:


1. SPRING LOADED PSV
A Spring Loaded PSV is a Safety Valve in which the spring acts as a main Loading Device.

2. PILOT OPERATED PSV


A pilot operated pressure relief valve is a
pressure relief valve in which the major
relieving device is combined with and is
controlled by a self actuated auxiliary pressure
relief valve.

3. RUPTURE DISC PSV


A non-mechanical over pressure relief device that ruptures when its rating is achieved. A thin
diaphragm is attached at one end which Bursts when the set pressure is achieved.

39

Condensate is discharged from the 1st stage separator under level control to the Second Stage
Separator A level controller installed on the separator is connected to a level control valve. A setpoint is given to the level controller which maintains the condensate level in that tank according
to the desired set-point.
When the condensate level falls below the set-point, the level controller sends a signal to the
level control valve to close it and vice versa, thereby maintaining a constant level in the vessel.
At the exit point of the condensate a vortex breaker is present to prevent swirling of the
condensate.
1. Produced Gas is sent directly to Inlet Coalescer Filter (MRU).
2. Produced water is diverted to Closed Drain System.
3. Condensate passes to 2nd stage separator.

3.5 INLET SEPARATER


It is placed horizontally and tagged as 20-V- 02. It is also a three phase separator and its working
principle is similar to first stage separator.
It works at approximately 1000 psig. Condensate flow is then level controlled and delivered to
the 2nd stage separater. Gas from 2nd stage separater is combine with that coming from 1st stage
and send to MRU.
40

3.5.1 SPECIFICATION

Length
OD
Design pressure
Test pressure
MAWP

SPECIFICATION
10 ft
42
1440psi
2160 psi
1345 PSI

3.6 2ND STAGE SEPARATOR


The condensate from first stage and Inlet separator is sent to the 2nd stage pressure separator. It
is a three phase horizontal separator operated at a temperature and pressure range of 96-106 oF
and 140-275 psi respectively.
From here condensate is pass through crude/crude heat exchanger and gases is send to Ariel
compressor.

41

3.7 CRUDE/CRUDE HEAT EXCHANGER


Heat exchanger is a plate type heat exchanger.
DETAIL DESCRIPTION
Oil discharged from the second stage separator is then preheated as it passes through the plate
type crude/crude exchanger. It is a plate type heat exchanger. A plate heat exchanger is a type of
heat exchanger that uses metal plates to transfer heat between two fluids. The heat exchanges
between the condensate coming out from degasser and second stage separator inside of heat
exchanger. Cross flow of condensate take place inside of exchanger.
There are two inlets and two outlets for the heat exchanger, namely;
Cold inlet(100 Deg F)
Cold outlet(130 Deg F)
Hot inlet (150 Deg F)
Hot outlet(120 Deg F)

42

The basic purpose of heating the crude is to reduce the viscosity. The cold condensate after
leaving the cold outlet of the heat exchanger will enter into the crude heater and enters into the
heat medium.

3.8 CRUDE HEATERS


The next stage of crude oil heating is done by the crude heaters
that are indirect-fired heaters. The heaters consist of a U shape
fire tube mounted on a flange at one end of a non-pressurized
vessel. The fire tube is surrounded by a heat medium
(water/TEG) that allows no direct contact between the tubes
carrying the oil and the heat source. We have two heaters, one
is old while one is new one.
New heater is a shell & tube type heater.

43

3.8.1 DUTIES
New heater= 6MMBtu/hr
Old heater= 2MMBtu/hr

3.9 THIRD STAGE DEGASSER


It is a vertical type degasser ,its aims is to removing the lighter hydrocarbons present in it. Its
main purpose is to maintain the RVP of condensate/crude by flashing i.e. removing of lighter
hydrocarbons at lower pressure.
DETAIL DESCRIPTION
After leaving the heater, the condensate enters into the 3rd stage degasser so as to remove any
gases present in the condensate. It operates at low pressure and high temperature (i.e. 12 psig and
110 0F). Under these conditions the condensate gives off any dissolved gases. The gas will enter
into the gas compressor for re-compression and then into the dew point control unit.

44

3.10 CONDENSATE FLOW DIAGRAM

Well Heads

Adjustable
Chokes

Exchanger

Degassing
Unit

1st Stage &


Inlet
Separators

Condensate
Heaters

2nd Stage
Separator

Exchanger

Storage Banks

3.11 STORAGE TANKS


After the complete processing of the condensate it is sent to storage tanks by the use of vertical
type centrifugal pumps.
45

The storage tank locality is classified into four banks A, B, C and D. Each bank is comprised of 5
storage tanks, connected in series with individual capacity of 500 barrels making one bank to
store 2500 barrels.
A new storage tank is installed having capacity of 10000 barrels. Thus totel capacity is increased
to 25000 bbl.
The pressure & vacuum relief valves (PVRV) are installed on top of storage tanks through which
volatile products escapes out.
Each bank is provided with the level transmitter which sends signal to HMI apart from it level of
each tank is monitored by glass level gauge. The tanks are filled to maximum of 80% of their
total depth. Condensate from the storage tanks supplied to ARL and NRL by bowsers daily.

3.12 SLUG CATCHER


Slug catcher is the name of a unit in the gas refinery or petroleum industry in which slugs at the
outlet of pipelines are collected or caught. A slug is a large quantity of gas or liquid that exits the
pipeline.
Pipelines that transport both gas and liquids together, known as two-phase flow, can operate in a
flow regime known as slugging flow or slug flow. Under the influence of gravity liquids will
46

tend to settle on the bottom of the pipeline, while the gasses occupy the top section of the
pipeline. Under certain operating conditions gas and liquid are not evenly distributed throughout
the pipeline, but travel as large plugs with mostly liquids or mostly gasses through the pipeline.
These large plugs are called slugs.
Slugs can be generated by different mechanisms in a pipeline:
Terrain slugging is caused by the elevations in the pipeline, which follows the ground elevation
or the sea bed. Liquid can accumulate at a low point of the pipeline until sufficient pressure
builds up behind it. Once the liquid is pushed out of the low point, it can form a slug.
Hydrodynamic slugging is caused by gas flowing at a fast rate over a slower flowing liquid
phase. The gas will form waves on the liquid surface, which may grow to bridge the whole crosssection of the line. This creates a blockage on the gas flow, which travels as a slug through the
line.
Riser-based slugging, also known as severe slugging, is associated with the pipeline risers often
found in offshore oil production facilities. Liquids accumulate at the bottom of the riser until
sufficient pressure is generated behind it to push the liquids over the top of the riser, overcoming
the static head. Behind this slug of liquid follows a slug of gas, until sufficient liquids have
accumulated at the bottom to form a new liquid slug.
Pigging slugs are caused by pigging operations in the pipeline. The pig is designed to push all or
most of the liquids contents of the pipeline to the outlet. This intentionally creates a liquid slug.
Slugs formed by terrain slugging, hydrodynamic slugging or riser-based slugging are periodical
in nature. Whether a slug is able to reach the outlet of the pipeline depends on the rate at which
liquids are added to the slug at the front (i.e. in the direction of flow) and the rate at which
liquids leave the slug at the back. Some slugs will grow as they travel the pipeline, while others
are dampened and disappear before reaching the outlet of the pipeline.
SLUGCATCHER DESIGN
Slugcatchers are designed in different forms:
1. Vessel Type Slugcatcher
2. Finger Type Slugcatcher
3. Parking Loop Slugcatcher
A vessel type slugcatcher is essentially a conventional vessel. This type is simple in design and
maintenance.
A finger type slugcatcher consists of several long pieces of pipe ('fingers'), which together form
the buffer volume. The advantage of this type of slugcatcher is that pipe segments are simpler to
design for high pressures, which are often encountered in pipeline systems, than a large vessel. A
47

disadvantage is that its footprint can become excessively large. An example of a large fingertype slugcatcher can be seen in Den Helder, The Netherlands, using Google Maps.
A Parking Loop slugcatcher combines features of the vessel and finger types. The Gas/Liquid
Separation occurs in the Vessel, while the Liquid is stored in the parking loop shaped fingers.

3.13 LOADING AREA


Condensate from storage tanks is dispatched to ARL and ARL. Two loading arms (A & B) each
load arm is further subdivided into front and rear loading arm.

Loading arm A is operated by solenoid operating valve (SOV) 1 and 3. While load arm B is
operated by solenoid operating valve (SOV) 2 and 4 are used to fill the condensate from storage
tanks into the bowsers by means of pumps which are given below:
Vertical centrifugal pumps (2)
Horizontal centrifugal pumps (2)
3.13.1 CENTRIGUGAL PUMPS AT LOADING AREA
These pumps are electively driven and produce a power of 15 HP. The discharge pressure is 20
psi and the speed is 1760 rpm.

48

3.13.2 BOWSERS
Before filling the bowsers safety checklist is necessary to made to ensure the safety of bowsers.
After filling bowsers their specific gravity and temperatures are determined.
By using APIVCF software the base volume, correction factor (K-factor) and specific gravity at
60F is determined. It is ensured that the API remains within the range of 52-55. Payments are
made against this corrected volume and specific gravity.

49

GAS CYCLE
1st stage &
inlet
separators

2nd stage
separator +
De-ethanizer

MRU

Ariel
Compressor

3rd stage
degasser

Sales Gas
metering

In gas cycle we mainly concentrate on hydrocarbon dew point. The hydrocarbon dew point is the
temperature (at a given pressure) at which the hydrocarbon components of any hydrocarbon-rich
gas mixture, such as natural gas, will start to condense out of the gaseous phase. It is also
referred as the HCDP. The hydrocarbon dew point is a function of the gas composition as well as
the pressure.
The significance of HCDP is:
1. The gas has better burning capacity if HCDP is controlled.
2. Gas will not produce liquid in pipelines
3. Corrosion rate is reduced
The heavier hydrocarbons must be removed to control the HCDP; this is done at Makori in
mechanical refrigeration unit (MRU). The SNGPL requirement for HCDP is 32degF while dew
point at Makori is <24F.

50

4.1 MECHANICAL REFERIGERATION UNIT (MRU)

The mechanical refrigeration unit is installed to control the hydrocarbon dew point and to
dehydrate natural gas. The hydrocarbon dew point is achieved by cooling the gas to a
temperature of -15 oC whereas for dehydration of gas, Mono Ethylene Glycol is injected.

4.1.1 INLET COALESCING FILTER


The gas from first stage and the compressed gas from
compressor then come to the inlet coalescing filter. This is
a vertical vessel operated at a temperature and pressure of
42 oC and 970 psi. The vessel is designed at a pressure of
1300psi at 150 oF.
Here moisture or suspended particles of condensate are
removed from gas. The vessel removes condensate in two
steps. As the gas enters the vessel a coalescing mist
eliminator removes condensate droplets from gas. This
condensate is then drained through a level control valve and
is mixed with the condensate coming from deethanizer. A
level gauge is installed to inspect the level of condensate. In
the second step the gas passes through a series of filters that
51

extract the condensate droplets from the gas. This removed condensate is also drained. The gas
moves out of the top of the vessel to MRU unit.

4.1.2 HYDROCARBON DUE-POINT CONTROL UNIT (HDCP)


Gas outlet from first stage separator, Inlet separator and the compressor unit needs to be
controlled in terms of its moisture content, hydrocarbon due-point, heating value, composition
etc. This is achieved in the HDCP unit and the processed gas goes to the gas metering unit.
WHAT IS HCDP?
The hydrocarbon dew point is the temperature (at a given pressure) at which the hydrocarbon
components of any hydrocarbon-rich gas mixture, such as natural gas, will start to condense out
of the gaseous phase. It is often also referred to as the HDP or the HCDP. The maximum
temperature and the pressure at which such condensation takes place is called the
cricondentherm. The hydrocarbon dew point is a function of the gas composition as well as the
pressure.
The hydrocarbon dew point is universally used in the natural gas industry as an important quality
parameter, stipulated in contractual specifications and enforced throughout the natural gas supply
train, from producers through processing, transmission and distribution companies to final end
users.
DISADVANTAGES

Increased pressure drop in transmission pipes


Increased compression cost (High compression energy requirement)
Reduced line capacity (Condensation / Choking in lines)
Erosion in transmission pipes
Smoky flame / Flame extinguishing
Higher value of HCDP indicates the presence of high percentage of heavier hydrocarbons
(C6+) in natural gas.
Higher value of HCDP means less recovery of liquid oil (Condensate) from the gas.
Higher the HCDP, higher will be the Gross Calorific Value and vice versa.
Note that Cricondentherm is not a function of Pressure. Cricondentherm is a function of
Composition only.
To achieve HCDP, the temperature of the gas is lowered in few steps. This lowering down of
temperature results in the condensation of heavier hydrocarbons from gas.

52

4.1.3 REFRIGERATION
Refrigeration is a process in which work is done to move heat from one location to another. This
work is traditionally done by mechanical work.
Types of refrigeration can be classified as:
Cyclic Refrigeration
Non cyclic refrigeration
CYCLIC REFRIGERATION
This consists of a refrigeration cycle, where heat is removed from a low-temperature space or
source and rejected to a high-temperature sink with the help of external work, and its inverse, the
thermodynamic power cycle
NON CYCLIC REFRIGERATION
In non-cyclic refrigeration, cooling is accomplished by melting ice or by subliming dry ice.
These methods are used for small-scale refrigeration such as in laboratories and work shops
Cyclic refrigeration can be classified as:
1. Vapor cycle, and
2. Gas cycle
Vapor cycle refrigeration can further be classified as:
a) Vapor-compression refrigeration
b) Vapor-absorption refrigeration

4.1.4 GAS/ GAS EXCHANGER:


The gas from inlet filter separator divides into two lines. One line at a temperature of 40 oC
enters the tube side of first gas/gas exchanger. It travels the length of the exchanger and then
enters the tube side of second gas/gas exchanger. In these exchangers the gas is cooled to -8 oC
by the gas coming out of the low temperature separator. MEG is added to both the exchangers .
WORKING PARAMETERS
Temperature of cold gas from LTS: -13oC
Temperature of hot gas from coalescer: 37oC
Temp of hot gas leaving the exchanger: -2oCate gas.

53

4.1.5 GAS/LIQUID EXCHANGER


The second portion of the gas line coming from the inlet coalescence filter enters the tube side of
gas/liquid exchanger at temperature of 40 oC. Here it exchanges heat with the cold condensate
coming from LTS at a temperature of -15 oC. The temperature of the gas is reduced to -1 oC
while the temperature of the cold condensate increases to -5 oC. MEG is added in the exchanger
to remove moisture from gas. MEG absorbs water and becomes rich MEG.
WORKING PARAMETERS
Temperature of hot gas from coalescer

: 37oC

Temperature of cold condensate from LTS: 15oC


Temp of hot gas leaving the exchanger

: -1oC

54

4.1.6 CHILLER
The gas coming from gas/gas exchanger and gas/liquid exchanger join together and enter the
tube side of the chiller. On the shell side of chiller propane is added. Propane evaporates due to
the heat of tube side and the vapors accumulate in the suction scrubber. This evaporation causes
a cooling effect and the temperature of gas is further reduced to -15 oC. At this temperature the
heavier hydrocarbons present in gas start condensing. The operating pressure of chiller is 20 psi
or 120-150 KPa. MEG is added to prevent hydrate formation.

4.1.7 LOW TEMPERATURE SEPARATOR (LTS):


It is a horizontal three phase separator and is operated at a temperature and pressure of -15 oC
and 950 psi respectively. The gas coming into the LTS is defected by a deflective plate. This
agitation results into the separation of MEG, condensate and gas on the basis of specific gravity.
Rich glycol being denser of all settles down at the bottom of the separator and sinks to the boot
of LTS. The heavier hydrocarbons present in gas condense to form a condensate layer on the rich
glycol. The lowering of temperature and expansion in LTS results into condensation of heavier
hydrocarbons. Gas being the lightest moves out through the top of the separator and moves to the
gas/ gas exchanger. From there it is sent to the sales gas metering skid. The condensate from
LTS moves to the gas/liquid exchanger where its temperature is increased. It then moves to
deethanizer for further separation.
The removal of heavier hydrocarbons lowers the HCDP of gas. The allowable HCDP is 32 oF
whereas HCDP at present is about 24oF.

55

4.1.8 DE-ETHANIZER
It is employed to remove lighters from the condensate in order to get required value of Reid
vapor pressure. It contains packers that are made up of Paul rings. The packers basically hinder
the flow of the heavier hydrocarbon liquids due to which the lighter parts are removed from the
liquid in the form of vaporized product. After passing through the Paul rings, the NGL maintains
its level on the chimney tray from where it is directed to the re-boiler of the deethanizer. In reboiler, the NGL is heated to give out any gases. The heating in the re-boiler is done through
TEG.
Re-boiler is of tube/shell type with TEG passing through tubes and NGL on shell side. The gas is
removed from the top. The condensate after leaving the deethanizer is entered into the line that
head towards the heat exchanger for pre heating and then towards condensate heater after which
condensate stabilization process continues as explained earlier. The overhead vapors from the
deethanizer first enter into the u-tube exchanger on the tube side and then directed into the line
heading towards the Ariel compressor.

56

DE-ETHANIZER

4.1.9 MYCOM COMPRESSOR


After cooling raw gas in chiller, vaporize propane from suction scrubber enters into the
MYCOM compressor, which is reciprocating economized screw compressor. The suction
pressure remains around 305 kPa and discharge pressure is around 1250 kPa, which is controlled
by pressure control valve (PCV). With gaseous propane lube oil also enters into the vaporize
propane which act as a lubricant as well as coolant. Details of working of Mycom Compressor is
given in Mechanical Section.
4.1.10 REFRIGERANT/OIL SEPARATOR
This mixture enters into the refrigerant/oil separator, in which lube oil is separated from gaseous
propane. After this propane enters into the propane accumulator and then into the FIN fan
condenser.

57

4.2 DETAILED GAS CYCLE

2nd stage
separator

(Ariel
Compress
or)

Degasser

Inlet
cooler

Deethanizer
rrer

Gas/Gas
exchanger

Inlet filter Coalescer

1st stage+
inlet
separator

Gas/Liquid
exchanger

LTS

Chiller

NGL (liquid hydrocarbon)

4.3 GAS DEHYDRATION


Removal of water that is associated with natural gas in vapor or saturated form is called
dehydration.

58

WHY GAS IS DEHYDRATED?


To prevent hydrates formation.
To reduce corrosion.
If Dehydration is not carried out then disadvantages
Low burning quality
Choking due to Hydrates formation
Corrosion in Piping System
Reduced flow capacity

4.4 MONO ETHYLENE GLYCOL (MEG) INJECTION


The purpose of the injected MEG is not to dehydrate the gas but to prevent formation of
hydrates. At the MEG concentrations normally used in these systems, approximately 80 85
wt%, the MEG absorbs only a small amount of water vapor from the gas. It is injected at four
points, two points in gas /gas exchanger tube side containing raw gas, gas liquid exchanger, and
chiller.The glycol which absorbs water called rich glycol is then separated from low temperature
separator and sent back to glycol regeneration unit.
MEG is a water absorption substance (hygroscopic). Chemically TEG is hydroxyl ether.
4.4.1 PROPERTIES
It has following properties
Formula (C2H6O2)
Molecular Weight, g/mol (62.07)
Boiling Point (3870F)
Specific Gravity (1.115 - 1.1156 )
The mono ethylene glycol is used to stop the hydrate formation inside the chambers of the heat
exchangers.
4.4.2 MONO ETHYLENE GLYCOL (MEG) CYCLE
Glycol regeneration involves:
Flashing for reducing pressure to remove hydrocarbons from the glycol.
Filtration for removing particulates and hydrocarbon contaminants.
Steam stripping in a regeneration still column to remove the bulk of absorbed water.
The cycle included the following equipment.
59

4.4.2.1

HEAT EXCHANGER

When the lean MEG passes through heat exchanger from accumulator, it exchanges heat with the
external atmosphere to cool hot glycol.
4.4.2.2 PD-PUMP
After passing through the heat exchanger the lean MEG is pumped to LTS boot with the help of
plunger type positive displacement pump.

4.4.2.3 LTS-BOOT
The MEG passes through tubes present inside LTS boot. A heating medium is provided at the
boot of LTS to separate the condensate from the MEG. Here MEG exchanges heat with cold
MEG present in boot. Then it is injected into gas/gas exchangers, gas/liquid exchanger, and the
chiller. The MEG while passes through these phases absorbs any water vapors in the exchanger.
After absorption the glycol is said to rich glycol. The gas from 2 gas/gas, and gas/liquid
exchanger come to chiller along with MEG. After it sent to LTS, which is three phase separator
so here separation of condensate, MEG and gas occurs.

60

4.4.2.4 LTS (LOW TEMPERATURE SEPARATOR)


As MEG is added to remove moisture from the gas, being the heaviest one it is present at the
bottom of the LTS from where it is directed to still column of glycol regenerator for pre heating.
4.4.2.5 GLYCOL FLASH TANK
Rich glycol after being pre-heated in the chimney column is further pre-heated in glycol
accumulator by passing through coiled tubing in the accumulator.
The pressure in the flash tank drops to 360kPa. Due to this sudden pressure drop, the
hydrocarbons that are absorbed in the glycol are flashed out. The temperature in the glycol flash
tank remains around 80-90oC. If the hydrocarbons are not separated from the glycol by flashing
and forms the layer above it then it is drawn out manually.
4.4.2.6 SOCK FILTER & CHARCOAL FILTER
MEG after exiting from flash tank enters into the sock filter which removes any solid particles
present in the glycol.

61

Removing solids from glycol is important because the solid particles:


Increase wear in glycol pumps
Increase the possibility of deposits and equipment plugging
It also passes through charcoal filter which removes any suspended particles of hydrocarbon.
Charcoal filter contains the porous charcoal filter element. Removing dissolved hydrocarbons
from the glycol is important because the hydrocarbon from the glycol is important because
hydrocarbons increase the problem of glycol foaming in downstream glycol re-concentrator.
Rich glycol enters the filter and passes through the porous charcoal elements. The top head of
filter is restrained by swing bolts. The top head can be removed for replacement access to the
elements.
Local differential pressure indicator is provided across filter. A manual bypass is also provided
across filter which is used during replacement of filter elements.
4.4.2.7 GLYCOL RE-GENERATOR
Glycol after exiting through filters, showered into the glycol regenerator still column, exchanges
the heat with the steam from re-boiler. Water vapor and some glycol vapor are driven from reboiler up still column. Any glycol vapor above the feed point is retained by condensing a small
amount of water reflux in the top of column.
The wide difference between the boiling points of water and MEG provides an easy effective
separation of two components.

62

4.4.2.8 GLYCOL ACCUMULATOR


Hot re-concentrated glycol flows from re-boiler through a down comer pipe into the
accumulator. The accumulator act a reservoir as well as normally containing glycol-to-glycol
heat exchanger. Glycol leaves the accumulator through an outlet in the bottom of the
accumulator.

Vapor
out

Reboiler
stack

Gas/Gas exchanger
MEG Reboiler

Heat

Sock & Charcoal filter


Liquid/Gas exchanger

Accumulator

Flash Tank

chiller

Low temp separator

Fin type exchanger

L.T.S
PD
pump

MEG CYCLE

4.5 PROPANE CYCLE


Propane is a colorless gas, found in natural gas and petroleum and used as a Refrigerant. It is the
third member of the alkane series.
4.5.1 PROPERTIES
It has following properties
63

Formula (C3H8)
State (colourless gaseous hydrocarbon)
Boiling Point (42C)
Melting Point (190C)
At EPF Propane is used as a Refrigerant.
4.5.2 DETAIL DESCRIPTION
The refrigerant goes through following equipment in the MRU
4.5.2.1 CHILLER
As explained earlier that Propane is used as the refrigerant in chiller. Gasses from the gas/gas
and gas/liquid enter into the chiller where they are passed through the tubes while propane is on
shell side. Excessive drop in temperature occurs here causing heavier hydrocarbons to condense
out as propane after exchanging heat vaporizes.
4.5.2.2 MYCOM COMPRESSOR
After cooling raw gas in chiller, vaporize propane from suction scrubber enters into the
MYCOM compressor, which is reciprocating economized screw compressor. The suction
pressure remains around 300 kPa and discharge pressure is around 1250 kPa, which is controlled
by pressure control valve (PCV). With gaseous propane lube oil also enters into the vaporize
propane which act as a lubricant as well as coolant.
This mixture enters into the refrigerant/oil separator, in which lube oil is separated from gaseous
propane. After this propane enters into the propane accumulator and then into the FIN fan
condenser.
4.5.2.3 FAN CONDENSER
The gaseous propane from the
accumulator is entered into the fan
condenser. In this condenser Gaseous
propane is in tubes which contain the fins
with it, to increase the surface area for
cooling. In this condenser cool air is
forced to pass on to the network of fin
tubes. Most of the propane recovered in
liquid form in this stage but some
propane still remains in gaseous form,
depending upon ambient temperature.
64

4.5.2.4 REFRIGERANT ACCUMULATOR


Refrigerant accumulator is basically storage for liquid propane. The temperature in accumulator
is around 35/400C and pressure is about 1000 kPa. Due to this high pressure propane remains in
the liquid form with some gaseous propane. The discharge from the accumulator enters into the
desiccator in which propane is dried. Through second discharge it is pumped into the MYCOM
compressor discharge line where it cools the out coming stream of propane and lube oil.
4.5.2.5 U-TUBE EXCHANGER
Liquid propane after discharging through refrigerant accumulator enters into the U-tube heat
exchanger, in which it exchanges the heat with the vapors of de-ethanizer before going to Ariel
compressor.

65

Propane vapors to MYCOM

LCV

Econo
mizer

MyCom
Compressor

Lube
oil
filter

Propane vapors
LCV

Chiller

U-tube heat exchanger

Coolant line
Desicant
filter

separator

Refrigerant
/oil

pump

Coolant

TCV

Lube oil
pump

Refrigerant
accumulator

Condenser

PROPANE CYCLE
4.5.2.6 ECONOMIZER
After exchanger liquid propane enters into the economizer in which it pressure further drops,
sudden drop in pressure cause cooling which is called Joule Thomson Effect. The pressure in the
economizer is dropped by the liquid expansion valve. The pressure in economizer is around
370Kpa. In this stage temperature of liquid propane further drops to- 4oC. The gaseous propane
escapes out and enters again into the MYCOM compressor.
JOULE-THOMSON EFFECT
It is named after James Prescott Joule and William Thomson . Experimented in 1852 on Joule
expansion, which is an,
Adiabatic expansion (Throttling) of gas
66

Isenthalpic Process
Temperature of the gas is increased or decreased depending upon initial state
JOULE THOMSON COEFFICIENT
The change of temperature (T) with respect to change in pressure (P) i.e.
= T/ P
The sign of the coefficient may be either positive or
negative.
Depends upon Relative magnitudes of the attractive
and repulsive intermolecular forces due to initial
Pressure and Temperature.
J-T COEFFICIENT MEASUREMENT
A schematic diagram of the apparatus used for
measuring the isothermal Joule-Thomson
coefficient (JT) is shown. The electrical heating
required to offset the cooling arising from
expansion is interpreted as H and used to calculate
(H/p)T, which is then converted to .
For ideal gases
= 0,
No change in temperature of ideal gases with reduction in pressure.
For real gases
If > 0, (+ve)
cooling occurs on expansion
If < 0, (-ve)
Heating occurs on expansion
INVERSION TEMPERATURE
The Joule-Thomson inversion temperature is the temperature where Joule-Thomson coefficient
changes sign.
Below Inversion Temperature, the J-T Coefficient is +ve, But it is ve above this temperature.
67

4.5.2.7

Lower is the boiling point of the gas, lesser will be its inversion temperature
Molecular gases have higher boiling point, so their inversion temperature will be higher.
Non ideal behavior is dominant, when the gases are closer to their boiling point
Hence their Joule Thomson Coefficient is positive
HEAT MEDIUM

Tri-ethylene glycol is used as a heat medium in the third stage processing area. TEG has good
thermal conductivity and heat capacity and is also a cheaper source of heating as compared to
coiled tube heaters. Heat medium heater contains TEG which is heated through combustion of fuel
gas inside a U-tube which passes through the heat medium and heats up TEG. The gases produced
as a result of combustion exit the U-tube via the other end and to the external atmosphere through
the chimney. A temperature controller is present on the heater (TC-485) to which operates a
temperature control valve (TCV-485) to regulate fuel gas supply to the heater for combustion and
therefore control its temperature. Heat medium is supplied to:

Chiller
Suction Snubber
Lube Oil/Refrigerant Separator
De-ethanizer Reboiler
Glycol Reboiler
Chiller boot

68

MEG
REGENERATOR

DEETAHNIZER
REBOILER
SUCTION
SCREBBER
TEG Heater
CHILLER
BOOT

REF.OIL
SEPARATER

69

FLARE & DRAIN


SYSTEM
Flare system consists of high pressure (HP) flare system and low pressure (LP) flare system.
Under normal working conditions all the gas produced and processed is sent to sales gas pipe
line but in the event of disposal i.e. pressure relief or equipment isolation the flare system allows
safe disposal of the gasses otherwise it can cause environmental damage as well as damage to the
human life.
Following equipment comprises the HP flare system;
HP flare KO drum
Recycle pumps
Ignition panel
HP flare tip
Pilot
Similar equipment comprises the LP flare system that contains LP flare KO drum instead of HP.
The excess pressure at the third stage degasser and the fuel gas header is discharged in the LP
flare while the gas from the rest of the vessels heads to the HP-Flare. Reason for installing the
LP flare system lies in the fact that gasses from 3rd stage degasser cannot be put into the HP
flare line because of high pressure in HP flare hence causing back pressure at degasser thus to
make equipment safe LP flare system is installed .

5.1 HP FLARE HEADER


There are two flare headers: HP Flare header and LP Flare header. HP Flare header collects
flared gases from:
First Stage Separator
Inlet Separator
Dehydration Skid
70

LP gas compressor package


HDCP Skid
Fuel Gas
Propane bottles
Gas (plus condensate and water) from HP Flare header enters HP knockout drum to strike a
deflector plate and get separated into liquid and gaseous fractions. Condensate/water mixture
from closed drain header also enters HP K.O. Drum to release gases to the flare tip Oily water is
then pumped from the bottom of HP K.O. Drum to open drain header and gas is sent to HP Flare
tip where it is burnt off before being released into the atmosphere.

5.2 LP FLARE HEADER


LP Flare header collects gases from:
Third Stage Degasser
From LP gas compressor package
From TEG Regeneration Skid
From MEG Regeneration Skid
N2 Bottles Rack
Fuel Gas
Gas from LP flare header enters LP K.O. Drum where it is separated into liquid and gaseous
fractions. Gas is send to LP Flare tip where it is burnt off and condensate (with small amount of
water in it) is pumped to third stage degasser.

71

5.3 DRAINAGE SYSTEM


Drainage system includes: closed drain header and open drain header.

5.3.1 CLOSED DRAIN HEADER


Water Drain system Provides a safe method for collection and disposal of residual liquids from
vessels liquid blow down from vessels during maintenance operations.

Water from 1st stage, 2nd stage, and 3rd stage degasser is drained to close header i.e. to HP flare
KO drum that serves as collection vessel. The HP flare knock out drum is used for liquid storage
which is then pumped to the oil water separator using the diaphragm pumps. Water from
oil/water separator is plunged into the evaporation pond while condensate recovered from it is
pumped to 3rd stage degasser.

72

1st Stage
&inlet
Separators

2nd Stage
Separator

3rd stage
De-gasser

KO-HP
Drum

Oil Water
Separator

E-Pond

FLOW DIAGRAM

5.3.2 OPEN DRAIN HEADER


Open drain system collects rain water and overspill water tainted with hydrocarbons contains in
the area. Fluid discharges are directed to the open drain system will flow by gravity.
Open drain header collected liquids from:
HP Flare Knockout Drums
Glycol regeneration skid
Crude heater skid
Crude oil transfer pumps
Third stage degasser
Crude/Crude heat exchanger
Second stage separator
First stage separator
Inlet header
73

Chemical injection skid


Loading area
Crude storage tanks
Air compressor package
Generator skid
Gas compressor package
Gas dehydration skid
HCDP skid
Open drain header connects with oil/water separator from where oil is skimmed off and water
pumped off to evaporation pit. Skimmed oil is then recycled to the third stage degasser.

74

GAS METERING

GAS METERING SKID


Residue gas after being processed in the Hydrocarbon Due-point control plant (HDCP) is sent to
gas metering where its composition, HCDP, water due-point, temperature, flow, and pressure is
measured. It also incorporated PCV-1106 which is used to control the system pressure and the
pressure with which gas is supplied to SNGPL.

6.1 MOISTURE ANALYZER


Moisture analyzer measures the amount of moisture present in the gas stream in units of pounds
of water per MMSCF of gas. It intakes a sample of water every three minutes and analyzes it,
calculating the water content in the gas and indicating and transmitting it to the PLC.

6.2 GAS CHROMATOGRAPH


The purpose of GC is to identify gas composition and to calculate the heating value (BTU/SCF)
and HCDP (o F) of sales gas. Gas composition, heating value and HCDP is dependent on the gas
composition. Once the chromatograph identifies gas composition, it uses the composition of gas
to calculate HCDP and also the heating value. The results obtained are also transmitted to the
PLC.

75

6.3 ORIFICE METER


The orifice meter serves to measure the gas temperature and its static pressure. It creates a
differential pressure along the gas stream and records all three parameters on a Barton Chart.
This information can be used to calculate gas flow in units of MMSCF. The data obtained is also
transmitted to a flow quantity indicator and transmitter which uses the data to calculate flow.

6.4 METERING PCV-1106


PC-1106 takes pressure indication from the upstream of PCV-1106 and controls valve
opening/closing in order to maintain a certain downstream pressure. This PCV controls the
system pressure and also the pressure at which sale gas is supplied to SNGPL.

6.5 SDV-1110
This is a solenoid operated piton type valve which can be used to discontinue gas supply to
SNGPL. It is connected with the PLC and can also be manually operated.

76

PLANT UTILITIES
7.1 INSTRUMENT AIR SUPPLY
Air supply is needed in the plant to operate various instruments such as PCV, LCV, TCV, SDV1110, Diaphragm pumps etc and also in heat medium heater and crude heater. These instruments
require that the air be supplied in dried form. However air from air compressor can be used
directly without drying in plant utilities.
Air is sucked into the compressor from external atmosphere and made to pass through filters to
remove solid particles. The Screw type rotary compressor compresses the air and discharged at a
pressure of 120 Psig into the oil separator. Oil is pumped into the compressor for lubrication and
heat removal. Oil separator separates the oil from air and after being passed through a cooler it is
recycled back to the compressor. Air is also cooled and made to pass through a water separator to
separate moisture from air. This air is received by the air receiver which separates condensed
liquids from the air stream. Air from air receiver is supplied directly to:
Gas Generator (start air)
Chemical injection pumps
LP Gas Compressor (start air)
To skim oil pumps
LP K.O. drum recycle pumps
HP K.O. drum recycle pumps
Instruments however require that the air be dry and free from solid particles in order to prevent
corrosion and degradation and for their effective operation. Air from air receiver is passed
through pre-filters which remove solid particles before the air is passed on to instrument air
dryers. Dried air is further made to pass through instrument air after filters and is ready to be
supplied to:
Wellhead area
First stage separator
Second stage separator
Crude/Crude heat exchanger
77

Crude heater
Third stage degasser
Storage tank area
Gas dehydration skid
Glycol regeneration package
Gas compressor package
Gas metering skid
HP Flare package
LP Flare package
Fusible loop
Inlet filter coalescer
HDCP Skid

7.2 FUEL GAS SUPPLY


Processed gas is used as a source of fuel to run various gas fired operations in the plant. These
operations include.
Heat Medium Heater
Gas Generator
HP and LP flare Pilot
AJAX Compressor
As a blanket gas in storage tanks

7.3 ELECTRICITY
Electricity is being utilized in the plant operation, produced operations. It is produced by one of
two types of engine driven generators in the plant: Gas generator and Diesel generator. These
generators are driven by four-stroke combustion engines that utilize fuel (gas/diesel) for
combustion. An internal combustion engine (diesel or gas fired) turns a power shaft which is in
turn connected to an electrical generator. As the electrical generator spins it generates electricity.
Depending on the application this may be alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC). This
electricity is then fed to a power distribution system for use.

78

CONTROL
DEVICES
A power operated device that modulates the fluid flow rate in a process control system.
A control valve is actually an assembly that includes minimum:
Valve Body
Actuator
Types of Control Valves
Linear Motion Valve
Rotary Motion Valve

8.1 CONTROL VALVES

79

8.1.1 CONTROL VALVE MAJOR PARTS

Diaphragm
Spring
Yoke
Coupling
Body
Bonnet
Packing Box
Plug
Seat Ring
Cage

8.1.2 TYPES OF ACTUATOR


DIAPHRAGM
A flexible, pressure responsive element that transmits force to the diaphragm plate and
actuator stem.

DIAPHRAGM ACTUATOR
80

A fluid powered device in which the fluid acts upon a flexible component, the diaphragm.
There are two types
Direct Actuator
Reveres Actuator

DIRECT ACTUATOR: A diaphragm actuator in which the actuator stem extends with
increasing diaphragm pressure.
REVERSE ACTUATOR: A diaphragm actuator in which the actuator stem retracts with
increasing diaphragm pressure.

81

8.2 FLOW MEASURING METHODS


8.2.1 ORIFICE PLATE
A flowrestrictive/measurement device consisting of an opening with a closed perimeter that is
designed to allow a fixed rate of runoff to flow. An orifice plate is a device used for measuring
the rate of fluid flow. It uses the same principle as a venturi nozzle, namely Bernoulli's
principle which says that there is a relationship between the pressure of the fluid and the velocity
of the fluid.

82

VENT HOLE
Depending upon the service there is a hole called weep hole in orifice plate. Top Hole (Vent
Hole) used for liquid services and this hole allows the trapped gas / air to escape.
BOTTOM HOLE (DRAIN HOLE)
Used for gas services and this hole allow the moisture / liquid accumulated in the bottom of
Orifice Plate to drain.

ORIFICE PLATE INSTALLATION

83

8.2.2 VENTURI TUBE


When a fluid flows through a constricted section of pipe resulting in reduction of pressure, that
constricted part is called Venturi.

8.2.3 FLOW NOZZLE


A flow nozzle has a curved shape that is provided for a relatively smooth flow of fluid through a
constricted space. The smooth upstream shape allows the fluid velocity to increase smoothly and
very little turbulence is created.

84

8.2.4 PITOT TUBE


Differential pressure device and has the highest diff. pressure output at low pressure
process.
Offer Little Resistance
It has two opening
1) IMPACT OPENING
Upstream Face, notes the pressure as well as flow impact.
2) STATIC OPENING
It simply measures the pressure energy of the fluid. It faces to downstream.

Pitot tube does not cause a pressure loss and is least accurate.

85

8.2.5 ANNUBAR
Advanced shape of Pitot tube.
Annubar has number of impact holes and
static holes.
It Measure the average flow.
Usually, used in lines of larger diameter.

8.2.6 ROTAMETER
Actually, it is a Variable area flow meter (Orifice plate is the fixed area
flow meter). It is used for
Clean liquid
Low temperature
Low pressure
Differential pressure flow measuring instrument
Two types
1) Glass rotameter
2) Metal tube

8.2.7 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT FLOW MEASURING DEVICES


86

Most common are as under :


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Reciprocating piston meter


Nutating disk
Lobbed impeller and oval flow meter
Oval Gear
Rotary Vane

8.2.8 VORTEX FLOW METER


Fluid passes an un streamed body called Bluff body.
Fluid passes Bluff body, it separate and generate small eddies or
vortex
Vortices alternately spin clockwise & counter clockwise. This is
natural way of vortex formation.
Vortex forms on one side of the body, low pressure area created.

VORTEX FLOW METER


At sometime the effect of spinning fluid behind the obstruction starts a vortex on the
opposite side.
87

Pressure decreases when vortex formed.


When vortex shed pressure increases.
On the opposite side of the bluff body, pressure increases & decreases due to vortex
formation and shedding.

8.2.9 MAGNETIC FLOW METER


The measuring principle based on Faraday Law of Induction.
When a conductor move in the magnet field, it induce a voltage which is perpendicular to
the magnet field and direction of flow. This voltage is directly proportional to the average
flow velocity.

8.3 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT


8.3.1 PRESSURE
Quantity of force in unit area.

8.3.2 TYPES OF PRESSURE


Absolute Pressure
88

Vacuum Pressure
Gauge Pressure
Atmospheric Pressure
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
Atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted by the air on the earth surface. It varies with
altitude.
At sea level the average pressure of the atmosphere is sufficient to hold a column of mercury at
the height of 760 mm or 29.92 inches of Hg. The amount of pressure exerted by air is
approximately 14.7 psia at sea level.
ABSOLUTE PRESSURE
Actual atmospheric pressure is the pressure that exists at any given moment.

VACUUM PRESSURE
Absence of atmospheric pressure is called Vacuum.
The space in which the pressure is less than atmospheric pressure is said to be under partial
vacuum. When a vacuum gauge reads zero, the pressure in the space is the same as atmospheric
pressure.
GAUGE PRESSURE
The pressure that actually shown on the dial of a gauge that registers pressure at or above
atmospheric pressure.

8.3.3 PRESSURE SENSING ELEMENTS


Barometer
Manometers
1) Manometer UType
2) Manometer Well Type
3) Manometer Inclined Type
Bellow
89

Diaphragm
Borden Tube CType
1) Borden Tube Spiral Type
2) Borden Tube Helical Type
3) Borden Tube (Guage)
8.3.4 TYPES OF PRESSURE TRANSMITTERS
1) Delta Pressure Transmitter
2) Gauge Pressure Transmitter
3) Absolute Pressure Transmitter

90

8.4 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


Sensing Elements
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Thermometer
Bimetallic Thermometer
Thermocouple (TC)
Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)
Pyrometer

8.4.1 THERMOMETERS

Liquid expands as temperature rises


Device consists of small bore glass tube & thin wall glass bulb
Filled with mercury ( Hg freeze at 39C)
Filled with alcohol for low temperature measurement
N2 filled above Hg for measurement of high temp.
N2 filled at 30 to 300 psi to prevent Hg boiling or evaporating

91

8.4.2 BIMETALLIC THERMOMETER


Two different metals with different coefficients of thermal expansion are bonded together. As the
temperature changes from the bonding temperature the unequal expansion of the two metals will
cause the bimetal strip to curl. If one end is fixed the other end displaces in response to
temperature changes.
Bimetal strips can be fabricated into coils, spirals, and disks.
Frequently used in onoff temperature control (thermostats)

8.4.3 THERMOCOUPLE
Thermocouple produce electric current when subjected
to temperature changes. They are made by connecting
two different metals to form a closed circuit. If one of
the two connections or junctions is heated, current will
flow through the circuit, the amount of current
produced depends on the difference in temperature
between the two junctions and on the characteristics of
the two metals.

92

8.4.4 RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR (RTD)


Some metals resistance increase on increase of temperature
metals used in RTD must be

Pure
Uniform quality
Stable with given temperature rage
Able to reproduce resistance temp. Reading

8.4.5 PYROMETER
Technique for determine a bodys
temperature by measuring its
electromagnetic radiations.
Pyrometer is based on two principles:
1) Intensity of electromagnetic
radiation emitted by the body,
depends on the body emittance.
2) Intensity of electromagnetic
radiation emitted by the body,
depends on the body temperature.

93

94

TOOLS
1.1

BALL PIEN HAMMER

A hammer with two ends on the head, one that is round and the other flat. Sometimes called a
machinist's hammer, a ball peen is a good choice for working
with metal. Its steel head is harder than that of a claw hammer, so
is less likely to chip on impact. Ball peen hammers are commonly
used to drive cold chisels, set rivets, and bend and shape metal.
They range in weight from 4 ounces (used, for example, in model
boat making) to 32 ounces and have wooden, steel, or graphite
handles.
Before the advent of pneumatic rivet guns, ball peen hammers
were commonly used for riveting. First the flat head drove the
nail through, then the round ball was used to "peen over" the
other side of the rivet. The biggest danger while peening rivets is
to strike the nail shaft straight on on as this can make the nail bend inside the hole. Then if the
boards are stressed the bend might straighten and the boards separate making for a structure
that falls apart or leaks. The ball of the ball peen hammer tends to produce glancing blows that
mash some of the metal away from the sides of the hole. This also hardens the metal so that it
becomes as elastic as the surrounding material.
In tool box of Mechanical Workshop we have different sizes of ball pien hammers. Their head is
made up of Carbon Steel. Not used for hammering because it can cause sparking.

1.2

COMBINATION SPANNER

A spanner is a tool used to provide grip and mechanical advantage in applying torque to turn
objectsusually rotary fasteners, such
as nuts and boltsor keep them from
turning.
A double-ended tool with one end like
an open-ended spanner and the other
end like a ring spanner. Both ends
generally fit the same size of bolt.

95

Here at Makori, we have combination spanners ranging from 6mm-32mm. The rating on
spanner defines the outer diameter of the nut it can open. Combination spanners can be used to
open nuts of a particular diameter only defined by its rating. To apply more torque the open end
of another spanner can be fitted inside the ring of the spanner whose open end is being applied to
the nut to increase the moment arm and vice versa.
Manufacturer of Combination Spanners being used at Makori includes ELORA, ENIUS.
They are made up of Chrome Vanadium Steel(Chromium-vanadium steel refers to steel alloys
incorporating carbon, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, chromium, and vanadium. Some
forms can be used as high speed steel. Chromium and vanadium both make the steel more harden
able. Chromium also helps resist abrasion, oxidation, and corrosion. Chromium and carbon can
both improve elasticity) and some of them have Drop Forged (Drop forging is a process used to
shape metal into complex shapes by dropping a heavy hammer with a die on its face onto the
work piece) stamped on them.

1.3 FILES
A file is a metalworking, woodworking and plastic working tool used to cut fine amounts of
material from a workpiece. It most commonly refers to the hand tool style, which takes the form
of a steel bar with a case hardened surface and a series of sharp, parallel teeth. Most files have a
narrow, pointed tang at one end to which a handle can be fitted.
In Makori we have flat, triangular, rectangular, circular/round, half-round files.
They are made up of material harder than the one on which they are supposed to be used.
There Manufacturers include ELORA.

96

1.4 PHILIPS SCREW DRIVER


A screwdriver with four intersecting perpendicular points that corresponds to Phillips screws.
Here at Makori, we have Chrome Vanadium Steel Philips Screw Drivers.
These are manufactured in Japan by Wilson Trading CO.

1.5 FLAT-HEAD SREW DRIVER


A screwdriver that has a flat blade and corresponds to slotted screws.

Here at Makori, we have Chrome Vanadium Steel Flat-Head Screw Drivers.

1.6 ADJUSTABLE WRENCH


An adjustable wrench is a wrench with a "jaw" of
adjustable width, allowing it to be used with different sizes
of fastener head (nut, bolt, etc.) rather than just one
fastener, as with a conventional fixed spanner.
Here at Makori, we have adjustable wrenches ranging in
length from 8 inch-18 inch.
Most of these are Drop Forged.

97

There Manufacturers include STANLEY, BAHCO and MAXPOWER.

1.7 PIPE WRENCH


The pipe wrench is an adjustable wrench used for turning soft iron pipes and fittings with a
rounded surface. The design of the adjustable jaw allows it to rock in the frame, such that any
forward pressure on the handle tends to pull the jaws tighter together. Teeth angled in the
direction of turn dig into the soft pipe. They are not intended for use on hardened steel hex nuts
or other fittings because they would ruin the head; however, if a hex nut is soft enough that it
becomes rounded beyond use with standard wrenches, a pipe wrench is sometimes used to break
the bolt or nut free. Pipe wrenches are usually sold in the following sizes (by length of handle):
10, 14, 18, 24, 36, and 48 inches, although smaller and larger sizes are available as well. They
are usually made of cast steel. Teeth, and jaw kits (which also contain adjustment rings and
springs) can be bought to repair broken wrenches, as this is cheaper than buying a new wrench.

Here at MPF, we have pipe wrenches ranging in length from 8 inch-36 inch.
Most of these are made from Steel but some are of Aluminum too.
Drop Forged pipe wrenches are also available.
Manufactures include STANLEY, RIDGID.

1.8 PLIERS
Pliers are a hand tool used to hold objects firmly, possibly
developed from tongs used to handle hot metal in Bronze
Age Europe they are also useful for bending and
compressing a wide range of materials. Generally, pliers
consist of a pair of metal first-class levers joined at a
fulcrum positioned closer to one end of the levers, creating
short jaws on one side of the fulcrum, and longer handles
98

on the other side. This arrangement creates a mechanical advantage, allowing the force of the
hand's grip to be amplified and focused on an object with precision. The jaws can also be used to
manipulate objects too small or unwieldy to be manipulated with the fingers.

1.9 NOTCH PLIERS


Its a kind of pliers with point end to use in small confined spaces or make notches in material.

1.10 WIRE CUTTER


Wire Cutters are pliers intended for the cutting of wire
(they are generally not used to grab or turn anything).
The plane defined by the cutting edges of the jaws
intersects the joint rivet at an angle or "on a diagonal",
hence the name. Instead of using a shearing action as
with scissors, they cut by indenting and wedging the
wire apart. The jaw edges are ground to a symmetrical
"V" shape; thus the two jaws can be visualized to form
the letter "X", as seen end-on when fully occluded. The
pliers are made of tempered steel with inductive heating
and quenching often used to selectively harden the jaws.
Here at MPF, its Manufacturers include HENGLIDA.

99

1.11 ALLEN KEYS (L KEYS)


An L-shaped tool consisting of a rod having a hexagonal cross section, used to turn a screw
(Allen screw) with a hexagonal recess in the head. A different size of key is required for each
size of screw.

Here at MPF, we have L-keys for opening nuts with internal diameter of 1mm-12mm.
These are made up of Chromium Vanadium Steel.
There Manufacturers include ELORA, STANLEY.

1.12 PUNCH
A punch is a hard metal rod with a shaped tip at one end and
a blunt butt end at the other, which is usually struck by a
hammer. Most woodworkers prefer to use a ball-peen
hammer for using punches. Punches are used to drive objects,
such as nails, or to form an impression of the tip on a work
piece. Decorative punches may also be used to create a
pattern or even form an image.
Here at MPF, we have Brass Punch And is stroked using
ball peen to loosen tightly fitted objects to get them out for
maintenance.

1.13 SCRAPPER
A hand scraper is a single-edged tool used to scrape metal
from a surface. This may be required where a surface needs to
be trued, corrected for fit to a mating part, needs to retain oil
(usually on a freshly ground surface), or even to give a
decorative finish.

100

1.14 FEELER GUAGES


A feeler gauge is a tool used to measure gap widths. Feeler gauges are mostly used in
engineering to measure the clearance between two parts.
They consist of a number of small lengths of steel of different thicknesses with measurements
marked on each piece. They are flexible enough that, even if they are all on the same hinge,
several can be stacked together to gauge intermediate values. It is common to have two sets for
imperial units (typically measured in thousandths of an inch) and metric (typically measured in
hundredths of a millimeter) measurements.

Here at MPF, we have 8H8581 Feeler Gauge set made in USA.

1.15 GRIP PLIERS


Locking pliers, Mole grips (Mole wrench) or
Vise-Grips are pliers that can be locked into
position, using an over-center action. One side of
the handle includes a bolt that is used to adjust
the spacing of the jaws, the other side of the
handle (especially in larger models) often
includes a lever to push the two sides of the
handles apart to unlock the pliers. "Mole" and

101

"Vise-Grip" are trade names of different brands of locking pliers.


Locking pliers are available in many different configurations, such as needle-nose locking pliers,
locking wrenches, locking clamps and various shapes to fix metal parts for welding. They also
come in many sizes.
Here at MPC we have Grip Pliers made by AOK, Taiwan.

1.16 SET -SQUARE


A set square is an object used in engineering and technical
drawing, with the aim of providing a straightedge at a right
angle or other particular planar angle to a baseline.
Here at MPC, we have set-square manufactured by Diamond
Brand, China.

1.17 C-SPANNER
A sickle-shaped spanner having a projection at the end of the
curve, used for turning large narrow nuts that have an indentation into which the projection on
the spanner fits.

Her eat MPC, we have Martin Tools C-Spanner.

1.18 PTFE TAPES


Thread seal tape is a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film cut to specified widths for use in
sealing pipe threads.
In use, the tape is wrapped around the exposed threads of a pipe before it is screwed into place.
The tape is commonly used commercially in pressurized water systems, such as central heating
systems, as well as in air compression equipment and thread joints with coarse threads. One of
the defining characteristics of PTFE is how good it is at defeating friction. The use of PTFE tape
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in tapered pipe threads performs a lubricating function, which more easily allows the threads to
be screwed together, to the point of deformation, which is what creates the seal.
WHITE-Single density- should only be used on NPT threads up to 3/8 inch and can ordinarily
be used for low-pressure home/residential water (lawn/garden hose/sprinkler), LPG/cooking-gas
fittings/connections.
YELLOW- Double Density- yellow double density is often labeled as "Gas type": When
working with natural gas fittings or propane/butane fittings, use yellow Teflon tape because you
can screw and unscrew fittings several times and it stays sealed.

103

FITTINGS
Fittings are used in pipe and plumbing systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, to
adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes, such as regulating or measuring fluid
flow. The term plumbing is generally used to describe conveyance of water, gas, or liquid waste
in ordinary domestic or commercial environments, whereas piping is often used to describe highperformance (e.g. high pressure, high flow, high temperature, hazardous materials) conveyance
of fluids in specialized applications. The term tubing is sometimes used for lighter-weight
piping, especially types that are flexible enough to be supplied in coiled form.
Fittings (especially uncommon types) require money, time, materials, and tools to install, so they
are a non-trivial part of piping and plumbing systems. Valves are technically fittings, but are
usually discussed separately.

2.1 MATERIALS
The bodies of fittings for pipe and tubing are most often of the same base material as the pipe or
tubing being connected, for example, copper, steel, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chlorinated
polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), or acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). However, any material that
is allowed by the plumbing, health, or building code (as applicable) may be used, but must be
compatible with the other materials in the system, the fluids being transported, and the
temperatures and pressures inside and outside of the system. For example, brass- or bronzebodied fittings are common in otherwise copper piping and plumbing systems. Fire hazards,
earthquake resistance, and other factors also influence choice of fitting materials.

2.2 GENDER OF FITTINGS


Piping or tubing are usually (but not always) inserted into fittings to make connections. To avoid
confusion, connections are conventionally assigned a gender of male or female, respectively
abbreviated as "M" or "F".

2.3 COMMON FITTINGS


While there are hundreds of specialized fittings manufactured, some common types of fittings
are used widely in piping and plumbing systems.

104

2.3.1 ELBOW

SHORT RADIUS OR REGULAR 45 ELBOW (COPPER SWEAT)

LONG RADIUS OR SWEEP 90 ELBOW (COPPER SWEAT)


An elbow is a pipe fitting installed between two lengths of pipe or tubing to allow a change of
direction, usually a 90 or 45 angle, though 22.5 elbows are also made. The ends may be
machined for butt welding, threaded (usually female), or socketed etc.
Most elbows are available in short radius or long radius types. The short radius elbows have a
center-to-end distance equal to the Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) in inches, while the long radius is
1.5 times the NPS in inches. Short elbows are widely available; long elbows are readily available
in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS plastic), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for DWV, sewage and
central vacuums, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) and copper for 1950s to 1960s houses
with copper drains.

105

2.3.2 COUPLING

PIPE COUPLING (COPPER SWEAT)


A coupling connects two pipes to each other. If the size of the pipe is not the same , the fitting
may be called a reducing coupling or reducer, or an adapter. By convention, the term "expander"
is not generally used for a coupler that increases pipe size; instead the term "reducer" is used.

2.3.3 UNION

A COMBINATION PIPE UNION AND REDUCER FITTING (BRASS THREADED)


A union is similar to a coupling, except it is designed to allow quick and convenient
disconnection of pipes for maintenance or fixture replacement. While a coupling would require
either solvent welding, soldering or being able to rotate with all the pipes adjacent as with a
threaded coupling, a union provides a simple transition, allowing easy connection or
disconnection at any future time. Pipe unions are essentially a type of flange connector, as
discussed further below.

106

2.3.4 REDUCER

REDUCER FITTINGS, BRONZE THREADED (LEFT) AND COPPER SWEAT


(RIGHT)
A reducer allows for a change in pipe size to meet hydraulic flow requirements of the system, or
to adapt to existing piping of a different size. Reducers are usually concentric but eccentric
reducers are used when required to maintain the same top- or bottom-of-pipe level.

2.3.5 TEE

PIPE TEE (COPPER SWEAT)


A tee is used to either combine or split a fluid flow. Most common are tees with the same inlet
and outlet sizes, but reducing tees are available as well

107

2.3.6 CAP

PIPE CAP (COPPER SWEAT)


A type of pipe fitting, usually liquid or gas tight, which covers the end of a pipe. A cap has a
similar function to a plug. In plumbing systems that use threads, the cap has female threads.

2.3.7 PLUG
A plug closes off the end of a pipe. It is similar to a cap but it fits inside the fitting it is mated to.
In a threaded iron pipe plumbing system, plugs have male threads.

2.3.8 NIPPLE
A short stub of pipe, usually threaded iron, brass, chlorinated
polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) or copper; occasionally just bare
copper. A nipple is defined as being a short stub of pipe which
has two male ends. Nipples are commonly used for plumbing and
hoses, and second as valves for funnels and pipes.

108

2.3.9 FLANGES
Flanges are generally used when there is a connection to valves, in-line instruments and/or
connection to equipment nozzles is required. Flange fittings generally involve pressing two
surfaces to be joined tightly together, by means of threaded bolts, wedges, clamps, or other
means of applying high compressive forces. Often, a gasket, packing, or an O-ring is installed
between the flanges to prevent leakage, but it is sometimes possible to use only a special grease,
or nothing at all, if the mating surfaces are precisely formed. Flanges are designed to the
following pressure ratings: 150 lb, 300 lb, 400 lb, 600 lb, 900 lb, 1500 lb and 2500 lb or 10Bar,
15Bar, 25Bar, 40Bar, 64Bar, 100Bar and 150Bar. Various types of flanges are available
depending upon the type of their constructional features. The following are types of flanges
generally used in piping. These flanges are available with different facing like raised face, flat
face, ring joint face etc. Typically they are made from forged materials and have machined
surfaces.

2.3.9.1 HOW DO PIPE FLANGES WORK?


Pipe flanges have flush or flat surfaces that are perpendicular to the pipe to which they attach.
Two of these surfaces are mechanically joined via bolts, collars, adhesives or welds.
Typically, flanges are attached to pipes via welding, brazing, or threading.
WELDING- joins materials by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material. For strong,
high pressure connections of similar materials, welding tends to be the most effective method of
flange connection. Most pipe flanges are designed to be welded to pipes.
BRAZING- is used to join materials by melting a filler metal which solidifies to act as the
connector. This method does not melt the workpieces or induce thermal distortion, allowing for
109

tighter tolerances and clean joints. It also can be used to connect very dissimilar materials such
as metals and metalized ceramics.
THREADING- is applied to flanges and pipes to allow the connections to be screwed together
in a manner similar to nuts or bolts.
While the method of attachment can be a distinguishing feature, there are other considerations
more important to pipe flange selection. Factors an industrial buyer should consider first are the
flange's physical specifications, type, material, and performance features most suitable for the
application.

2.3.9.2 PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS


First and foremost, a flange must fit the pipe or equipment for which it is designed. Physical
specifications for pipe flanges include dimensions and design shapes.
1.
FLANGE DIMENSIONS
Physical dimensions should be specified in order to size flanges correctly.
OUTSIDE DIAMETER (OD) is the distance between two opposing edges of a flange's
face.
THICKNESS refers to the thickness of the attaching outer rim, and does not include the
part of the flange that holds the pipe.
BOLT CIRCLE DIAMETER is the length from the center of a bolt hole to the center of
the opposing hole.
PIPE SIZE is a pipe flange's corresponding pipe size, generally made according to
accepted standards. It is usually specified by two non-dimensional numbers, nominal pipe
size (NPS) and schedule (SCH).
NOMINAL BORE SIZE is the inner diameter of the flange connector. When
manufacturing and ordering any type of pipe connector, it is important to match the bore
size of the piece with the bore size of the mating pipe.
2.
FLANGE FACES
Flange faces can be manufactured to a large number of custom shapes based design
requirements. Some examples include:

2.3.9.3 TYPES OF PIPE FLANGES


Pipe flanges can be divided into eight types based on design. These types are blind, lap joint,
orifice, reducing, slip-on, socket-weld, threaded, and weld neck.
FLAT
RAISED FACE (RF)
RING TYPE JOINT (RTJ)
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O-RING GROOVE
1. BLIND
Flanges are round plates with no center hold used to close the ends of pipes, valves, or
equipment. They assist in allowing easy access to a line once it has been sealed. They can
also be used for flow pressure testing. Blind flanges are made to fit standard pipes in all
sizes at higher pressure ratings than other flange types.

BLIND FLANGE

2. LAP JOINT
Flanges are used on piping fitted with lapped pipe or with lap joint stub ends. They can
rotate around the pipe to allow for an easy alignment and assembly of bolt holes even
after the welds have been completed. Because of this advantage, lap joint flanges are used
in systems requiring frequent disassembly of the flanges and pipe. They are similar to
slip-on flanges, but have a curved radius at the bore and face to accommodate a lap joint
stub end. The pressure ratings for lap joint flanges are low, but are higher than for slip-on
flanges.

TYPICAL LAP JOINT FLANGE


111

3. SLIP-ON
Flanges are designed to slide over the end of piping and then be welded in place. They
provide easy and low-cost installation and are ideal for lower pressure applications.

TYPICAL SLIP-ON FLANGE


4. SOCKET WELD
Flanges are ideal for small-sized, high-pressure piping. Their fabrication is similar to that
of slip-on flanges, but the internal pocket design allows for a smooth bore and better fluid
flow. When internally welded, these flanges also have fatigue strength 50% greater than
double welded slip-on flanges.

PHOTO AND DIAGRAM FOR A TYPICAL SOCKET WELD FLANGE


5. THREADED
Flanges are special types of pipe flange that can be attached to the pipe without welding.
They are threaded in the bore to match external threading on a pipe and are tapered to
create a seal between the flange and the pipe. Seal welds can also be used along with
threaded connections for added reinforcement and sealing. They are best used for small
pipes and low pressures, and should be avoided in applications with large loads and high
torques.

112

TYPICAL THREADED FLANGE.


6. WELDING NECK
Flanges have a long tapered hub and are used for high pressure applications. The tapered
hub transfers stress from the flange to the pipe itself and provides strength reinforcement
that counteracts dishing.

TYPICAL WELDING NECK FLANGE


Type
Blind
Lap joint

Pressure
Capacity
Very high
Low

Pipe
Sizes
All
All

Slip-on

Low

All

Socket weld
Threaded
Welding
neck

High
Low
High

Small
Small
All

Applications / Advantages
Closing pipes, flow pressure testing
Systems requiring frequent
disassembly
Low installation cost, simple
assembly
Smooth bore for better fluid flow
Attachment without welding
High pressures and extreme
temperatures

2.3.9.4 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION


Pipe flanges can be made from a number of different materials depending on the piping material
and the requirements of the application. Selection depends on factors such as environmental
corrosion, operating temperature, flow pressure, and economy. Some of the most common
materials include carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, cast iron, copper, and PVC.
113

CARBON STEEL is steel alloyed primarily with carbon. It has a high hardness and strength
which increases with carbon content, but lowers ductility and melting point. For more
information on carbon and alloy steels, please visit the Carbon Steels and Alloy Steels area on
GlobalSpec.
ALLOY STEEL is steel alloyed with one or more elements which enhance or change the steel's
properties. Common alloys include manganese, vanadium, nickel, molybdenum, and chromium.
Alloy steels are differentiated based on standard grades. For specific information on individual
types of alloying elements, please visit the Metals and Alloys section on GlobalSpec.
STAINLESS STEEL is steel alloyed with chromium in amounts above 10%. Chromium
enables stainless steel to have a much higher corrosion resistance than carbon steel, which rusts
readily from air and moisture exposure. This makes stainless steel better suited for corrosive
applications that also require high strength. For more information on stainless steel alloys, please
visit the Stainless Steel Alloys area on GlobalSpec.
CAST IRON is iron alloyed with carbon, silicon, and a number of other alloyants. Silicon forces
carbon out of the iron, forming a black graphite layer on the exterior of the metal. Cast irons
have good fluidity, castability, machinability, and wear resistance but tend to be somewhat brittle
with low melting points. For more information on cast irons, please visit the Cast Irons area on
GlobalSpec.
ALUMINUM is a malleable, ductile, low density metal with medium strength. It has better
corrosion resistance than typical carbon and alloy steels. It is most useful in constructing flanges
requiring both strength and low weight. For more information on aluminum, please visit the
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys area on GlobalSpec.
BRASS is an alloy of copper and zinc, often with additional elements such as lead or tin. It is
characterized by good strength, excellent high temperature ductility,reasonable cold ductility,
good conductivity, excellent corrosion resistance, and good bearing properties. For more
information on brass and other copper alloys, please visit the Copper, Brass, and Bronze Alloys
area on GlobalSpec.
PVC or polyvinyl chloride is a thermoplastic polymer that is inexpensive, durable, and easy to
assemble. It is resistant to both chemical and biological corrosion. By adding plasticizers it can
be made softer and more flexible.

2.3.9.5 FLANGE CLASSES


Flange dimensions are determined by pipe size and pressure class required for the application.
Most of these dimensions have been standardized and published as ASME, MSS, API or other
standardization organization specifications.

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ASME/ANSI B16.5 provides dimensions and tolerances for flanges in pipe sizes from 1/2"
through 24" and in classes ranging 150 through 2500.
Class chart for class 150 looks like this.
Nominal
Pipe Size
NPS
(inches)

Class 150
Diameter of
Flange
(inches)

No.
of
Bolts

Diameter of
Bolts
(inches)

Bolt
Circle
(inches)

1/4

3-3/8

1/2

2-1/4

1/2

3-1/2

1/2

2-3/8

3/4

3-7/8

1/2

2-3/4

4-1/4

1/2

3-1/8

1-1/4

4-5/8

1/2

3-1/2

1-1/2

1/2

3-7/8

5/8

4-3/4

2-1/2

5/8

5-1/2

7-1/2

5/8

3-1/2

8-1/2

5/8

5/8

7-1/2

10

3/4

8-1/2

11

3/4

9-1/2

13-1/2

3/4

11-3/4

115

10

16

12

7/8

14-1/4

12

19

12

7/8

17

14

21

12

18-3/4

16

23-1/2

16

21-1/4

18

25

16

1-1/8

22-3/4

20

27-1/2

20

1-1/8

25

24

32

20

1-1/4

29-1/2

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GASKETS
A gasket (correct terminology is a "joint" made from "jointing material") is a mechanical seal
which fills the space between two or more mating surfaces, generally to prevent leakage from or
into the joined objects while under compression.

3.1 TYPES OF GASKETS


1. SPIRAL WOUND GASKET
Spiral-wound gaskets comprise a mix of
metallic and filler material. Generally, the
gasket has a metal (normally carbon rich or
stainless steel) wound outwards in a
circular spiral (other shapes are possible)
with the filler material (generally a flexible
graphite) wound in the same manner but
starting from the opposing side. This
results in alternating layers of filler and
metal. The filler material in these gaskets
acts as the sealing element, with the metal
providing structural support.
These gaskets have proven to be reliable in
most applications, and allow lower
clamping forces than solid gaskets, albeit with a higher cost.
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2. RING TYPE JOINT (RTJ) GASKET


Ring joint gaskets are metallic sealing rings suitable for
high pressure and high temperature applications and are
fitted in ring groove type flanges.
They are widely used in the Oil/Gas and Petrochemical
industry, in valves and pipe-work.Choice of material may
be determined to suit higher temperatures and aggressive
media.

3. ASBESTOS GASKET
Sheet packing was a common
asbestos - containing product
used to make gaskets for
commercial and industrial
settings. Asbestos fibers are
mixed with a binding material
and compressed to form the
product , which can then be cut
into various shapes and sizes to
form gaskets and heat seals.
These products were used on
pipes and boilers and in between
joints on ships. When used in
between pipe joints as a gasket,
sheet packing prevents the
contents of the pipe from leaking
out.
Asbestos was commonly used as a component of this product because it provided
resistance to high temperatures, as well as excellent durability and flexibility. Its cost
effective nature also made asbestos an appealing material to produce gaskets and heat
seals cheaply.
4. HEAD GASKET
A head gasket is a gasket that sits between the engine block and cylinder head(s) in an internal
combustion engine.
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Its purpose is to seal the cylinders to ensure maximum compression and avoid leakage of coolant
or engine oil into the cylinders; as such, it is the most critical sealing application in any engine,
and, as part of the combustion chamber, it shares the same strength requirements as other
combustion chamber components.

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SEALS
Seals are usually defined as components or assemblies which prevent the passage of fluids
between the moving parts of a machine. Note that "fluid" may refer to liquid, vapour or gas.

4.1 FUNCTIONS OF SEALS


Seals have a number of quite distinct functions. Not all seals perform all the functions listed
below. The great diversity of seal types is in fact a result of the wide variation of seal
requirements.
Some of the functions seals may be required to perform are to:
1. SEAL WORKING FLUID INTO ITS DESIRED LOCATION.
e.g. In a car engine the piston rings seal the compressed gas in the space above the piston.
2. PREVENT ESCAPE OF LUBRICANT.
e.g. In a car engine seals prevent loss of lubricating oil where the ends of the crankshaft protrude
from the engine assembly to drive the flywheel at the rear and the accessory drive belts at the
front.
3. PREVENT CONTAMINATION.
e.g. Seals in a food processing machine prevent grease from the working parts from
contaminating the food product.
4. PREVENT THE INGRESS OF DIRT.
e.g. It is vitally important to "seal out" abrasive dust from the steering joints and driveshafts on a
tractor.
5. PREVENT POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE.
e.g. Seals on a CFC-based automotive refrigeration system prevent the refrigerant escaping to the
atmosphere.

4.2 TYPES OF SEALS


1. O RINGS
An O-ring, also known as a packing, or a toric joint, is a
mechanical gasket in the shape of a torus; it is a loop of
elastomer with a round cross-section, designed to be
seated in a groove and compressed during assembly
between two or more parts, creating a seal at the interface.
The O-ring may be used in static applications or in
dynamic applications where there is relative motion
between the parts and the O-ring. Dynamic examples
include rotating pump shafts and hydraulic cylinder
pistons.
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O-rings are one of the most common seals used in machine design because they are
inexpensive, easy to make, reliable, and have simple mounting requirements. They can
seal tens of megapascals (thousands of psi) of pressure.
2. PISTON RINGS
The piston ring is a between the moving piston and its cylinder. The engine produces
useful power by burning the mixture of petrol and air in the space above the piston, using
the increased pressure resulting from combustion to force the piston down, thereby
turning the crankshaft. In the case of the piston, there is no rotation about its own axis
and the seal is required to slide up and down the cylinder.
The seals in this particular case are known as PISTON RINGS. They must operate under
very severe conditions of temperature and pressure, with very poor lubrication. They are
very often made of good quality CAST IRON which, due to its high carbon content,
possesses good self-lubricating properties.

121

RING TYPES
Each of the 3 rings in a set is a specialist and will use a distinct combination of shapes, materials,
heat treatment and/or surface coatings in order to perform its assigned function in an optimal
way.
There are two types of piston rings:
Compression Rings (Top and Second ring)
Oil Control Rings
There are different combinations of numbers of these rings with respect to the designs of
engines. Some engines require 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 piston rings per piston.
FUNCTIONS
Piston Rings must complete 3 principle functions in engines.
Seal off the combustion chamber from the crankcase
Limit and control oil consumption
Transfer the heat absorbed by the piston in the combustion process to the cooled cylinder
walls.

TOP RING
This is referred to as the upper compression ring. This ring operates under the harshest
conditions with respect to thermal and mechanical loading. Its job is to form a gas-tight barrier
between the piston and cylinder wall in order to seal the combustion chamber. They also transfer
the heat to the cooled cylinder walls like a bridge.
SECOND RING
This is referred as the lower compression ring. One of its job is to work together with the top ring
in order to seal the combustion chamber and transfer the heat to the cylinder walls. They also
control oil consumption.
The scrapper or second compression ring behaves as both a compression ring and oil control
ring.

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OIL CONTROL RING


Oil Control Rings regulate and limit oil consumption. They scrape off excess lubricating oil from
the cylinder walls and return it to the crankcase. They are designed to provide a thin oil film to
ensure piston and ring lubrication.
Improper control results in cooking (carbon residues) or blue smoke in the exhaust gas and
results excessive oil consumption.
3. MECHANICAL SEAL( CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS)
Mechanical seals are leakage control devices, which are found on rotating equipment
such as pumps and mixers to prevent the leakage of liquids and gases from escaping
into the environment. Figure shows a typical centrifugal pump, which highlights its
constituent parts, including the mechanical seal.

A mechanical seal consists of 2 principle


components. One component is stationary and
the other rotates against it to achieve a seal
.There are many types of mechanical seal,
ranging from simple single spring designs to
considerably more complex cartridge seal
types. The design, arrangement and materials
of construction are essentially determined by
the pressure, temperature, speed of rotation
and product being sealed (the product media).

123

4. PACKING
They are designed to enhance and extend service life of your valves and pumps. Packings are
available in many different styles and materials. It is made up of relatively soft material.

4.3 GLAND PACKING VS MECHANICAL SEAL


Gland packing and mechanical seals both are very important components of shafts and pumps.
Countless engineering applications rely on these devices to properly function.
Although seals and packings have similar functions, using either depends on budget, personal
preferences, and more importantly, application requirements. For example, rotary pumps work
best with seals because they are capable of collecting, treating, and filtering fluid leakage. On the
other hand, there are applications where a packing is the more appropriate choice, such as
settings with corrosive surrounding, which happen to cause seals to deteriorate faster. If this is
the case, a packing will last longer.
There are several other pros and cons to using either seals or packing. Below is a short
comparison between a gland packing and a mechanical seal.
Gland Packing - Does It Do the Job?
Gland packing is also known as the conventional shaft seal. Many engineers don't recommend
packings for a lot of applications due to the requirements and costs of maintenance. Sealing off
liquids or gases isn't as effective either, as a packing is prone to occasional leakage. You need to
regularly adjust so that the seal is well-lubricated.
There's also the problem of abrasive liquids causing corrosion. This usually takes a toll on the
life span of a gland packing, thus forcing you to spend more on replacements and repairs.
On the bright side, there are cases where packingsout perform seals. They're good with handling
aggressive fluids, for example. Packing earns another point due to its performance in case there
is leakage because it's easy to adjust to keep the pump fully functional. You can't do this with
seals because you'd have to take the pump out of service.

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Applications that involve ball valves, gate, globe, and valve cocks also go in favour of packing
since seals need rotary motion to be able to seal off anything. It is exactly this reason that gland
packings are integrated in reciprocating pumps.
Mechanical Seals - What Makes Them Any Good?
When it comes to popularity, seals win. They are implemented in a lot more applications partly
because they cause very few leak problems, and they are practically maintenance free.
Sticklers for power consumption may also be inclined to use seals more because they have
considerably low energy consumption. Thanks to the few leakages, seals hardly ever experience
interruptions, thereby saving time and effort.
Other factors of a seal's durability are the duration of the sealing operation, ambient
temperatures, and the liquid being pumped. Pressure and temperatures cause gradual damage for
both seals and packings, especially with mechanical seals. If seals are your choice for sealing
equipment, remember that accidental dry running may make seals deteriorate faster.
The price of seals may also discourage you because they are a lot more expensive than packings.
Which to Choose
At the end of the day, the best way to approach this is choosing the sealing equipment that can
get the job done with very few hassles. Whether you choose gland packing or mechanical seals,
make an informed decision so that you can prevent snags in your budget and productivity.

4.4 WASHER
A washer is a thin plate (typically disk-shaped) with a hole (typically in the middle) that is
normally used to distribute the load of a threaded fastener, such as a screw or nut. Other uses are
as a spacer, spring (belleville washer, wave washer),
wear pad, preload indicating device, locking device, and
to reduce vibration (rubber washer). Washers usually
have an outer diameter (OD) about twice the width of
their inner diameter (ID).
Washers are usually metal or plastic. High quality bolted
joints require hardened steel washers to prevent the loss
of pre-load due to Brinelling after the torque is applied.
Washers are also important for preventing galvanic
corrosion, particularly by insulating steel screws from
aluminium surfaces.

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VALVES
A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized
solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are
technically valves fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. In an open valve,
fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure.
Valves may be operated manually, either by a handle, lever, pedal or wheel. Valves may also be
automatic, driven by changes in pressure, temperature, or flow. These changes may act upon a
diaphragm or a piston which in turn activates the valve, examples of this type of valve found
commonly are safety valves fitted to hot water systems or boilers.
More complex control systems using valves requiring automatic control based on an external
input (i.e., regulating flow through a pipe to a changing set point) require an actuator. An
actuator will stroke the valve depending on its input and set-up, allowing the valve to be
positioned accurately, and allowing control over a variety of requirements.

5.1 GATE VALVES


The term gate valve refers to the wedge shaped disc that is
lifted out of the main flow chamber to open the valve. A
gate valve is only used fully open or fully closed. It should
not be used partially open as a throttling device, since the
wedge will vibrate and quickly become damaged. Gate
valve designs are determined by three features: the disc,
the stem, and the bonnet/body connection.
GATE VALVE DISC CONSTRUCTION
There are three types of disc features which can be found
in gate valve construction.
1. SOLID WEDGE DISCS
Solid wedge discs of gate valves are the most
prevalently used due to their simple and usually less expensive design.
2. SPLIT WEDGE DISCS
Split wedge discs of gate valves, also called double discs, have somewhat better sealing
characteristics than solid discs. Two disc halves are forced outward against the body seats
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by a spreader, after the disc has been fully lowered into its seated position. When the
valve is opened, pressure on the disc is relieved before it is raised, eliminating friction
and scoring of the body seats and the disc itself.
3. FLEXIBLE WEDGE DISCS
Flexible wedge discs of gate valves are solid only at the center and are flexible at the
outer edge and seating surface. This design enables the disc face to overcome the
tendency to stick in high temperature services where wide swings in temperature occur.
Flexible wedge discs are generally found only in steel valves.
GATE VALVE STEM CONSTRUCTION
There are three types of stem features which can be found in gate valve construction: (1) rising
stem/outside screw and yoke, (2) rising stem/inside screw, and (3) nonrising stem/inside screw.
1. RISING STEM/OUTSIDE SCREW AND YOKE
Rising stem/outside screw and yoke construction retains stem threads outside the valve.
Rising stem/outside screw and yoke construction is recommended where high
temperatures, corrosives, and solids in the line might damage stem threads inside the
valve. When the handwheel is turned, the stem rises as the yoke bushing engages the
stem threads. The external threads enable easy lubrication; however, care must be taken
to protect the exposed stem threads from damage. And advantage of rising stem valves is
the ability to determine valve position by observing the position of the stem.
2. RISING STEM/INSIDE SCREW
The rising stem/inside screw is the most common stem design in bronze gate valve
construction. Because the hand wheel and stem both rise, adequate clearance must be
provided for operation. The stem and handwheel positions indicate the position of the
disc inside the valve. In the open position, the backseat helps protect the stem threads;
but, care must be taken to protect the stem externally.
3. NONRISING STEM/INSIDE SCREW
Nonrising stem/inside screw design has the chief advantage of requiring minimum
headroom for operation. Since the stem does not travel vertically, packing wear is
reduced. Heat, corrosion, erosion, and solids may damage the stem threads inside the
valve and cause excessive wear. In addition, it is impossible to determine the disc
position since the handwheel and stem do not rise.
GATE VALVE BONNET CONSTRUCTION
There are three types of gate valve bonnet construction: bolted, threaded, and welded designs.
1. BOLTED AND UNION BONNETS
The bolted and union bonnet designs, featuring three piece construction, are preferred for
rugged service. Bolted construction and union construction are stronger and safer than
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threaded body bonnet design. Industrial valve users generally select union bonnet bronze
or bolted bonnet, iron body gate valves.
2. TWO PIECE THREADED BONNET
The two piece threaded bonnet is the least expensive design and should be used for lower
pressures or where shock and vibration are not encountered. A union bonnet valve would
be more suitable than a threaded bonnet valve, if frequent disassembly of the valve is
required.
3. WELDED BONNET
The welded bonnet construction provides the most leak free, body to bonnet joint. This
design is usually found in 2 inch and smaller forged steel valves. The disadvantage of the
welded bonnet is that it provides no access to the trim parts if repairs are necessary.

5.2 GLOBE VALVES


A globe valve is a type of valve used for regulating flow
in a pipeline, consisting of a movable disk-type element
and a stationary ring seat in a generally spherical body.
Globe valves are named for their spherical body shape
with the two halves of the body being separated by an
internal baffle. This has an opening that forms a seat onto
which a movable plug can be screwed in to close (or
shut) the valve. The plug is also called a disc or disk. In
globe valves, the plug is connected to a stem which is
operated by screw action using a hand wheel in manual
valves. Typically, automated globe valves use smooth
stems rather than threaded and are opened and closed by
an actuator assembly.
Although globe valves in the past had the spherical
bodies which gave them their name, many modern globe
valves do not have much of a spherical shape. However,
the term globe valve is still often used for valves that have such an internal mechanism. In
plumbing, valves with such a mechanism are also often called stop valves since they don't have
the global appearance, but the term stop valve may refer to valves which are used to stop flow
even when they have other mechanisms or designs.
Globe valves are used for applications requiring throttling and frequent operation. For example,
globe valves or valves with a similar mechanism may be used as sampling valves, which are
normally shut except when liquid samples are being taken. Since the baffle restricts flow, they're
not recommended where full, unobstructed flow is required.

128

PARTS OF A TYPICAL GLOBE VALVE


BODY
The body is the main pressure containing
structure of the valve and the most easily
identified as it forms the mass of the valve. It
contains all of the valve's internal parts that will
come in contact with the substance being
controlled by the valve. The bonnet is connected
to the body and provides the containment of the
fluid, gas, or slurry that is being controlled.
Globe valves are typically two-port valves,
although three port valves are also produced
mostly in straight-flow configuration. Ports are
openings in the body for fluid flowing in or out.
The two ports may be oriented straight across
from each other or anywhere on the body or
oriented at an angle (such as a 90). Globe valves
with ports at such an angle are called angle
globe valves. Globe valves are mainly used for
corrosive or high viscous fluids which solidify at room temperature. This is because straight
valves are designed so that the outlet pipe is in line with the inlet pipe and the fluid has a good
chance of staying there in the case of horizontal piping. In the case of angle valves, the outlet
pipe is directed towards the bottom. This allows the fluid to drain off. In turn, this prevents
clogging and/or corrosion of the valve components over a period of time. A globe valve can also
have a body in the shape of a "Y". This will allow the construction of the valve to be straight at
the bottom as opposed to the conventional pot type construction (to arrange bottom seat) in case
of other valves. This will again allow the fluid to pass through without difficulty and minimizes
fluid clogging/corrosion in the long term.
BONNET
The bonnet provides a leakproof closure for the valve body. The threaded section of the stem
goes through a hole with matching threads in the bonnet. Globe valves may have a screw-in,
union, or bolted[5] bonnet. Screw-in bonnet is the simplest bonnet, offering a durable, pressuretight seal. Union bonnet is suitable for applications requiring frequent inspection or cleaning. It
also gives the body added strength. A bonnet attached with bolts is used for larger or higher
pressure applications. The bonnet also contains the packing, a wearable material that maintains
the seal between the bonnet and the stem during valve cycling.
PLUG OR DISC (DISK)
The closure member of the valve, plugs are connected to the stem which is slid or screwed up or
down to throttle the flow. Plugs are typically of the balance or unbalanced type. Unbalanced
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plugs are solid and are used with smaller valves or with low pressure drops across the valve. The
advantages are simpler design, with one possible leak path at the seat and usually lower cost. The
disadvantages are the limited size; with a large unbalanced plug the forces needed to seat and
hold the flow often becomes impractical. Balanced plugs have holes through the plug.
Advantages include easier shut off as the plug does not have to overcome static forces. However,
a second leak path is created between the plug and the cage, and cost is generally higher.

STEM
The stem serves as a connector from the actuator to the inside of the valve and transmits this
actuation force. Stems are either smooth for actuator controlled valves or threaded for manual
valves. The smooth stems are surrounded by packing material to prevent leaking material from
the valve. This packing is a wearable material and will have to be replaced during maintenance.
With a smooth stem the ends are threaded to allow connection to the plug and the actuator. The
stem must not only withstand a large amount of compression force during valve closure, but also
have high tensile strength during valve opening. In addition, the stem must be very straight, or
have low run out, in order to ensure good valve closure. This minimum run out also minimizes
wear of the packing contained in the bonnet, which provides the seal against leakage. The stem
may be provided with a shroud over the packing nut to prevent foreign bodies entering the
packing material, which would accelerate wear.
CAGE
The cage is part of the valve that surrounds the plug and is located inside the body of the valve.
Typically, the cage is one of the greatest determiners of flow within the valve. As the plug is
moved more of the openings in the cage are exposed and flow is increased and vice versa. The
design and layout of the openings can have a large effect on flow of material (the flow
characteristics of different materials at temperatures, pressures that are in a range). Cages are
also used to guide the plug to the seat of the valve for a good shutoff, substituting the guiding
from the bonnet.
SEAT RING
The seat ring provides a stable, uniform and replaceable shut off surface. Seat rings are usually
held in place by pressure from the fastening of the bonnet to the top of the body. This pushes the
cage down on the lip of the seat ring and holds it firmly to the body of the valve. Seat rings may
also be threaded and screwed into a thread cut in the same area of the body. However this
method makes removal of the seat ring during maintenance difficult if not impossible. Seat rings
are also typically beveled at the seating surface to allow for some guiding during the final stages
of closing the valve.
Economical globe valves or stop valves with a similar mechanism used in plumbing often have a
rubberwasher at the bottom of the disc for the seating surface, so that rubber can be compressed
against the seat to form a leak-tight seal when shut.
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5.3 BUTTERFLY VALVES


Butterfly valves are flow regulating, pivoted disc valves. The
circular disc or plate, having the same radial dimensions as
the pipe is pivoted exactly in the center of the pipe,
perpendicular to the direction of the flow.The disc is
connected to an actuator outside the valve with the help of a
rod.The valve plate when pivoted at the center and moved
with the help of an actuator, resembles butterfly wings and
therefore they are known as butterfly valves.
CONSTRUCTION
Butterfly valves belong to a family of valves known as
"quarter turn valves". This is because
this valves are quick acting valves
which fully opens or closes the valve
with only quarter of a turn. Though the
valve gives an unrestricted flow of
fluid, it induces a pressure drop in the
flow as the disc is always present within
the flow. The pressure drop can be
reduced by providing the valve with a
streamlined disc profile which will also
give excellent flow characteristics along
with low pressure drop.
Butterfly control valves are best suited
for regulating the fluid flow. The
actuator outside the valve can be fixed
to an automatic mechanism or a remote
control mechanism which can control
the desired flow of the liquid. The
actuator or the valve spindle can also be
attached to a lever for manual control of
the valve. The valves are available in
the sizes ranging from 6 mm to 1000
mm bore.

TYPES OF BUTTERFLY VALVES


Butterfly valves are mainly distributed into three types on the basis of pressure and usage.

131

RESILIENT BUTTERFLY VALVE - These types of valves are generally used for low
pressure applications. They use a flexible rubber seat and therefore doesn't have high sealing
ability. They can operate under working pressure up to 232 Psi.
HIGH PERFORMANCE BUTTERFLY VALVE - This valves are used in systems requiring
higher pressure resistance. The disc though positioned in the center of the pipe is arranged in a
peculiar way in order to increase sealing ability and robustness.They can work up to 725 working
pressure.
TRI-CENTRIC BUTTERFLY VALVE -This valve uses a metal seat instead of a rubber one
therefore can withstand high pressure conditions. They can work up to 1450 Psi working
pressure.
One more type of butterfly valve known as the Diverter butterfly valve, is used to bypass
coolers in order to attain fine control of cooling water temperature. This valve has two legs or
pipes connecting to it. A pneumatic actuator controls the opening and closing of the valve on the
basis of a signal provided by a temperature sensor. This valve delivers precise control of flow
rate in both the branches. A provision of manual control is also provided in case of failure of the
pneumatic system.
WORKING & USES OF BUTTERFLY VALVES
The Working of butterfly valves is very much similar to that of ball valves. Rotating of the
handle, manually or with the help of a pneumatic system, turns the plate either perpendicular or
parallel to the flow of the fluid. Butterfly valves can also be used for regulating the flow by
adjusting the lever and by keeping a close watch on the desired output flow.
Butterfly valves are used on all types of ships and firefighting apparatus. They are also widely
used for domestic piping purposes. On ships they are used for large capacity lines such as
forward and aft sea water suction lines or lines from various tanks to their respective pumps.
Lube oil pipelines also preferably have butterfly valves fitted in them due to obvious reasons as
discussed above.

5.4 NEEDLE VALVES


A needle valve is a type of valve having a small port and
a threaded, needle-shaped plunger. It allows precise
regulation of flow, although it is generally only capable of
relatively low flow rates.

CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION


Instrument Needle Valve uses a tapered pin to gradually
open a space for fine control of flow. The flow can be
controlled and regulated with the use of spindle . A needle
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valve has a relatively small orifice with a long, tapered seat, and a needle-shaped plunger, on the
end of a screw, which exactly fits this seat.
As the screw is turned and the plunger retracted, flow between the seat and the plunger is
possible; however, until the plunger is completely retracted the fluid flow is significantly
impeded. Since it takes many turns of the fine-threaded screw to retract the plunger, precise
regulation of the flow rate is possible.
The virtue of the needle valve is from the vernier effect of the ratio between the needle's length
and its diameter, or the difference in diameter between needle and seat. A long travel axially (the
control input) makes for a very small and precise change radially (affecting the resultant flow).
Needle valves may also be used in vacuum systems, when a precise control of gas flow is
required, at low pressure,[1] such as when filling gas-filled vacuum tubes, gas lasers and similar
devices.
USES
Needle valves are usually used in flow metering applications, especially when a constant,
calibrated, low flow rate must be
maintained for some time, such as the
idle fuel flow in a carburetor.
Note that the float valve of a carburetor
(controlling the fuel level within the
carburetor) is not a needle valve,
although it is commonly described as
one. It uses a bluntly conical needle, but
it seats against a square-edged seat rather
than a matching cone. The intention here
is to obtain a well-defined seat between
two narrow mating surfaces, giving firm
shutoff of the flow from only a light
float pressure.
Since flow rates are low and many turns of the valve stem are required to completely open or
close, needle valves are not used for simple shutoff applications.
Since the orifice is small and the force advantage of the fine-threaded stem is high, needle valves
are usually easy to shut off completely, with merely "finger tight" pressure. The spindle and/or
seat of a needle valve, especially one made from brass, are easily damaged by excessive turning
force when shutting off the flow.
Small, simple needle valves are often used as bleed valves in hot water heating applications.
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Unlike a ball valve, or valves with a rising stem, it is not easy to tell from examining the handle
position whether the valve is open or closed

5.5 NON RETURN (CHECK) VALVES


A check valve, clack valve, non-return
valve or one-way valve is a mechanical
device, a valve, which normally allows
fluid (liquid or gas) to flow through it in
only one direction.
Check valves are two-port valves,
meaning they have two openings in the
body, one for fluid to enter and the other
for fluid to leave. There are various types
of check valves used in a wide variety of
applications. Check valves are often part
of common household items. Although
they are available in a wide range of sizes
and costs, check valves generally are
very small, simple, or inexpensive.
Check valves work automatically and most are not controlled by a person or any external
control; accordingly, most do not have any valve handle or stem. The bodies (external shells) of
most check valves are made of plastic or metal.
An important concept in check valves is the cracking pressure which is the minimum upstream
pressure at which the valve will operate. Typically the check valve is designed for and can
therefore be specified for a specific cracking pressure.
A ball check valve is a check valve in which the closing member, the movable part to block the
flow, is a spherical ball. In some ball check valves, the ball is spring-loaded to help keep it shut.
For those designs without a spring, reverse flow is required to move the ball toward the seat and
create a seal. The interior surface of the main seats of ball check valves are more or less
conically-tapered to guide the ball into the seat and form a positive seal when stopping reverse
flow.
Ball check valves are often very small, simple, and cheap. They are commonly used in liquid or
gel minipump dispenser spigots, spray devices, some rubber bulbs for pumping air, etc., manual
air pumps and some other pumps, and refillable dispensing syringes. Although the balls are most
often made of metal, they can be made of other materials, or in some specialized cases out of
artificial ruby. High pressure HPLCpumps and similar applications commonly use small inlet
and outlet ball check valves with both balls and seats made of artificial ruby, for both hardness
and chemical resistance. After prolonged use, such check valves can eventually wear out or the
seat can develop a crack, requiring replacement. Therefore, such valves are made to be
replaceable, sometimes placed in a small plastic body tightly-fitted inside a metal fitting which
can withstand high pressure and which is screwed into the pump head.
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There are similar check valves where the disc is not a ball, but some other shape, such as a
poppet energized by a spring. Ball check valves should not be confused with ball valves, which
is a different type of valve in which a ball acts as a controllable rotor to stop or direct flow.
Check valves are often used with some types of pumps. Piston-driven and diaphragm pumps
such as metering pumps and pumps for chromatography commonly use inlet and outlet ball
check valves. These valves often look like small cylinders attached to the pump head on the inlet
and outlet lines. Many similar pump-like mechanisms for moving volumes of fluids around use
check valves such as ball check valves. The feed pumps or injectors which supply water to steam
boilers are fitted with check valves to prevent back-flow.

135

ENGINES &
COMPRESSORS
6.1 COMPRESSOR
6.1.1 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

A MOTOR-DRIVEN SIX-CYLINDER RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR THAT CAN


OPERATE WITH TWO, FOUR OR SIX CYLINDERS
Reciprocating compressors use pistons driven by a crankshaft. They can be either stationary or
portable, can be single or multi-staged, and can be driven by electric motors or internal
combustion engines. Small reciprocating compressors from 5 to 30 horsepower (hp) are
commonly seen in automotive applications and are typically for intermittent duty. Larger
reciprocating compressors well over 1,000 hp (750 kW) are commonly found in large industrial
and petroleum applications. Discharge pressures can range from low pressure to very high
pressure (>18000 psi or 180 MPa). In certain applications, such as air compression, multi-stage
double-acting compressors are said to be the most efficient compressors available, and are
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typically larger, and more costly than comparable rotary units. Another type of reciprocating
compressor is the swash plate compressor, which uses pistons which are moved by a swash plate
mounted on a shaft - see Axial Piston Pump.
Reciprocating compressors are often some of the most critical and expensive systems at a
production facility, and deserve special attention. Gas transmission pipelines, petrochemical
plants, refineries and many other industries all depend on this type of equipment. Due to many
factors, including but not limited to the quality of the initial specification/design, adequacy of
maintenance practices and operational factors, industrial facilities can expect widely varying
lifecycle costs and reliability from their own installations.
Various compressors are found in almost every industrial facility. Types of gases compressed
include the following:

Air for compressed tool and instrument air systems

Hydrogen, oxygen, etc. for chemical processing

Light hydrocarbon fractions in refining

Various gases for storage or transmission

Other applications

There are two primary classifications of industrial compressors: intermittent flow (positive
displacement), including reciprocating and rotary types; and continuous flow, including
centrifugal and axial flow types.
Reciprocating compressors are typically used where high compression ratios (ratio of discharge
to suction pressures) are required per stage without high flow rates, and the process fluid is
relatively dry. Wet gas compressors tend to be centrifugal types. High flow, low compression
ratio applications are best served by axial flow compressors. Rotary types are primarily specified
in compressed air applications, though other types of compressors are also found in air service.

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BASIC DESIGN:
The compression cylinders, also known as stages, of which a particular design may have from
one to six or more, provide confinement for the process gas during compression. A piston is
driven in a reciprocating action to compress the gas. Arrangements may be of single-or dualacting design. (In the dual-acting design, compression occurs on both sides of the piston during
both the advancing and retreating stroke.) Some dual-acting cylinders in high-pressure
applications will have a piston rod on both sides of the piston to provide equal surface area and
balance loads. Tandem cylinders arrangements help minimize dynamic loads by locating
cylinders in pairs, connected to a common crankshaft, so that the movements of the pistons
oppose each other. Gas pressure is sealed and wear of expensive components is minimized
through the use of disposable piston rings and rider bands respectively. These are formed from
comparatively soft metals relative to piston and cylinder/liner metallurgy or materials such as
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR CYLINDER ASSEMBLY

138

THE THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE:


An explanation of a few basic thermodynamic principles is necessary to understand the science
of reciprocating compressors. Compression occurs within the cylinder as a four-part cycle that
occurs with each advance and retreat of the piston (two strokes per cycle). The four parts of the
cycle are compression, discharge, expansion and intake. They are shown graphically with
pressure vs. volume plotted in what is known as a P-V diagram.

139

INTAKE
At the conclusion of a prior cycle, the piston is fully retreated within the cylinder at V1, the
volume of which is filled with process gas at suction conditions (pressure, P1 and temperature,
T1), and the suction and discharge valves are all closed. This is represented by point 1 (zero) in
the P-V diagram. As the piston advances, the volume within the cylinder is reduced. This causes
the pressure and temperature of the gas to rise until the pressure within the cylinder reaches the
pressure of the discharge header. At this time, the discharge valves begin to open, noted on the
diagram by point 2.
With the discharge valves opening, pressure remains fixed at P2 for the remainder of the
advancing stroke as volume continues to decrease for the discharge portion of the cycle. The
piston comes to a momentary stop at V2 before reversing direction. Note that some minimal
volume remains, known as the clearance volume. It is the space remaining within the cylinder
when the piston is at the most advanced position in its travel. Some minimum clearance volume
is necessary to prevent piston/head contact, and the manipulation of this volume is a major
compressor performance parameter. The cycle is now at point 3.
Expansion occurs next as the small volume of gas in the clearance pocket is expanded to slightly
below suction pressure, facilitated by the closing of the discharge valves and the retreat of the
piston. This is point 4.
When P1 is reached, the intake valves open allowing fresh charge to enter the cylinder for the
intake and last stage of the cycle. Once again, pressure is held constant as the volume is changed.
This marks the return to point 1.

140

Comprehending this cycle is key to diagnosing compressor problems, and to understanding


compressor efficiency, power requirements, valve operation, etc. This knowledge can be gained
by trending process information and monitoring the effect these items have on the cycle.

6.1.2 ROTARY SCREW COMPRESSORS

6.2 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE


The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil
fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion
engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and -pressure gases produced by combustion
applies direct force to some component of the engine, such as pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle.
This force moves the component over a distance, generating useful mechanical energy.
APPLICATIONS
Internal combustion engines are most commonly used for mobile propulsion in vehicles and
portable machinery. In mobile equipment, internal combustion is advantageous since it can
provide high power-to-weight ratios together with excellent fuel energy density. Generally using
fossil fuel (mainly petroleum), these engines have appeared in transport in almost all vehicles
(automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, boats, and in a wide variety of aircraft and locomotives).
Where very high power-to-weight ratios are required, internal combustion engines appear in the
form of gas turbines. These applications include jet aircraft, helicopters, large ships and electric
generators.
OPERATION
As their name implies, four-stroke internal combustion engines have four basic steps that repeat
with every two revolutions of the engine:
(1) Intake stroke (2) Compression stroke (3) Power stroke and (4) Exhaust stroke
1. INTAKE STROKE
The first stroke of the IC engine is also known as the suction stroke because the piston moves to
the maximum volume position (downward direction in the cylinder). The inlet valve opens as a
result of piston movement, and the vaporized fuel mixture enters the combustion chamber. The
inlet valve closes at the end of this stroke.

141

2. COMPRESSION STROKE
In this stroke, both valves are closed and the piston starts its movement to the minimum volume
position (upward direction in the cylinder) and compresses the fuel mixture. During the
compression process, pressure, temperature and the density of the fuel mixture increases.
3. POWER STROKE
When the piston reaches the minimum volume position, the spark plug ignites the fuel mixture
and burns. The fuel produces power that is transmitted to the crank shaft mechanism.
4. EXHAUST STROKE
In the end of the power stroke, the exhaust valve opens. During this stroke, the piston starts its
movement in the minimum volume position. The open exhaust valve allows the exhaust gases to
escape the cylinder. At the end of this stroke, the exhaust valve closes, the inlet valve opens, and
the sequence repeats in the next cycle. Four stroke engines require two revolutions.

Many engines overlap these steps in time; jet engines do all steps simultaneously at different
parts of the engines.

142

COMBUSTION
All internal combustion engines depend on the combustion of a chemical fuel, typically with
oxygen from the air (though it is possible to inject nitrous oxide in order to do more of the same
thing and gain a power boost). The combustion process typically results in the production of a
great quantity of heat, as well as the production of steam and carbon dioxide and other chemicals
at very high temperature; the temperature reached is determined by the chemical make up of the
fuel and oxidisers (see stoichiometry), as well as by the compression and other factors.
The most common modern fuels are made up of hydrocarbons and are derived mostly from fossil
fuels (petroleum). Fossil fuels include diesel fuel, gasoline and petroleum gas, and the rarer use
of propane. Except for the fuel delivery components, most internal combustion engines that are
designed for gasoline use can run on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gases without major
modifications. Large diesels can run with air mixed with gases and a pilot diesel fuel ignition
injection. Liquid and gaseous biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (a form of diesel fuel that is
produced from crops that yield triglycerides such as soybean oil), can also be used. Engines with
appropriate modifications can also run on hydrogen gas, wood gas, or charcoal gas, as well as
from so-called producer gas made from other convenient biomass. Recently, experiments have
been made with using powdered solid fuels, such as the magnesium injection cycle.
Internal combustion engines require ignition of the mixture, either by spark ignition (SI) or
compression ignition (CI). Before the invention of reliable electrical methods, hot tube and flame
methods were used. Experimental engines with laser ignition have been built.
GASOLINE IGNITION PROCESS:
Gasoline engine ignition systems generally rely on a combination of a lead-acid battery and an
induction coil to provide a high-voltage electric spark to ignite the air-fuel mix in the engine's
cylinders. This battery is recharged during operation using an electricity-generating device such
as an alternator or generator driven by the engine. Gasoline engines take in a mixture of air and
gasoline and compress it to not more than 12.8 bar (1.28 MPa), then use a spark plug to ignite the
mixture when it is compressed by the piston head in each cylinder.
DIESEL IGNITION PROCESS:
Diesel engines and HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition) engines, rely solely on
heat and pressure created by the engine in its compression process for ignition. The compression
level that occurs is usually twice or more than a gasoline engine. Diesel engines will take in air
only, and shortly before peak compression, a small quantity of diesel fuel is sprayed into the
cylinder via a fuel injector that allows the fuel to instantly ignite. HCCI type engines will take in
both air and fuel but continue to rely on an unaided auto-combustion process, due to higher
pressures and heat. This is also why diesel and HCCI engines are more susceptible to coldstarting issues, although they will run just as well in cold weather once started. Light duty diesel
engines with indirect injection in automobiles and light trucks employ glowplugs that pre-heat
the combustion chamber just before starting to reduce no-start conditions in cold weather. Most
diesels also have a battery and charging system; nevertheless, this system is secondary and is
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added by manufacturers as a luxury for the ease of starting, turning fuel on and off (which can
also be done via a switch or mechanical apparatus), and for running auxiliary electrical
components and accessories. Most new engines rely on electrical and electronic engine control
units (ECU) that also adjust the combustion process to increase efficiency and reduce emissions.

6.3 COMPRESSORS AND ENGINES AT MPF


6.3.1

ARIEL COMPRESSOR AND WAUKESHA ENGINE

144

6.3.1.1 WAUKESHA ENGINE

145

INTRODUCTION
Waukesha engine which is the driver of the Ariel Compressor and the Cooler is a 4 Stroke V
type Engine. Basically this engine has four strokes i.e. Intake, Compression, Power, Exhaust to
complete its cycle. A Stroke is length between TDC (Top Dead Center) and BDC (Bottom Dead
Center) of the cylinder.

THE SALIENT MECHANICAL PARTS OF THE ENGINE

FLYWHEEL
Flywheel is basically a Mechanical Storage Device used during starting and balancing of
crankshaft of the engine during its operations. Initially it is driven by the pneumatic starter motor
to give drive to crankshaft at starting of the engine. It has 36 reference points and two pick up
coils which send signals to the ESM which in turn controls the Electronic governor which
controls the speed of the engine.
CRANKSHAFT
Crankshaft which is the main driver converts the reciprocating motion of connecting rod of the
piston into rotary motion. In each stroke the crankshaft rotates 180 degrees; hence it completes
two revolutions in the four strokes

146

CAMSHAFT
Camshaft which is driven by crankshaft is used to operate the inlet and exhaust valves of the
Engine cylinder through push rods and rocker arms.

CROSS HEAD
A crosshead is a mechanism used in large reciprocating engines and reciprocating compressors
to eliminate sideways pressure on the piston. It is generally used for smooth transfer of motion
between connecting rod and crankshaft.

147

CARBURETOR
Carburetor is basically a mechanical device which is used to deliver an exact air fuel ratio to the
engine cylinders through intake manifold. A butterfly valve is installed in the carburetor which
performs this function.

GOVERNOR
Waukesha engine has an electronic governor which controls the flow of the air fuel mixture
delivered to the cylinders hence controlling the speed of the crankshaft.
SPARK PLUGS
Spark plug is used to produce spark during the power stroke of the engine. The spark plugs get
current from the extension assembly of theIgnition Coils which are energized by the 24 volts
batteries of the ignition system.

148

THE SALIENT SYSTEMS OF THE ENGINE


Basic systems of the Waukesha Engine are given below
ESM SPEED GOVERNING
ESM stands for Engine System Manager. It is a total engine management system designed to
optimize engine performance and maximize uptime. ESM system integrates spark timing control,
speed governing, detonation detection, start/stop control, diagnostics tools, fault logging and
engine safeties.
ESM system uses magnetic pick up that senses 36 reference holes in the flywheel. As the holes
pass the end of magnetic sensor a signal wave is generated. The frequency of this wave is
proportional to the engine speed. Based on this electrical signal from magnetic pick up, the
governor compares engine current speed to the desired speed. Then an electric actuator converts
this electronic signal into motion which changes the flow of air fuel mixture to the engine. The
more fuel goes into the system more will be the power during the power stroke and more will be
the force exerted on the piston so it will increase reciprocating motion hence greater will be the
speed of the engine.

ACTUATOR
149

FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel system comprises of three components i.e.
1. Pressure regulator (both on left and right side) one for each carburetor
2. Carburetor on both sides
3. Air Fuel Ratio Control (ESM)
Pressure regulator ensures steady fuel supply to the carburetor. All engines have one main fuel
gas pressure regulator and it reduces the incoming fuel supply pressure to the carburetor.

CARBURETOR

PRESSURE REGULATOR

IGNITION SYSTEM
Ignition system comprises of the following components
1. ESM Ignition System
2. Spark Plugs
3. Ignition Coils
4. ESM Knock Detection Control
5. Wiring
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The ESM controls spark plugs timing. ESM system detects detonation by monitoring vibrations
at each cylinder with engine mounted knock sensors. When a signal exceeds a detonation
threshold the ESM system retards timing incrementally on an individual cylinder to keep
cylinders safe from knocking.

AIR INTAKE SYSTEM


Air intake systems comprises of the following parts
1. Air Filters
2. Turbochargers
3. Intercoolers
4. Carburetor
5. Intake Manifold
Two air filters are installed to clean the incoming air from the atmosphere into the turbochargers.
Two turbochargers are installed which works as a heat recovery unit. The exhaust gases from the
cylinders turn the turbine side of the turbocharger which drives the compressor and compresses
the air. The compressed air is then passed through intercooler to reduce its temperature and then
this cooled compressed air is sent to carburetor where it mixes with the fuel gas from where it
enters into the intake manifolds and finally into the engine cylinders.

151

INTAKE MANIFOLD

TURBOHARGER

INLET FILTER
152

EXHAUST SYSTEM
Exhaust system consists of following components
1. Exhaust Manifold
Exhaust gases resulting from combustion of each cylinder enters the exhaust manifold through
exhaust valves.
2. Exhaust Waste gates
A water cooled exhaust waste gate is mounted at the outlet of each exhaust manifold. It controls
the flow of exhaust gases to turbocharger..
3. Turbocharger
The exhaust gases from the cylinders turn the turbine side of the turbocharger which drives the
compressor and compresses the air.

EXHASUT MANIFOLD

153

LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Main Lubrication System comprises of the following parts
1. Oil Pan and Pickup Screen
The bottom of crankcase is enclosed by oil pan. The oil pickup screen prevents the entry of
foreign material into the oil circuit.
2. Oil Pump
The gear driven oil pump is externally mounted in front of the engine below the crankshaft. It
draws oil from the oil pan and delivers it to the oil cooler.
3. Oil Cooler
It is type of small shell and tube heat exchanger in which the coolant flows through the tubes to
cool down the lube oil which is in the shell side.

OIL COOLER
4. Temperature Control Valve
It controls the temperature of the lube oil. If its temperature is low it is sent back to the oil pan
for further lubrication or it is sent to cooler for cooling.
1. JACKET WATER CIRCUIT
a) Jacket Water Header
There are special passages in crankcase and cylinder for the flow of the coolant to keep their
temperature low and this system is known as jacket water system.
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b) Exhaust Manifold
Exhaust manifold assembly is composed of individual water cooled segments which cools the
exhaust gases from the cylinder.
c) Jacket Water Pump
A belt driven centrifugal pump is mounted at the front of the engine which is used to pump water
from the cooler into the water jackets in the engine.
d) Water Manifold
Water manifold receives cooling water from each system of exhaust manifold and routes it to the
thermostat housing for temperature sensing for routing it to cooler or back to engine.
e) Jacket Water Control Valve
During the startup of engine parts are cool and the desired temperature in the cylinders is not
achieved yet. As the temperature is achieved this valve turns on the cooling system.
2. AUXILIARY COOLING WATER CIRCUIT
Auxiliary water pump is also belt driven and is located on the lower left front side of the engine
which pumps the coolant of auxiliary system.
a) Intercoolers
It cools the inlet air to the turbocharger to provide denser air to the turbocharger.
b) Oil Coolers
It is type of small shell and tube heat exchanger in which the coolant flows through the tubes to
cool down the lube oil which is in the shell side.

PRE LUBE PUMP

155

ESM STARTING SYSTEM


ESM starting system consist of following components
1. Pre-Lube Pump and Motor
2. Inline Lubricator
3. Start Push button Valve
4. Starter Motor- Electric Start/ Air/Gas

PNEUMATIC STARTER MOTOR


ENGINE PROTECTION AND SHUTDOWN SYSTEM
ESM system provides numerous engine safety shutdowns to protect the engine. These engine
safety shutdowns include the following
1. Low Oil Pressure
156

2. 10% Over speed instantaneous


3. Engine Overload (Based on engine torque)
4. Uncontrollable Knock
5. High Intake Manifold Air temperature
6. High Jacket Water Coolant Temperature
7. Internal ECU faults
8. Failure of Magnetic Pickups
9. High Intake Manifold Pressure

ESM System has the following sensors


1. Oil Pressure Sensor
2. Oil Temperature Sensor
3. Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor
4. Intake Manifold Temperature Sensor
5. Jacket Water Temperature Sensor
6. Magnetic Pickups
7. Knock Sensors
ESM Protection System has the following sensors
1. Sensors and Thermocouples
2. Thermocouple Connections
3. Manual Shutdown Switch

157

TECHNICAL DATA

Cylinders
Piston displacement
Compression ratio
Bore & stroke
Jacket water system capacity
Lube oil capacity
Starting system
Dimensions l x w x h inch (mm)
Weights lb (kg)

TECHNICAL DATA
V12
7040 cu. in. (115 L)
8:1
9.375 x 8.5 (238 x 216)
100 gal. (379 L)
190 gal. (719 L)
125 - 150 psi air/gas 24V electric
147 (3734) x 85 (2159) x 97.83 (2485)
21000 (9525)

PERFORMANCE DATA

PERFORMANCE DATA
1200 RPM
1680 (1253)
Power bhp (kWb)
BSFC (LHV) Btu/bhp-hr (kJ/kWh)
7881 (11149)
Fuel Consumption Btu/hr x 1000 (kW)
13240 (3881)
EMISSIONS
NOx g/bhp-hr (mg/Nm3 @ 5% O2)
13.30 (4922)
CO g/bhp-hr (mg/Nm3 @ 5% O2)
11.20 (4140)
3
NMHC g/bhp-hr (mg/Nm @ 5% 02)
0.35 (131)
3
THC g/bhp-hr (mg/Nm @ 5% O2)
2.40 (873)
HEAT BALANCE
Heat to Jacket Water Btu/hr x 1000 (kW)
3849 (1128)
Heat to Lube Oil Btu/hr x 1000 (kW)
567 (166)
Heat to Intercooler Btu/hr x 1000 (kW)
179 (53)
Heat to Radiation Btu/hr x 1000 (kW)
724 (212)
Total Exhaust Heat Btu/hr x 1000 (kW)
3900 (1143)
INTAKE/ EXHAUST SYSTEM
Induction Air Flow scfm (Nm3/hr)
2424 (3651)
Exhaust Flow lb/hr (kg/hr)
11273 (5113)
Exhaust Temperature F (C)
1179 (637)

158

1000 RPM
1400 (1044)
7693 (10882)
10781 (3156)
12.90 (4782)
9.40 (3477)
0.34 (127)
2.30 (844)
3227 (946)
462 (135)
122 (36)
642 (188)
2962 (868)
1972 (2970)
9171 (4160)
1112 (600)

6.3.1.2 COOLER

INTRODUCTION
The cooler or heat exchanger used for the cooling of flash gases and the coolant of engine and
compressor has six stages which is manufactured by ACE (One stage for the cooling of engine
and compressor and the other five are for the cooling of the flash gases). The cooling is carried
out by two forced draft fans which are used to exchange the heat of coolant with the atmosphere
through finned tubes. These fans are driven by the crankshaft of the engine through belt and
pulley mechanism. It is an air cooled heat exchanger. A special coolant is used for the cooling of
engine which is demin water. This coolant is also cooled down by this heat exchanger. Weight of
the cooler is 27 tones.

FAN DATA

Number of Fans: 02

Horse Power: 42.8

RPM: 343
159

Diameter: 156

Make: Moorie Series 48

Fan Material: Aluminum

Number of Blades: 06

AIR DATA

Inlet Air: 111 0F

Elevation: 2087 feet

Outlet Air: 143.9 0F

Total SCFM: 310818

DELTA T ACROSS SIX STAGES OF THE COOLER (T)


Inlet Temp. (0F)

Outlet Temp. (0F)

T (0F)

Pre-Cooler

110

55

55

1st Stage Intercooler

135

45

90

2nd Stage Intercooler

146

50

96

3rd Stage Intercooler

200

105

95

After Intercooler

210

124

86

Engine/Compressor Coolant Cooler

160

90

70

Cooler Stages

160

6.3.1.3 ARIEL COMPRESSOR

161

TECHNICAL DATA
Frame is the main housing of compressor in which all the components of the compressor are
arranged like crank shaft, pulsation dampeners, vibration switches etc. Ariel Corporation has two
types of frames JGK, JGT. Frame of the Compressor installed at Makori Production Facility is
JGK/6. 6 shows number of throws or cylinders.
COMPRESSOR DETAILS

4 STAGE, 6 THROW, HORIZONTAL, RECIPROCATING, POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR

MANUFACTURER:

ARIEL CO.

FRAME MODEL

JGK/6

STROKE

5.5"

SERIAL NUMBER

F-37892

NO. OF STAGES

MAX. RATED SPEED

1200 RPM

MIN. RATED SPEED

600 RPM

DIRECTION OF ROTATION

MAX. ROD LOAD TENSION

37,000 LBS

MAX. ROD LOAD COMPRESSION

40,000 LBS

METHANE, ETHANE

SERVICE (GASES)

CYLINDER DETAILS
CYLINDER NO.1
SERIAL NUMBER

C-131445

CLASS

BORE

15.875"

NO. SUCTION v/v

1 EACH

NO. DISCHARGE v/v

1 EACH

STROKE

5.50"

PISTON END CLEARANCE

HEAD END

0.080"~0.140"

CRANK END

0.04"

MIN. VOL. CLEARANCE (%)

HEAD END

17.2

CRANK END

17.8

MAWP (PSIG)

635 PSIG

CYLINDER NO.2
SERIAL NUMBER

C-131446

CLASS

BORE

11"

NO. SUCTION v/v

1 EACH

NO. DISCHARGE v/v

1 EACH

STROKE

5.50"

PISTON END CLEARANCE

HEAD END

0.080"~0.140"

CRANK END

0.04"

MIN. VOL. CLEARANCE (%)

HEAD END

18.1

CRANK END

16.8

MAWP (PSIG)

845 PSIG

162

CYLINDER NO.3
SERIAL NUMBER

C-131447

CLASS

BORE

12.5"

NO. SUCTION v/v

2 EACH

NO. DISCHARGE v/v

2 EACH

STROKE

5.50"

PISTON END CLEARANCE

HEAD END

0.080"~0.140"

CRANK END

0.04"

MIN. VOL. CLEARANCE (%)

HEAD END

18.4

CRANK END

19.5

MAWP (PSIG)

635 PSIG

CYLINDER NO.4
SERIAL NUMBER

C-131448

CLASS

BORE

6.25"

NO. SUCTION v/v

2 EACH

NO. DISCHARGE v/v

2 EACH

STROKE

5.50"

PISTON END CLEARANCE

HEAD END

0.080"~0.140"

CRANK END

0.04"

MIN. VOL. CLEARANCE (%)

HEAD END

17.5

CRANK END

21.1

MAWP (PSIG)

2050 PSIG

STAGES
Ariel compressor installed at MPF has 4 stages and 6 throws. The suction pressure of compressor
is 7 PSIG and Discharge is 990 PSIG. 1st and 2ndstage has single throw whereas 3rdand 4thstage
has double throws.
PULSATION DAMPENERS
Pulsation dampeners are installed to remove gas pulsation and provide steady continuous flow.
OPPOSED THROW RECIPROCATING WEIGHT BALANCING
To balance the weight across the crankshaft, the piston motion in opposing cylinders must be
same i.e. if we have compression stroke in the 1st stage cylinder then the strokein 2nd stage
cylinder must also be a compression stroke.
PRESSURE TRANSMITTERS INSTALLED AT THE COMPRESSOR
Pressure transmitters are installed at compressor oil, 1st stage suction line and discharge line, 2nd
stage suction line and discharge line, 3rd stage suction line and discharge line, 4th stage suction
line and discharge line and side stream line.

163

TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTERS INSTALLED AT THE COMPRESSOR


Temperature transmitters are installed at 1st stage discharge, 2nd stage discharge, 3rd stage
discharge, 4th stage discharge and final discharge from compressor.
LEVEL TRANSMITTERS INSTALLED AT THE COMPRESSOR
Level transmitters are installed at 1st stage suction scrubber, 2nd stage suction scrubber, 3rd stage
suction scrubber, 4th stage suction scrubber and on final discharge scrubber of compressor.
LOCATION OF BLOW DOWN VALVE ON COMPRESSOR
Blow down Valve is installed on line originating from final gas discharge line and leading to
flare header. The function of BDV is to depressurize the system under shutdown.
FORCE FEED LUBRICATION
Force feed lubrication is used in Ariel compressor installed at MPF. We need FFL system
whenever we have to lubricate the parts that are under some pressure and to overcome that
pressure the pressure of lube oil must be greater than the pressure on area need to be lubricated.
To pressurize the lube oil we do manual pumping and the lube oil is pumped into the
compressors cylinder by means of a cam pump.

164

6.3.2 THE GARDNER DENVER ROTARY SCREW COMPRESSOR


The instrument air compressor produces compress air i.e. from 14.7psi to 125psi and is used to
operate the instruments install at the production facility. It is divided into two main streams.
UTILITY AIR The air which is used at the plant for cleaning and other various purposes. It
is not passed through the drier and it contains moisture.
INSTRUMENT AIR The air which is operating the instruments at the plant is known is
instrument air. It is a dry air and it is dried by passing the gas through the desiccant which
contains the silica gel having ability to absorb the moisture. The instrument air is mainly used
by BDVs, SDVs, PCVs, LCVs, TCVs, Diaphragm pumps, and also in starting the gas
generator and AJAX compressor.
The Gardner Denver Rotary Screw compressor is a single stage, positive displacement
rotary machine using meshing helical rotors to effect compression. Both rotors are supported
between high capacity roller bearings located outside the compression chamber. Single width
cylindrical roller bearings are used at the inlet end of the rotors to carry part of the radial loads.
Tapered roller bearings at the discharge end locate each rotor axially and carry all thrust loads
and the remainder of the radial loads.

COMPRESSION PRINCIPLE
Compression is accomplished
by the main and secondary
rotors synchronously meshing
in a one-piece cylinder. The
main rotor has four (4) helical
lobes 90 degree apart.
The secondary rotor has six
(6) matching helical grooves
60 degree apart to allow
meshing with main
rotorlobes.
The air inlet port is located on
top of the compressor
cylinder near the drive shaft end. The discharge port is near the bottom at the opposite end of the
compressor cylinder. Figure is an inverted view to show inlet and discharge ports. The
compression cycle begins as rotors unmesh at the inlet port and air is drawn into the cavity
between the main rotor lobes and secondary rotor grooves (A). When the rotors pass the inlet
port cutoff, air is trapped in the interlobe cavity and flows axially with the meshing rotors (B).
As meshing continues, more of the main rotor lobe enters the secondary rotor groove, normal
volume is reduced and pressure increases.
Oil is injected into the cylinder to remove the heat of compression and seal internal clearances.
Volume reduction and pressure increase continues until the air/oil mixture trapped in the
interlobe cavity by the rotors passes the discharge port and is released to the oil reservoir (C).
Each rotor cavity follows the same fill-compress-discharge cycle in rapid succession to
produce a discharge air flow that is continuous, smooth and shock free.
165

AIR FLOW IN THE COMPRESSOR SYSTEM


Air enters the air filter and passes through the inlet unloader valve to the compressor. After
compression, the air/oil mixture passes into the oil reservoir where most of the entrained oil is
removed by velocity change and impingement and drops back into the reservoir. The air and
remaining oil passes into the separator and separator housing where the oil is separated and
passes through tubing connecting the separator housing and compressor. The air passes through
the minimum pressure valve, discharge check valve and cooler, then to the plant air lines.

LUBRICATION, COOLING AND SEALING


Oil is forced by air pressure from the oil reservoir through the oil cooler, thermostatic mixing
valve, and oil filter and discharges into the compressor main oil gallery. A portion of the oil is
directed through internal passages to the bearings, gears and shaft oil seal. The balance of the oil
is injected directly into the compression chamber to remove heat of compression, seal internal
clearances and lubricate the rotors.

COMPRESSOR PARTS

COMPRESSOR

166

OIL SEPARATOR AND OIL TANK

OIL COOLER AND AFTERCOOLER

167

AIR FILTER

DRIVE MOTOR

168

169

AIR-COOLED UNITS
A combination oil/aftercooler is supplied as standard equipment on all air-cooled
units. The air-cooled unit with the standard enclosure requires sufficient flow for the
compressor oil/aftercooling system and for electric motor cooling. Air is drawn into the unit at
the motor side of the enclosure and is exhausted at the oil cooler side. For continuous efficiency,
oil cooler cores must be periodically cleaned with either vacuum or compressed air.

170

OIL RESERVOIR DRAIN


The oil drain is piped from the bottom of the reservoir to the side of the frame. This drain is
approximately 4.50 inches (115 mm) above the floor level.
ENCLOSURE
The compressor, electric motor, oil cooler and aftercooler are mounted inside the enclosure.
Service doors are provided for maintenance access. Any of the enclosure doors may be removed
by opening the door and lifting it up slightly to disengage the hinges. The motor inspection/air
filter service panel is held by two latches and lifts away from the enclosure. The air outlet panel
is attached by screws to the enclosure and is not readily removable.
MOISTURE SEPARATOR/TRAP
Since the unit is equipped with a built-in aftercooler, a combination moisture separator and trap
is furnished with the unit.
DISCHARGE SERVICE LINE
The discharge service line connection on both water-cooled and aircooled units is made at the
right hand corner of the unit, viewed from the opposite end from control panel side. When
manifolding two or more rotary screw units on the same line, each unit is isolated by the check
valve in the unit discharge line. If a rotary screw unit is manifolded to another compressor, the
other compressor should have a check valve in the line between the machine and the manifold. If
a rotary screw and a reciprocating compressor are manifolded together, an air receiver must be
located between the two units.
BLOWDOWN VALVE PIPING
The blowdown valve is piped back into the airend between the inlet valve and air filter.

CONTROL DEVICES
CONTROLLER
This compressor unit features the AUTOSENTRY controller, which integrates all the control
functions under microprocessor control. Its functions include safety and shutdown, compressor
171

regulation, operator control, and advisory/maintenance indicators. The keypad and display
provide the operator with a logical and easily operated control of the compressor and indication
of its condition. The controller is factory adjusted for the compressor package, but allows tuning
for specific applications.
RELIEF VALVE
A pressure relief valve(s) is (are) installed in the final discharge line and set to approximately
120-125% of the units full load operating pressure for protection against over pressure.
BLOWDOWN VALVE
This valve normally is used for control functions, but also serves to
relieve reservoir pressure following a shutdown. The blow down
valve is a two-way solenoid valve which is piped into the oil
reservoir outlet ahead of the minimum pressure valve. When the
solenoid is deenergized, the valve opens and the coolant system is
blown down. When the solenoid is energized, the valve closes to
allow the coolant system to pressurize. A control air check valve is
provided to ensure that the inlet valve is closed during blow down.
MINIMUM DISCHARGE PRESSURE/CHECK VALVE
An internal spring-loaded minimum pressure valve is used in the final discharge line to provide
a positive pressure on the coolant system of the compressor even if the air service valve is fully
open to atmospheric pressure. This valve also functions as a check valve to prevent back flow of
air from the shop air line when the unit stops, unloads, or is shut down. The valve incorporates a
spring-loaded piston which maintains approximately 65 psig in the oil reservoir. When the air
pressure on the upstream (reservoir) side of the valve rises above 65 psig, the spring is
overridden and the valve opens to full porting.

INLET VALVE
The Inlet valve restricts the inlet to control delivery and closes to unload the compressor. At
shutdown, the inlet valve closes to prevent the back flow of air. The inlet valve position is
controlled by air pressure in its piston cylinder, which is controlled by the AutoSentry
172

Controller through solenoid valves IVC and IVO. As Pressure to the piston is increased, the
valve closes to restrict air flow and compressor delivery.

SOLENOID VALVES IVC AND IVO


These valves control position of the inlet valve in response to signals from the AutoSentry
Controller. With both valves de-energized, the normally open IVC valve allows control pressure
to the inlet piston to close the valve. If IVC only is energized, the inlet valve is held in its current
position. If both valves are energized, control pressure is relieved from the inlet piston to allow
the valve to open.
PRESSURE REGULATOR
The pressure regulator is used to supply a constant and low control pressure to prevent damage to
the inlet valve from slamming". The regulator should be set for 25-30 psig.

173

SHUTTLE VALVE
Also known as a double check valve, the shuttle valve is a device
which will take two (2) supply signals and allow the one with the
highest pressure to pass through. The shuttle valve is used to provide
control air pressure from either the reservoir or plant air system, as
required during different operating conditions.
PURGE AIR VALVE
The purge valve is a normally closed two-way air actuated valve that admits purge air from the
final discharge manifold to the compressor to counteract the oil knock that occurs in oil-flooded
rotary screw compressors when they are completely unloaded with pressure in the oil reservoir.
This valve is controlled by the same control pressure which controls the inlet valve.
SYSTEM PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
This transducer is connected after the minimum pressure valve. It converts the pressure in the
plant air system into an electrical signal for use by the AutoSentry controller for modulation
and control.
RESERVOIR PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
This transducer is connected to the coolant system. Its signal is used to prevent loaded starts,
monitor reservoir pressure, and monitor the condition of the air/oil separator.
AIR FILTER VACUUM SWITCH
This switch is used to monitor air filter condition and alert the user if the filter requires service or
replacement.
DISCHARGE THERMISTOR
This sensor is located directly in the compressor discharge. Its signal is used
to monitor compressor temperature and shut down the compressor if a coolant problem is
detected.
RESERVOIR THERMISTOR
This sensor is located near the separator and is used to monitor temperature and shut down the
compressor if high temperatures are detected.
EMERGENCY STOP PUSH-BUTTON
This is a maintained push-button, and removes power from the controller outputs regardless of
controller status. It is located on the upper section of the panel, next to the keypad. This should
be used for emergency purposes only - use the keypad [STOP/RESET] for normal controlled
stopping.
CONTROL TRANSFORMER
This control device changes the incoming power voltage to 110-120 volts for use by all unit
control devices. The transformers employed are usually connectable for several input voltages,
refer to the transformer label for connection prior to energizing. Two primaries and one
secondary fuse are provided. Refer to adjacent labelling for replacement information.
174

TERMINAL STRIP
This provides connections for all 110-120 volt devices not contained within the enclosure.
FAN STARTER
The starter is used to provide control and overload protection for the cooling fan or the
ventilation fan of water-cooled units with enclosure. Overload heaters should be selected and
adjusted based on the motor nameplate amps and the instructions located inside the cover of the
electrical enclosure. Three fuses are provided. Refer to adjacent labelling for replacement
information.
MAIN STARTER
This starter is used to provide control and overload protection for the main drive motor.
Full voltage starters employ a single contactor, overload heaters should be selected and adjusted
based on the motor nameplate amps and the instructions located inside the cover of the
enclosure. Wye-delta starters employ three contactors which are controlled sequentially to
provide low current starting. For wye-delta starters, the motor nameplate amps must be first
multiplied by 0.577 before using the heater

HEAVY-DUTY AIR FILTER


Furnished as standard equipment on units with an enclosure is a heavy-duty washable element
dry type air filter.
COUPLING
The motor and compressor are direct connected by a resilient type flexible coupling with a single
cushion. The coupling does not require lubrication. The coupling is permanently aligned by the
flanges on the compressor and motor.

175

MAINTENANCE

TROUBLESHOOTING
SYMPTOM POSSIBLE
Compressor fails to start

Compressor starts but stops


after a short time

Compressor does notunload


(or load)

Compressor cycles from

CAUSE
1. Wrong lead connections.
2. Blown fuses in control box.
3. Motor starter overload
heaters tripped.
4. Pressure in reservoir.
5. Read error message on
control panel
6. Remote Contact is open.
1. High discharge temperature.
2. High discharge temperature
switch malfunction.
3. Blown fuse in starter/
control box.
4. Motor starter overload
heaters trip.
1. Improperly adjusted
control.
2. Air leak in control lines.
3. Restricted control line.
4. Blowdown valve
malfunction.
1. Insufficient receiver
176

REMEDY
1. Change leads.
2. Replace fuse.
3. Reset and investigate cause
of overload.
4. Inspect blow down valve.
5. Take appropriate action.
6. Replace switch or jumper.
1. See High Discharge Air
Temperature this section.
2. Replace switch
3. Replace fuse (investigate if
fuses continue to blow).
4. Reset and investigate cause
of overload.
1. Refer to Manual 13-9-653
and adjust control.
2. Determine source of leak
and correct.
3. Clean control lines.
4 Repair clean or replace
valve.
1. Increase receiver size.

capacity.
2. Restriction in service piping 2. Inspect and clean service
piping.
3. Restriction in control
3. Inspect and clean control
tubing.
tubing.
4. Plugged aftercooler.
4. Inspect and clean
aftercooler.
1. Contact your champion
Compressor starts too slowly 1. Wye Delta switch time set
too long.
distributor.
2. Minimum Pressure/Check
2. Repair or replace.
Valve is faulty.
3. Supply voltage is too low.
3. Check the supply voltage.
1. Restricted air filter.
1. Clean or replace filter.
Compressor is low on
delivery and pressure
2. Sticking inlet valve.
2. Inspect and clean inlet
valve.
3. Minimum pressure valve
3. Replace valve.
stuck closed.
4. Leaks in the compressed air 4. Check for leaks fix any
system.
leaks found.
5. Aftercooler is frozen
5. Thaw out. This machine
cannot operate in temperatures
below 320 F (00 C).
6. Unload pressure adjusted
6. Adjust the unload pressure.
too low.
See Manual 13-9-653.
1.
Oil
carryover
through
lines.
1. See Oil Carryover in this
Excessive oil consumption
section.
2. Oil leaks at all fittings and
2. Tighten or replace fittings
gaskets.
or gaskets.
3. Shaft seal leaking.
3. Replace shaft seal.
High discharge air
1. Thermostatic mixing valve 1. Repair or replace valve.
temperature
stuck open.
2. Dirty or clogged cooler
2. Clean cooler.
face.
3. Insufficient cooling air flow 3. Provide unrestricted supply
of cooling air.
4. Clogged oil filter or cooler
4. Replace filter or clear
(interior)
cooler.
5.Low compressor oil.
5. Add oil to proper level.
Oil carryover
1. Overfilling the reservoir.
1. Drain excess oil from
system.
2. Clogged
2. Tighten or replace faulty
lines.
3. Ruptured oil separator
3. Replace element.
element.
4. Loose assembly.
4. Tighten all fittings and
load to unload excessively

177

5. Foam caused by use of


incorrect oil.
6. Inoperative minimum
pressure valve.
7. Operation at elevated
discharge temperatures.
8. Scavenge line check valve
failure.
9. Water condensate in oil.

178

gaskets.
5. Use Gardner Denver AEON
4000 or 9000 SP lubricating
coolant.
6. Replace seals in valve.
7. Reduce temperature. See
High Discharge Air
Temperature this section.
8. Replace check valve.
9. Check oil reservoir
temperature and if low change
thermal mixing valve element
to higher temperature.

6.3.3 AJAX ENGINE-COMPRESSOR

179

STANDARD FEATURES
Ajax integral engine-compressors are gas compressors with built-in two cycle natural gas engine.
The slow speed (440 rpm max), simplistic design make this compressor highly reliable, low
maintenance and easy to operate. Ajax is the compressor of choice in its power range (105-600
KW) and it is common to see several Ajax machines in one compressor station. Standard features
include:
1. Hydraulic fuel control system: for optimum fuel efficiency.
2. Babbitt sleeve and/or Double-row tapered roller bearings: for maximum loading in
extreme application conditions.
3. Power cylinders: two-cycle, low-BMEP, chrome-plated, with fewer parts for less
maintenance. Require no gas control valves.
4. Crosshead guides: absorb (relieve) crank stresses on the cylinder and prevent
contamination of lube oil in crankcase.
5. Splash lubrication system: no oil pump, filter or cooler required for main and
connecting rod bearings. Oil-bath lubrication system is sealed from combustion process
in the cylinders.
6. Reliable ignition: solid-state, time-based ignition system without distributor.
7. Efficient lubrication: force-fed lubrication system for power and compression cylinders,
with lube point injection and divider block.
8. Crosshead structure with Babbitt facing at both the power and the compressor ends.
9. Crankshaft and Connecting rods: closed-die forged in precision dies.
10. Crankcase: ribbed, cast iron construction for durability.
11. Distant piece (intermediate casing): API-Type II extra-length design for easy rod
packing maintenance.
12. High rod load and cylinder working pressure: full-load operation through a variety of
compression ratios up to 6:1 per stage.
13. Compressor cylinders: large gas passages and valve flow areas for high efficiency.
14. High-quality differential poppet valves.
15. Cylinder clearance/loading regulation: manual, hand-wheel type, variable-volume
extra clearance pocket with indicator allows the cylinder unloading without depressurizing.
The model line of Ajax compressors includes four basic models (according to the number of
power cylinders: DPC 2801, DPC 2802, DPC 2803, DPC 2804). Maximum shaft power for the
largest compressor DPC 2804 is about 600 kW.

ENGINE AND COMPRESSOR PARTS


Ajax integral reciprocating engine-compressor set consists of:
1. Integral reciprocating engine-compressor for gas compression comprising reciprocating
compressor and reciprocating gas-fueled engine drive.

180

1ST STAGE COMPRESSOR

ENGINE CYLINDERS
2. Integral compressor frame mount (skid). The steel skid is mounted and secured on a
foundation plate fabricated according to the manufacturers drawings. The steel skid is
built for heavy-duty service and designed to carry reciprocating compressor with gas
engine drive including auxiliary systems and process equipment.
3. Separators (scrubbers) one set at the inlet to compression stage and another set at the
outlet from aftercooler section provide 95% efficiency for separation of liquid droplets
larger than 5 m. Each separator is equipped with a pressure-relief valve which is

181

mounted directly on the separator or on the connecting piping, automatic drain valve, and
condensate level gauges for the automatic high-level emergency tripping system.
4. Suction and discharge surge tanks are provided at the inlet and discharge connections.
Gas flow pulsations occurring during the operation of reciprocating compressor are
dampened in surge tanks and supply pipelines which are designed and intended to
suppress pressure fluctuations up to +\-5% of the peak ratio 2.5:1 under standard gas
conditions. Discharge surge tanks are fitted with suitable connections for drain lines,
pressure and temperature gauges.

DISCHARGE SURGE TANK

SUCTION SURGE TANK

182

5. Oil lubrication system for compressor and engine crankcase and power and compression
cylinders comprising the following:
o Lube oil crankcase for lubrication of crankshaft, bearings and crossheads
o Lube oil storage tank for lubrication of cylinder faces and gland seals of
compressor and drive rods
o Main lubricator driven by crankshaft for oil supply to the cylinders
o Instrumentation for lube oil system performance monitoring
o Lube oil piping set
o Hand pump for pre-lubrication of main bearings, connecting rod bearings and
crossheads
o Pre-lubrication and lube oil pre-heating system with oil supply to crankshaft,
bearings and crossheads
o Thermostatic valve
o Oil level regulator and low-level switch
o Pressure-relief device (safety valve)

FORCE FEED LUBRICATOR


6. ALTRONIC III Ignition System comprising the following:
o Shielded, contactless, synchronized ALTRONIC III ignition system
o Ignition coil
o Electric wiring. All wires enclosed in protective sheath to prevent mechanical
damage
o Electronic speed governor
o 24 V generator actuated by power transmission from the crankshaft

183

ALTERNATOR

ALTRONIC IGNITION SYSTEM


7. Compressor monitoring and control system comprising the following:
o Shielded wiring, normally-open
o Supervisory and indicating instrumentation
o Centurion controller and a digital display of Murphy make for monitoring (and
emergency tripping) of the following parameters:
o Exhaust temperature in each cylinder
o Suction and discharge pressure, intermediate pressure at each compression stage
184

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Water temperature in compressor and engine cooling jacket


Temperature of crankshaft main bearings
Compressor discharge temperature and pressure
Liquid level in scrubbers
Failure of lube oil supply to compressor and engine cylinders
Oil level in drip pan
Crankshaft rotation speed
Starting counter
Vibration of engine drive and air cooler.

CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM


8. Compressor drive pneumatic starting system comprising the following:
o Pneumatic motor
o Set of supply piping
o Ball valve
o Pressure-relief valve.

185

PNEUMATIC STARTER MOTOR


9. Compressor and power drive cooling system comprising the following:
o Crankshaft-driven cooling water pump.

COOLING PUMP
10. Gas air cooler of prefabricated, modular design comprising the following:
o Liquid cooler section for compressor and engine cylinders cooling system
o Compressed gas cooling section (according to the number of compression stages)
o Fan with V-belt motor drive
o Set of piping and flange connections to the main lines
o Casing with skid (frame) for housing all equipment above listed
o Air cooler located outside the main compressor skid on a separate foundation.

186

FAN COOLER
11. Fuel gas injection system. Patented, cam gear-actuated hydraulic fuel injection system
provides optimum fuel efficiency. Fuel preparation technology based on "internal
carburation system" makes it completely unnecessary to employ any additional devices
for reduction of hazardous emissions. Dual ignition (with antechamber) is designed to
ensure complete fuel combustion resulting in less generation of NOx.

SPARK PLUG
12. Drive exhaust system comprising the following:
o One silencer for power drive exhaust system (vertically mounted on the common
skid) with pipe connections to cylinder exhaust manifolds.
13. Compressor piping system comprising the following:
o Complete set of interstage piping for connection of compressor gas path elements
from the suction drum inlet flange to the discharge stage outlet flanges
187

o
o
o
o

Complete set of control and shutoff valves


Bypass (crossover) pipeline complete with shutoff and control valves
Complete set of gas pressure-relief valves installed on separators or directly on
the connecting piping of compressor unit
Fuel gas pipeline complete with pressure regulator, pressure-relief valve, fuel
filter, fuel valve and pressure gauge.

SPECIFICATIONS OF AJAX COMPRESSOR-ENGINE AT MPF

SPECIFICATIONS OF AJAX COMPRESSOR-ENGINE AT MPF

ENGINE

COMPRESSOR

MODEL
Serial No.
Bore(in)
Stroke(in)
Rating at 100F ambient & 1500
FASL (KW)
Rating at 100F ambient & 1500
FASL (BHP)
Rod Load(lbs)
Rated RPM
Speed range(Minimum)
Speed range(Maximum)
Deration for each 1000 over 1500
elevation
Number of power cylinders
Model Cylinder(1)
Model Cylinder(2)
Serial No. Cylinder (1)
Serial No. Cylinder (2)
Throws
Stroke(in)
Stroke(cm)
Rod diameter (in)
Rod diameter (cm)
Rod load (lbs)
Rod load (KN)
Suction pressure
Discharge pressure:

188

DPC-2802 LE
85047
15
16
298.3
384
30000
440
300
440
3
2
13 YK11F
6 YKCD
14015
13976
2
11
27.94
2.5
6.35
33000
147
26-28 psi
1220 psi

TEMPERATURES

TEMPERATURES
st

352 F
367 F
855 F
855 F
192 F
200 F

1 Stage Discharge Temperature


2nd Stage Discharge Temperature
Engine Cylinder-1 Exhaust Temperature
Engine Cylinder-2 Exhaust Temperature
Engine Jacket Water Temperature
Compressor Jacket Water Temperature

TWO-STROKE AJAX ENGINE ADVANTAGE


WITH AN AJAX TWO-CYCLE YOU DONT NEED:

Cams, camshafts and bearings


Intake and exhaust valves
Seats
Timing gears
Rocker arms
Tappets
Push rods
Valve stems and valve stem bushings
Valve springs
Valve covers and gaskets

189

6.3.4 MYCOM COMPRESSOR

SPECIFICATIONS
Model
Serial No.
Leak(psig)
HYD(psig)
Suction pressure (kPa)
Discharge Pressure (kPa)
Starting Current (A)

SPECIFICATIONS
P250VSD
2555898
313
470
175
1100
2200

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF MYCOM V-SERIES SCREW COMPRESSOR


INTRODUCTION
The MYCOM V-Series Screw Compressor (referred to hereafter as the V Series) incorporates
numerous improvements. A variable Vi mechanism allows these compressors to be adjusted
readily for most operating conditions and a new tooth profile (0 profile) has been introduced to
further improve performance.
The basic construction of the V Series is the same as standard MYCOM compressors except for
the addition of the variable Vi mechanism. The operator should have a thorough knowledge of
the compressor and the system it is incorporated into before attempting to disassemble the unit
190

for inspection. Read this instruction manual carefully before undertaking any work on the
system.
This screw compressor is classified as a positive displacement rotary type. It compresses the
refrigerant gas continuously using the volume change between two rotating screw profile rotors.
Refrigerant gas is trapped in the clearance between the two mated rotors and pressure increased
by decreasing the volume. The refrigerant is then discharged as a high-pressure gas.

COMPRESSOR STRUCTURE

191

REFRIGERANT COMPRESSION MECHANISM


As shown in a pair of mated helical gears, or rotors, are mounted in the compressor casing. The
rotor having the four-lobe section is called the male (M) rotor while the one with the sixlobe
section is called the female (F) rotor.
A two-pole motor connected directly to the M rotor drives the compressor at speeds of 2,950 rpm
or 3,550 rpm (50 Hz or 60 Hz)
Compressor efficiency is directly related to the shape of the rotor lobes. In the case of the VSeries, the rotors have unsymmetrical profiles in contrast to conventional screw compressor rotor
lobes. This unsymmetrical design reduces the triangular blow off hole between the casing and
the rotors to 60%, minimizing leakage due to the pressure difference. Normally, an oil film seals
the clearance between the leading edges of the rotor lobes and the casing. With the V-Series,
however, a change has been incorporated to raise the pressure of the oil film and the clearance
between the casing and the lobe leading edges is wedge shaped.

SCREW COMPRESSOR CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW

MALE AND FEMALE ROTORS


192

ROTOR ROTATION AND COMPRESSION CYCLE


SUCTION PHASE
As shown, the rotors of different lobe shape mate and the clearance between the M and F rotors
and the casing expands gradually from the suction side as the rotors rotate. When the clearance
reaches maximum as the rotors rotate further, it is sealed by the walls at both ends of the rotor
and becomes independent.

SUCTION PHASE(LEFT) AND SUCTION SIDE SEALING (RIGHT)

COMPRESSION PHASE
As the rotors further rotate, the suction side of the
clearance is sealed by the mating of the lobes and the
volume between the lobes decreases while the sealing
line moves toward the discharge side.

COMPRESSION PHASE
193

DISCHARGE PHASE
When the volume is decreased to the designated Vi, the clearance between the discharge port and
the rotors is linked and the refrigerant is pushed to the discharge side.

DISCHARGE PHASE

EXPLANATION OF Vi (INTERNAL VOLUMETRIC RATIO)


In the case of a reciprocating compressor, the volume of the refrigerant sucked into the cylinder
decreases and the refrigerant pressure increases as the piston ascends. When the pressure exceeds
the discharge side pressure plus the force of the spring on the discharge plate valve, the
refrigerant in the cylinder pushes open the valve and passes to the discharge side. In the case of
the screw compressor, a volume of refrigerant is sucked into the groove between the rotors and
the volume decreases while pressure increases as the rotors rotate. The process up to this point is
the same as for a reciprocating compressor. When the volume is decreased to the designed Vi,
the groove is linked to the discharge port and the refrigerant is pushed out. The groove is linked
to the discharge port according to the volume of the groove and is not dependent on internal
pressure.
Vi (internal volumetric ratio) is used to represent the value of the decreased volume of suction
refrigerant when the groove aligns with the discharge port (or is discharged). This can be
expressed as follows:
Vi =

194

In other words, Vi is the ratio of the groove volume after competition of suction to the volume
when the discharge port opens. Conventional screw compressors have three fixed Vi values, that
is 2.63, 3.65 and 5.80, termed L port, M port and H port, respectively. The relationships
are:
Vi = (Pd/Ps)1/k or Vik = Pd/Ps
Consequently, the Vi corresponding to the compression ratio changes according to the refrigerant
used.. The new V-Series, Maximizer Series Screw Compressors, are designed so that the Vi can
Be adjusted on site according to operating conditions.

REASONS FOR ADJUSTING Vi


Operating conditions of refrigeration systems are not always constant. As well, the same model
of compressor may be operated under a variety of pressure conditions, e.g., air conditioning, cold
storage and freezing applications. In the case of air conditioning and cold storage, the conditions
will vary depending on the need for cooling, heating, low and high temperature. Needless to say,
compressors must be operated at maximum efficiency under various conditions. The drawback
of the conventional compressor is that a fixed Vi is established for the compressor during
production. This Vi can later be changed by machining the compressor but is limited to change
from a higher to a lower value only. Variable Vi screw compressors in the Maximizer Series
were developed as an answer to this drawback. Many compressors of this type are used in special
reefer carrier applications, but because of the sophisticated structure and relatively high cost,
they have not been popular for general applications. The V-Series, which incorporates a variable
Vi, has consequently been developed for these general applications. The Vi of the V-Series can
be readily changed between L, M and H at the installation plant according to operating
conditions. With the fixed Vi of a conventional compressor, maximum efficiency can only be
obtained when the system is operating at a pressure equivalent to the designed Vi. Unnecessary
power is consumed, however, when pressure conditions diverge from the designed value. For
example, if low compression ratio (high compression pressure or low discharge pressure)
operation is carried out using a conventional M port compressor (designed for a medium
compression ratio), compression will exceed discharge pressure and power will be wasted.

195

INTERNAL VOLUME RATIO (LEFT) , REALTIONSHIP BTW DESIGN AND


OPERATING CONDITIONS (RIGHT)
Conversely, if the same M port compressor is used under high compression conditions (high
suction pressure or high discharge pressure), the discharge port opens before internal pressure
has increased sufficiently, allowing refrigerant to flow back from the discharge port. Power is
also wasted. Obviously, if a compressor is to be operated for an extended period under varying
conditions, a variable Vi design is preferable to a fixed Vi type. For a conventional compressor
with a high Vi, the discharge port can be machined to lower the Vi but a unit with a low Vi
cannot be changed to a high Vi type. If a higher Vi is needed, the compressor must be replaced
with a new one.

VARIABLE Vi MECHANISM
The Vi of a conventional screw compressor is determined by the combination of the axial
discharge port of the rotors on the bearing head and the radial discharge port of the shaft (radial
discharge port on the unloader slide valve). In the case of a conventional model, the axial and
radial elements are combined to exhibit particular characteristics at partial load. In the case of VSeries compressors, the Vi can be changed by altering the size of the radial port while
196

maintaining the axial port at Vi 5.10. As shown, the radial port of a conventional model becomes
larger as Vi becomes smaller. In the case of V-Series compressors, the stop position of the
variable Vi unloader slide valve moves to the discharge side and changes Vi by reducing the size
of the radial port at full load operation. The refrigeration capacity changes only slightly under
various Vi and other conditions. Refrigeration capacity is influenced considerably by shaft power
but changes little inresponse to slight changes in operating conditions, as the diagram shows,
consequently, once Vi is adjusted to the operating conditions, it is not necessary to alter it in
response to slight changes in operating conditions. The Vi must be adjusted only when there are
major changes in operating conditions such as a change in the application of the compressor. For
instance, when the operating conditions of the compressor are changed from cooling at approx.
0C evaporative temperature to refrigeration at -400 C evaporative temperatures with the
compressor Vi set to the L port configuration, shaft power must be double. In such a case it is
advisable to change the Vi to the H port configuration. Similarly, if the compressor is to be used
for refrigeration at an evaporative temperature of 00C-300C, it is advisable to set the Vi to the M
port configuration. Temperature drops and the compression ratio Vi increases as refrigeration
progresses but Vi should not be changed according to the varying conditions. The Vi should be
fixed during operation (when Vi must be changed according to operating conditions, a
Maximizer Screw Compressor, namely a new V-Series unit, should be used).

197

OIL FLOW

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF LUBRICATION SYSTEM

198

USABILITY LIMITS OF V-SCREW COMPRESSOR

199

GENERATORS
7.1 GAS GENRATOR

The gas generator is the main source of electrical energy at the plant. It is operated by fuel gas
and responsible for running the following instruments
Condenser
Glycol circulation pumps
Loading pumps
Mycom compressor
Lube oil pump
Coolant pump
Lights
Instrument air compressor
CCR/MCC room

200

7.1.1 SPECIFICATION OF GAS GENERATOR


SPECIFICATION OF GAS GENERATOR
Model

SR-4B

Serial No.

5YA01192

Arrangement No.

6I-4848

Volts

480 V

Frequency

60 Hz

Power

765KW/956 KVA

Amperes

1503A

RPM

1200

7.1.2 ENGINE SPECIFICATION


ENGINE SPECIFICATION
Model
Cylinders
Type
Ignition
Bore
Stroke
Displacement
Aspiration
Governor and Protection
Combustion
Engine Weight net dry (approx.)
Power Density
Power per Displacement
Total Cooling System Capacity
Jacket Water
Aftercooler Circuit
Lube Oil System (refill)
Oil Change Interval
Rotation (from flywheel end)
Flywheel and Flywheel Housing
Flywheel Teeth
RPM
Engine Hours

G3516
16
Vee Type- 4 stroke
Spark Ignition
170 mm (6.7 in.)
190 mm (7.5 in.)
69 L (4210 cu. in.)
Turbocharged-Aftercooled
Electronic (ADEM A3)
Low Emission (Lean Burn)
8015 kg (17670 lb)
8 kg/kW (13.2 lb/bhp)
19.3 bhp/L
217.7 L (57.5 gal)
200.6 L (53 gal)
17 L (4.5 gal)
424 L (112 gal)
1000 hours
Counterclockwise
SAE No. 00
183
1200
56499
201

137 F
62 psi
190 F
7.5psi
9 psid

Manifold Air Temperature


Engine Oil Pressure
Engine Coolant Temperature
Manifold Pressure
Oil Filter Differential Pressure

7.1.3 ENGINE DIMENSIONS


ENGINE DIMENSIONS
Length

132.51 in

Width

67.05 in

Height

67.7 in

The total running load of the plant is 450KW. The gas generator is operated at the 45-50% load.

7.1.4 STANDARD ENGINE EQUIPMENT

202

AIR INLET SYSTEM


Aftercooler core, corrosion resistant coated (air side)
Air cleaner, regular duty with service indicators
Turbochargers, rear mounted

AIR INLET

TURBOCHARGER
CONTROL SYSTEM
Governor, RH, 3161 with self contained synthetic oil sump.
Air-fuel ratio control, mechanical speed control, without torque control.
Governor control, positive locking
203

COOLING SYSTEM
Thermostats and housing for conventional core radiator
Jacket water pump, gear driven, centrifugal

RADIATOR
EXHAUST SYSTEM
Exhaust manifold, dry

EXHAUST PIPE
204

FLYWHEELS AND FLYWHEEL HOUSINGS


Flywheel , SAE No. 00, 183 teeth
Flywheel housing, SAE No. 00

FLYWHEEL
FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel filter, with service indicators, cartridge type with RH service
Fuel transfer pump
INSTRUMENTATION
Instrument Panel, RH
Engine oil pressure gauge
Fuel pressure gauge
Oil filter differential gauge
Jacket water temperature gauge
Service meter, electric
Tachometer

CONROL PANEL
205

LUBE SYSTEM
Crankcase breather, top mounted
Oil cooler
Oil filler and dipstick, RH
Oil pump
Oil filter, cartridge type with RH service
Shallow oil pan

CRANKCASE BREATHER
MOUNTING SYSTEM
Rails, mounting, engine length, 254 mm (10 in), industrial-type, C-channel.
POWER TAKE-OFFS
Accessory drive, upper RH
Front housing, single sided
PROTECTION SYSTEM
Junction box
Manual shutoff, RH
Safety shutoff protection, energized to shutdown
Low oil pressure, low idle 69 kPa (10 psi); high idle
207 kPa (30 psi)
Water temperature
Overspeed
3161 governor solenoid energized to shutdown
STARTING SYSTEM
Starting switch
206

GENERAL
Paint, Caterpillar Yellow,
Vibration damper and guard,
Lifting eyes

7.2 DIESEL GENERATOR


It is standby generator mainly used in starting of MYCOM compressor. It is used to share initial
load for starting the MYCOM compressor as the initial torque is very high. As a result of which
high amperes are required. The current which the diesel generator can produce is 1149A and
MYCOM compressor requires a current of around 2200A. At these high amperes the generator
will trip, therefore in order to support the gas generator to run MYCOM compressor, the
synchronization of diesel generator is done with gas generator. The load is shared by both the
generators and MYCOM is started. After the successful running of MYCOM, the diesel
generator is taken off load the complete load is shifted on the gas generator.

7.2.1 SPECIFICATION OF DIESEL GENERATOR


SPECIFICATION OF DIESEL GENERATOR
480 V
Volts
Frequency

60 Hz

Power

1000KW/1200KVA

Amperes

1503A

RPM

1800

207

PUMPS
8.1 DEFINITION
Pumps are the devices that take the suction at low pressure and discharge the liquid at high
pressure.

8.2 TYPES
They are classified into two main categories
1. Centrifugal pumps
2. Positive displacement pumps
The pumps that are installed at the facility belong to both categories. The centrifugal type pumps
are installed at loading area, third stage degasser and refrigerant accumulator. The pump that is
used to pump lube oil is gear pump, the pump used with glycol is plunger pump and the pump
installed with the HP and LP knock out drums are diaphragm pumps that all fall into the category
of PD pumps.

8.2.1 CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS


INTRODUCTION
Centrifugal pumps utilize the centrifugal force which is the force of spinning. This kind of pump
works on the principle of centrifugal force i.e. when liquid falls on the centre of spinning plate, it
is thrown outward from the centre. The part of centrifugal pump that spins the liquid is known as
impeller. Liquid enters at the inlet port and flows through the eye of the impeller. As the pump
shaft rotates, the impeller rotates with it. The rotating impeller throws the liquid outwards
towards the rim of the impeller. Attached to impeller are the vanes that are curved and guide the
liquid in the desired direction. Outer casing of the pump forms the shape of a volute. This gathers
the liquid and channels it toward the discharge port. As the liquid reaches the discharge port its
velocity decreases. The energy is transformed into pressure and the pressure of the liquid rises.
208

The faster the impeller rotates, higher is the discharge pressure and flow rate of the pump. The
centrifugal pump have higher flow rate as compared to PD pumps. The type of pump to be used
for specific application depends upon:
Type of liquid
Viscosity of liquid
Flow rate required
Distance and elevation which liquid has to travel.
PARTS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
SUCTION PORT: this is where liquid enters the pump from the pipeline.
CASING: The outside cover of the pump body is called casing. The outer rim of the casing is
known as volute.
IMPELLER: It is the main working part of the pump, which directs the liquid and increases its
velocity.
WEAR RINGS: These rings protect the pump casing and impeller from wear caused by
vibration. Pumps fluids lubricate the rings.
SHAFT: One end of shaft is connected to prime mover or driver while the other end with the
impeller.
SHAFT SLEEVE: It is a metal tube that slips over the shaft to form a very close fit. It protects
the shaft from damage caused by too tight packing.
BEARING: Bearings are fitted around the pump shaft at the part of pump body where the shaft
enters. Bearings are housed inside an extension to pump casing, the lower part of which act as a
reservoir to contain oil. This oil is used to lubricate the bearings.
LUBRICATION OF PUMP PARTS
The bearings are lubricated by the oil present in the bearing housing. The shaft is surrounded by
the loose fitted steel rings called slinger rings which hang down into the lubricating oil. As the
shaft rotate, the rings are rotated with shaft causing the lubrication of shaft. Wear rings are fitted
between the impeller collar and pump casing. The small gap is maintained between these faces
209

so minimizing the frictional wear of the wear rings. During the operation of pump, fluid
continuously flows through these spaces causing the lubrication of wear rings. As result of
vibration the wear rings would be damaged first.
SHAFT SEALS
Seals are used to prevent the leakage of the liquid to be pumped. They are fitted around the pump
shaft and inside the body casing extension. The compartment which holds the seal is known as
stuffing box. Two types of seals are commonly used:
Soft Seal
Mechanical Seal
The pumps that are being used at Makori contain the Mechanical Seals.

8.2.2 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS


INTRODUCTION
A positive displacement pump is characterized by the reciprocating backward and forward
motion of the pumping element with the constant volumetric capacity at constant speed and at
any pressure. The main advantage of Pd pumps over the centrifugal pumps is that they have the
ability to raise a liquid to higher pressure with less power but they give the pulsating flow. The
pulsation can be minimized by the use of multiplex cylinder or using the double acting cylinders.
BASIC TERMS
STROKE: movement of piston from one end of cylinder to other end.
BACKWARD STROKE: movement of piston towards the driver end of the pump.
FORWARD STROKE: movement of piston towards the driven end of the pump.
FULL STROKE: movement of piston from one end of cylinder to other end and back to its
original position.
SINGLE ACTING: pump which discharge liquid during one half of the full stroke.
DOUBLE ACTING: pumps which discharge the liquid on each stroke of the piston.
The pumps present at the Makori are single acting PD pumps.
210

8.2.2.1 PLUNGER PUMP


In the plunger type pump, a plunger moves backward and forwards inside a cylinder. The
diameter of plunger is much smaller than the diameter of the cylinder. The cylinder consists of
two ports that are alternately opened or closed by spring loaded disc type valves as the plunger
stroke moves backwards and forwards. The valves arranged in such a way that when plunger
moves backwards the outlet valves closes the outlet ports while the inlet valves opens the inlet
ports, so allowing the liquid being pumped to be drawn into the cylinder. This is called the
suction stroke. The amount of liquid that is drawn into the cylinder corresponds to the distance of
the plunger stroke. On completion of suction stroke, the plunger reverses direction and starts to
move forward. Pressure exerted by the plunger on the glycol contained in the cylinder closes the
suction ports by pressing the valves against the valve seats. At the same time liquid pressure
opens the discharge valve, allowing the glycol to flow through the discharge ports and into the
discharge line. In plunger pump as the diameter of plunger is much smaller than the cylinder,
hence only part of liquid contains inside the cylinder is displaced. They require the outside
packing to seal off the pumping chamber.

PLUNGER PUMP

8.2.2.2 DIAPHRAGM PUMP


A diaphragm pump is a positive displacement pump that uses a combination of the reciprocating
action of a rubber or Teflon diaphragm and suitable non-return check valves to pump a fluid.
Sometimes this type of pump is also called membrane pump. The diaphragm is flexed, causing
the volume of the pump chamber to increase and decrease. A pair of non-return check valves
prevents reverse flow of the fluid. When the volume of a chamber of either type is increased (the
211

diaphragm moving up), the pressure decreases, and fluid is drawn into the chamber. When the
chamber pressure later increases from decreased volume (the diaphragm moving down), the fluid
previously drawn in is forced out. Finally, the diaphragm moving up once again draws fluid into
the chamber, completing the cycle. Diaphragm pumps have good suction lift characteristics,
some are low pressure pumps with low flow rates; others are capable of higher flows rates,
dependent on the effective working diameter of the diaphragm and its stroke length. The pumps
are operated by the instrument air and hence they are known as pneumatically driven pumps.

Pneumatic Air

DIAPHRAGM PUMP

8.2.2.3 GEAR PUMP


A Gear pump uses the meshing of gears to pump fluid by displacement. Gear pumps are also
widely used in oil and gas industry to pump fluid with a certain viscosity. There are two main
variations;
External gear pumps which use two external spur gears
Internal gear pumps which use an external and an internal spur gear
Gear pumps are fixed displacement, meaning they pump a constant amount of fluid for each
revolution.

212

GEAR PUMP SCHEMATIC


WORKING
The external gear pump uses two identical gears rotating against each other -- one gear is driven
by a motor and it in turn drives the other gear. Each gear is supported by a shaft with bearings on
both sides of the gear.

SCHEMATIC OF GEAR PUMP


As the gears come out of mesh, they create expanding volume on the inlet side of the
pump. Liquid flows into the cavity and is trapped by the gear teeth as they rotate.
Liquid travels around the interior of the casing in the pockets between the teeth and the
casing -- it does not pass between the gears.
Finally, the meshing of the gears forces liquid through the outlet port under pressure.
Because the gears are supported on both sides, external gear pumps are quiet-running and are
routinely used for high-pressure applications such as for lube oil pumping applications.

213

8.3 PUMPS AT MAKORI


8.3.1 SEPARATION UNIT

FLOWSERVE PUMPS

Three Vertical Single Stage Motor Driven Centrifugal Pumps are installed near Degaser.
Siemens Motor is used to drive them.
There purpose is to transport condensate from degaser to Heat Exchanger to Storage Tanks.

TAG DATA

Serial No.
Equipment No.
Purchase Order
Model
Size
MDP
Material
Date

FLOW SERVE(1)
0106-1197 B
21-P-02B
0260061
MK3 Vertical In-Line
2K4X3V-10/10.00RV
275 psi @ 100 F
D4/CF8M
08/FEB/2006

214

Serial No.
Equipment No.
Purchase Order
Model
Size
MDP
Material
Date

FLOW SERVE(2)
0106-1196 A
21-P-01A
0260061
MK3 Vertical In-Line
2K3X1.5V-13/9.69RV
230 psi @ 100 F
D4/CF8M
07/FEB/2006

Serial No.
Equipment No.
Purchase Order
Model
Size
MDP
Material
Date

FLOW SERVE(3)
0106-1196 B
21-P-01B
0260061
MK3 Vertical In-Line
2K3X1.5V-13/9.69RV
230 psi @ 100 F
D4/CF8M
07/FEB/2006

8.3.2 FLARE AREA

TEXSTEAM CHEMICAL PUMP

1 Diaphragm Pump driven by Instrument Air is installed here. It transfers condensate-water to


OWS.

215

TAG DATA

Serial No.
Part No.
Max Disc.
Max Supply

TEXSTEAM CHEMICAL PUMP


529073 01 002
9001ABW01
N/A
100 psi

WILDEN PUMPS

2 Instrument Air Driven Diaphragm Pumps have been installed with High Pressure Knockout
Drum to pump condensate to Oil Water Separator (OWS).

216

TAG DATA

Desc.
Serial No.
Date
Item No.
M/O No.

WILDEN PUMP
PX1500/AAAAA/WFS/WF/WF
0021150601
11/08/10
15-11577
M829470

1 Instrument Air Driven Diaphragm Pump has been installed with Low Pressure Knockout
Drum.

217

TAG DATA

Desc.
Serial No.
Date
Item No.
M/O No.

WILDEN PUMP
T20/WWWAB/WFS/TF/PF
0021150598
11/08/10
20-10020
M829450

8.3.3 STABILIZATION UNIT

DEAN PUMPS

2 Horizontal Single Stage Motor Driven Centrifugal Pumps are installed with Heating Medium
for pumping TEG. WEG Motors are used here. These pumps are also provided with cooling fins.

COOLING FINS
218

TAG DATA

Serial No.
Size & Model
GPM
Head (feet)
Impeller Dia
Max. Pressure
Max. Temperature
RPM

DEAN PUMP
181532
1x3x8 RA-3146
100
253
8 - 3/8
350 psig. at 650 deg.F.
650 deg.F. at 350 psig.
3500

BEAR PUMPS

2 Duplex Motor Driven Plunger Pumps are used for pumping TEG with TEG Regenerator. WEG
Motors are used here.

219

TAG DATA

SERIAL NO.
MODEL
RATED GPM
RATED RPM
RATED HP
GALS/REV.
SIZE & STROKE
RATED DISCHARGE PRESSURE
DATE

BEAR PUMP
C60161D
CX-5
5
340
5
0.0153
1.00 x 2.25
1350 psi
08/FEB/2008

8.3.4 LOADING AREA

2 KSB Horizontal Single Stage Motor Driven Centrifugal Pumps have been installed in
this area for loading condensate from storage tanks into boozers. However they are not in
use nowadays.

220

TAG DATA

Type
W. No.
Q
H
N
B.H.P.

KSB PUMPS
RPK 80-250
9972170971/100/2
65 M3/H
20 M
1750 r.p.m
4 KW

TAG DATA

Type
W. No.
Q
H
N
B.H.P.

KSB PUMPS
RPK 80-250
9972170971/100/3
65 M3/H
20 M
1750 r.p.m
4 KW
221

2 Vertical Single Stage Motor Driven GOULDS pumps are installed with one loading
arm for condensate loading. SIEMENS Motors are being used to provide the drive.

TAG DATA

Serial No.
Equipment No.
Purchase Order
Model
Size
MDP
Material
Date

FLOW SERVE(1)
0106-1197 C
21-P-02C
0260061
MK3 Vertical In-Line
2K4X3V-10/10.00RV
275 psi @ 100 F
D4/CF8M
08/FEB/2006

Serial No.
Equipment No.
Purchase Order

FLOW SERVE(2)
0106-1197 A
21-P-02A
0260061
222

Model
Size
MDP
Material
Date

MK3 Vertical In-Line


2K4X3V-10/10.00RV
275 psi @ 100 F
D4/CF8M
08/FEB/2006

2 Horizontal Single Stage Motor Driven pumps are installed with second loading arm for
condensate loading.

2 Vertical Single Stage Motor Driven BERKELY Pumps are installed. Baldor Reliance
Motors are being used to provide the drive.

223

8.3.5 LARGE CONDENSATE TANK

1 Motor Driven Horizontal Single Stage KSB Centrifugal pump has been installed near
Large Condensate Tank to pump condensate. SIEMENS Motor is used to drive the pump.

224

TAG DATA

Type
W. No.
Q
H
N
B.H.P.

KSB PUMPS
RPK 80-250
9972170971/100/1
65 M3/H
20 M
1750 r.p.m
4 KW

1 Wilden Diaphragm Pump Driven by Instrument Air is also installed here. It transfers
drained water-condensate to OWS.

8.3.6 WELLHEAD CONTROL PANEL(MAKORI-3)

2 HESKEL Diaphragm Pumps are installed to pump oil for operating SSV and SSSV.
They are operated by Instrument Air and convert 125 psi to 3500 psi for SSV and to 9000
psi for SSSV.

225

TAG DATA

Pump Model
Serial No.
HYD. Pressure

HASKEL INTERNATIONAL
MHP-110
M310-1076
13500 psi max.

8.3.7 WELL HEAD(MAKORI-3)

1 Williams Singlex Plunger Pump has been installed here to pump Methanol into the line.

226

TAG DATA

Model No.
Serial No.
Max. Pump Pressure
Max. Flow Rate

WILLIAMS PUMP
P500V300
3108771-02
3250 psi 224 BAR
2.3 GPH or 2.71 LPH

8.3.8 FIRE WATER SYSTEM

2 Motor Driven Horizontal KSB Centrifugal Pumps are used in this area for filling large
water tank or discharging water from the large storage tank to fire monitors in the plant.
They are Driven by Siemens Motor.

TAG DATA

Type
W. No.
Q
H
N
B.H.P.

KSB PUMPS (water system)


ETA 80/20 AR
17-6289
420.1GPM
115 ft
2920 r.p.m
18.4

227

TAG DATA
Client No.
Type
W. No.
Q
H
n
B.H.P.

KSB PUMPS
0430291001
ETANORM G 100-200 G1
18- 8304
300.01 M3/H
76.20 M
3575 r.p.m
76.63 KW

1 Diesel Engine Driven Horizontal Centrifugal Pump is used as stand by in case of


electricity failure. The Pump used is KSB Pump. Engine uses 3 Cylinders and EXIDE
Battery. A handle clutch is used to engage and disengage the engine with the pump.

228

TAG DATA
KSB PUMPS
ETA 80/20 AR
21-7-10-6973

Type
W. No.

1 AURORA Vertical Single Stage Centrifugal Pump is used as a Jockey Pump to


maintain the pressure once it has been built up. It is also Motor Driven .

TAG DATA

Model No.
Serial No.
Max. Pressure
Max. Temperature
Mfg. Date

AURORA PUMPS
PVM4-90 Flange 1-1/4 300# 4-bolt EPDM
1854426-10
360 psi
250 F
04/11/2008

229

8.3.9 MECHANICAL REFERIGERATION UNIT (MRU)

1 Instrument Air Driven Wilden Diaphragm Pump is used to fill MEG in the MEG
Accumulator.

2 UNION Motor Driven Singlex Plunger Pumps are used for the circulation of MEG. 1
pump operates at a time. TECO Motors are used.

230

TAG DATA

Customer ID. No.


Serial No.
Pump Size
Capacity
Max. Frame Loading
Discharge Pressure
Suction Pressure
Gear Ratio

UNION PUMP
P-695A
R105252AX
1-1/8 X 2-1/4 SX3
2.5 GPM
1770 LBS.
1200 PSIG @ 800 F
0.0 PSIG @ 200 F
N/A

A Vertical Single Stage Motor Driven Centrifugal Union Pump is used to recirculate
Propane in the circuit. Reliance Electric Motor is used here.

231

TAG DATA

Item No.
Serial No.
Pump Size
Capacity
Head
R.P.M
MAWP
Casting Hydrotest

UNION PUMP
P-860
C0060280A-1
2-1/2/2/10A VLK
35 GPM
250 ft
3550
690 PSIG @ 110F
1100 PSIG

1 MYCOM Motor Driven Gear Pump is used to pump lube oil from Oil Separator to
Compressor. It is an external Gear Pump. Siemens Motor is used to provide the drive.

232

TAG DATA

Model
Serial No.
DP(kg/cm3)
TP(kg/cm3)
AP(kg/cm3)
DP(MPa)
TP(MPa)
AP(MPa)
Ref.
Date

MYCOM GEAR PUMP


M80P
1413803
20
33
22
1.96
3.23
2.15
Freon
April 2005

8.3.10 OIL WATER SEPARATOR(OWS)

1 Instrument Air Driven Wilden Diaphragm Pump is used to pump condensate from
OWS to Degaser.

233

8.3.11 EVAPORATION POND

2 GOULDS Vertical Multi-Stage Motor Driven Centrifugal Pumps are installed here to
pump water from Evaporation pond to Boozers.

234

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