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Proceedings of International Conference on Innovation in

Electronics and Communication Engineering (ICIECE-2012)



Ramaram Madhuri, 2Gaddameedi Bindhu, 3Ravuri Divyajyothi

KITE Womens College of Professional EngineeringSciences, Shabad, Hyderabad,INDIA

1, 2, 3
1 , ,


The project mainly aims in designing an

wieless attendance monitoring system for class room in the
colleges/schools.Now-a-days intelligent automation has stepped
its presence in every field all over the world.Automation is the
most frequently spelled term in the field of electronics. The
hunger for automation brought many revolutions in the
existing technologies. One among the technologies which had
greater developments is RF communications. The result of this
is the RFID cards which transmit a unique identification
number.Attendance management is one of the most basic and
important management links. It plays an important role in
improving the enterprises management efficiency and level.
Currently, the staff or class incharge will take the attendance in
many school/colleges. This pattern is flexible and practical. But
it has some disadvantages. The RFID has a lot of advantages,
such as unique, permanent, good anti-fake and easy to use. So it
is recognized increasingly by people .As we know the
advancements in the Radio Frequency and making use of those
existing technology we can design a device which is capable of
maintaining the attendance of the class room and the class
room unit displays the strength of the class.The basic idea of
the system is to employ an RFID tag to each and every student
and when the student enters in to the class this number
transmitted by the RFID tag can be read with the help of a RF
reader and then after the total strength of the classroom will
be displayed in the LCD display which is placed in the outside
of the class.The operations like displaying the total strength of
the calss in lcd is done by an microcontroller which the RF
reader is interfaced. In other words micro controller acts as a
communication medium for all the modules involved in the
project.The major advantage of this system is the presence of
the RFID module enables the device to to monitor the
attendance of classroom.

This project RFID Based Wireless attendance monitoring
system for classroom deals with giving intelligence to the
existing traditional system. Persons who are authorized will
be assigned an rfid card with respect to his/her
identification.The RFID reader is interfaced to the micro

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controller unit, which keeps track of the Identification. The

reader ID the card of the student and compares with the
database, if it is authentication person it will give
authenticated signal to microcontroller which will display
the authentication in LCD and sends an authentication
number to the microcontroller.The microcontroller will
control the lock and accept it depending upon the reader
output.If any unauthorized persons try to enter in to class, it
will check the authentication for three times and the
controller automatically alerts the security by blowing the
buzzer. This can be implementing in real time.Radio
Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology that uses
radio frequencies to automatically identify and track people
or objects. It is useful for many enterprises that want to
improve their productivity, processes and gain a competitive
edge by getting real time information enabling them to make
proactive business decisions. RFID offers higher data
storage capacities, higher identification speeds, and greater
immediacy and accuracy of data collection. The
technologys enhanced accuracy and security in data
collection makes it an ideal data collection platform for the
health care, pharmaceutical, manufacturing, warehousing,
logistics and retail sectors.


An embedded system is a combination of software and

hardware to perform a dedicated task. Some of the main
devices used in embedded products are microprocessors and
microcontrollers. Microprocessors are commonly referred to
as general purpose processors as they simply accept the
inputs, process it and give the output. In contrast, a
microcontroller not only accepts the data as inputs but also
manipulates it, interfaces the data with various devices,
controls the data and thus finally gives the result.To build an
wireless attendance monitoring system for classroom is one
need to incorporate various technologies in a single unit so
as to achieve the preferred output. Of all available


Proceedings of International Conference on Innovation in

Electronics and Communication Engineering (ICIECE-2012)
technologies the most suitable technologies that can be
utilized for such applications are RFID and Embedded

Circuit Diagram

Circuit Description: Firstly, the required operating voltage

for Microcontroller 89C51 is 5V. Hence the 5V D.C. power
supply is needed by the same. This regulated 5V is
generated by first stepping down the 230V to 18V by the
step down transformer. In the Power supply the step downed
a.c. voltage is being rectified by the Bridge Rectifier. The
diodes used are 1N4007. The rectified a.c voltage is now
filtered using a C filter. Now the rectified, filtered D.C.
voltage is fed to the Voltage Regulator.This voltage
regulator allows us to have a Regulated voltage.In Power
supply given to Microcontroller 5V is generated using 7805.

20-21, July 2012, GNI Hyderabad

The rectified; filtered and regulated voltage is again filtered

for ripples using an electrolytic capacitor 100F. Now the
output from the first section is fed to 40th pin of 89c51
microcontroller to supply operating voltage and from other
power supply to circuitry.The microcontroller 89c51 with
Pull up resistors at Port0 and crystal oscillator of 11.0592
MHz crystal in conjunction with couple of capacitors of is
placed at 18th & 19th pins of 89c51 to make it work (execute)
properly.The LCD is interfaced to Microcontroller.The data
pins of LCD are connected to port 2.The controlpins of LCD
are connected to port 2 as shown in the schematics.The
RFID module is interfaced to micro controller through a
voltage converter i.e.MAX 232.The 2nd and 3rd pins of RFID
of RFID modules DB-9 connector 14th and 13th pins of
MAX232.the pins 11th and 12th of MAX 232 are connected
to 11th,12th pins of 89c51.the 25th ,26th,28th pins of 89c51 are
connected to lcd of 4th, 5th and 6th pins as shown in the
schematic diagram.
Microcontroller: A Micro controller consists of a powerful
CPU tightly coupled with memory, various I/O interfaces
such as serial port, parallel port timer or counter, interrupt
controller, data acquisition interfaces-Analog to Digital
converter, Digital to Analog converter, integrated on to a
single silicon chip. If a system is developed with a
microprocessor, the designer has to go for external memory
such as RAM, ROM, EPROM and peripherals. But
controller is provided all these facilities on a single chip.
Development of a Micro controller reduces PCB size and
cost of design. One of the major differences between a
Microprocessor and a Micro controller is that a controller
often deals with bits not bytes as in the real world
application.Intel has introduced a family of Micro
controllers called the MCS-51.The system requirements and
control specifications clearly rule out the use of 16, 32 or 64
bit micro controllers or microprocessors. Systems using
these may be earlier to implement due to large number of
internal features. They are also faster and more reliable but,
8-bit micro controller satisfactorily serves the above
application. Using an inexpensive 8-bit Microcontroller will
doom the 32-bit product failure in any competitive market
place. Coming to the question of why to use AT89C51 of all
the 8-bit microcontroller available in the market the main
answer would be because it has 4 Kb on chip flash memory
which is just sufficient for our application. The on-chip
Flash ROM allows the program memory to be
reprogrammed in system or by conventional non-volatile
memory Programmer. Moreover ATMEL is the leader in


Proceedings of International Conference on Innovation in

Electronics and Communication Engineering (ICIECE-2012)
flash technology in todays market place and hence using
AT 89C51 is the optimal solution.

Regulated power supply :The power supplies are designed

to convert high voltage AC mains electricity to a suitable
low voltage supply for electronic circuits and other devices.
A power supply can by broken down into a series of blocks,
each of which performs a particular function. A d.c power
supply which maintains the output voltage constant
irrespective of a.c mains fluctuations or load variations is
known as Regulated D.C Power Supply
Liquid crystal display: The most common application of
liquid crystal technology is in liquid crystal displays
(LCDs). From the ubiquitous wrist watch and pocket
calculator to an advanced VGA computer screen, this type
of display has evolved into an important and versatile
interface.A liquid crystal display consists of an array of tiny
segments (called pixels) that can be manipulated to present
information. This basic idea is common to all displays,
ranging from simple calculators to a full color LCD
television.Why are liquid crystal displays important? The
first factor is size. As will be shown in the following
sections, an LCD consists primarily of two glass plates with
some liquid crystal material between them. There is no
bulky picture tube. This makes LCDs practical for
applications where size (as well as weight) are important.In
general, LCDs use much less power than their cathode-ray
tube (CRT) counterparts. Many LCDs are reflective,
meaning that they use only ambient light to illuminate the
display. Even displays that do require an external light
source (i.e. computer displays) consume much less power
than CRT devices.Liquid crystal displays do have
drawbacks, and these are the subject of intense research.
Problems with viewing angle, contrast ratio, and response
time still need to be solved before the LCD replaces the
cathode-ray tube. However with the rate of technological
innovation, this day may not be too far into the future.

identification) is a technology that incorporates the use of
electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio
frequency (RF) portion of
the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify
an object, animal, or person. RFID is coming into increasing
use in industry as an alternative to the bar code. The
advantage of RFID is that it does not require direct contact
or line-of-sight scanning. An RFID system consists of three
components: an antenna and transceiver (often combined
into one reader) and a transponder (the tag). The antenna
uses radio frequency waves to transmit a signal that activates
the transponder. When activated, the tag transmits data back
to the antenna. The data is used to notify a programmable
logic controller that an action should occur. The action
could be as simple as raising an access gate or as
complicated as interfacing with a database to carry out a
monetary transaction.Low-frequency RFID systems (30 KHz
to 500 KHz) have short transmission ranges (generally less
than six feet). High-frequency RFID systems (850 MHz to
950 MHz and 2.4 GHz to 2.5 GHz) offer longer
transmission ranges (more than 90 feet). In general RFID is
the higher the frequency, the more expensive the system.
RFID is sometimes called dedicated short range
communication (DSRC).Radio Frequency Identification
(RFID) is a means of identifying a person or object using a
radio frequency transmission. The technology can be used to
identify, track, sort or detect a wide variety of objects.
Communication takes place between a reader (interrogator)
and a transponder (tag). Tags can either be active (powered
by battery) or passive (powered by the reader field), and
come in various forms. Some variants of tags and readers are
shown RFID Tag and RFID Reader respectively. The
communication frequencies used depends to a large extent
on the application, and range from 125 kHz to 2.45 GHz.


RFID is an acronym for Radio Frequency

20-21, July 2012, GNI Hyderabad


Proceedings of International Conference on Innovation in

Electronics and Communication Engineering (ICIECE-2012)
drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2
should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven.There
are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock
signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is
through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and
maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be
MAX232:A standard serial interfacing for PC, RS232C,
requires negative logic, i.e., logic '1' is -3V to -12V and
logic '0' is +3V to +12V. To convert a TTL logic, say, TxD
and RxD pins of the uC chips, thus need a converter chip.
A MAX232 chip has long been using in many uC boards. It
provides 2-channel RS232C port and requires external 10uF
Fig Working of RFID
IR pairs: Basics of IR transmitter and receiver Transmitter
and receiver are commonly used in Engineering projects for
remote control of objects. In particularly, in Robotic system
uses tranmitter and receiver. Here i would like to describe
the basics if IR transmitter and receiver.A Sensor can be
understood as an electrical device which tries to imitate
human senses to perform different functions in an electronic
circuit.For example, light sensor helps understand the
intensity of light just like our eyes, Heat sensor helps us
know the temperature and similarly pressure sensor, sound
sensor.A Light sensor is basically a transmitter reciever pair
in which the transmitter transmits electromagnetic radiation
in the form of waves and these waves upon reflection or
direct transmission are recieved by the reciever.Based on the
different types of electromagnetic radiation used we have
different types of sensors.The most widely used sensor
among them is the InfraRed(IR) sensor.i.e.,IR sensor
The 89C51 Crystal oscillator: The heart of the 89C51
circuitry that generates the clock pulses by which all the
internal all internal operations are synchronized. Pins
XTAL1 And XTAL2 is provided for connecting a resonant
network to form an oscillator. Typically a quartz crystal and
capacitors are employed. The crystal frequency is the basic
internal clock frequency of the microcontroller. The
manufacturers make 89C51 designs that run at specific
minimum and maximum frequencies typically 1 to 16 MHz.
Oscillator Characteristics: XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the
input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier
which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator.
Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To

20-21, July 2012, GNI Hyderabad

Fig : MAX232 IC
Introduction to RS232 (Recommended Standard
232)and its specifications:Communication as defined in the
RS232 standard is an asynchronous serial communication
method. The word serial means, that the information is sent
one bit at a time. Asynchronous tells us that the information
is not sent in predefined time slots. Data transfer can start at
any given time and it is the task of the receiver to detect
when a message starts and ends.

Fig: RS 232 Serial Cable


Proceedings of International Conference on Innovation in

Electronics and Communication Engineering (ICIECE-2012)
Results: The aim of this project is to make the present
Attendance system automatic reducing the time and effort
and increasing the performance. For this purpose, RFID
technology and IR pair modules are used. This project has
been developed based on the smart cards usage. Here the
cards used are RFID tags. A RFID reader is placed at the
outside of the classroom to read the RFID tags.Thus project
An Wireless attendance monitoring system for classroom
has been successfully designed and tested.

[11] Miss.Ramaram Madhuri,Dpt-ECE,KITE Womens College of

Professional Engineering Sciences, Shabad, Hyderabad.
[12] Miss.Gaddameedi Bindhu,Dept-ECE,KITE Womens College of
Professional Engineering Sciences, Shabad, Hyderabad.
[12] Miss.Ravuri DivyaJyothi,Dept-ECE,KITE Womens College of
Professional Engineering Sciences, Shabad, Hyderabad.

Integrating features of all the hardware components used
have been developed in it. Presence of every module has
been reasoned out and placed carefully, thus contributing to
the best working of the unit. Secondly, using highly
advanced ICs with the help of growing technology, the
project has been successfully implemented.
In future we can use this project for accident alert, parking
slot management in a better way by using high and advanced
RFID technology.. In offices, bus riders, super markets,
textiles and logistics chain management and libraries, RFID
tags can be used to record the entries of the employees or
customers. However, there are some inherent hurdles to
overcome if you try to substitute either of these sensors and
if these hurdles can be solved the future scope of this project
can be used to its maximum extent.
[1]. The 8051 Micro controller and Embedded Systems -Muhammad Ali
Mazidi Janice Gillispie Mazidi.
[2]. The 8051 Micro
controller Architecture, Programming & Applications -Kenneth J. Ayala.
[3]. Fundamentals Of Micro processors and Micro computers -B. Ram
[4]. Micro processor Architecture, Programming & Applications - Ramesh
S. Gaonkar
[5]. Electronic Components -D.V. Prasad
[10].Mr.BANOTH KRISHNA He has completed his B.Tech in ECE from
Dr.Paul Raj Engineering College-Bhdrachalam(JNTUH) in 2005 and
,M.Tech(VLSI-SD)-From SITAMS-Chittoor(JNTUH) in 2008.His interested
areas are Digital Design,Low
PowerVLSI Design,Analog VLSI
Desgin,FPGA Technology.

20-21, July 2012, GNI Hyderabad