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- Concrete Micro Structure - Porosity and Permeability
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Petrophysics

FEMV 2003

Poroperm Report

Prepared by:

Andrew Grant

ID#: 65188

Introduction:

A key variable in permeability control is porosity, that is, there is a direct proportional

relationship between porosity and permeability. Thus, formations with larger porosity

value may relatively have larger pore throats and therefore a relatively boarder

pathway for fluid flow. As of consequence, permeability can be plotted on a

logarithmic scale vs percentage porosity for a given rock formation. The results

obtained will show a clear trend analysis with a certain degree of deviation

associated with other factors influencing permeability. These factors may include:

grain size, connectivity of the flow paths in the rock, pore geometry of the rock as

well as the composite or directional properties of pore geometry.

Method:

Results were obtained by conducting conventional core analysis on well logs and

cuttings.

Results:

See attached document

Discussion:

With respect to graph 1 part 1: the following relationships between permeability and

porosity were observed:

In this core sample, the poroperm graph followed an exponential trend between the

permeability and porosity values. Furthermore, the data for the number of samples

taken for this formation was distributed in a uniform and homogeneous trend along

the exponential regression line. This is evident of the direct correlation between the

two parameters (i.e. permeability and porosity). For this formation the regression line

is given by: y = 0.0939e47.074 from graph 1.

Using Nelsons regression of analysis the regression line follows:

Ln k = 47.074

the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.5, it is considered from this data, that

there is a significantly strong relationship between permeability and porosity for this

formation.

Moreover, in addition to the aforementioned information above, the lithology of this

formation was identified by referring to the following poroperm map below:

Based on the poroperm trends for different lithologies as shown above, graph 1

(from excel spreadsheet) showed a similar pattern to that of finely crystalline

carbonates with vugs (for example limestones and dolomite). In that, it showed a

general trend of a relatively high porosity with a relatively corresponding fair to high

amount of permeability. This phenomenon could be as a result of the following:

Grain size: The grain size for finely crystalline carbonates ranges from 10m to

1/16mm. Because grain size is relatively small to medium, this directly affects

porosity of the formation and as a result permeability.

Grain composition/grain packing: Carbonate minerals are composed of three sub

groups namely calcite, dolomite and aragonite. Minerals of the calcite and dolomite

divisions belong to the rhombohedral grain packing system whereas, the aragonite

group belongs to the orthorhombic group (Boggs 2008). Theoretically, these grain

packing systems are 26 % and 39.5 % respectively. However the porosity range for

this formation in graph 1 is from .06 to .18 % respectively. This signifies that the

permeability porosity relationship is influenced by the granulometric composition of

this reservoir. Meaning that porosity is influenced by the geometry of the grain

composition, that is, both rhombohedral and orthorhombic packing systems usually

result in a relatively smaller pore space and pore throats. This restricts fluid flow and

as a result permeability for this formation.

With reference to graph 2 part 2: the following relationships between permeability

and porosity were observed:

In this core sample, the poroperm graph shows a plot of permeability versus porosity

data obtained from a large number of samples of a sandstone formation. The data

pattern was generally a diffused cloud with a direction almost in parallel to the x-axis;

that is the data was distributed in a scattered trend along the linear regression

trendline as shown in graph 2. It also means that permeability was influenced by

factors other than porosity such as grain size etc. This is supported by the direct

correlation between permeability and porosity as shown in the regression equation

below:

y = 33.13x 335.03 as shown in graph 2

Using Nelsons regression of analysis the regression line follows:

Ln k = 33.13 x + 5.814, with the square correlation coefficient (R 2) = 0.1376. This is

indicative of a weak correlation between permeability and porosity since the

coefficient correlation is less than 0.5. This is because, even though this formation

possesses a high percentage porosity, its corresponding permeability is generally

zero or near zero. In this situation, the relationship represented by the data provided

between permeability and porosity is qualitative and does not quantify between the

two parameters in any way. This means that effective porosity (which permeability)

value is relatively insignificant in this formation.

Based on the information stated above and the poroperm trends for different

lithologies as shown in graph 1 above, the lithology follows a pattern of clay

cemented sandstones and chalks. Since it followed a general trend of high porosity

but with almost zero permeability. This phenomenon is influenced by the following:

Grain size: clay minerals are usually typical in sandstone as matrix components. In

many cases, they are usually lumped together with fine-size of < 0.03 mm (as small

as 4 m) (Boggs 2008). Since grain size is very fine, the pore size (as well as pore

throats) for this formation will be relatively small and this causes an increase in

surface area to the fluid flow as well as frictional forces between the rocks. Therefore

even though there is high porosity, it is mainly in the form of micro-porosity filled with

contained water which is usually immobile. This type of porosity restricts fluid flow

and as a result permeability for this formation is significantly low.

With respect to graph 3 part 3: the following relationships between permeability and

porosity were observed:

In this core sample, the poroperm graph followed an exponential trend between the

permeability and porosity values. Furthermore, the data for the number of samples

taken for this formation was distributed in a uniform and homogeneous trend along

the exponential regression line. This is evident of the direct correlation between the

two parameters (i.e. permeability and porosity). For this formation the regression line

is given by: y = 0.4392e0.322x from graph 3.

Using Nelsons regression of analysis the regression line follows:

Ln k = 0.322

the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.5, it is considered from this data, that

there is a significantly strong relationship between permeability and porosity for this

formation.

poroperm map above. Graph 3 showed a similar pattern to that of clean standstones

as identified in figure 1 above. From graph 3, the permeability of the clean sandstone

for this formation illustrates that it is controlled mainly by porosity. Also from graph 3,

the data illustrates, both a high degree of permeability with a corresponding degree

of porosity. This means that there are a significant amount of interconnected pore

spaces and pore throats surrounding these pore spaces and as of consequence this

enhances the fluid flow (effective porosity) within the formation.

With regard to graphs four and five it was observed that porosity and permeability

decreases with increasing depth in feet. However, porosity only showed a marginal

decrease by 5.61 (i.e. 23.61-18). In contrast permeability showed a sharp decrease

with increasing depth by 12115 ft (i.e. 12498 383). This is because of as depth

increases compaction due to overburden pressure increases along with the

geothermal gradient. This results in an increase in the kinetics of the chemical

reactions as subsurface temperature increases. Consequently, cementation and

diagenesis which reduces pore spaces in the rock formation decreases at increased

subsurface depth. This significantly reduces fluid flow and thus permeability of the

formation.

The main difference between poroperm three vs one and two is that the data is more

symmetrically distributed about the trendline with most of the data clustering near the

high permeability and porosity region of the exponential regression line. Also there is

less deviation between points along the regression line as oppose to graphs one and

two. This signifies that permeability is influenced significantly by porosity for

poroperm three than one and two. This is attributed to the different depositional

environment for all three formations, with poroperm three being the most optimal for

high porosity and permeability.

With regards to poroperm plot L-12-03 its R2 = 0.4883, the correlation for this rock

formation is relatively strong since the R2 value is approximately 0.5. Also, based on

the graph, the data presented was homogeneous and uniform cloud about the

logarithmic regression line. Moreover, based on the Wentworth grain-size scale for

sediments, its equivalent phi () unit range is approximately between 0.1 and 0.18.

This range corresponds to the Wentworth class size of coarse sand grain size that

is well sorted (Boggs 2008) and therefore it is inferred that the lithology of this

poroperm is a sandstone with coarse grain sizes between 0.1 and 0.18.

With regards to poroperm plot ROSLU its R2 = 0.0876, the correlation for this

multiwell interval plot is relatively weak since it is less than 0.5. Also the based on

graph, the data presented was heterogeneous, but with a relatively uniform cloud

about the logarithmic regression line, which possesses phi () units ranging from

0.02 to 0.28. This is because data taken was from multiple wells at varied ranges of

depth for each well. As a result, this data was more relatively diffused about the

logarithmic regression line. The phi () range (as mentioned above) also

corresponds to the Wentworth class size of coarse sand grain size that is well

sorted (Boggs 2008) and therefore it is inferred that the lithology of this poroperm is

also a sandstone with coarse grain sizes between .02 and 0.28.

Conclusion:

Permeability is influenced by many factors, a key factor is porosity, and this was the

common denominator from all of the poroperm data provided. Other factors that

affect permeability are grain size, packing geometry as well as diagenesis.

Regards

Andrew Grant

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