Extracting DNA STANDARD IV: Students will understand that genetic information coded in DNA is passed from parents to offspring

by sexual and asexual reproduction. The basic structure of DNA is the same in all living things. Changes in DNA may alter genetic expression. Objective 3: Explain how the structure and replication of DNA are essential to heredity and protein synthesis Background Knowledge: Students should understand polarity, macromolecule structure and function, cell organelles and enzyme function. Objective: To learn to extract DNA from different cells and see what it looks like. Equipment and Supplies: food sources (raw or dried green peas-do NOT use cooked or frozen), raw onions, raw chicken or cow liver) coffee filters, strainer, shell vials, wooden splints, toothpicks, liquid detergent, meat tenderizer, alcohol, 100 ml beakers, juicer or blender, salt, water, goggles Safety Issues: When the students work with the raw meat they should be careful to wash their hands and their work-stations, so as to not spread harmful bacteria. Duration: 55 minutes Procedures for Teachers: 1. Obtain supplies (all should be easily located at the local grocery store). Remember all food must be raw or dried so as to not damage the DNA 2. Using a juicer or blender add about 500 ml of split peas (about 2 ½ cups) 3. Add about 2x the amount of cold water. (1000 ml) 4. Add a ½ teaspoon of salt and blend well. You are blending to separate the pea cells from each other. The mixture should have a runny consistency but not be clear. 5. Repeat procedure for onions and liver. You will need slightly less water for the liver. 6. Pass out lab to students. 7. Allow students time to read over the lab. Let them make their predictions. 8. Let the lab groups choose which type of DNA they would like to extract. You may allow students to try more than one as time permits. 9. It is probably best for you to try this lab beforehand so you know what you are doing and how to help the students. It also is nice to have a couple correctly extracted vials on hand for students whose lab does not work properly. The longer the mixture sits the easier the DNA will be to see. 10. The DNA should be long and stringy and have somewhat of a gelatinous texture. 11. If students are having trouble check the following things: Look very closely at the alcohol layer for tiny bubbles. The clumps of DNA may attach to the bubbles. If none of

your students are getting DNA you may have added too much water, you might want to make another batch. Finally make sure each step is given sufficient time. Correct Data Drawing:


DNA Proteins and Lipids

Answers to Analysis Questions: 1. DNA is long and stringy. It feels kind of gooey or sticky. 2. No all DNA looked the same. DNA is the same in all living things. 3. The detergent broke down the cell membranes. First the outer membrane and then the nuclear membrane. This is important because DNA stays inside the nucleus and we have to get it out to look at it. 4. The meat tenderizer will soften the meat because it is mostly muscle which is mainly made up of proteins. The enzymes will break up those proteins. 5. The meat tenderizer breaks up proteins. Proteins hold DNA wound up. We need it unwound. 6. All parts of the cell. 7. Polar. Nonpolar 8. DNA is not alive. It can stick around for thousands of years. The smallest unit that can be alive is a cell, and DNA is a macromolecule which makes up that cell. 9. Cell 10. All cells contain DNA originally. (Some cells like RBC end up without a nucleus.) Answers to Conclusions: Answers will vary but should be thoughtful and complete. Scoring Guide: Predictions: 2 points Data: 4 points Analysis Questions: 2 points each Conclusions: 4 points Total: 30 points

Extracting DNA Name:_____________________________________________ Period:___________ Purpose: To learn to extract DNA from different cells and see what it looks like. Materials: food sources (peas, onions, liver), strainer, shell vials, wooden splints, toothpicks, liquid detergent, meat tenderizer, alcohol, 100 ml beakers, goggles, small graduated cylinders Procedure: 1. Pour your thin *pea-cell soup through a strainer into the 100 ml beaker. 2. Add 1/6 the amount of detergent to the beaker as you have pea-soup. Example if you have 60 ml of pea-soup you would add 10 ml of detergent. 3. Stir very gently with your wooden splint and allow to sit for 10 minutes. 4. Pour from the beaker into your shell vial. Fill it about 1/3 full 5. Add three small scoops of meat tenderizer with the flat end of the splint. and stir gently. Be careful! If you stir too hard, you'll break up the DNA, making it harder to see. 6. Tilt your test tube and slowly pour rubbing alcohol into the tube down the side so that it forms a layer on top of the pea mixture. Pour until you have about the same amount of alcohol in the tube as pea mixture.DNA will rise into the alcohol layer from the pea layer. 7. Use a toothpick to draw the DNA into the alcohol, try to spool it out. 8. You may want to feel the texture of the DNA between your fingers, just make sure you wash your hands! *or onion-cell soup or liver-cell soup Prediction: What will DNA look like? Data: Draw the vial and label the parts (protein, DNA, lipids, alcohol)

Analysis: 1. What does DNA look like when it is extracted? 2. Look at the DNA from other lab groups. Did DNA from the different substances look different? Why? 3. What does the detergent break down and why is that important to extracting DNA? 4. Meat tenderizer is made from enzymes. Enzymes can breakdown protein. Why do we put meat tenderizer on meat?

5. What does the meat tenderizer break down and why is that important to extracting DNA? 6. What parts of the cell does DNA contain the blue-print for? 7. The alcohol dissolves everything in the cell but DNA. Alcohol is non-polar, what must DNA be? What would the proteins and lipids be? 8. IN 1991scientists discovered a man frozen in the ice. By radio-carbon dating they found him to be 5000 years old. Originally scientist thought the man died of exposure to the cold. However, recently scientists discovered 4 different spots of blood each containing different DNA sequences. This led them to believe maybe the man died in a violent battle. Do you think DNA is alive? Defend your answer. 9. What is the smallest unit that can be alive? 10. What cells is DNA in? Conclusion: Please explain 2 concepts you learned from this lab. Be thorough and use complete sentences.

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