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Desired Learning Competencies

Computer Education
At the end of the grading period in Computer Education I, the student is expected to have
gained the following concepts and competencies:
Introduction to Computer Education
Demonstrate basic knowledge in typing and computer use
1. Typewriter Orientation
1. Identify the different kinds of typewriters.
2. Identify the different parts of a typewriter.
3. Explain the functions of each part of a typewriter.
4. Discuss the essentials in the operation of the typewriter.
5. Discuss the importance of speed and accuracy in typing.
6. Observe standards of speed and accuracy in typing.
7. Enumerate points to remember in the daily care of the typewriter.
8. Illustrate the correct sitting and homekeys positions in typing.
2. Computer Orientation
2.1 Discuss the importance of computer education.
2.2 Trace the history and development of computers.
2.3 Enumerate the different types of computers as to:
2.3.1 purpose
2.3.2 capacity
2.3.3 data handled
2.4 Explain the characteristics of computers.
2.5 Discuss the capabilities of the computer.
2.6 Differentiate hardware from software.
2.7 Describe the parts of the micro-computer.
2.8 Discuss the computer system.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER EDUCATION
This chapter exposes students to basic knowledge in computer education. The current trend in
business, offices, schools and even at home is computer technology. A course in computer education
offers employment opportunities and prepares students for advanced courses in college.
Objectives:

Lessons in this chapter will enable students to:

1. know the kinds, parts and functions of a typewriter;


2. enumerate the essentials in the operation of a typewriter;
3. demonstrate the correct sitting position and homekey position in typing;
4. state the importance of knowing how to type;
5. cite standards to observe for speed and accuracy in typing;
6. know the daily care of a typewriter;
7. emphasize the importance of computer education;
8. trace the history of computers;
9. give the types of computers;
10. identify the characteristics and capabilities of computers;
11. differentiate hardware from software; and
12. know the parts of the computer and computer system.

esson 1
KINDS, PARTS AND FUNCTIONS OF TYPEWRITER

Points to Remember:
To be able to use a typewriter efficiently, one must know its parts and functions of
each part.
This lesson dwells on the kinds of typewriter such as the pica and elite. The pica typewriter
has bigger print than the elite. This lesson also presents the definition and the characteristics of
typewriters. The functions of a typewriter are likewise discussed.
Objectives:
1. Distinguish a pica from an elite typewriter.
2. Identify the parts of a typewriter.
3. Know the uses of typewriters.
Word Study:
1. Pica
2. Carriage
3. Elite
4. Characters
Strategies:
1. Brainstorming on the kinds of typewriters and the advantages of using each.
2. Socialized recitation of the parts of typewriters.
3. Word parade on the uses of typewriters.
4. Students work out the Study Helps.

Activity 1
a. Identify the parts of the typewriter and demonstrate how each is used.
b. Draw a manual typewriter. Using the drawing, show the class the parts of a typewriter.
Discussion
As a beginner, it is a must that one has to be familiar with the characteristics and special
features of the kinds of typewriter. This will guide you in determining which type to use, according to
your desired work output.
1. Pica. This type of typewriter has big prints. It can type ten characters to an inch and eighty
five characters on a sheet of bond paper, long or short. Characters are letters, numbers, colon,
marks, and semicolons. The pica typewriter has a center point of 42 on the scale which is
used when typing term papers, theses and dissertation.
2. Elite. This is a typewriter with a center point of 50 on the scale and with small print. It can
type twelve characters to an inch and one hundred two characters on one whole sheet of long
or short bond paper.

Parts and Functions of a Typewriter


Mastery of the parts of the typewriter is as important as learning how to operate it. Thus,
getting to know the parts and functions of a typewriter will aid us in its proper use and care.
1. Carriage return. The key or lever is used to return the carriage to the right and start a new line.
2. Left Carriage Release. The lever at an end which allows the carriage to be moved by hand.
3. Platen or Cylinder Knob. A handle on both ends of the cylinder.
4. Regulator or Line Space Lever. A lever that controls space between lines.
5. Platen or Cylinder. A rubber roller which makes the paper move around.
6. Paper Guide. The blade against which the paper is placed.
7. Card Holder. The part where cards and envelops are pressed close to the cylinder.
8. Left Margin Stop. The key lever or button that is used to adjust the margin setting.
9. Printing Point Indicator. It indicates the scale point where the machine is ready to print.
10. Paper Bail. Adjusts the paper to the cylinder.
11. Right Margin Stop. The lever that adjusts margin setting.
12. Paper Release. Loosens the paper to straighten or remove it from the printer.
13. Right Carriage Release. The lever on the right that frees the carriage so it can be removed.
14. Right Platen Knob. The handle at end of the cylinder.
15. Carriage. The top moving part that carries paper.
16. Back Space Key. Moves carriage back one space at a time.
17. Tab Set Key. Places the tab stop at the desired point.
18. Tab Bar or Tabulator. Releases carriage to move to a point where a tab is set.
19. Space Bar. Advances the carriage one space at a time.
20. Tab Clear Key. Removes that tab stop at a time.
21. Margin Release. Unlocks the margin stop.
22. Ribbon Color Control. Disengages the ribbon or any part of it if it has two colors.
Study Helps:
1. What is the difference between a pica and an elite typewriter?
2. What is meant by characters in the typewriter?
3. Compare the parts of the pica and elite typewriters.
4. Enumerate the functions of a typewriter.
Self-Checking Exercises:
Direction:
Choose the best answer. Write only the letter of the correct answers in your test
booklet.
1. The typewriter with big prints is
a. an electric typewriter
c. a pica
b. an elite
d. a standard typewriter
2. The part of the typewriter that adjusts the paper to the cylinder is

3.

4.

5.

a. bail board
c.
b. paper release
d.
The typewriter with small prints is
a. electric typewriter
c.
b. elite
d.
The part that controls spaces between lines
a. cylinder
c.
b. margin stop
d.
The part that releases carriage to move to a
a. cylinder
c.
b. platen
d.

paper bail
paper guide
pica
standard typewriter
is the
platen
regulator
point where a tab is set
regulator
tabulator

Lesson 2
ESSENTIALS IN THE OPERATION
OF TYPEWRITERS

Points to Remember:
Proper use of the typewriter ensures the good quality of the typewritten material and
increases the serviceability of the typewriter.
This lesson is on the proper operation of typewriters. It presents/shows the steps in placing
the paper on the scale, the use of left and right margin settings, the inserting and removing of the
paper, and the straightening of the paper on the typewriter.
Objectives:
1. Explain how the carriage is moved to the right and returned to the left.
2. Know/determine the proper place of the paper guide.
3. Follow the steps in setting the center point of the paper at 42 and 50 on the scale.

Words
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Study:
Paper guide
LM
Twirl
RM
Paper bail

Strategies:
1. Demonstration on how to move the carriage to the right and return this to the left.
2. Discussion of the proper placing of the paper guide.
3. Talk to a resource person on the steps in setting center point of the paper at 42 and 50 on the
scale.
4. Students work out the Study Helps.
Activity 2
Divide the students into groups, and assign them to demonstrate the following:
1. Setting the center point at 50 on the scale.
2. Setting the left and right margins.
3. Inserting and removing the paper form the machine.
Activity 2.A
Identify students who already know how to perform the basic operation of a typewriter. Assign
them as peer leaders.
Ask the peer leaders to help their classmates perform the basic operation.
Activity 2.B
1. Ask students who have typewriters at home to practice operating the typewriter. Bring to class
the practice lessons for evaluation purposes.
2. Perform sample practice lessons on ASDF JKL;

Enrichment: Ask students to draw a typewriter keyboard on hard cardboard.


practice positioning their fingers on the homekeys.

Have them

Discussion:
Like the sewing machine, the typewriter is also operated in its own way. Following the correct
operating will not only produce quality work, but will also maintain its good running condition. When
operating the typewriter, be guided by the following essentials.
BASIC OPERATIONAL TECHNIQUES
1. Moving the Carriage to the Right and Return
a. To push the carriage to the right, use the linespace lever. Flip the lever with a twist of the
wrist.
b. To return the carriage to the left, brace the right hand on the cylinder knob and with the first
finger, press the carriage release. Then bring the carriage to the left margin. (For manual
typewriter only.)
c. For an electric typewriter, extend the little finger of the right hand and tap the Carriage Return
Key. The carriage will quickly jump to the left and automatically move to the next line.
2. Adjusting the Paper Guide
The paper guide is the strip of metal at the left end of the carriage which guides the paper into
the machine. It may be placed at 0-point, or at any point the typist so desires.
If you want to place your paper at 0-point, slide the paper guide to the left until its vertical edge
points at 0 on the paper guide scale.
If you want the center-point of your paper to be at 50 on the scale, the following steps are
suggested:
a. Move the paper guide to the left as far as it can go.
b. Set the carriage at 50.
c. Make a crease at the center top of a sheet of paper.
d. Insert the paper and adjust it in such a way that the center crease is at the printing point or at
50 on the scale.
e. Slide the paper guide to the right until the blade edge is against the side of the sheet of paper.
3. Controlling the Spacing
The spacing of lines in typing is controlled by the line space regulator. Set it at 1 for single
spacing (no blank lines); at 2 for double spacing (one blank line between typed lines); and 3 for
triple spacing (two blank lines between typed lines).
Some machines have 1-1/2 spacing and 2-1/2 spacing.
4. Pica and Elite Spacing
Typewriters are usually equipped with either pica or elite type size.
Pica has a larger print. It prints 10 letters to an inch. On a standard typing paper 8 by 11
it allows 85 characters across the page.
An elite typewriter allows 12 spaces to an inch. It prints 102 characters across the page.
If a standard typing paper is inserted with the paper guide at 0-point, the center point on a
pica machine will be 42 and on an elite machine 51. (For convenience 50 is used as center point.)
5. Planning the Margins
The margins at the left and right sides of a typed page are controlled by the margin stops that
limit the line of typing. To plan the left and right margin settings, these are the steps:
Left margin. Subtract half the desired line from the center point. For example, for a 40-space
line, subtract 20 from the center point you are using.
Right margin. Add half the desired line to the center point. Then add 5 extra spaces allowance
for end-line adjustments.

Space
40
50
60

Line
42 42 42 -

20 =
25 =
30 =

CENTER POINT AT 42 ON
LM
22
42 +
17
42 +
12
42 +

PICA
20 +
25 +
30 +

CENTER POINT AT 50 ON ELITE

5
5
5

=
=
=

RM
67
72
77

Space
40
50
60

Line
50 50 50 -

20 =
25 =
30 =

LM
30
25
20

50 +
50 +
50 +

20 +
25 +
30 +

5
5
5

=
=
=

RM
75
80
85

6. Setting the Margins


Margin setting varies considerably with the different brands and models of typewriters. Most
common ones are:
Hand-set mechanism. Many typewriters have hand-set levers or margin set keys. Each lever is
moved separately by hand:
a. press down or push in the lever,
b. slide it right or left to the desired point,
c. release the lever.
7. Inserting and Removing Paper
To insert and remove paper, the following steps are suggested:
a. Before you insert the paper, pull the paper bail up or out so that it will not interfere.
b. With your left hand, grasp the paper and put it behind the cylinder or platen against the
paper guide.
c. With your right hand, twirl the cylinder know to draw paper in.

To
a.
b.
c.

remove paper, do the following:


Press the paper release lever with the first finger of the right hand to loosen paper.
Grasp the sheet and remove it from the machine.
Return the paper release lever to its original position.

8. Straightening the Paper


If the paper inserted is not straight (left edges are not in line), do the following:
a. Lift the paper bail or depress the paper release to loosen paper.
b. Line up the top or left edges of the paper.
c. Return the paper release to its original position.
d. Place the paper bail over the paper to hold it firmly against the cylinder.
e. Set the small rollers about 4-inc apart on the scale.
9. Learning the Home Position or Guide Keys
With the help of the chart on the right, do these:
a. Locate the left-hand guide keys, A S D F on the typewriter. Place your left-hand fingers on
these keys.
b. Now locate the right-hand guide keys, J K L ; Place your right-hand fingers on these keys.
c. Take your fingers off the home position or guide keys. Replace them, saying the keys, ASDF
JKL;, as you touch them. Repeat several times without looking at the keyboard.
10. Striking the Keys and Space Bar
For manual typewriters, strike each key with a firm, sharp stroke and release quickly.
For electric typewriters, tap each key lightly with the finger tips.
With your fingers stationed above the home keys, tap the space bar sharply at the center with
the right thumb. If you are left-handed, you may use the left thumb. Use one thumb only.
Practice striking the keys and the space bar:
jjj jjj jjj jjj jjj jjj jjj jjj jjj
fff fff fff fff fff fff fff fff fff
jjj fff jjj fff jjj fff jjj fff jjj

PREPARATORY STEPS BEFORE TYPING


1. Check Desk or Table Arrangement.

Machine at center, even with front of table; typing paper at left; book at the right, with top elevated
for better reading.
2. Adjust Paper Guide.
Place paper guide at 0-point of scale.
centerpoint of paper, say at 50.

Or adjust it where it should fall if you are to use the

3. Set the Margin Stops as directed.


Unless directed otherwise, set the margin stops at 15-75 for Pica and 20-80 for Elite machine.
4. Set the Line-space Regulator or Selector.
Adjust the line-space regulator at 1 position for single spacing.
5. Insert Typing Paper.
Before inserting the paper, pull paper bail up or out so that it will not interfere. With your left
hand, grasp paper and put it behind the cylinder or platen against the paper guide. Then with your
right hand, twirl the cylinder knob to draw paper in.
6. Straighten Paper.
If paper is not straight, depress paper release to loosen it. Straighten it by lining up top or edges.
Always push back paper release after using.

7. Provide for Top Margin.


After inserting paper, roll back paper down until top edge of paper is level with the alignment scale.
Then push line-spacer 10 times to leave a top margin at 9 lines or 1 inch-margin.
8. Adjust Paper Bail and Rollers.
Return paper bail to hold back paper firmly against the cylinder. Set rollers about 4 inches apart
to divide paper evenly.
9. Sit
1.
2.
3.
4.

properly.
Sit erect, hips back in the chair.
Center the body with the machine, head turned to face the book.
Relax shoulders, let arms and elbows hang comfortably close to the body.
Place feet apart and braced firmly on the floor.

10. Curve fingers appropriately.


On Manual Machine
Curve fingers tightly, the tips resting lightly above the home keys. Slant hands upward from wrist
but not touching the machine.
On Electric Machine
Curve fingers only slightly. The electric machine keyboard has less slant. Hold fingers close but
not touching the home keys.
CONCLUDING STEPS AFTER TYPING
1. Pull the paper bail up or out. With the first finger of the right hand, press the paper release lever
to loosen paper.
2. Remove the paper with the left hand and return the paper release lever to its original position.
Push back the paper bail.
3. Bring the carriage to the center.
With the four fingers of the right hand, brace the right cylinder knob and with the first finger or
thumb, press the carriage release.
4. Switch off the current if you are using an electric typewriter.
PRELIMINARIES
1. Insert paper with the left edge at the paper guide. Roll cylinder until the top edge of the paper
appears just above the alignment scale.
2. Set margin stops at 15-75 for pica and 20-80 for elite machine.

3. Bring paper into writing position on the 10th line (1 inch) by using the line-space lever or
carriage return.
4. Set line-space regulator on 1 for single spacing.
5. Get into the correct writing position with fingers curved on the guide keys or home position. If
electric typewriter is used, the fingers are less curved.
Typing Tips:
Manual
Electric
Space Bar -

Strike each key sharply and firmly, bounce off.


Touch each key lightly and leave quickly.
Tap the space bar with the right thumb.

Study Helps:
1. How is the carriage moved to the right?
2. How is it returned to the left?
3. When is the paper guide placed?
4. Enumerate the steps in setting the center point of your paper at 50 on the scale.

Self-Checking Exercises
Direction:
Arrange the following steps in proper order by writing number 1 for the first step, 2 for
the second, and so on down to the last. Write the answers in your test booklet.
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

carriage to be set at 50 on the scale


paper guide to be moved as far as it can go
a fold at the center top of the sheet
the insert paper is adjusted in a way that center fold is at the printing point.
the blade edge next against the side of the sheet

Lesson 3
Correct Sitting and Homekey
Position when Typing

Points to Remember:
Observance of the correct sitting and homekey positions speeds up the development of
typing skills..
This lesson presents the correct sitting position in typing to facilitate the task. It identifies the
different keys of the typewriter. It also shows the correct positioning of the fingers on the typewriter
keys.
Objectives:
1. Show correct sitting position in the typewriter.
2. Demonstrate how the different fingers are positioned on the typewriter keys.
3. Know the characters in the typewriter.
Word Study:
1. erect
2. elevated
3. ring finger
4. index finger
Strategies:
1. Demonstration of the correct sitting position while typing.
2. Talk to a resource person on the correct positioning of the fingers in a typewriter.
3. Students work out the Study Helps:
Activity 3

Let the students practice positioning their fingers on the homekeys of a typewriter. Have them
identify the different letters, signs, and symbols located in each row of a typewriter.
Enrichment: Have the students master the homekey position, using the illustration of the
keyboard.
Discussion:
Sit Properly
Before starting to type, one should have the best sitting position. By so doing, you will not get
easily tired when typing.
The following guidelines on correct sitting positions are important when doing typing work:
1. Sit erect with hips back in the chair.
2. Center your body with the machine, head turned to face the manuscript to be typed.
3. Relax your shoulder but keep your arms and elbows comfortably close to the body.
4. Position your feet apart and firmly on the floor.

Homekey Position in Typing


The positioning of the fingers of both left and right hands on the keys of the typewriter should be
done correctly. Each row is slightly elevated from the others. The keys in row bear letters, numbers,
symbols and signs. Letters and numbers are arranged in the same way in all typewriters. Some
typewriters do not have but have letter N, while small letter l is substitute to no. 1. Sometimes
symbols and signs are rearranged. Before starting to type, always check the places of symbols and
signs to avoid errors.
HOME-KEY POSITION
Letter
A S D
Finger
4 3 2

F
1

J
1

K
2

L
3

;
4

RETURNING THE CARRIAGE


Manual Machine - Grasp the return lever with the left hand, the four fingers together, and toss
swiftly the carriage back. Return to home position.
Electric Machine - Extend the little finger of the right to the adjacent carriage return key. Press
this lightly and the carriage returns automatically to the next line. Return to home position.
Microcomputer
- Similar to the electric typewriter. (Extend the little finger of the right to the
adjacent carriage return key).
SHIFTING FOR CAPITALS
To capitalize a letter controlled by the left-hand fingers, depress the right shift key with the little
finger; hold it down and type the letter. Release and return to typing position.
To capitalize a letter controlled by the right-hand fingers, depress the left shift key with the little
finger; hold it down and type the letter. Release and return to typing position.
NUMBER LOCATION
Locate the number keys on the above keyboard chart. You will note that all fingers for the top row
assume the same base position, so that 1 is controlled by the A finger; 2 by the S finger; 3 by the D
finger; 4 and 5 by the F finger. The same is true with the right-hand fingers. Some typewriters do not
have 1 on the top row. If such is the case, use small letter l for 1.
Number
1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 0
Letter
A S D F F
J J K L ;
SPECIAL SYMBOLS (typewriter)
1.
Quotation Marks
2.
Number Symbol #
3.
Dollar $
4.
Ampersand or And &
5.
Percent %
6.
Apostrphe

(Shift
(Shift
(Shift
(Shift
(Shift
(Shift

of
of
of
of
of
of

2)
3)
4)
7)
5)
8)

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Underline ______
(Shift of 6)
Open and Close Parentheses ( ) (Shift of 9 and 0)
Exclamation Mark !
(If the machine has no (1) key, it can be produced by striking
apostrophe () and backspace, and strike period (.)
Hyphen (Use the little finger of the right hand.)
Dash -A dash is represented by two hyphens without space.
Asterisk *
(If the machine has no (*) key, it may be produced by striking A,
then backspace and strike V.)
and
(If there are no fraction keys, type the number and use the
diagonal between.)
Mixed Numbers
(Always put a space between the number and the fraction if no
fraction keys.)

TABULATED NUMBERS
Procedure for using the tabulator:
Tabulating Technique: Locate tabulator key. Depress and hold it until the carriage stops. Always
clear all previous tab setting before you start a new problem.
To clear all tab stops, move carriage to extreme right. Press tabulator key (tab key). Where it stops,
press tab-clear key (- key). Repeat this procedure for each stop. Some machines provide allclear key, usually located at the back of the carriage. Use it and all previous tab will be
cleared.
To set tab stops, move carriage to the desired point and press tab-set key (+ key).
HORIZONTAL CENTERING Backspacing Method
The standard typewriting paper usually measures 8 inches in width and 11 inches in length.
There are 10 stokes per horizontal inch for pica typewriter and 12 strokes for elite. Therefore, there
are 85 strokes for pica and 102 for elite across the line. The center point for pica is 42 and elite 51.
(For convenience, 50 may be used as center point for elite.)
Steps in horizontal centering:
1. Mark the center of a sheet of paper and insert in your typewriter.
2. Move the margin stops to both ends of the scale.
3. Clear the tabular rack from previous setting.
4. Move the carriage to the center. Be sure that the center mark of the paper and the printing point
are in straight line. Set a tab.
5. Use the backspace key. (This is ordinarily controlled by the smaller finger, but it is better to use
the thumb when centering.)
6. Say the letters in pairs (including spaces or marks) as you press and release the backspace key
once for each pair. If there is any leftover letter, ignore it.
7. Start to type the line where the backspacing ends.
VERTICAL CENTERING
The length of a standard typewriting paper is 11 inches. There are 6 lines in one vertical inch.
Therefore, a sheet of paper contains 66 lines from top to bottom, and 33 lines for half sheet.
Steps in Vertical Centering:
1. Count the total number of lines and spaces the display will occupy.
2. Subtract this number from 66 to determine the number of lines left.
3. Divide the difference by 2 to find the top and bottom margins.
4. Add 1 to the top margin or start on the next line when you type the display.
BLOCK CENTERING
Block centering is typing several lines to be listed at the middle of the page as a group or block.
Steps in block centering:
1. Backspace-center the title, if any.
2. Select the longest line in the list.
3. Backspace to center that line and set the left margin where the backspace ends.
4. Type the list starting each time at this point.
GUIDE FOR DIVIDING WORDS

1. Divide words only between syllables. One-syllable words, therefore, should not be divided.
Example: through, shipped, strength, etc.
2. Divide between double consonants. Example: Col-lege, sug-gest, fol-low, cur-rent, neces-sary, etc.
3. Divide after the prefix and before the suffix. Example: con-fess, pro-vide, dis-count, com-plete, etc.
4. Divide compounds and hyphenated words between words or at the hyphen. Example: key-board,
proof-read, worth-while, self-respect.
5. Divide after the single vowel syllable within a word. Example: inti-mate; rela-tion, indi-cate, etc.
6. Divide words ending in ing between the root word and the added suffix. Example: feel-ing, running, miss-ing, build-ing, etc.
7. Do not separate from the rest of the word, a one-or-two-letter syllable at the beginning or at the
end of a word. Example: abun-dant, express, already, player, etc.
8. Do not divide words or fewer than six letters even though they consist of two syllables. Example:
radio, heavy, lucky, only, etc.
9. Do not divide numbers, abbreviations, contractions, and proper nouns. A date, may, if necessary,
be divided between the day and the year.
10. Avoid too many divisions of words. Do not divide unless very necessary.
Using the illustration on page 302, position the following fingers in these ways:
1. Right hand fingers: locate right hand guide keys JKL;
2. Left hand fingers:
locate left hand guide keys ASDF
Study Helps:
What guidelines are kept in mind before starting to type?

Self-Checking Exercises
Direction:
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Analyze the sitting position in typing given below. Indicate for the correct position
and x for the incorrect ones.
Sit with hips sliding slightly.
Center your body with the machine.
Relax your shoulders.
Keep your arms and elbows a little bit far from your body.
Position your feet apart and firmly on the floor.

Lesson 4
Importance of Knowing How to Type

Pointers to Remember:
Typing is a skill that requires speed and accuracy on the part of the typist.
This lesson points out the advantages of speed and accuracy in typing. It explains how time
and energy can be saved by typing. Knowledge of typing also increases ones employability after
leaving school.
Objectives:
1. Know the advantages of speed and accuracy in typing.
2. Appreciate the fact that time and energy are saved thru typing.
3. Be aware of the importance of knowing how to type.
Word Study:
1. Speed

2. Accuracy
3. Legibly

the act, action of moving swiftly


rate of motion/performance or action
character or level of performance or activity
freedom from mistake or error
capable of being read
distinct to the eye
capable of being discovered or understood by apparent marks or indications

4. Keyboard

- an assemblage of systematically arranged keys by which a machine (as a


typewriter) is operated

Strategies:
1. Panel discussion on the values of speed and accuracy in typing.
2. Socialized recitation on saving time and energy thru typing.
3. Students work out on Study Helps.
Activity 4
a. Make a list of benefits one gets from knowing how to type.
b. Interview office workers whose main task is typing, for information on how they developed typing
skill and the benefits they have gained from knowing how to type. Repot to the class the result of
the interview.
c. Assign students to research on the importance of speed and accuracy in typing.
The ability to type is an important skill everyone should have. Whether for ones own use or for
business purposes, typing is a skill that cannot be taken for granted. Speed and accuracy in typing
have several advantages.
Advantages of Speed and Accuracy in Typing:
1. They help save money and time. You can type your own reports, term papers, and other school
work much better and with less effort, instead of paying somebody else to do for you. Work being
typed can be submitted on or before cut-off date.
2. You can be sure that work is presentable. Typewritten work is neat, orderly and readable,
compared to handwritten ones. Typewritten work is likely to get higher grades, particularly if
content is good.
3. You can easily and conveniently operate modern machines as the terminal key board of most
computers and word processing machines is basically the same as the typewriters keyboard.
4. The job applicant who knows how to type has better chances of getting employed, compared to one
who does not. The help of the typist eases office work. The typist assists in making reports,
preparing memos and typing business correspondence.
Study Helps:
1. How are time and energy saved through typing?
2. Of what value is typing to students? To offices and establishments?
3. What are the advantages of speed and accuracy in typing?

Self-Checking Exercises:
Direction: Look for the word that makes the statement incorrect.
Unimportant 1. The ability to type is unimportant skill that everyone should have.
Disorderly
2. Typewritten work is neat, disorderly and readable.
Lesser
3. The job applicant who knows how to type has a lesser chance of getting employed.
Burden
4. The help of the typist is a burden to office work.
Lot
5. The student who knows how to type can spend a lot for his/her term paper.

Lesson 5
Standards in Typing Speed and Accuracy

Pointers to Remember:
Speed and accuracy in typing are factors that assure the good quality of the finished
material.
This lesson teaches students how to identify good typists through the speed and accuracy with
which they do their work. Factors to observe in typing are also emphasized in this lesson.
Objectives:
1. Explain how speed and accuracy in typing is developed.
2. Describe a good typist.

Word Study:
1. proofread
2. typist
3. observe
Strategies:
1. Construct a conceptual paradigm showing how typing and accuracy are developed.
2. Socialized recitation on the characteristics of a good typist.
3. Students work out the Study Helps.

Activity 5
a. Interview some heads of offices. Ask them what qualities and skills they require of typists.
b. Interview an office typist for experiences in doing typing tasks when he/she was new in the job.
Ask the typist how he/she improve his/her speed and accuracy, and the benefits gained for
proficiency in typing.
c. Write a short composition on the qualities of a good typist. Read it to the class.
Discussion:
Speed and accuracy are the qualities of a good typist. To be a good typist, you must keep your
eyes on the material being typed and focus attention on its content. Assume a good sitting position,
type with less hand motion and without sudden change of movement, but keep the carriage moving
smoothly.
A good typist spends a little time to plan his/her work before he/she starts working. All things
are put in proper order to be able to begin work without delay.
He/she proofreads his/her work thoroughly, checks work with care and corrects error before
he/she removes the paper from the machine. Erasures are done neatly not only on the original but
also on the carbon copies.
A typist who works fast and accurately can be depended upon. He/she finishes his/her work
on time and ensures its accuracy.
Speed and accuracy in typing produce good results, hence good typists are in demand.
Qualities of a good typist:
1. speed
2. accuracy
To be a good typist:
1. You must keep your eyes on the material being typed and focus attention on its content.
2. Assume a good sitting position, type with less hand motion and without sudden change of
movement, but keep the carriage moving smoothly.
3. Spends a little time to plan his/her work before he/she starts working. All things are put in
proper order to be able to begin work without delay.
4. He/she proofreads his/her work thoroughly, checks work with care and corrects error before
he/she removes the paper from the machine.
5. Erasures are done neatly not only on the original but also on the carbon copies.
6. A typist who works fast and accurately can be depended upon. He/she finishes his/her work on
time and ensures its accuracy.
Speed and accuracy in typing produce good results, hence good typists are in demand.
Study Helps:
1. How can one develop speed and accuracy in typing?
2. Describe a good typist.
Self-Checking Exercises:
Direction: Write Yes for the correct statement and No for the incorrect one.
No
1. A good typists does not need to proofread his/her work.
No
2. A good typists who works fast but inaccurately can be depended upon.
Yes
3. Speed and accuracy are qualities of a good typist.
Yes
4. To be a good typist, one must focus the eyes on the material being typed.
Yes
5. Good sitting position with less hand motion is required in efficient typing.

Lesson 6
Daily Care of the Typewriter

Pointers to Remember:
The length of usefulness and serviceability of a typewriter depend on proper use, care
and maintenance.
This lesson provides pointers on the proper care of the typewriter. It shares guidelines in the
daily care of the typewriter. The procedure in cleaning the typewriter is demonstrated.
Objectives:
1. Know the daily care of typewriters.
2. Follow procedures in cleaning typewriters.
3. Appreciate the value of a well-maintained typewriter.
Word Study:
1. wipe
2. lubricate
3. regular interval
Strategies:
1. Socialized recitation on guidelines in the daily care of the typewriter.
2. Demonstration on how to clean the typewriter.
3. Demonstration on how to test the typewriter before typing.
4. Students work out the Study Helps.
Activity 6
a. Divide the students into 3 groups and assign the groups to perform the following tasks:
1. lubricating the typewriter
2. wiping the typewriter
3. setting the tabular margin
b. Ask the students to gather additional tips on the proper care of the typewriter.
Discussion:
A typewriter, like a sewing machine, needs proper care. The length of service the typewriter
will give depends on the care it gets. Following are pointers on the daily care of the typewriter.
1. Wipe off dust from the typewriter with a dry piece of rag or duster before and after use.
2. Always test the machine with two sheets of paper on the carriage.
3. Do not eat or leave foods near the typewriter to prevent insects from destroying this.
4. Set the tabular margin at the center after using the typewriter and cove it well.
5. Lubricate the mechanical portion regularly with machine oil.
6. Store the typewriter in a cool, dry place.
7. Replace the typewriter ribbon at regular intervals.
8. Avoid transferring the typewriter from one place to another.
Study Helps:
1. What care should be given the typewriter everyday?
2. Why should the typewriter be tested using two sheets of paper?
Self-Checking Exercises:
Direction: Pair the words in column A with the words in Column B correctly. Write the correct pairs
of words in your test booklet.
A
B
E
1. Lubricant
a. rug or duster
D
2. Proper Storage
b. insects
A
3. Dust
c. regular intervals
B
4. Food particles
d. cool dry place
C
5. Typewriter ribbon
e. machine oil

Lesson 7
Importance of Computer Education
Pointers to Remember:
Computers contribute much to the success of business enterprises by facilitating
communication and information sharing..
Computers have changed the pace of living of people. Communication is transmitted fast
through computers. Tasks that used to be done manually are now performed by computers. This
lesson thus explains the advantages of computer use.
Objectives:
1. Know the value of computers to present-day life.
2. Enumerate the advantages derived from computer use.
3. Appreciate the value of knowing how to manipulate computers.
Word Study:
1. manipulate
2. derive
3. automated
Strategies:
1. Picture parade on the wonders of computers. (video games/ATM/phones)
2. Panel discussion on how computers affect daily life of people.
3. Brainstorming on the importance of computers.
4. Students work out the Study Helps.
Activity 7
a. Make observation visits to schools that offer computer education.
b. Interview the students enrolled in the course. Ask them how they learned to use computers.
c. Write a short composition on this topic: The Role of Computers in Everyday Life. Share this with
the class.
Discussion:
Have you tried playing video games? You enjoy video games because of computers. The
computer has brought about many conveniences and is rapidly changing the lifestyle of people,
particularly in the urban areas. Have you seen an automated teller machine which is computer
controlled? Banks serve you all day because of the express teller machine.
Today, most universities and hospitals use computers to retrieve records readily. In many
offices, too, computers have replaced the typewriter and filing cabinet.
Computers contribute much to the success of business enterprises.
They facilitate
communication and information sharing. Knowing the nature and use of computers enables us to
enjoy some of its advantages, of computers some of which are as follows:
1. With the computers word processing capabilities, letters and reports are now easier to write and
edit.
2. Computers have exceptional memories that can store several million characters that can be
retrieved any time.
3. In the sciences, computers are valuable because they work on scientific projects.
4. Computers can make difficult calculations accurately and store large amounts of data.
5. Business enterprises use computers for preparing payrolls, recording accounts and receivables,
keeping track of inventories and preparing reports, among others.
6. Computers readily provide reliable data of airlines, hotels, supermarkets, and other enterprise.
7. Preparing billing invoices is facilitated by computers.
Study Helps:
1. What benefits do we derive from computer?
2. Why should we learn how to manipulate computers?
Self-Checking Exercises:
Direction:
Enumerate five (5) processes that computers perform which other machines can not do.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

letters and reports are now easier to write and edit.


have exceptional memories that can store several million characters that can be retrieved any time
work on scientific projects
make difficult calculations accurately and store large amounts of data
readily provide reliable data of airlines, hotels, supermarkets, and other enterprise

Lesson 8
History of Computers

Pointers to Remember:
Knowledge of the history and development of computers develops appreciation of their
contributions to all fields of human endeavor today, and motivates study of computer
education.
This lesson traces the history and development of computers. The teacher may require
students to do research on the advancement in business education and other areas of concern as a
result of the use of computers.
Objectives:
1. Know the history of computers.
2. Describe recent developments in computer use.
3. Know the people who developed devices that led to the invention of computers.
Word Study:
1. coding
2. digital
3. enormous
Strategies:
1. Oral report: People and events in the invention of computers.
2. Panel discussion: The history of computers.
3. Circular response: Recent development in computer use.
4. Students work out the Study Helps.
Activity 8
a. List down the names of people who have contributed to the development of computers
b. Research on current developments in computer manufacture and use. And discuss these in class.
c. Describe the capabilities of recent computers.
Discussion:
The history of computers started in the early times when devices were developed that led to the
existence of computers. One device is the abacus. The Chinese started the use of the abacus in
computing. It was the first mechanical device developed to help man compute. Arithmetical operations
involving large numbers are done faster like this device. It has been used since. Merchants from
ancient Asian countries are believed to have been the first abacus users.
Later, the rotating wheel calculator was made by Blaise Pascal, French mathematician to help
his father, who was a tax inspector, in his bookkeeping. This device was capable of performing both
addition and subtraction through the rotation of wheels. The rotating wheel calculator was invented
during the 16th century, Age of Scientific Revolution.
Following the rotating wheel calculator was the step wheel machine which was more advance
than Pascals. It was built in 1694 by Gottfried Van Liebiz, a Prussian mathematician. The
mechanical device could perform all the four operation such as addition, subtraction, multiplication
and division and could calculate square roots.
The next instrument invented was the punch card. This device was used by Joseph Marie
Jacquard (1752-1834) to automate weaving. How does the punch card work? The holes in the card
directed the movements of the thread in the loom, thus producing a specific design. Jacquards device
became the forerunner of the computer-punched card today. The punch card was invented during the
Industrial Revolution (1760-1830).
Charles Babbage (1791-1830), an English mathematician is considered by many as the Father
of Modern Computers because of his contributions to the field of computers. Babbage evolved two

devices-the difference engine and the analytical engine. He wanted the difference engine to calculate
logarithmic tables automatically and print the results.
He intended to perform mathematical calculations coded on cards, with the engine. The
concept behind the engine was the very same concept underlying the computer. If the tabulating
machine and a coding system was developed by Herman Hollerith, in 1884, who was an American
commissioned by the US government to work on census preparation, Holle Holleriths machine and
coding scheme were used in 1890 census.
Mark I or IBM Automatic Computer Sequence Controlled Calculator was the first electro
mechanical computer built in 1944 by Howard Aiken, a mathematician of Harvard University. The
machine was build with the support of the International Business Machine Corporation (IBM). This is
used to have been the first step in the development of the modern computer.
After the invention of Mark I, came the Electronic Numerical Integrator and CAlculato or
ENIAC. This was built by J. Presper Eckert, Jr. and John Mauchly of University of Pennsylvania in
1946. It was the first complete electronic digital computer. ENIAC was faster and more efficient than
Mark I because it had moving parts.
The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) was the first computer to operate
for internally stored instruction. It was built at Cambridge University in England. Other devices were
made after the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) by the University of
Pennsylvania came into use a few months later. Refinements of the electronic digital computer started
with ENIAC.
The history of computers
1. Abacus. The Chinese started the use of the abacus in computing. It was the first mechanical device
developed to help man compute. Arithmetical operations involving large numbers are done faster like
this device. It has been used since. Merchants from ancient Asian countries are believed to have
been the first abacus users.
2. Rotating wheel calculator. It was made by Blaise Pascal, French mathematician to help his father,
who was a tax inspector, in his bookkeeping. This device was capable of performing both addition
and subtraction through the rotation of wheels. The rotating wheel calculator was invented during
the 16th century, Age of Scientific Revolution.
3. Step wheel machine. Which was more advance than Pascals. It was built in 1694 by Gottfried Van
Liebiz, a Prussian mathematician. The mechanical device could perform all the four operation such
as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division and could calculate square roots.
4. Punch card. The next instrument invented. This device was used by Joseph Marie Jacquard (17521834) to automate weaving. How does the punch card work? The holes in the card directed the
movements of the thread in the loom, thus producing a specific design. Jacquards device became the
forerunner of the computer-punched card today. The punch card was invented during the Industrial
Revolution (1760-1830).
5. Charles Babbage (1791-1830), an English mathematician is considered by many as the Father of
Modern Computers because of his contributions to the field of computers. Babbage evolved two
devices-the DIFFERENCE ENGINE and the ANALYTICAL ENGINE. He wanted the difference engine
to calculate logarithmic tables automatically and print the results.
6. He intended to perform mathematical calculations coded on cards, with the engine. The concept
behind the engine was the very same concept underlying the computer. If the tabulating machine
and a coding system was developed by Herman Lollerith, in 1884, who was an American
commissioned by the US government to work on census preparation, Holle Holleriths machine and
coding scheme were used in 1890 census.
7. Mark I or IBM Automatic Computer Sequence Controlled Calculator was the first electro mechanical
computer built in 1944 by Howard Aiken, a mathematician of Harvard University. The machine was
build with the support of the International Business Machine Corporation (IBM). This is used to have
been the first step in the development of the modern computer.
8. After the invention of Mark I, came the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer of ENIAC. This
was built by J. Presper Eckert, Jr. and John Mauchly of University of Pennsylvania in 1946. It was
the first complete electronic digital computer. ENIAC was faster and more efficient than Mark I
because it had moving parts.
9. The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) was the first computer to operate for
internally stored instruction. It was built at Cambridge University in England.
10. Other devices were made after the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) by the
University of Pennsylvania came into use a few months later.
Refinements of the electronic digital computer started with ENIAC.

The development of computers is summarized into computer generations by the Philippine


Human Resources Development Centers as follows:
1. The first generation (1951-1958) had bulky vaccum tubes, generated enormous heat, had the
ability to store 1,000-4,000 characters and a speed of 200 instruction per second.
2. The second generation (1959-1964) had transistors mounted in boards, had the ability to store
4,000 to 32,000 characters and could process one million instruction per second.
3. The third generation (1964-1970) had integrated Circuits or Chips less that 1/8 inch square, had
the capacity to store 32,000-300,000 and process 10 million instruction per second.
4. The fourth generation had large scale intergrated circuits, thousands of tiny transistors packed in
a single chip, had the ability to store 32,000-300,000 characters, could process 10 million
instruction per second. Computers of each succeeding generations were characterized by greater
speed and greater storage capacity and order flexibility.
Study Helps:
1. Trace the development of computers.
2. Who contributed to the development of computer?
3. Enumerate the contributions of each.
Self-Checking Exercises:
Direction:
Fill in the blank with the correct answer. Write the answers in your test booklet.
1. The first mechanical device developed to help man compute was Abacus.
2. The rotating wheel calculator was made by Blaise Pascal.
3. The rotating wheel calculator was invented during the 16th century, Age of Scientific Revolution.
4. In 1694, Gottfried Van Liebiz built the Step Wheel Machine.
5. The father of modern computer was Charles Babbage.
6. Babbage evolved two devices-the difference engine and the analytical engine.
7. Electronic Numerical Intergrator and Computer (ENIAC) was faster and more efficient than Mark I
because it had moving parts.
8. The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) was the first computer to operate for
internally stored instruction.
9. Other devices were made after the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) by
the University of Pennsylvania.

Lesson 9
Types of Computers
Pointers to Remember:
Computers are classified according to purpose, operation and capacity
This lesson presents the different types of computers. Students may be assigned to do more
reference work on new types of computers.
Objectives:
1. Know the types of computers.
2. Distinguish the following types of computers:
a. general purpose computer
b. specific purpose computer
c. analog computer
d. hybrid computer
e. super computer
f. scale computer
g. medium size computer
h. mini computer
i. micro computer
Word Study:
1. analog computer
2. variables
3. main frames

Strategies:
1. Brainstorming on types of computers.
2. Circular response: Distinguishing different kinds of computers.
3. Students work out the Study Helps.
Activity 9
1. Ask the students make a survey in the community to know the kinds of computers being used in
their homes and how these are used. Survey results should be reported to the class.
2. Assign students to interview computer students about the kind of computers they used in their
school. Have interview results reported to the class for reactions.
3. Find out what kinds of computers are used in your community. How are they used?
Discussion:
Computers are classified according to purpose, operation and size. You are familiar with these
types because you see them used in schools, offices and homes. Examples: watch, calculators,
gameboy, personal computers, family computers, etc.
CLASSIFICATIONS OF COMPUTERS
The variety of computers is related to important differences in capacity and functions.
Computers may be classified according to their purpose. According to the kind of processing they do
or types of data they use, and also according to the size of the machine and the speed of its internal
operations.
Speed of operation is often the most important consideration in deciding which equipment to
choose for a particular task.
1. Classification According to Purpose
Digital computers may be utilized for either special or general purpose.
a. General Purpose Computer. A general purpose computer is one that has the ability to store
different programs of instructions thus to perform a variety of operation. Because it is
designed to do a wide variety of jobs rather than perform a specific activity, the generalpurpose machine typically comprised certain aspects of speed and efficiency. It is used for
purposes of payrolls, accounts, receivables, inventory controls, and sales analyses.
b. Special Purpose Computer. A special purpose computer performs only a specific set of
operation. Instructions that control it are built in the machine. Examples of device with
special purpose computers are digital watches, calculator, telephone and traffic lights. Special
purpose computers are more economical and efficient to use. The machine lacks versatility, it is
inflexible and cannot be easily used to perform other operations.
2. Classification According to Data Handled
There are essentially two different types of computer processing. Each is made possible by a
different kind of circuitry, and each is suitable for different purposes.
a. Analog computers. The name analog comes from the word analogous meaning similar.
Analog computers are used for scientific, engineering, and process-control purposes. Because
they deal with quantities that are continuously variable, they give only approximate results.
This type of computer provides an analog or simulation of the objects or system it represents.
An example of an analog computer is a computerized thermometer or pressure gauge of a
nuclear plant which provides continuous reading of temperature or pressure. The speedometer
is an analog device in the speed of the automobile shown by analogous or similar changes in
speed. Analog computers can handle continuously changing data with temperature, catches
prompt but approximate results.
b. Digital computers. Digital computers provide reading numbers accurately than analog
computers, because they measure and represent quantities in distinct variables. In addition to
arithmetic operations, the digital computer is capable of storing data as long as needed,
performing logical operations, editing input data and printing out the results of its processing
at high speed. They are used in payroll calculations and laboratory search involving repetitive
routing arithmetic operations involved and when 100 percent accuracy is desired.
c. Hybid computers. This special-purpose machine, called a hybrid computer, combines the
measuring capabilities of the analog computer and the logical and control capabilities of the
digital computer. It offers an efficient and economical method of working out special types of
problems in science and various areas of engineering. Some hybrid machines contain special
equipment to convert analog voltages into digital voltages, and vice-versa.

3. Classification According to Capacity


Capacity refers to the volume of tasks the data processing capability a computer can handle.
Their performance is determined by the:
1. amount of data that can be stored in memory
2. speed of internal operation of the computer
3. number and type of peripheral devices
4. amount and type of software available for use with the computer
a. Microcomputers
The microcomputer is a digital computer system under the control of a stored program
that uses a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory (ROM), and a random-access
memory (RAM). The Apple IIe, the Radio Shack TRS-80, and the Genie III are examples of
microcomputers and are essentially fourth generation devices. Microcomputers are also the
basis for intelligent robot arms and hands capable of factory assembly operation too complex
for mechanization.
b. Minicomputers
Minicomputer system (or small mainframe computers) provide faster operating speeds
and larger storage capacities than microcomputer systems. They can support a large number
of high-speed input/output devices. Operating systems developed for minicomputer system
generally support both multiprogramming and virtual storage. This means that many
programs can be run concurrently. This type of computer system is very flexible and can be
expanded to meet the need of users. Within few years they were being put to use in a wide
variety of commercial operations such as airlines reservations, car rentals, banking
transactions, and inventory control.
c. Medium-sized Computers
Medium-size computer systems provide faster operating speeds and larger storage
capacities than small computer systems. They can support a large number of high-speed
input/output devices, and several disk drives can be used to provide online access to large data
files as required for direct-access processing. The operating systems developed for medium-size
computer systems also support both multiprogramming and virtual storage. This allows the
running of a variety of programs concurrently. They have 32-bit word length and 524,000 bytes
memory size.
d. Large Scale Computers
Large computers are the ultimate in system sophistication, flexibility, and speed. They
usually contain full control systems with minimal operator intervention. Large computer
systems range form single-processing configurations to nationwide computer-based networks
involving general large computers. These computers have 1.5 million bytes or more of main
memory and an operating speed in the low nanosecond range. A nanosecond is equivalent to 1
billionth of a second. Users of large computers are usually government agencies, large
corporations, and computer service organizations. They are used in complex modeling, or
simulation, business operations, product testing, and in the development of space technology.

e. Super Computers
The biggest and fastest machines today are the supercomputers that are used when
billions or event trillions of calculations are needed. These machine are essential for
applications ranging from nuclear weapon development to accurate weather forecasting.
Supercomputers are machine that have capabilities far beyond even the traditional large scale
systems. Their speed is in the 100-million-instructions-per-second range.
Study
1.
2.
3.

Helps:
What are the classifications of computers.
Enumerate the kinds of computers.
Trace the history of computers.

Self-Checking Exercises:
Direction:
Match the items in Column A with those in Column B. Write the answers in your test
booklet.
A
B

1.

Analog Computers

a.

A
D
B
C

2.
3.
4.
5.

Digital Computers
Super Computers
Large Scale Computers
Medium Size Computers

b.
c.
d.
e.

measure and represent quantities in distinct


variables
have 1.5 million bytes
process data in continuous form at high speed and
524,000 bytes
largest and fastest machine
performs only one function

Lesson 10
Characteristics and Capabilities of Computers
Pointers to Remember:
Properly manipulated, a computer is capable of doing numerous tasks accurately
within a short span of time.
This lesson discusses the nature and functions of the wonder machine the computer.
Objectives:
1. Know the nature/characteristics of computers.
2. Enumerate the capabilities of computers.
3. Appreciate the marvelous use of the computers.
Word Study:
1. automatic
2. capability
3. electronic
4. memory
Strategies:
1. Use of media, photo illustration, slide presentation on the characteristics of computers.
2. Lecture/discussion and actual demonstration on the capabilities of computers.
3. Students work out the Study Helps.
Activity 10
a. Check the nature, characteristics and functions of the type of computer you use at home or in your
school with the help of one who knows.
b. Students share correct use and value of computers to communication.

Discussion:
A computer is an electronic device designed to generate useful information through proper
manipulation of data. Computer systems have invaded all aspects of modern life, hence, they have
influenced very much the flow of work. To understand the nature and functions of computers, it is
good to know their characteristics and capabilities
Characteristics of a Computer
1. It is an inanimate object which needs outside intervention for its operation.
2. It is electrically-operated and made up of electronic circuits.
3. It automatically operates as soon as it is set.
4. It can hold, store and recall data because it has memory.
5. It can produce correct results once it is instructed or manipulated properly, hence, it has logic
functions.
6. It can perform data processing such as arithmetic operations.
Capabilities of Computers
1. A computer has the capacity to process data faster than any type of machine, with a speed of up to
50 million operations per second.

2. A computer is capable of performing the same operation a million times producing exactly the
same results.
3. A computer has the capacity to produce accurate results.
4. A computer can perform logical operations. It can make decisions depending on the alternatives
fed by the programmer. (It can manipulate in logical ways letters, numbers, words, sentences,
mathematical expressions and other symbols to which people have given meaning. It is able to
perform a simple comparison and then, depending on the result, follow one of tow or more
predetermined branches or courses of action.)
5. It has the capacity to store and recall large amount of information at high speed. (The computer
stores in internal storage both facts and instructions. The ease with which instructions can be
changed gives the computer great flexibility. The access time required for information to be recalled
from internal storage and be available for use is measured in microseconds or more precise units.
Few machines that are used by man have this stored program ability).
6. The computer can check the accuracy of its work in terms of the number of characters it receives.
(It has been estimated that a person would make one error in every 500 to 1,000 operations with a
desk calculator. A computer, on the other hand, can perform hundreds of thousands of arithmetic
operations every second and can run errorless for hours and days at a time.)
7. The computer is capable of executing the instructions it receives from the programmer on its own.
(Computers have the ability to check its own work. By a method known as parity checking,
computers check on data when they enter storage, when they are moved internally, and when they
leave in the form of output. The parity check performed by the computer involves the examination of
each characters code to determine whether bits (binary digits or 0s and 1s) have been added or lost
by mistake.)
Study
1.
2.
3.

Helps
What are the capabilities of computer?
Describe the characteristics of a computer.
Describe the capabilities of computers.

Self-Checking Exercises:
Direction:
Pick out the correct answer between the two words enclosed in the parenthesis. Write
the correct word in your test booklet.
Electronic
1. A computer is an (electrical, electronic) device designed to
generate useful information.
Inanimate
2. A computer is an (animate, inanimate) object which needs human
intervention for its operation.
Accurate
3. If properly manipulated, a computer can produce (accurate,
incorrect) results.
Faster
4. A computer has the capacity to produce data (faster, slower) than
any type of machine.
Memory
5. A computer has (brain, memory) so it can store and recall data.

Lesson 11
Functional Elements of Computers

Pointers to Remember:
Proper manipulation of computers component is a requisite for its efficient
functioning.
This lesson gives an idea on how micro computer work. A resource person may be invited to
help students answer questions they have in mind about computers.
Objectives:
1. Know the elements or parts of the computer.
2. Classify different hardware.
3. Appreciate benefits gained from the use of software and hard ware.

Words to Study:
1. Software

2. Hardware
3. Decode
4. Circuits
Suggested Strategies:
1. Socialized recitation on the distinction between software and hardware.
2. Brainstorming on the different hardware.
3. Panel discussion on the importance of software and hardware in computer.
4. Students work out the Study Helps on page 321 of the textbook.
Activity 11
1. Ask the students to differentiate software from hardware and to give examples of each.
2. Write a brief composition on the value and use of software and hardware.
Discussion:
Computer - is a system made up of components that work together to process data. These are the
hardware, the software and the computer personnel.
Hardware - refers to the physical unit associated with the computers. These are the central processing
unit and the input/output devices.
Central processing unit (CPU) - the heart and brain of any computer. It is where actual computer
operations are performed. However it needs a program to tell what to do.
The Components of the CPU:
The CPU is composed of the three units as follows:
1. The control unit supervises or monitors the activities performed by the entire computer system
according to conditions set forth by the stored program. It decodes and interprets the instructions
and releases out signals that act as commands for circuits to execute the instruction.
2. The arithmetic logic unit performs arithmetical and logical operations. It is where data is
manipulated.
3. The memory unit is somewhat like an electronic filing cabinet capable of holding data or
instructions. It is wher the computer program and data are stored during processing. This unit is
the random access storage or primary storage, also called memory or main storage, hold the
instructions and data before processing starts. After all manipulations and computations are
done, the data remain in the memory unit until the control unit is instructed to transfer the result
to an output device.
Components of the CPU (Diagram)
The Primary Storage or Memory
The computer storage is compared to a collection of P.O. boxes. Each P.O. box has its own
address and holds only one item. To direct processing operations, the control unit of the CPU must
locate each instruction and date items in storage. So, the primary storage is organized as a series of
locations or cells. Each cell is assigned an address. With specific addresses, data and instructions
can be located easily and picked up by the control unit. The computers series of P.O. boxes is known
as random access memory or RAM.
Another feature of the computers memory is the read-only memory or ROM. Unlike the RAM,
contents of the ROM cannot be altered or erased even when the power is turned off because operating
systems are written permanently into the ROM by those who designed and built the compute.
Input Devices
Data and instructions can be fed into the computer via a keyboard-like device. When a number
is typed, the CPU does not work on it after an important key is pressed. This key is labeled Enter or
execute and has a bent arrow on it. Pressing this key is the users way of telling the computer your
turn or back to you. There will be no meaning in anything you type until this key is pressed. The
computer keyboard has other keys for special commands, such as the CTRL or control key. When
pressed, the control key changes the function of the other keys.
Another way in which programs and data can be entered is through the use of different storage
media which are punched cards, magnetic tapes and disks.
Output Devices

Each output device receives information from the CPU and converts the electric pieces to an
appropriate form. Following are some output devices:
1. Printer prints processed data in a form people can read.
2. Monitor or CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) a television which like video screen supplies what
is known as soft copy, since it does not give you a permanent record.
3. Speech Synthesizer provides output in audio form.
Secondary Memories
To reserve programs and data, secondary storage media are used. Examples of these auxiliary
storage media are punched cards, magnetic tapes and magnetic disks.
1. Punched Cards. Data are punched into the cards following a code. The operator transcribes
data into the cards by pressing keys on the keyboard. The machine automatically feeds,
positions and stacks the card. The card is characterized by fragility and tendency to bend or
be lost. It is not reusable and cannot store other information.
2. Magnetic Tapes. Programs and data are recorded or stored as magnetized spots on the surface
of the tape. They are made of plastic coated with iron oxide, and can be magnetized into spots
to represent data. Information on the tapes can be stored indefinitely until they are
demagnetized. An ordinary cassette tape is an example of a magnetic tape. A magnetic tape
drive is the device that can read from or write onto a tape.
3. Magnetic Disk. The most popular random-access storage medium. The magnetic disks
resembles a record. The device used with disks is called a disk drive. The disk and disk drive
work like a record and a phonograph.
Software
All programs fall under the main heading of software. Software controls harness and yields the
power of the computer. The two types of programs are the application program and the operating
system.
1. Application Program. The word processing program turns the computer into a typewriter. You
may delete, insert, move words and other operations in it. A spreadsheet program turns the
computer into a large spreadsheet, a tool where figures are recorded for analysis. The database
management program is used for simple filing, payroll keeping and accounting where large
amount of data are involved.
2. Operating System. The operating system (OS) is the bridge between the computer and the user
because the OS makes it possible for the user to communicate with the computer. The
operating system directs the flow of data and instruction within the system.
Study
1.
2.
3.
4.

Helps:
Define hardware; software.
Enumerate the different hardware.
Give examples of software.
Explain the importance of software and hardware in computer use.

Self-Checking Exercises:
Direction:
Choose the best answer. Write the letters only in your test booklet.
A
B
b
1. The physical unit associated with computer
a. speech synthesizer
d
2. The heart and brain of the computer
b. hardware
a
3. Provides output in audio form
c. control unit
e
4. The memory or main storage
d. central processing unit
c
5. Decodes and interprets the instructions.
e. primary storage

Lesson 12
The Computer System

Pointers to Remember:
Computers can process data faster and more accurately compared to people.
facilitate work and save time, energy and effort.

They

This lesson dwells on steps involved in the input, processing and output stages of computer
use. It illustrates how a computer machine works.

Objectives:
1. Give the steps involved in the input stage and in data processing.
2. Know the system of sorting and storing data.
Words
1.
2.
3.
4.

to Study:
Data processing
Calculation
Sorting
Output

Suggested Strategies:
1. Talk to a resource person who is a computer technician or instructor on the functional
operation of computers.
2. Film showing on computer use.
3. Students work out the Study Helps on page 324 of the textbook.
Activity 12:
1. Interview computer students on data processing in the computer system
2. Make a list of the steps involved in data processing. Describe each step.
3. Have the students get more information on the proper operation of computers and to report on
this to the class.

Discussion:
Operations Performed by the CPU
Computers are very useful because they can process data faster and more accurately compared
to people. Data processing done by a computer is called electronic data processing or EDP. To
understand the processing data, think of yourself as one who is going to a bake a chiffon cake. All
ingredients such as egg, flour, sugar and milk are like the data being mixed together. The number
letters are manipulated to form the needed operation. Similarly the mixed ingredients are baked and
the output is a delicious chiffon cake. The output produced by processing the data on the computer is
the information needed by the user. All data processing follow one basic flow pattern as follows:
INPUT

PROCESSING

OUTPUT

The central processing unit controls the reading of input from an input device, the processing
of that input data and the writing of output using one of the output devices of the computer system.
The operations performed by the CPU can be categorized as follows:
1. Input
Data gathered are entered into the computer in a form acceptable to the computer. There are
three steps involved in the input stage. The first step is the gathering of data from various sources.
The second step is the checking of data for accuracy and completeness. The third step is coding,
which involves converting the data into machine-readable form, so they can be entered into the
processing system.
2. Processing
This is the stage involved in the manipulation of data or the performance of operations on the
entered data, according to program or a list of instructions.
There are several steps involved in data processing as follows:
a. The first step is classification of data. Data are grouped according to specific characteristic
such as age, sex and level when data are about students.
b. The next step is sorting the data. Data are arranged into a predetermined sequence,
alphabetically, numerical, to facilitate processing.
c. Calculation is the next step. Data are arithmetically or logically calculated. This involves
addition, subtraction, multiplication or division.
d. The next step consists of the summary. Data are reduced into concise form to facilitate
understanding of the user.

e. The final step is storage. Data resulting from calculating and summarizing are documented
and stored in medium disks or types.
3. Output
The product of the processing stage is the output. There are four steps involved to avail of
processed outputs as follows:
a. The retrieval, which is the exposure of the stored information.
b. The conversion, through which information from the computer is changed into a form that can
be easily understood.
c. Communication which refers to the actual user by the recipient of the information transmitted
to him.
d. The final stage is the reproduction of information so other people may use their purpose.
System of Sorting and Storing of Data
The computer is structured into the following units:
1. Bit the smallest unit through which data are represented, which is 0 or 1.
2. Byte a group of bits, usually 8 bits long, the smallest unit that a computer can process and the
basic unit held in storage.
3. Field a combination of bytes; a single item of information about something, such as name, age, or
sex.
4. Record a collection of fields that relate to a single entity such as students record which includes
his name, age, sex and citizenship among others.
5. File a collection of related records, for example, record of all students in a class.
6. Database or databank a collection of logically related files composed of all data which the
computer has for a particular manipulation. When these computer is used for record management
in a school, its data base is composed of all personal information about the students, including
their grades.

Study Helps:
1. What steps are involved in the input stage? The output stage?
2. Explain the steps in data processing.
3. Interview people who use computer. Ask them for additional information on the proper operation
of the computer.
Self-Checking Exercises:
Direction:
Match items in column A with those in column B.
booklets.

C
B
F
A
D
E

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

A
Bit
Bytes
Field
Record
File
Databank

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Write the answers in your test

B
a collection of fields
a group of bits
the smallest unit
a collection of related records
a collection of logically related files
a combination of bytes

COMPUTERS
Microcomputers:
a. hand-held computer
b. laptop computer
c. desktop computer
d. multimedia computer
A computer is an electronic device that can be used to process information. Today, computers can
be found in all aspects of society which include science, medicine, education, research, business, and
education.

With the advent of the computer, we began to move from a period of industrialization to the age of
information. The communication systems have significantly improved with the use of facsimile
devices (fax) and electronic mail (e-mail) technologies.
The computer has gone through four distinct generations:
1. The First Generation (1951-1958) of electronic computers was based on vacuum-tube
technology. The UNIVAC I is considered as the first computer of this generation. The computer,
known as mainframe, used punched card or tape as the primary input medium.
2. The Second Generation (1959-1964) computers used the transistor instead of the vacuum
tube. Transistors were smaller, faster, and required less power than the vacuum tubes.
In this generation, programming language was introduced in order to operate the
machine. Programming languages are sets of special instructional statements used to operate
the computer.
3. The Third Generation (1965-1970) computers used Integrated Circuits (IC) instead of
transistors. During this period, smaller and faster minicomputers have been developed to
replace larger mainframes. High-level programming languages were developed.
4. The Fourth Generation (1971 up to present) saw the beginning of the evolution of computer
design and programming techniques.
The miniaturization of computer components has led to the design and production of
smaller personal computers and microcomputers. This is due to Large Scale Integration (LSI)
or Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI).
The next generation of computers may involve application of Artificial Intelligence and
Expert System.

Parts of the Computer


Today, computers are designed around a single processing device known as the Central
Processing Unit (CPU). It is also known as the brains of the computer. It acts on instructions that
are retrieved from an internal storage system known as Random Access Memory (RAM) or the Main
Memory.
A computer system consists of integrated set of computing components. The system requires
input devices (keyboard), mouse, scanner, etc. to get information into the computer and to get
information of the computer, the monitor, printer, etc. are used. All these components are called
hardware.
The software is a set of instructions or programs that are created by programmers to control
the computers response to user input.
Computer Data System
Computers use a data system code based on a binary system as ON or OFF, PRESENT or
ABSENT. The binary representation of data is usually presented as using 1 for ON and 0 for OFF.
ASCII (American Standard Code of Information Interchange) is the most widely used computer code.
EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) is used on IBM and other large
computers.
The smallest unit of data that a computer deals with is called a bit. A byte is compused of 8
bits. The storage capacity of a computer is measured in kilobytes (thousand bytes), megabytes
(million bytes) and gigabytes (billions of bytes).
MEET THE COMPUTER
The computer is an electronic machine. It is a machine that solves problems such as you do.
As an example, lets trace the way you would add two numbers. Then lets see how a computer would
do it.
Step
Step
Step
Step

1.
2.
3.
4.

You
You
You
You

collect information. That is, you either see or hear the numbers to be added.
find a method to solve the problem. In this case, you remember how to do addition.
bring together the information (the two numbers), and the method (addition)
perform the operation, adding the two numbers.

Step 5.

You report the results of your work, either by writing down the answer, or by saying it out
loud.

All computers go through five similar steps.


Step 1. The computer receives information, or data, from the outside. It changes the data into
electronic language, called input.
Step 2. The computer has been given a program containing instructions for solving the problem. The
instructions are found in the storage or memory.
Step 3. The computer brings together the data from the input and the instructions from the storage.
This is done by the computers control.
Step 4. The computer goes through the steps of the instructions on the data; this is called
processing.
Step 5. The computer changes the results from electronic language to human language. It presents
the results in print or sound, called output.
Sometimes the five parts of a computer input, storage, control, processor and output are
together in one large unit. Other times they are far apart and connected by wires. Often, larger
computers have one control and processing unit, with a number of separate memory, input and output
devices.

INPUT: TAKING IN INFORMATION


Computers get most of their input from human beings. Computer operators feed data to the
computer through an input device. The most popular input device is the terminal. It looks like an
electric typewriter, with a connected television screen.
When you want to enter data into the computer, you type the letters and numbers on the
typewriter keyboard. Inside the terminal, the letters and numbers are changed into electrical signals.
These signals make up computer language.
Computer language is based on the binary system. It uses only two symbols, on and off.
Either the electricity is flowing or it is not flowing. All the letters and numbers have their own special
pattern of ons and offs. It is like the Morse code, which also has only two symbols dots and dashes
to stand for all the letters and numbers.
The television screen is a cathode ray tube, or CRT. It lets you see, in ordinary letters and
numbers, what you are typing into the computer input.
Very often there are several terminals connected to one central processing unit. That lets many
people use the central processing unit at the same time. All the terminals used by the tellers in a
bank or clerks in an airport, for example, are connected to a central processing unit that may be
hundreds of miles away.
Although terminals are very popular, they are not the only input device. Cards, with rows of
punched-out holes, can be fed into a machine that reads the pattern of holes and sends the
information, in computer language, to the input. Other devices can actually read printed letters or
numbers. Some advanced inputs can even recognize human speech!
Computer experts feed two kinds of information to the computers input. First, they instruct he
computer on how to solve particular problems and perform certain tasks. This is called the
computers program. The program for a bank computer, for instance, instructs the computer on how
to keep track of peoples accounts, how to add on interest, and how to bring bank books up to date.
The program of an airline computer, on the other hand, reserves seats for the different flights, and
prints out the tickets.
Second, experts feed the computer the data, the particular facts and figures to be used in its
calculations. The bank computer is fed the exact amount of each deposit or withdrawal from an
account. And the airline computer is given the name of every passenger that reserves a seat on a
plane.
From the input, the program and the data go to the storage part of the computer.

STORAGE: REMEMBERING FACTS, REMEMBERING METHODS


The program and data are kept in the computers storage or memory, until they are needed.
Every part of the program and every item of data is stored in a specific place know as an address.
That is how the computer can quickly get back, or retrieve, any bit of information that is needed.

Usually the program is kept in the main memory. Until recently, the main memory of most
computers used tiny metal doughnuts, called cores. The course were strung on a grid of criss-crossed
wires. Each core was magnetized in one direction or the other. One direction was the same as on. The
other direction was the same as off. The entire program and all the data were stored on these
magnetized cores.
A more advanced memory system stores the information as electrical charges on tiny silicon
chips. Each chip, about one-tenth-of-an-inch-square (0.6sq.cm), holds about sixty-four thousand on
or off electrical charges, called bits. The capacity is expected to become even greater in the future.
The most advanced main memory uses tiny magnetic spots, or bubbles, in a thin film of
magnetic material. The bubbles are so small that one million of them could fit on a film the size of a
silver dollar. Each bubble is magnetized in one direction or the other to carry the information.
The data fed to a computer are most often stored in a separate memory, called the auxiliary
memory section. Usually, this is done by magnetism. The most popular devices are the magnetic
tapes, magnetic drum, and magnetic disk. In all of these, points on the surface are either magnetized
or not. This works the same as electricity on, or electricity off.

CONTROL: BRINGING THE INFORMATION TOGETHER


Part of the program of instructions given to a computer goes to the control unit. The control is
the traffic cop of the computer.
On the basis of the orders in the program, the control unit decides when to send information
from the input to storage and when to send it to the processor. It decides when to call up a program
and data from storage. It decides when to accept data from one terminal and when from another
terminal. And it decides when the results of the computers work should go to the output.
Just as a good police officer keeps a smooth flow of traffic on a busy road, so a wellprogrammed control unit keeps a computer working smoothly.

PROCESSING: DOING THE JOB


The processing section, or the CPU (central processing unit), is the heart of the computer. This
section carries out the actual arithmetic and logic tasks. It does all the calculations and makes all the
decisions.
Under the direction of the control unit, the CPU adds, subtracts, multiplies, divides, and
compares numbers. By combining these basic operations, it does even more complex calculations.
The CPU also makes logical decisions. And it does all of these tasks at speeds that are measured in
billionths of a second.
Many of the latest CPUs are tiny in size compared to the older ones. They are truly
microprocessors. Through the use of microprocessors, it has been possible to increase the number of
calculations and add memories to the new computers, without adding to their size or cost.

OUTPUT: PRESENTING THE RESULTS


The output is the last step in computer operation. It changes the computers results from
binary machine language into a form that people can understand. There are several kinds of output
devices.
Suppose a shoe store owner wants to know which style of shoe is selling best. He uses a
printer. It actually prints or types, the numbers of shoes sold on a long strip of paper. The computer
print-out shows him which shoes he should order. High-speed printers can print an entire line at one
time, turning out as many as 20,000 lines in a minute.
A city planner, though, may use her computer in a different way. She wants to plan a new bus
route to serve the largest number of people. Using a plotter as the output, she gets a drawing, actually
a map, showing the route chosen by the computer.
The telephone operator who looks up telephone numbers uses a computer. But she does not
need a printed copy, nor a drawing of the number. Therefore, she has a computer terminal with a
CRT. The screen flashes the number for a little while, and then it disappears, ready for the next
request.

Students in many schools are taught by a computer. Some of these courses are in foreign
languages. To learn a language, you must hear it spoken correctly. These computers have an audio
output. They actually produce the sounds of the language perfectly pronounced.
The modern computer is truly an amazing machine. But it is not able to think for itself. It is
only as smart as the person who prepares its program. Nor can a computer produce correct answers
unless it is fed correct data.
Many people are a little afraid of computers. They think of computers as machines with minds
of their own. Just remember this, tough. A computer is nothing more than a human tool. It stretches
our abilities. Just as you use a hammer to help you drive a nail into a wall, so you use a computer to
help you solve a problem. Computers are our servants, not our masters.

COMPUTERS
Microcomputers:

(a) Hand-held computer


(c) Desktop Computer

(b) Laptop Computer


(d) Multimedia Computer

A computer is an electronic device that can be used to process information. Today computers
can be found in all aspects of society which include science, medicine, education, research, business,
and education.
With the advent of the computer, we began to move from a period of industrialization to the age
of information. The communication systems have significantly improve with the use of facsimile
devices (fax) and electronic mail (e-mail) technologies.
The computer has gone through four distinct generations:
The First Generation (1951-1958) of electronic computers was based on vacuum-tube
technology. The UNIVAC I is considered as the first computer of this generation. The computer, known
as mainframe, used punched card or tape as the primary input medium.
The Second Generation (1959-1964) computers used the transistor instead of the vacuum
tube. Transistors were smaller, faster, and required less power than the vacuum tubes.
In this generation, programming language was introduced in order to operate the machine.
Programming, languages are sets of special instructional statements used to operate the computer.
The Third Generation (1965-1970) computers used Integrated Circuits (IC) instead of
transistors. During this period, smaller and faster minicomputers have been developed to replace
larger mainframes. High-level programming languages were developed.
The Fourth Generation (1971 up to present) saw the beginning of the evolution of computer
design and programming techniques.
The miniaturization of computer components has led to the design and production of smaller
personal computers and microcomputers. This is due to Large Scale Integration (LSI) or Very Large
Scale Integration (VLSI).
The next generation of computers may involve application of Artificial Intelligence and Expert
System.
Parts of the Computer
Today, computers are designed around a single processing device known as the Central
Processing Unit (CPU). It is also known as the brains of the computer. It acts on instructions that
are retrieved from an internal storage system known as Random Access Memory (RAM) or the Main
Memory.

BLOCKED PARAGRAPHS

There are times when you have to type paragraphs in blocked form. When you type paragraphs
in blocked form, start at the left margin; in other words, no indention of the paragraph as on the
paragraphs you are to copy
Most probably, you may not be able to copy these paragraphs line by line. The problem on how
to end the line without looking at your copy can be solved by making use of the bell at the end of the
carriage. This bell rings about 7 or 8 spaces before the right margin stops. If you set your left margin
at 20 and the right margin at 80 to type on a 60-space line, the bell rings 2 or 3 spaces before it
reaches 75.
Another problem which may crop up in tying unset paragraphs is the end-line division of
words. There are times when the last word at the end of the line is quite long and cannot be
accommodated at the right margin without going over. You have to divide the word so as to keep the
right margin straight as much as possible. This can be done conveniently by applying the rules of
dividing line-ending words given on later topics.

NUMBERS AND SPECIAL SYMBOLS


Note: The number and symbol keys in the typewriter function the same way as in the computer.
These numeric keys are also used in combination with the Control, Shift, or Alt keys in their
functions.
Another group of keys known as the Numeric Keypad, located at the rightside of the keyboard,
serve as both numeric and cursor-movement keys. These have arrows and numbers printed on
them. With the Num Lock key off, these are cursor movement keys. With Num Lock on, they
are numbers.
There are three methods of learning the numbers.
They are the:
1. Finger-Reach Method in this method you place your left hand fingertips on the guide keys
ASDF and you reach 1234 correspondingly. No. 5 is reached by F finger also. 1 is reached
from A; 2 from S; 3 from D; and 4 and 5 from F. If there is no 1 key on the top row of your
typewriter, use the small letter 1. For 7890, place your righthand fingers on JKL; and
from J reach 6 and 7; 8 from K; 9 from L; and 0 from ;.
2. Pipe-organ Method in this method the ASDF fingers are placed directly on 1234 and the
JKL; fingers on 7890 as number home keys.
3. WE 23 Method the fingertips are placed on the home keys in this method. Then you type
a paired word and number with the same fingers, in the same sequence, such as WE and
23 or UP and 70. The paired words and numbers are read in syllables.

NUMBER LOCATION
Locate the number keys on the above keyboard chart. You will note that all fingers for the top
row assume the same base position, so that 1 is controlled by the A finger; 2 by the S finger; 3 by the
D finger; 4 and 5 by the F finger. The same is true with the right-hand finger. Some typewriters do
not have 1 on the top row. If such is the case, use small letter 1 for 1.
Numbers - 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
Fingers
A
S
D
F
F
J
J
K
L
;

SPECIAL SYMBOLS MANUFACTURED in a typewriter


NAME

HOW TO CONSTRUCT

SAMPLE

Peso sign

Capital P backspace;
strike diagonal (/).

P1,350

Centavo sign

Small c, backspace;
strike diagonal (/).

50

Minus sign

Use the hyphen. (Space before and after


the minus sign.)

58 34

Division sign

Strike hyphen; backspace, strike colon.


(Space before and after division sign.)

32 4

Multiplication sign

Use small X. (Space before and after


the multiplication sign.)

12 x 8

Equal sign

Strike hyphen backspace, turn cylinder


up slightly or depress shift key slightly;
strike hyphen again.

3x2=6

Plus sign

Strike hyphen; backspace, strike diagonal.

5+3=8

Ditto mark

Use quotation mark.

March 12
30

Star or Asterisk

Strike capital A, backspace and strike


small letter x or small x.

Degrees

Roll cylinder down slightly, hold it in


place; strike small o. (Use ratchet
release for quick alignment.)

37o

Superior numbers
or Exponents

Roll cylinder down slightly, hold it in


place; strike the desired key.

Ramos2

Inferior numbers
Or Chemical symbols

Roll the cylinder up slightly, hold it in


place; strike the desired key.

H2O

Brackets

Strike diagonal; backspace, strike


Underscore. Roll the cylinder down
One line and strike underscore again

Feet and Inches

Use apostrophe for feet and quotation


marks for inches.

5 4

TABULATED NUMBERS
-

TABULATOR

Procedure for using the tabulator:


Tabulating Technique: Locate tabulator key. Depress and hold it until the carriage stops. Always
clear all previous tab setting before you start a new problem.
To clear all tab stops, move carriage to extreme right. Press tabulator key (tab key). Where it stops,
press tab-clear key (-key). Repeat this procedure for each stop. Some machines provide
all-clear key, usually located at the back of the carriage. Use it and all previous tab will
be cleared.
To set tab stops, move carriage to the desired point and press tab-set key (+key).

SPEED AND ACCURACY BUILDING


All the different kinds of drills should be typed continuously with rhythm and at a fast rate.
The speed boosters and sentences must be typed rapidly without pause on a half-minute timing. Find
out how many lines you can type at a given time. Try to increase at least a word in each trial. The

timed writing materials can be used for speed or accuracy drive. It can also be used to measure the
learners progress.
If your aim is for speed, try to reach your goal.
If your aim is for accuracy, slow down a little to minimize errors. To determine the GWAM (gross
words a minute) and NWAM (net words a minute):
At the right side of the material is shown the total number of words. Get the figure at the end
of the line you have completed or at the point at which you stopped typing. If you do not finish the
line, subtract the number of words, you were not able to type. Divide the number of words by the time
given for typing the material; the answer equals the GWAM. If you want to get the NWAM, subtract the
number of errors from the GWAM.

Example:
Words typed 102
Computation:
102
=
3 (times)

Time 3 minutes
34 GWAM

Errors 4

34 4 = 30 NWAM

You should keep a record of your daily timed writings so that you can determine your progress.

HOW TO DRAW LINES ON THE TYPEWRITER


To draw the horizontal lines, place the ballpen or pencil point through the card holder (or on
the type bar guide above the ribbon); depress the carriage release lever and draw the carriage across
the line.

CENTERING DISPLAY AND SKILL IMPROVEMENT


HORIZONTAL CENTERING: Backspacing Method
The standard typewriting paper usually measures 8 inches in width and 11 inches in length.
There are 10 strokes per horizontal inch for pica typewriter and 12 strokes for elite. Therefore, there
are 85 strokes for pica and 102 for elite across the line. The center point for pica is 42 and elite 51.
(For convenience, 50 may be used as center point for elite.)
Steps in horizontal centering:
3. Mark the center of a sheet of paper and insert in your typewriter.
4. Move the margin stops to both ends of the scale.
5. Clear the tabular rack from previous setting.
6. Move the carriage to the center. Be sure that the center mark of the paper and the printing
point are in straight line. Set a tab.
7. Use the backspace key. (This key is ordinarily controlled by the small finger, but it is better
to use the thumb when centering.)
8. Say the letters in pairs (including spaces or marks) as you press and release the backspace
key once for each pair. If there is any leftover letter, ignore it.
9. Start to type the line where the backspacing ends.

VERTICAL CENTERING:
The length of a standard typewriting paper is 11 inches. There are 6 lines to one vertical inch.
Therefore, a sheet of paper contains 66 lines from top to bottom, and 33 lines for half sheet.
Steps in vertical centering:
a.
Count the total number of lines and spaces the display will occupy.
b.
Subtract this number from 66 to determine the number of lines left.
c.
Divide the difference by 2 to find the top and bottom margins.
d.
Add 1 to the top margin or start on the next line when you type the display.

BLOCK CENTERING:

Block centering is typing several lines to be listed at the middle of the page as a group or block.
Steps in block centering:
1. Backspace-center the title, if any.
2. Select the longest line in the list.
3. Backspace to center the line and set the left margin where the backspace ends.
4. Type the list starting each item at this point.

CENTERING ON SPECIAL-SIZE PAPER


Fold one whole sheet of paper crosswise and insert in the machine sideways or reading
position. In this position the paper now measures 5 x 8 . For pica it is 55 x 51 strokes; for elite
66 x 51.

BUSINESS LETTER
PARTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

OF THE LETTER
Letterhead or Heading
Date
Inside Address
Salutation
Body

6.
7.
8.
9.

Complimentary Close
Signature
Identifying Initials
Enclosures (if any)

LETTER WRITING PROCEDURE


1. Set the machine for 1 inch margin on both sides. On a Pica machine, place left margin stop
at 15 and 70 for the right. For Elite machine, use 18 and 85 for the left and right margins
respectively.
2. If the letterhead is to be provided, type it at the center, one inch from top of paper. The
letterhead, however, may be omitted as most firms have printed letterhead.
3. Type the date 15 spaces from top edge of paper, and 5 spaces, at least of the center of the page.
(Always use the current date.)
4. Drop 5 lines after the date to type the inside address. Leave 1 blank line (2 spaces) before the
salutation, body, and closing parts. But leave 3 blank lines (4 spaces) before the typed
signature to give allowance for the handwritten one.
5. Drop 2 or more lines and type your initials at the left margin.
6. Proofread thoroughly. (It is easier to make corrections before the letter is removed form the
machine.)
National College for Business
C.M. Recto Avenue, Manila

Letterhead
July 29, 200_

Date
Miss Cheryll A. Ocampo
3 Road 19, Project 8
Quezon City
Dear Miss Ocampo:
Thank you for your inquiry concerning the parts of a business letter. The important ones are:

Address
Salutation

Letterhead. The heading or letterhead is important in a letter. It provides the name of the firm and
its address. Most often the telephone number and cable address are included.
Date. Current date is always used in a letter. The date has significant value in filling
correspondence and it has some legal implications, too.
Address. It is imperative that the typing of the address be accurate. Incorrect spelling of the
recipients name will cause embarrassment while incorrect address will delay the delivery of the letter.

Body

Body of the letter. The most important part is the body because it contains the message. The
typist must be alert for mistakes of any kind. Proper punctuations should be inserted, spelling should be
checked, and paragraphing should be provided.
Signature. The correct name and title of the writer must be provided. The letter without signature
is considered not valid and needs attention.
A clean and well placed letter creates a favorable impression and encourages the recipient to read
with care and attention. I hope this answers your question satisfactorily.
Sincerely yours,

LEO DEL ROSARIO


Consultant

dcn.
Enc.

Complimentary Close

Typed Signature

Title or Designation
Initials
Enclosure, if any

GUIDE FOR DIVIDING WORDS


1. Divide words only between syllables. One-syllable words, therefore, should not be divided.
Example: through, shipped, strength, etc.
2. Divide between double consonants. Example: Col-lege, sug-gest, fol-low, cur-rent, neces-sary,
etc.
3. Divide after the prefix and before the suffix. Example: con-fess, pro-vide, dis-count, com-plete,
etc.
4. Divide compounds and hyphenated words between words or at the hyphen. Example: keyboard, proof-read, worth-while, self-respect.
5. Divide after the single vowel syllable within a word. Example: inti-mate, rela-tion, indi-cate, etc.
6. Divide words ending in ing between the root word and the added suffix. Example: feel-ing,
run-ning, miss-ing, build-ing, etc.
7. Do not separate from the rest of the word, a one-or-two-letter syllable at the beginning or at the
end of the word. Example: abundant, express, already, player, etc.
8. Do not divide words of fewer than six letters even though they consist of two syllables.
Example: radio, heavy, lucky, only, etc.
9. Do not divide numbers, abbreviations, contractions, and proper nouns. A date, may, if
necessary, be divided between the day and the year.
10. Avoid too many divisions of words. Do not divide unless very necessary.

A TYPICAL STANDALONE MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEM


1. Display Monitor
2. Disk Drive
3. Printer
4. CPU
5. Keyboard
SPECIAL AND FUNCTION KEYS OF WORDPERFECT
Backspace Key. Used to delete unwanted character. If an error is made, press this and the
error is gone. Type the correct word.

Shift Key. Left and Right Shift keys, when pressed produce capital letters.
similarly to the shift on the typewriter.

They work

Tab Key. Used to indent five spaces at the beginning of a paragraph. It works similarly to
the tab on a typewriter.
Note: The arrows for indenting a paragraph has the same function as in the computer. Each
tab contains 5 spaces.

--

Enter Key. Used to end paragraphs or insert blank lines into the text. It is one of the most
important keys you will be using. The Enter Key is also called the Return Key.

Esc

Escape Key. Used to repeat characters and commands automatically.

Ins.

Del

Alt
Ctrl

Insert Key. Switches between the Insert and Typeover modes. In the Insert mode, existing
characters will move over to make room for new ones. In the Typeover mode, new characters
will replace existing ones.
Delete Key. Used to erase characters from the screen on the right of the cursor, while the
backspace key erases anything at the left of the curcsor.
Note:
To delete a character at a time, position the cursor under the first character.
Press the Del Key.
To delete words, position the cursor under the first character of the word. Press (CtrlBackspace).
To delete a line, position the cursor at the beginning of the line. Press (Ctrl-End) , then
Del Key to delete empty line.
Alternate Key. Used with the combination of the function keys.
Control Key. Used also with the combination of the function keys.

F1

Function Keys. Used to activate specific command that the computer can perform. They
are labeled F1 to F10 or F12.

Caps
Lock

Caps Lock. Used to make small letters to all capital letters.

Word Perfect provides three basic ways to make changes in a document:


1. Insert To add text, place the cursor where you want to insert a new text. Press Enter Key.
2. Delete To delete a character, position the cursor underneath the character. Press Del Key. The
character above the cursor is erased and the remaining text moves to the left.
3. Replace To replace the characters, place the cursor at the character where you want to change.
Press Insert Key. TYPEOVER will then appear at the bottom of the screen. Replace the
characters. Press Insert Key again to toggle off the typeover. (With Typover, the new
characters you type replace existing ones without changing the total number of characters
in the document.)

PARTS AND TERMS USED IN MICROCOMPUTER


Monitor (CRT) Television screen or device which is capable of displaying character and graphical
information.
Central Processing Unit (CPU) Physical device that performs all operations of the computer.
Disk Drive A device used to spin disk/diskette. It used to read/write data to/from a rotating
disk/diskette.
Keyboard Normally the same as a typewriter keyboard, however there are special keys, function
keys, and numeric keypad added.

Wordprocessing Term used in the transformation of ideas and information into an acceptable
communication format used as automated system in modern office. Today, the term
has come to mean using a computer to create, edit, revise, format, or print text.
Hardware Refers to the physical equipment or electronic device or components that make up a
computer.
Software Refers to all programs, procedures, and rules governing the operations of a computer
system.
Input The preparation and keyboarding of data.
Output Refers to display of processed information in soft copy or hard copy format.
Storage A recording of information so that it can be retrieved.
Formatting Arranging the appearance of the text on the page.
Edit To change, correct, and revise in preparation for publication.
Cursor A spot of light or some other symbol on the screen that shows where the next character you
type will appear.
Prompt A brief message at the bottom of the screen asking you to make a selection.
Diskette Popularly known as floppy disk is a plastic-like disk coated with magnetic material and
place in a plastic/card board.
Word wrap Means that at the end of every line, the computer automatically starts a new line even
without hitting the Return key. It is only necessary to hit the Return key to start a
new paragraph.
Menus a list of choices from which you may select at the bottom of the screen without having to
memorize keystroke.