STRATEGIC

MANAGEMENT
MANAJEMEN STRATEGI
PENGERTIAN DAN PROSES
991122
Kepustakaan
4 Strategic Management, John A. Pearce II and Richard B. Robinson, Jr.,
6th & 5th Ed., Irwin, 1997 & 1994
4 Strategic Management, Fred. R. David, 6th Ed., Prentice Hall, 1997
4 Strategic Management, Charles W.L. Hill and Gareth R. Jones, 4th Ed.,
Houghton Miflin, 1998
4 Strategic Management, Michael A. Hitt, R. Duane Ireland, and Robert E.
Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., West Publishing, 1996
4 Strategic Management, Samuel C. Certo and J. Paul Peter, 3rd Ed., Irwin,
1995
4 The Strategy Concept and Process, Arnoldo C. Hax and Nicolas S.
Majluf, 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, 1996
4 Strategy Safari, Henry Mintzberg, Bruce Ahlstrand, and Joseph Lampel,
The Free Press, 1998
4 Visionary Leadership, Burt Nanus, Jossey-Bass, 1992
991122
SOAL UJIAN AKHIR STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
17 Desember 1999 - (40 menit)
Berhubung seorang kawan mengenal anda telah lulus ujian
Manajemen Strategik tingkat Magister, dia meminta nasihat
kepada anda. Dia memiliki modal sebesar X rupiah (Pilihlah
angka X ini antara Rp. 10 juta sampai Rp 10 milyar), dan ia
ingin berusaha. Dia minta anda nasihat: bagaimana memilih
usaha yang cocok untuk dan apa yang harus dilakukannya
sehingga kemungkinan suksesnya lebih besar.
Tugas anda: Menuliskan proses yang baik sesuai proses
manajemen strategik yang anda ketahui (termasuk tools
yang dipakai serta uraian ringkas teori/pengertiannya) serta
aplikasi dalam kasus kawan anda tersebut.
000524
991122
Sikap ke Perubahan Masa Depan
· Passive
· Tak peduli apa itu masa depan, yang penting kerjakan sebaik-baiknya sekarang.
Yang penting, kita kerja keras dan makin efisien.
· Reactive
· Kita tunggu saja apa perubahannya, kita nanti sesuaikan/adaptasi dengan
keadaan perubahan itu.
· Anticipative
· Kita perlu mencari tahu akan terjadi perubahan apa, sumber-sumber
perubahannya. Kita harus sudah menyiapkan sarana prasarana dan ikut
berubah bersama.
· Proactive
· Obsesi untuk menjadi pemimpin perubahan, ikut menentukan dan
menciptakan perubahan, menentukan standar-standar baru industri.
Modified from:
Brown & Eisenhardt, Competing on the Edge, 1998, Chapt. 1
000524
MISI ALU
STRATEGI
JABARAN STRATEGI
IMPLEMENTASI
TEKAD
991122
000524
KONSEP DASAR *
( Oleh: Hiskak Secakusuma, 1990 )
MISSION
MISI
SWOT
ALU
STRATEGIES
ALTERNATIF DAN PILIHAN
OPERATING STRATEGIES
STRATEGY TAHUNAN
IMPLEMENTATION
PELAKSANAAN & PENGENDALIAN
COMMITMENT
TEKAD
* BUILDING BLOCKS
991122
KERANGKA KERJA
M
Pr + Ma + Te
Go + Ph + Sc
IE+ EE
+ CP + FC
PO
GS+ LO
OS+ AO+ P
SLCR+ Control
C
991122
TIGA TEORI PORTER
INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
GENERIC STRATEGIES
VALUE CHAIN
991122
Strategy Formulation Framework
000601
STAGE 1 : THE INPUT STAGE
STAGE 3 : THE DECISION STAGE
STAGE 2 : THE MATCHING STAGE
External Factor
Evaluation (EFE)
Matrix
Internal Factor
Evaluation (IFE)
Matrix
Competitive
Profile
Matrix
TOWS
Matrix
BCG
Matrix
SPACE
Matrix
Grand Strategy
Matrix
Internal-External
Matrix
QSPM
Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix
David, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 6-2
MISI DAN VISI
Þ VISION (The Future State)
Þ MISSION (ABOUT OUR BUSINESS & ABOUT US)
Þ STRATEGIC INTENT (OBSESSION, WINNING, LEADERSHIP)
Þ CORE COMPETENCE (CAPABILITY, SUSTAINED ADVANTAGE)
Þ STRATEGY (ACTIONS & DECISIONS, FIT TO COMPETITIVE ENV.)
000524
VISION
¤ The ability to think about the future (Advanced Learner’s Dict.)
¤ Aspiration, Values, and Philosophies (Certo & Peter)
¤ = Mission (Hill & Jones)
¤ No definition (Hitt et.al.)
¤ What do we want to become? (David)
The Future State of the Company
Keadaan (kejayaan) Perusahaan di Masa Depan
000528
MISSION
¤ A particular aim to fulfil more than anything else (Adv. Learner’s Dict.)
¤ Specific Statement of Organizational Purpose (Certo & Peter)
¤ A formal declaration of what the company is trying to achieve
over the medium to long term (Hill & Jones)
¤ Statement of a firm’s unique purpose and the scope of its
operations in product and market terms (Hitt et. al.)
¤ Enduring statements of purpose that distinguish one business
from other firms. What is our business?.(David)
Satu pernyataan tentang batasan dan pedoman usaha
perusahaan serta tujuan yang hendak dicapainya.
000528
STRATEGIC INTENT
We believe that the application of concepts such as
“strategic fit”, “generic strategies”, and the “strategy
hierarchy” have often abetted the process of
competitive decline. (8 rules, 7=S, 5 forces, 4 stages, 3 generics, 2x2 matrices)
To create an obsession with winning and sustained for
global leadership.
- captures the essence of winning
- stable over time
- sets a target that deserves personal commitment
Hamel & Prahalad, HBR May-June 89, Page 63-76
000528
CORE COMPETENCE
A core competence is a central value-creating
capability of an organization - a core skill.
- Identification of current core competence
- Establish the core competence agenda
- Create new business opportunities
Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Chapter 10
Hamel & Prahalad, HBR May-June 89, Page 63-76
000528
¤ A plan designed for a particular purpose (Adv. Learner’s Dict.)
¤ The patern that integrates goals, policies, and actions
sequences into a cohesive whole (Certo & Peter)
¤ Specific patern of decisions and actions to achieve an
organization’s goals (Hill & Jones)
STRATEGY
Satu set keputusan dan kegiatan yang pas dengan
lingkungan persaingan yang dinamis untuk mencapai
tujuan perusahaan yang ditetapkan.
000528
PERNYATAAN MISI
TIGA SEHAT ENAM SEMPURNA
¤ Produk dan/atau Jasa (Products/Services, yang
menyediakan nilai atau manfaat sepadan dengan harganya)
¤ Pasar atau Konsumen (Consumers, kebutuhan segmen
pasar tertentu yang akan dilayani/dipenuhi)
¤ Teknologi Bersaing (Technology, yang dipakai dalam
proses menciptakan nilai/manfaat produk atau jasa yang bersaing)
¤ Tujuan (Goals, tujuan yang akan diperjoangkan untuk periode
perencanaan: survival, growth, profitability)
¤ Falsafah (Philosophy, dasar keyakinan dan nilai-nilai yang
menjadi landasan kebersamaan dalam berinteraksi)
¤ Konsep Diri (Self Consept, kompetensi dan ciri keunggulan
yang diagungkan, termasuk mana intern: apakah kita ini dan ekstern:
apakah citra yang kita inginkan)
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991129
Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Page 29
David, 6th Ed, 1997, Page 88
SWOT STRENGTH-WEAKNESS-OPPORTUNITY-THREAT
ANALISIS LINGKUNGAN USAHA
¤ Analisis Usaha Intern (Internal Environment)
¤ Analisis Usaha Ekstern (External Environment)
¤ Analisis Persaingan (Competitive Profile)
¤ Teknik Prakiraan (Forecasting)
991122
Analisis Lingkungan Ekstern
THE FIRM
Operating Environment
(Global and Domestic)
Competitors, Creditors,
Customers, Labors,
Suppliers
Industry Environment
(Global and Domestic)
Entry barriers, Supplier, Buyer,
Substitute, Rivalry
Remote Environment
(Global and Domestic)
Economic, Social, Political, Technological, Ecological
Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 3-1
991129
Analisis Industri
(Porter’s Five Forces)
Potential
entrants
Potential
entrants
Substitutes
Substitutes
Buyers
Buyers
Suppliers
Suppliers
Rivalry among
existing firms
Bargaining power of Bargaining power of
Threat of
new entrants
Threat of
991129
Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 3-4
Factor
Endowments
Factor
Endowments
National Competitive Advantage
(Porter’s Diamond)
Strategy, Structure,
Rivalry
Strategy, Structure,
Rivalry
Related & Supp.
Industries
Related & Supp.
Industries
Demand
Conditions
Demand
Conditions
000524
Hill&Jones, 4th Ed, 1998, Fig. 3-8
National
Competitive
Advantage
Actions and responses
shape the competitive
positions of each firm’s
business level strategy
Actions and responses
shape the competitive
positions of each firm’s
business level strategy
Actions taken
by one firm
elicit responses
from
competitors
Actions taken
by one firm
elicit responses
from
competitors
A firm’s
strategic conduct is
dynamic in nature
A firm’s
strategic conduct is
dynamic in nature
Competitive
responses lead
to additional
actions from
the firm that
acted
originally
Competitive
responses lead
to additional
actions from
the firm that
acted
originally
Competitive
Dynamics
Competitive
Dynamics
HYPERCOMPETITION
(D’Aveni’s - Teori Obok-obok)
D’Aveni, Hypercompetition, 1994
000607
O HYPERCOMPETITION
O The stable periods have become shorter. Sustainable advantages are
becoming more temporary everyday.
O FOUR ADVANTAGES/ARENAS of Competition
O Cost & Quality, Timing & KnowHow, Strongholds, DeepPockets
O NEW 7-S’s Analysis
O Vision for Disrupting
O Superior Stakeholder Satisfaction
O Strategic Soothsaying
O Capabilities for Executing Disrupting
O Capability for Speed
O Capabilty to Surprise
O Tactic Used to Deliver the Disruptions
O Shifting the Rules
O Signaling
O Simultaneous & Sequential Thrusts
HYPERCOMPETITION
(D’Aveni’s - Teori Obok-obok)
D’Aveni, Hypercompetition, 1994
000607
O FOUR ADVANTAGES/ARENAS of Competition
Price & Qualty
Price & Qualty
Timing/Know-how
Timing/Know-how
Stronghold
Stronghold
Perfect
Competition
Perfect
Competition
Deep Pockets
Deep Pockets
HYPERCOMPETITION
(D’Aveni’s - Teori Obok-obok)
D’Aveni, Hypercompetition, 1994
000607
O NEW 7-S’s Analysis
VISION
Satisfaction
Soothaying
Market
Disruption
CAPABILITY
Speed
Surprise
TACTICS
Shifting
Signaling
Simultaneous
Analisis Usaha Intern
(Merumuskan Strengths & Weaknesses)
¤ Fungsional (Produksi, Keuangan, HRD, Marketing, R&D)
¤ Value Chain (Prasarana dan Operasional)
¤ Tolok Ukur (Rata-rata Industri, Pesaing, Obsesi)
¤ Key Success Factors (Current, Potential)
¤ Competence (Assets, Capabilities)
000601
Analisis Keunggulan
RESOURCES
Tangible + Intangible
RESOURCES
Tangible + Intangible
CAPABILITIES
Skill + Knowledge
CAPABILITIES
Skill + Knowledge
CORE
COMPETENCIES
CORE
COMPETENCIES
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE
COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE
Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 3.2 (mod)
000601
Evolusi Daur
Industri/Produk
000524
Time
Embryonic
Growth
Shakeout Maturity Decline
D
e
m
a
n
d
Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 3.6
Analisis Persaingan
(Competitive Profile Matrix)
Company Competitor 1 Competitor 2
Success Factors Weight Rate Score Rate Score Rate Score
Total Weighted Score
Market Share
Price
Fin. Position
Product Quality
Customer Loyalty
etc.
David, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 4-18
000601
KONSEP DASAR
MISSION
MISI
SWOT
ALU
STRATEGIES
ALTERNATIF DAN PILIHAN
OPERATING STRATEGIES
STRATEGY TAHUNAN
IMPLEMENTATION
PELAKSANAAN & PENGENDALIAN
COMMITMENT
TEKAD
000607
CORPORATE LEVEL
GLOBAL LEVEL
BUSINESS LEVEL
OPERATING LEVEL
VALUE OF THE FIRM
VALUE &/or COMP.
COMPETITIVENESS
PRODUCTIVITY
FINANCIAL STRATEGIES
MISSION
MISI
SWOT
ALU
STRATEGIES
ALTERNATIF DAN PILIHAN
OPERATING STRATEGIES
STRATEGY TAHUNAN
IMPLEMENTATION
PELAKSANAAN & PENGENDALIAN
COMMITMENT
TEKAD
010306
Faktor Pencapaian
Finance & Accounting
Balanced Scorecard
Financial Criteria
(Morden 18 & Lynch 9)
Accounting for Improvement
(Hope : Issue 6)
Four Perspectives
Financial
Customer
Internal Business Process
Learning & Growth
Four Processes
Translating the Vision
Communicating & Linking
Business Planning
Feedback & Learning
Building Stra-Man System
National’s 10 Steps
Berbagai Jenis Strategi
O Strategi Portofolio (BCG, GE, McKinsey, Lifecycle)
O Strategi Generik (Porter)
O Strategi Utama (Grand Strategies)
O Strategi SWOT (SWOT Strategy Analysis)
O Strategi-strategi Operasional (Operating)
991122
Berbagai Kelompok Strategi
E Stars, Cash-Cows, Dogs, Question Marks
E Invest/Grow, Selectivity, Harvest/Divest
E Winner, Profit Producer, Average, Question, Loser
Berbagai Jenis Strategi
E Broad Differentiation, Broad Low-Cost (Overall Cost Leadership),
Focus Differentiation, Focus Low-Cost
E Concentrated Growth, Market Development, Product
Development, Innovation, Horizontal Integration, Vertical
Integration, Concentric Diversification, Conglomerate
Diversification, Turnaround, Divestiture, Liquidation
E Bentukan: New, Acquisition, JV, Strategic Alliances, Concortia
E Strategi-strategi operasional/fungsional di bidang : Produksi,
Marketing, Keuangan, Sumberdaya Manusia, Riset, Organisasi &
Manajemen, dan Sistim Informasi
991122
STRATEGI STRATEGI
UTAMA
12 GRAND STRATEGIES. The comprehensive, general
plan of major actions through which a firm intends to achieve its
long term objectives in a dynamic environment.
¬ Concentrated Growth (product, market, technology)
¬ Market Development (geographic, segments)
¬ Product Development (prolong life cycle, brand name)
¬ Innovation (new lifecycle, existing obsolete)
¬ Horizontal Integration (similar business)
¬ Vertical Integration (forward, backward)
¬ Concentric Diversification (synergistic possibilities)
¬ Conglomerate Diversification (financial synergy)
¬ Turnaround/Retrenchment (cost, assets)
¬ Divestiture (business, major component)
¬ Liquidation (assets value, non-going concern)
¬ Bentukan: New Venture, Acquisition, Joint Ventures,
Strategic Alliances, Consortia
Pearce & Robinson, 5th Ed, 1994, Ch. 7
991122
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif
ª Analisis SWOT (SWOT Analysis Matrix)
ª Diagram SWOT (SWOT Diagram)
ª Analisis Strategi Generik (Porter’s Generic Strategies)
ª Pilihan Strategi Utama (Grand Strategy Selection)
ª Matriks Strategi Utama (Grand Strategy Matrix)
ª Analisis SPACE (Strategic Position & Action Eval. M.)
ª Matriks Portofolio (BCG, GE, McKinsey, Lifecycle,Core)
991122
STRATEGIES IMPLEMENTATION
FORMULATION
PROCESS
ASSETS &
CAPABILITIES
BUSINESS
MISSION
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FORMULATION PROCESS
(TRADITIONAL APPROACH or FIT APPROACH-IO Approach)
DYNAMIC
ENVIRONMENT
OUTSIDE - IN
Mencari alternatif strategi sebanyak-banyaknya
(yang fit pada lingkungan ekstern ddan intern)
Dan memilih yang terbaik di antaranya.
STRATEGIES IMPLEMENTATION
DYNAMIC
ENVIRONMENT
FORMULATION
PROCESS
ASSETS &
CAPABILITIES
G
O
A
L
BUSINESS
MISSION
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FORMULATION PROCESS
(RESOURCE-BASED APPROACH or COMPETENCE-BASED APPROACH)
ASSETS &
CAPABILITIES
STRATEGIC INTENT
INSIDE - OUT
Mencari alternatif kompetensi sebanyak-banyaknya
(yang feasible untuk dipertahankan atau dibangun)
Dan memilih yang terbaik di antaranya dan menetapkan strateginya
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
BCG Growth-Share Matrix
(Boston Consulting Group)
Relative Market Share
High Low
H
i
g
h
L
o
w
I
n
d
u
s
t
r
y

G
r
o
w
t
h

R
a
t
e
Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 10.1
991122
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
CFROI (Cashflow Return on Investment, BCG)
Strategies for Value Creation
CFROI (%)
Size
Cost of Capital (Tolok Ukur)
Memilih Core of Business :
Ide dari BCG di Jaya, 1997
* Increase CFROI
* Hold CFROI, Grow Fast
* Erode CFROI, Grow Faster
* Increase CFROI
* Reduce Reinvestment
* Divest or Liquidate
* Increase CFROI
* Then Grow
Neutral
Spread
Business
Negative
Spread
Business
F
E
D C
Positive
Spread
Business
991122
A
B
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
GE Nine Cell Planning Grid
Invest/Grow
Harvest/Divest Selectivity
Business Strength
Strong Average Weak
M
e
d
i
u
m
H
i
g
h
L
o
w
I
n
d
u
s
t
r
y

(
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
-
m
a
r
k
e
t
)

a
t
t
r
a
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s
Harvest/Divest
Harvest/Divest
Invest/Grow Invest/Grow Selectivity
Selectivity
Pearce & Robinson, 5th Ed, 1994, Fig. 8-7
991122
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
McKinsey Matrix (McKinsey & Company)
Winner Winner
Winner Loser
Loser Loser
Question Mark
Average
Profit
Producer
Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 10.2
Competitive Position
Good Medium Poor
Medium
High
Low
I
n
d
u
s
t
r
y

A
t
t
r
a
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s
991122
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
Industry Attractiveness - Business Strength Matrix
(McKinsey & Company and General Electric)
Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 9-4
Industry Attractiveness
High Medium Low
Medium
High
Low
B
u
s
i
n
e
s
s

S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
Selective
Growth
Grow or
Let Go
Grow or
Let Go
Grow or
Let Go
Harvest
Harvest Divest
Selective
Growth
Invest
991122
Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 9-5
Stage of Market Life Cycle
Introduction Growth Maturity Decline
Moderate
High
Low
C
o
m
p
e
t
i
t
i
v
e

S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
Lifecycle Portofolio Matrix
P
u
s
h
I
n
v
e
s
t

A
g
g
r
e
s
s
i
v
e
l
y
C
a
u
t
i
o
n
I
n
v
e
s
t

S
e
l
e
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
D
a
n
g
e
r
H
a
r
v
e
s
t
991122
Value Creation
Potential
High Low
H
i
g
h
L
o
w
F
i
t
n
e
s
s

t
o

M
i
s
s
i
o
n
*
B
E
D
C
F
Sell & Realise Value Close / Divest
Invest & Grow
Creat Value /
Divest if cannot
improve
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
MISSION and VALUE
Memilih Core of Business :
Ide dari BCG di Jaya, 1997
A
* Istilah Vision dipakai oleh BCG
991122
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
Core Competence Agenda
Market
Existing New
N
e
w
E
x
i
s
t
i
n
g
C
o
r
e

C
o
m
p
e
t
e
n
c
e
Fill in the Blanks White Spaces
Premier plus 10 yrs Mega-opportunities
Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 10.3
991122
PARENTING MIX
BUSINESS LEVEL STRATEGIES
(Winning the Competition)
Þ MARKET LEADERSHIP
Þ COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
Þ TARGET MARKET/CUSTOMERS
MARKET LEADERSHIP
Þ PIONEER
Þ FOLLOWER
Þ CHALENGER
OPERATING LEVEL STRATEGIES
(Productivity)
Þ EFFECTIVE (Key Result Area)
Þ EFFICIENT (Economically)
Þ SATISFACTION
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif
Matriks SWOT (TOWS Analysis
Matrix)
Strenghts Weaknesses
Opportunities
Threats
S O
Use strengths to
take advantage of
opportunities
David, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-3
S T
Use strengths to
avoid threats
W T
Min. Weaknesses
and avoid threats
W O
Overc. weaknesses
taking advantage
of opportunities
991122
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif
GENERIC STRATEGIES
Strategic Advantage
Differentiation Low Cost
B
r
o
a
d
N
a
r
r
o
w
/
F
o
c
u
s
S
t
r
a
t
e
g
i
c

T
a
r
g
e
t
Differentiation
in
Narrow Target
Low Cost
in
Narrow Target
Differentiation
in
Broad Target
Overall
Cost
Leadership
Michael Porter’s on Competitive Strategy, Video, 1988
991122
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif
Diagram SWOT (SWOT Analysis
Diagram)
Major
Environmental
Threats
Numerous
Environmental
Opportunities
Substantial
Internal
Strengths
Critical
Internal
Weaknesses
Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-1
Aggressive
Strategy
Diversification
Strategy
Turnaround
Oriented
Strategy
Defensive
Strategy
991122
Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 8-4
Vertical Integration
Congl. Diversification
Horizontal Integration
Concentric Diversification
Joint Venture
Turnaround
Divest
Liquidation
Concentrated
Market Development
Product Development
Innovation
Maximize
Strength
Overcome
Weakness
External
Resources
Internal
Resources
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif
Grand Strategy Selection
991122
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif
Grand Strategy Matrix/Cluster
Slow
Market Growth
Rapid
Market Growth
Strong
Competitive
Position
Weak
Competitive
Position
David, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-11
Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 8-5
Market Penetration
Market Development
Product Development
Horizontal Integration
Vertical Integration
Concentric Diversification
Market Penetration
Market Development
Product Development
Horizontal Integration
Divestiture
Liquidation
Concentric Diversification
Horizontal Diversification
Conglomerate Diversification
Joint Venture
Concentric Diversification
Horizontal Diversification
Conglomerate Diversification
Retrenchment
Divestiture
Liquidation
991122
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif
SPACE Matrix (Strategic Position and Action
Evaluation)
David, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-5
Environmental
Stability
Financial Strength
Industrial
Strength
Competitive
Advantage
Aggressive
Competitive
Conservartive
Defensive
+1 +2 +3 +4 +5 + 6 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
+6
+5
+4
+3
+2
+1
991122
In Search of Excellence
ª A bias for action (“Do it, fix it, try it”)
ª Close to customer
ª Autonomy and entrepreneurship
ª Productivity through people
ª Hands-on, value driven
ª Stick to the knitting
ª Simple form, lean staff
ª Simultaneous loose-tight properties
000528
We chose 75 highly regarded companies (on the subject of
excellence as we had defined it - continously innovative big
companies) - Hati-hati karena tidak ada control group.
The 8 attributes that emerged :
Peters & Waterman Jr., 1982
Pemilihan Strategi
(Melakukan pemilihan strategi terbaik dari sebanyak-banyak strategi
alternatif yang telah tersaring)
THE QSPM MATRIX
(The Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix )
STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES
Weight Strategy 1 Strategy 2 Strategy 3
KEY FACTORS
EXTERNAL FACTORS
Economy
Political/Legal/Governmental
Social/Cultural/Demographic/Env.
Technological
Competitive
INTERNAL FACTORS
Management
Marketing
Finance/Accounting
Production/Operation
Research and Development
Computer Information Systems
SUM OF WEIGHTED
SCORES
David, 6th Ed, 1997, Tab. 6-5
991122
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Penjabaran Tahunan
¤ Strategi Operasional/Fungsional menjabarkan
Strategi Utama/Bisnis menjadi Strategi menurut fungsi
manajemen dan/atau sektor, dan tahapan
¤ Sasaran Tahunan menjabarkan Sasaran (Objectives)
Jangka Panjang menjadi Sasaran yang harus dicapai
tahunan
¤ Kebijakan (Policies) menjabarkan Falsafah dan
Konsep Diri ke dalam bentuk pedoman perilaku
¤ Rencana Kegiatan (Action Plan) penjabaran lebih
spesifik kapan, apa, siapa, sasaran pendek-pendek
¤ Taktik adalah kegiatan yang harus dikerjakan sekarang/
segera, sangat spesifik, keputusan pelaksana
991122
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Strategi Fungsional
/Operasional
(menjabarkan Strategi menurut fungsi manajemen dan/atau sektor, dan tahapan)
O Strategi Produksi (biaya, mutu, pelayanan, frekuensi, sourcing/
manajemen material, proses/otomasi, sistim & kendali)
O Strategi Pemasaran (Segmentasi, Posisi, Target, Produk, Harga,
Promosi, Distribusi)
O Strategi Keuangan (Sumber Dana, Alokasi, Dividen & Modal Kerja)
O Strategi Sumber Daya Manusia (Perikrutan, Pengembangan
Karir, Kompensasi, Evaluasi Kinerja, Sistim R/P, Hubungan Kerja)
O Strategi Riset & Pengembangan (Orientasi fungsi/produk,
Pengembangan/Inovasi, Pemuka/Pengikut , jangka panjang/pendek,
sentral/desentral, In-house/luar)
O Strategi Organisasi dan Manajemen (Struktur,
Kepemimpinan/Leadership, Budaya/Culture)
O Strategi Sistim Informasi (Manual/Otomasi, Sistem Objectives,
System Constrains, System Design) - Raymond McLeod, Jr., MIS, 6th Ed.,Prentice Hall, 1995, Fig. 2.6
991122
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Strategi Fungsional/Operasional
A Typical Value Chain
Michael E. Porter, Competitive Advantage, 1985
Firm Infrastructure
Procurement
Technology Development
Human Resources Management
I
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b
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d

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t
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b
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d

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c
M
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t
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g

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s
S
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M
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g
i
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M
a
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i
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Primary Activities
S
u
p
p
o
r
t

A
c
t
i
v
i
t
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e
s
991122
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Kebijakan (Policies)
Jabaran Falsafah dan Konsep Diri ke dalam bentuk pedoman perilaku,
para pelaksana dapat mengambil keputusan dan bertindak sendiri tetapi
terkendali oleh rambu-rambu kebijakan ini.
¯ Kebijakan menciptakan kendali tak langsung atas
tindakan mandiri
¯ Kebijakan mengatur penanganan yang sama untuk
aktivitas yang sama
¯ Kebijakan membuat keputusan lebih cepat
¯ Kebijakan membakukan perilaku dalam perusahaan
¯ Kebijakan mengurangi ketidak pastian
¯ Kebijakan mengurangi aksi keengganan
¯ Kebijakan menyediakan jawaban untuk hal rutin
¯ Kebijakan menghindari perdebatan berdasar emosi
991122
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Contoh : Strategi Pemasaran
1994
actual
500,000
1995
predicted
520,000
Market Share
Modification
Product (+6%)
4. Modified Market Share
1994
actual
20 %
1995
predicted
18 %
1. Market Size (units)
2. Market Share
(current strategy)
3. Impact of Strategy
(effects of new program)
Promotion (+20%)
Price (-5%)
Combined
Distribution (-4%)
1.06
X 1.20
1.27
X 0.95
1.21
X 0.96
1.16
X 1.16
20.9
X .209
108.582
6. Price $ 205 per unit
8. Cost
X 205
22,259,710
- 17,120,400
5,139,310
7. Projected Sales
5. Predicted Units
9. Gross Margin
New Marketing Strategy’s Projections for 1995,
ZEP Convection Ovens
991122
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Prasarana Implementasi
¤ Organisasi/Management (Structure)
¤ Kepemimpinan (Leadership)
¤ Budaya (Culture)
¤ Sistim Imbalan (Reward Systems)
991122
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Prasarana Implementasi
McKinsey 7-S Framework
Shared Value
(Culture)
Staff
(Management)
Style
(Leadership)
Skill
(Management)
Systems Structure
Strategy
R
S
L
C
Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig.11-1
S
991122
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Prasarana Implementasi
Structure (Organisasi & Manajemen)
O Organizational Design (Collecting the combination of
organizational structure and control systems to implement its
strategy and to create and sustain a competitive advantage)
O Differentiation (How to allocate people and resources to
organizational tasks in order to create value. Span of Control)
O Vertical Differentiation (How to distribute decision-making
authority. Tall and Flat Structures)
O Horizontal Differentiation (How to divide people and
tasks into functions and divisions to increase their ability to create
value. Simple, Functional, Divisional, Matrix)
O Integration (How to coordinate people and functions to
accomplish organizational tasks)
O Bureaucratic Costs (The cost of operating and
organizational structure and control system)
Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Ch. 11
991129
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Organisasi dan Manajemen
Tall and Flat Structures
Flat Structure Tall Structure
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
3
2
1
Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 11-2
991129
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Kepemimpinan
Visionary Leadership
O Vision (A realistic, credible, attractive future for the
organization. It deals with the future and expresses what you will be
working hard to create)
O What is not? (It is not: a prophacy, a mission, factual, true
or false, static for all time, a constrait on actions)
O Criteria (Future oriented, utopian, appropriate, high ideals,
clarify purpose and direction, inspire enthusiasm, reflect
uniqueness, ambitious)
O Leadership (Take charge, make things happen, dream
dreams, then translate them into reality)
Burt Nanus, Visionary Leadership, 1992
991129
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Kepemimpinan
Burt Nanus, Visionary Leadership, 1992, page 13
Internal
Environment
External
Environment
Future Present
Direction Setter
Change Agent
Spokesperson
Coach
991129
Visionary Leadership
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Prasarana Implementasi
Effective Leadership
(Kepemimpinan Efektif)
O Strategic Leadership (The ability to anticipate,
envision, maintain flexibility, and empower others to create
strategic change as necessary)
O Strategic Intent (The leveraging of a firm’s internal
resources, capabilities, and core of competencies in the
competitive environment) - (Misintrepreted??? Sc:The obsession
with winning and sustained for global leadership in the future
competitive env.)
O Strategic Direction (Longterm vision of a firm’s
strategic intent)
Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., 1996
991129
Effective Strategic
Leadership
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDAL
Strategic Competitiveness
Strategic Intent Strategic Mission
Successful
Strategic Actions
Strategic
Competitiveness
Formulation
of Strategies
Implementation
of Strategies
Shape the formation
of
Influence
Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., 1996, Fig. 12-1
991129
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDAL
Kepemimpinan Efektif
Developing
Human
Capital
Sustaining an
organizational
culture
Emphasizing
Ethical
Practices
Maintaining
Core
Competencies
Establishing
Balance
Controls
Determining
Strategic
Direction
Effective
Strategic Leadership
Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., 1996, Fig. 12-4
991129
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDAL
Entreprenur Korporasi
O Corporate Entrepreneurship (The set of
capabilities to produce or acquire new goods or services and manage
the innovation process (for pre-existing markets). Take risk, be
aggressive, proactive, and innovative)
O Invention (The act of creating or developing a new product or
process idea)
O Innovation (The process of creating a commercial product
from invention)
O Imitation (The adoption of the innovation by similar firms)
O Internal Corporate Venturing (The set of activities
used to create inventions and innovations within a single organization)
Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., 1996
991129
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDAL
Internal Corporate Venturing
Strategic Context
Autonomous
Strategic
Behavior
Structural Context
Induced
Strategic
Behavior
Concept of
Corporate Strategy
Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., 1996, Fig. 13.1
991129
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Prasarana Implementasi
Culture (Budaya)
O Budaya Perusahaan (Perangkat/set yang terdiri dari
keyakinan, norma-norma, nilai-nilai, dan kebiasaan yang menjadi dasar
kebersamaan dan menjadi dasar cara berinteraksi)
O Keyakinan/Beliefs (Keyakinan tentang hal-hal yang paling
cocok bagi perusahaan, seperti “being the best, superior, importance of
people-details-subtlety-communication”)
O Norma-norma (Batasan-batasan yang menyatakan suatu
perilaku/perbuatan itu salah atau benar, biasanya tertulis)
O Nilai-nilai (Batasan-batasan kebersamaan tentang
perilaku/perbuatan yang baik/buruk atau layak/tak layak, biasanya tak
tertulis kadang tertulis seperti kose etika)
O Kebiasaan (Perilaku pelaku-pelaku utama perusahaan yang
menjadi panutan yang menjadi berpengaruh kepada kenyamanan
apabila dilakukan atau tidak dilakukan)
991129
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Manajemen Perubahan
Strategi-Perubahan-Budaya
Kompatibilitas perubahan dengan budaya
Tinggi Rendah
B
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P
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g
i
Synergistic
Fokus pada
memperkuat budaya
Pengelolaan
sekitar budaya
Hubungkan erat
dengan misi dan
norma dasar
Reformulasi strategi
atau
Siap untuk kesulitan
perubahan budaya
Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig.11-8
991129
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Strategic Challenge of Change
O Managing Change (Reacting, Anticipating, Leading)
O Competing on the Edge (Where to go/Direction, How
to get there/Concepts, What is the result)
O Strategic Direction (Unpredictable/today,
Uncontrolled/units, Inefficient/reinvent, Proactive/lead,
Continous/relentless, Diverse/lots of moves)
O Core Concepts (The Edge of Chaos/structure-surprise, The
Edge of Time/past-current-future, Time Pacing/rhythm for change)
O Building Blocks (EoC: Improvisation-Coadaptation,
EoT:Regeneration-Experementation, TP:Transition-Rhythm)
Competing on the Edge 1998, Chap 1
000417
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
10 Rules of Competing on the Edge
O Strategy
O Advantage is Temporary
O Strategy is Diverse, Emergent, and Complicated
O Reinvention is the Goal
O Organization
O Live in the Present
O Stretch Out the Past
O Reach into the Future
O Time Pace Change
O Leadership
O Grow the Strategy
O Drive Strategy from Business Level
O Repatch Businesses and Articulate the Whole
000417
Competing on the Edge 1998, Chap 9
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Empat Jenis Kendali
Saat
1
Saat 2 Saat 3
Formulasi Implementasi
4. Kendali Implementasi
3. Kendali Dadakan Khusus
2. Kendali Premis
1. Pengintaian Strategi
Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig.12-1
Apakah asumsi dan prediksi yang dipakai masih sahih ?
Monitor selalu kejadian-kejadian dalam atau luar
perusahaan yang berpengaruh besar pasa strategi
Akibat kejadian mendadak
Perlu perubahan strategi akibat
tahapan pelaksanaan ?
991129

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