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Chemical reaction

requiring no input of extra energy other than thermal energy. Non-spontaneous reactions run so slowly that they
are considered to require the input of some type of additional energy (such as extra heat, light or electricity) in
order to proceed to completion (chemical equilibrium) at
human time scales.
Dierent chemical reactions are used in combinations
during chemical synthesis in order to obtain a desired
product. In biochemistry, a similar series of chemical reactions form metabolic pathways. These reactions are often catalyzed by protein enzymes. These enzymes increase the rates of biochemical reactions, so that
metabolic syntheses and decompositions impossible under ordinary conditions may be performed at the temperatures and concentrations present within a cell.
The general concept of a chemical reaction has been extended to reactions between entities smaller than atoms,
including nuclear reactions, radioactive decays, and reactions between elementary particles as described by
quantum eld theory.

A thermite reaction using iron(III) oxide. The sparks ying outwards are globules of molten iron trailing smoke in their wake.

1 History

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.[1]
Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that
only involve the positions of electrons in the forming
and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, with no
change to the nuclei (no change to the elements present),
and can often be described by a chemical equation.
Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that
involves the chemical reactions of unstable and radioactive elements where both electronic and nuclear changes
may occur.

Chemical reactions such as combustion in the re,


fermentation and the reduction of ores to metals were
known since antiquity. Initial theories of transformation
of materials were developed by Greek philosophers, such
as the Four-Element Theory of Empedocles stating that
any substance is composed of the four basic elements
re, water, air and earth. In the Middle Ages, chemical transformations were studied by Alchemists. They attempted, in particular, to convert lead into gold, for which
The substance (or substances) initially involved in a purpose they used reactions of lead and lead-copper alchemical reaction are called reactants or reagents. Chem- loys with sulfur.[2]
ical reactions are usually characterized by a chemical The production of chemical substances that do not norchange, and they yield one or more products, which usu- mally occur in nature has long been tried, such as the
ally have properties dierent from the reactants. Re- synthesis of sulfuric and nitric acids attributed to the conactions often consist of a sequence of individual sub- troversial alchemist Jbir ibn Hayyn. The process insteps, the so-called elementary reactions, and the infor- volved heating of sulfate and nitrate minerals such as
mation on the precise course of action is part of the copper sulfate, alum and saltpeter. In the 17th century,
reaction mechanism. Chemical reactions are described Johann Rudolph Glauber produced hydrochloric acid and
with chemical equations, which graphically present the sodium sulfate by reacting sulfuric acid and sodium chlostarting materials, end products, and sometimes interme- ride. With the development of the lead chamber prodiate products and reaction conditions.
cess in 1746 and the Leblanc process, allowing large-scale
Chemical reactions happen at a characteristic reaction production of sulfuric acid and sodium carbonate, respecrate at a given temperature and chemical concentration, tively, chemical reactions became implemented into the
and rapid reactions are often described as spontaneous, industry. Further optimization of sulfuric acid technol1

2 EQUATIONS
ler in 1828. Other chemists who brought major contributions to organic chemistry include Alexander William
Williamson with his synthesis of ethers and Christopher
Kelk Ingold, who, among many discoveries, established
the mechanisms of substitution reactions.

2 Equations

As seen from the equation CH


4+2O
2 CO
2+2H
2O, a coecient of 2 must be placed before the oxygen gas on the
reactants side and before the water on the products side in order
for, as per the law of conservation of mass, the quantity of each
element does not change during the reaction
Antoine Lavoisier developed the theory of combustion as a chemical reaction with oxygen

ogy resulted in the contact process in 1880s,[3] and the


Haber process was developed in 19091910 for ammonia
synthesis.[4]
From the 16th century, researchers including Jan Baptist
van Helmont, Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton tried to establish theories of the experimentally observed chemical
transformations. The phlogiston theory was proposed in
1667 by Johann Joachim Becher. It postulated the existence of a re-like element called phlogiston, which was
contained within combustible bodies and released during
combustion. This proved to be false in 1785 by Antoine
Lavoisier who found the correct explanation of the combustion as reaction with oxygen from the air.[5]
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac recognized in 1808 that gases
always react in a certain relationship with each other.
Based on this idea and the atomic theory of John Dalton, Joseph Proust had developed the law of denite
proportions, which later resulted in the concepts of
stoichiometry and chemical equations.[6]

Main article: Chemical equation


Chemical equations are used to graphically illustrate
chemical reactions. They consist of chemical or structural
formulas of the reactants on the left and those of the products on the right. They are separated by an arrow ()
which indicates the direction and type of the reaction; the
arrow is read as the word yields.[7] The tip of the arrow
points in the direction in which the reaction proceeds. A
double arrow () pointing in opposite directions is used
for equilibrium reactions. Equations should be balanced
according to the stoichiometry, the number of atoms of
each species should be the same on both sides of the equation. This is achieved by scaling the number of involved
molecules (A, B, C and D in a schematic example below)
by the appropriate integers a, b, c and d.[8]

a A + b B c C + d D
More elaborate reactions are represented by reaction
schemes, which in addition to starting materials and products show important intermediates or transition states.
Also, some relatively minor additions to the reaction can
be indicated above the reaction arrow; examples of such
additions are water, heat, illumination, a catalyst, etc.
Similarly, some minor products can be placed below the
arrow, often with a minus sign.

Regarding the organic chemistry, it was long believed


that compounds obtained from living organisms were too
complex to be obtained synthetically. According to the
concept of vitalism, organic matter was endowed with
a vital force and distinguished from inorganic materials. This separation was ended however by the synthe- Retrosynthetic analysis can be applied to design a comsis of urea from inorganic precursors by Friedrich Wh- plex synthesis reaction. Here the analysis starts from

3
For bimolecular reactions, two molecules collide and react with each other. Their merger is called chemical synthesis or an addition reaction.
An example of organic reaction: oxidation of ketones to esters
with a peroxycarboxylic acid

A + B AB
the products, for example by splitting selected chemical
Another possibility is that only a portion of one molecule
bonds, to arrive at plausible initial reagents. A special
is transferred to the other molecule. This type of reaction
arrow () is used in retro reactions.[9]
occurs, for example, in redox and acid-base reactions. In
redox reactions, the transferred particle is an electron,
whereas in acid-base reactions it is a proton. This type
3 Elementary reactions
of reaction is also called metathesis.
The elementary reaction is the smallest division into
which a chemical reaction can be decomposed to, it has HA + B A + HB
no intermediate products.[10] Most experimentally observed reactions are built up from many elementary re- for example
actions that occur in parallel or sequentially. The actual sequence of the individual elementary reactions is
known as reaction mechanism. An elementary reaction N aCl(aq) + AgN O3(aq) N aN O3(aq) + AgCl(s)
involves a few molecules, usually one or two, because of
the low probability for several molecules to meet at a certain time.[11]

4 Chemical equilibrium
Main article: Chemical equilibrium

Isomerization of azobenzene, induced by light (h) or heat ()

The most important elementary reactions are unimolecular and bimolecular reactions. Only one molecule is involved in a unimolecular reaction; it is transformed by
an isomerization or a dissociation into one or more other
molecules. Such reactions require the addition of energy in the form of heat or light. A typical example of
a unimolecular reaction is the cistrans isomerization, in
which the cis-form of a compound converts to the transform or vice versa.[12]
In a typical dissociation reaction, a bond in a molecule
splits (ruptures) resulting in two molecular fragments.
The splitting can be homolytic or heterolytic. In the rst
case, the bond is divided so that each product retains an
electron and becomes a neutral radical. In the second
case, both electrons of the chemical bond remain with
one of the products, resulting in charged ions. Dissociation plays an important role in triggering chain reactions,
such as hydrogenoxygen or polymerization reactions.
AB A + B
Dissociation of a molecule AB into fragments A and
B

Most chemical reactions are reversible, that is they can


and do run in both directions. The forward and reverse reactions are competing with each other and differ in reaction rates. These rates depend on the concentration and therefore change with time of the reaction:
the reverse rate gradually increases and becomes equal
to the rate of the forward reaction, establishing the socalled chemical equilibrium. The time to reach equilibrium depends on such parameters as temperature, pressure and the materials involved, and is determined by the
minimum free energy. In equilibrium, the Gibbs free energy must be zero. The pressure dependence can be explained with the Le Chateliers principle. For example,
an increase in pressure due to decreasing volume causes
the reaction to shift to the side with the fewer moles of
gas.[13]
The reaction yield stabilizes at equilibrium, but can be increased by removing the product from the reaction mixture or changed by increasing the temperature or pressure. A change in the concentrations of the reactants does
not aect the equilibrium constant, but does aect the
equilibrium position.

5 Thermodynamics
Chemical reactions are determined by the laws of
thermodynamics. Reactions can proceed by themselves
if they are exergonic, that is if they release energy. The

associated free energy of the reaction is composed of


two dierent thermodynamic quantities, enthalpy and
entropy:[14]
G = H T S.
G: free energy, H: enthalpy, T: temperature, S: entropy, : dierence(change between original and
product)

Reactions can be exothermic, where H is negative and


energy is released. Typical examples of exothermic reactions are precipitation and crystallization, in which ordered solids are formed from disordered gaseous or liquid phases. In contrast, in endothermic reactions, heat
is consumed from the environment. This can occur by
increasing the entropy of the system, often through the
formation of gaseous reaction products, which have high
entropy. Since the entropy increases with temperature,
many endothermic reactions preferably take place at high
temperatures. On the contrary, many exothermic reactions such as crystallization occur at low temperatures.
Changes in temperature can sometimes reverse the sign
of the enthalpy of a reaction, as for the carbon monoxide
reduction of molybdenum dioxide:

KINETICS

Reactant concentrations, which usually make the reaction happen at a faster rate if raised through increased collisions per unit time. Some reactions,
however, have rates that are independent of reactant concentrations. These are called zero order reactions.
Surface area available for contact between the reactants, in particular solid ones in heterogeneous systems. Larger surface areas lead to higher reaction
rates.
Pressure increasing the pressure decreases the volume between molecules and therefore increases the
frequency of collisions between the molecules.
Activation energy, which is dened as the amount of
energy required to make the reaction start and carry
on spontaneously. Higher activation energy implies
that the reactants need more energy to start than a
reaction with a lower activation energy.
Temperature, which hastens reactions if raised,
since higher temperature increases the energy of the
molecules, creating more collisions per unit time,

The presence or absence of a catalyst. Catalysts are


2CO(g) +M oO2(s) 2CO2(g) +M o(s) ; H = +21.86 kJ atsubstances
298 K which change the pathway (mechanism)
of a reaction which in turn increases the speed of a
This reaction to form carbon dioxide and molybdenum is
reaction by lowering the activation energy needed for
endothermic at low temperatures, becoming less so with
the reaction to take place. A catalyst is not destroyed
increasing temperature.[15] H is zero at 1,855 K, and
or changed during a reaction, so it can be used again.
the reaction becomes exothermic above that temperature.
For some reactions, the presence of electromagnetic
Changes in temperature can also reverse the direction
radiation, most notably ultraviolet light, is needed
tendency of a reaction. For example, the water gas shift
to promote the breaking of bonds to start the reacreaction
tion. This is particularly true for reactions involving
radicals.
o

CO(g) + H2 O(v) CO2(g) + H2(g)

Several theories allow calculating the reaction rates at the


is favored by low temperatures, but its reverse is favored molecular level. This eld is referred to as reaction dyby high temperature. The shift in reaction direction ten- namics. The rate v of a rst-order reaction, which could
dency occurs at 1,100 K.[15]
be disintegration of a substance A, is given by:
Reactions can also be characterized by the internal energy
which takes into account changes in the entropy, volume
and chemical potential. The latter depends, among other v = d[A] = k [A].
dt
things, on the activities of the involved substances.[16]
dU = T dS p dV + dn
U: internal energy, S: entropy, p: pressure, : chemical potential, n: number of molecules, d: small
change sign

Its integration yields:

[A](t) = [A]0 ekt .

Here k is rst-order rate constant having dimension


1/time, [A](t) is concentration at a time t and [A]0 is
6 Kinetics
the initial concentration. The rate of a rst-order reaction depends only on the concentration and the properThe speed at which a reactions takes place is studied by ties of the involved substance, and the reaction itself can
reaction kinetics. The rate depends on various parame- be described with the characteristic half-life. More than
ters, such as:
one time constant is needed when describing reactions of

7.2

Oxidation and reduction

higher order. The temperature dependence of the rate 7.1.2 Decomposition


constant usually follows the Arrhenius equation:
Main article: Decomposition reaction
k = k0 eEa /kB T

A decomposition reaction is when a more complex substance breaks down into its more simple parts. It is thus
where E is the activation energy and kB is the Boltzmann the opposite of a synthesis reaction, and can be written
constant. One of the simplest models of reaction rate as[18][19]
is the collision theory. More realistic models are tailored to a specic problem and include the transition state
theory, the calculation of the potential energy surface, AB A + B
the Marcus theory and the RiceRamspergerKassel
Marcus (RRKM) theory.[17]
One example of a decomposition reaction is the
electrolysis of water to make oxygen and hydrogen gas:

7
7.1

Reaction types

2H2 O 2H2 + O2

Four basic types

A
A

7.1.3 Single replacement

A
C
C

In a single replacement reaction, a single uncombined element replaces another in a compound; in other words,
one element trades places with another element in a
compound[18] These reactions come in the general form
of:

B
+

B
B

A + BC AC + B

Representation of four basic chemical reactions types: synthesis,


decomposition, single replacement and double replacement.

One example of a single displacement reaction is


when magnesium replaces hydrogen in water to make
magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen gas:

7.1.1

M g + 2H2 O M g(OH)2 + H2

Synthesis

Main article: Synthesis reaction

7.1.4 Double replacement

In a synthesis reaction, two or more simple substances In a double replacement reaction, the anions and cations
combine to form a more complex substance. These reac- of two compounds switch places and form two entirely
tions are in the general form:
dierent compounds.[18] These reactions are in the general form:[19]
A + B AB

AB + CD AD + CB
Two or more reactants yielding one product is another
way to identify a synthesis reaction. One example of a For example, when barium chloride (BaCl2 ) and
2
synthesis reaction is the combination of iron and sulfur to magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ) react, the SO4 anion

switches places with the 2Cl anion, giving the comform iron(II) sulde:
pounds BaSO4 and MgCl2 .
8F e + S8 8F eS

Another example of a double displacement reaction is the


reaction of lead(II) nitrate with potassium iodide to form
lead(II) iodide and potassium nitrate:

Another example is simple hydrogen gas combined with


simple oxygen gas to produce a more complex substance,
such as water.[18]
P b(N O3 )2 + 2KI P bI2 + 2KN O3

Illustration of a redox reaction

7 REACTION TYPES
Which of the involved reactants would be reducing or oxidizing agent can be predicted from the electronegativity
of their elements. Elements with low electronegativity,
such as most metals, easily donate electrons and oxidize
they are reducing agents. On the contrary, many ions
with high oxidation numbers, such as H
2O
2, MnO
4, CrO
3, Cr
2O2
7, OsO
4 can gain one or two extra electrons and are strong oxidizing agents.
The number of electrons donated or accepted in a redox reaction can be predicted from the electron conguration of the reactant element. Elements try to reach
the low-energy noble gas conguration, and therefore alkali metals and halogens will donate and accept one electron respectively. Noble gases themselves are chemically
inactive.[22]

An important class of redox reactions are the


Sodium chloride is formed through the redox reaction of sodium electrochemical reactions, where electrons from the
power supply are used as the reducing agent. These
metal and chlorine gas
reactions are particularly important for the production
of chemical elements, such as chlorine[23] or aluminium.
7.2 Oxidation and reduction
The reverse process in which electrons are released in
redox reactions and can be used as electrical energy is
Redox reactions can be understood in terms of transfer
possible and used in batteries.
of electrons from one involved species (reducing agent)
to another (oxidizing agent). In this process, the former
species is oxidized and the latter is reduced. Though suf- 7.3 Complexation
cient for many purposes, these descriptions are not precisely correct. Oxidation is better dened as an increase
in oxidation state, and reduction as a decrease in oxidation state. In practice, the transfer of electrons will always
change the oxidation state, but there are many reactions
that are classed as redox even though no electron transfer occurs (such as those involving covalent bonds).[20][21]
In the following redox reaction, hazardous sodium metal
reacts with toxic chlorine gas to form the ionic compound
sodium chloride, or common table salt:

2N a(s) + Cl2(g) 2N aCl(s)


In the reaction, sodium metal goes from an oxidation state
of 0 (as it is a pure element) to +1: in other words, the
sodium lost one electron and is said to have been oxidized. On the other hand, the chlorine gas goes from an
oxidation of 0 (it is also a pure element) to 1: the chlorine gains one electron and is said to have been reduced.
Because the chlorine is the one reduced, it is considered
the electron acceptor, or in other words, induces oxidation in the sodium thus the chlorine gas is considered Ferrocene an iron atom sandwiched between two C5 H5 ligands
the oxidizing agent. Conversely, the sodium is oxidized
or is the electron donor, and thus induces reduction in the In complexation reactions, several ligands react with a
metal atom to form a coordination complex. This is
other species and is considered the reducing agent.

7.5

Precipitation

achieved by providing lone pairs of the ligand into empty


orbitals of the metal atom and forming dipolar bonds.
The ligands are Lewis bases, they can be both ions and
neutral molecules, such as carbon monoxide, ammonia
or water. The number of ligands that react with a central metal atom can be found using the 18-electron rule,
saying that the valence shells of a transition metal will
collectively accommodate 18 electrons, whereas the symmetry of the resulting complex can be predicted with the
crystal eld theory and ligand eld theory. Complexation reactions also include ligand exchange, in which one
or more ligands are replaced by another, and redox processes which change the oxidation state of the central
metal atom.[24]

7.4

Solution

Suspension

Acid-base reactions

In the BrnstedLowry acidbase theory, an acid-base


reaction involves a transfer of protons (H+ ) from one
species (the acid) to another (the base). When a proton is
removed from an acid, the resulting species is termed that
acids conjugate base. When the proton is accepted by a
base, the resulting species is termed that bases conjugate
acid.[25] In other words, acids act as proton donors and
bases act as proton acceptors according to the following
equation:
HA + B A + HB +
HA: acid, B: Base, A : conjugated base, HB+ : conjugated acid

The reverse reaction is possible, and thus the acid/base


and conjugated base/acid are always in equilibrium. The
equilibrium is determined by the acid and base dissociation constants (K and K ) of the involved substances. A
special case of the acid-base reaction is the neutralization
where an acid and a base, taken at exactly same amounts,
form a neutral salt.

Supernate

Precipitate

Precipitation

7.5 Precipitation
Precipitation is the formation of a solid in a solution or
inside another solid during a chemical reaction. It usually takes place when the concentration of dissolved ions
exceeds the solubility limit[26] and forms an insoluble
salt. This process can be assisted by adding a precipitating agent or by removal of the solvent. Rapid precipitation results in an amorphous or microcrystalline residue
and slow process can yield single crystals. The latter
can also be obtained by recrystallization from microcrystalline salts.[27]

7.6 Solid-state reactions

Reactions can take place between two solids. However,


because of the relatively small diusion rates in solids, the
corresponding chemical reactions are very slow in comAcid-base reactions can have dierent denitions de- parison to liquid and gas phase reactions. They are accelpending on the acid-base concept employed. Some of erated by increasing the reaction temperature and nely
dividing the reactant to increase the contacting surface
the most common are:
area.[28]
Arrhenius denition: Acids dissociate in water releasing H3 O+ ions; bases dissociate in water releasing OH ions.
7.7

Reactions at the solid|gas interface

Brnsted-Lowry denition: Acids are proton (H+ ) Reaction can take place at the solid|gas interface, surdonors, bases are proton acceptors; this includes the faces at very low pressure such as ultra-high vacuum. Via
Arrhenius denition.
scanning tunneling microscopy, it is possible to observe
reactions at the solid|gas interface in real space, if the time
Lewis denition: Acids are electron-pair accep- scale of the reaction is in the correct range.[29][30] Reactors, bases are electron-pair donors; this includes the tions at the solid|gas interface are in some cases related to
Brnsted-Lowry denition.
catalysis.

9 REACTIONS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

In this PaternoBchi reaction, a photoexcited carbonyl group is


added to an unexcited olen, yielding an oxetane.

7.8

Photochemical reactions

In photochemical reactions, atoms and molecules absorb


energy (photons) of the illumination light and convert
into an excited state. They can then release this energy by breaking chemical bonds, thereby producing radicals. Photochemical reactions include hydrogenoxygen
reactions, radical polymerization, chain reactions and
rearrangement reactions.[31]
Many important processes involve photochemistry. The
premier example is photosynthesis, in which most plants
use solar energy to convert carbon dioxide and water
into glucose, disposing of oxygen as a side-product. Humans rely on photochemistry for the formation of vitamin D, and vision is initiated by a photochemical reaction
of rhodopsin.[12] In reies, an enzyme in the abdomen
catalyzes a reaction that results in bioluminescence.[32]
Many signicant photochemical reactions, such as ozone
formation, occur in the Earth atmosphere and constitute
atmospheric chemistry.

Catalysis

Solid heterogeneous catalysts are plated on meshes in ceramic


catalytic converters in order to maximize their surface area. This
exhaust converter is from a Peugeot 106 S2 1100

through reaction with a third substance known as catalyst.


Although the catalyst takes part in the reaction, it is returned to its original state by the end of the reaction and
so is not consumed. However, it can be inhibited, deactivated or destroyed by secondary processes. Catalysts
can be used in a dierent phase (heterogeneous) or in
the same phase (homogeneous) as the reactants. In heterogeneous catalysis, typical secondary processes include
coking where the catalyst becomes covered by polymeric
side products. Additionally, heterogeneous catalysts can
dissolve into the solution in a solidliquid system or evaporate in a solidgas system. Catalysts can only speed up
the reaction chemicals that slow down the reaction are
called inhibitors.[33][34] Substances that increase the activity of catalysts are called promoters, and substances that
deactivate catalysts are called catalytic poisons. With a
catalyst, a reaction which is kinetically inhibited by a high
activation energy can take place in circumvention of this
activation energy.

Energy

Heterogeneous catalysts are usually solids, powdered in


Main article: Catalysis
Further information: Reaction Progress Kinetic Analysis order to maximize their surface area. Of particular
In catalysis, the reaction does not proceed directly, but importance in heterogeneous catalysis are the platinum
group metals and other transition metals, which are used
in hydrogenations, catalytic reforming and in the synReaction without catalyst
thesis of commodity chemicals such as nitric acid and
Reaction with catalyst
ammonia. Acids are an example of a homogeneous catalyst, they increase the nucleophilicity of carbonyls, allowing a reaction that would not otherwise proceed with
Ea (YX)
electrophiles. The advantage of homogeneous catalysts is
Ea (XY)
the ease of mixing them with the reactants, but they may
Y
also be dicult to separate from the products. Therefore,
heterogeneous catalysts are preferred in many industrial
processes.[35]
H

Reaction path
Schematic potential energy diagram showing the eect of a catalyst in an endothermic chemical reaction. The presence of a
catalyst opens a dierent reaction pathway (in red) with a lower
activation energy. The nal result and the overall thermodynamics are the same.

9 Reactions in organic chemistry


In organic chemistry, in addition to oxidation, reduction
or acid-base reactions, a number of other reactions can
take place which involve covalent bonds between carbon
atoms or carbon and heteroatoms (such as oxygen, nitrogen, halogens, etc.). Many specic reactions in organic

9.1

Substitution

chemistry are name reactions designated after their dis- green and the leaving group is red
coverers.

9.1

Substitution

SN2 reaction causes stereo inversion (Walden inversion)


In a substitution reaction, a functional group in a particular chemical compound is replaced by another group.[36] The SN1 reaction proceeds in two steps. First, the leaving
These reactions can be distinguished by the type of substi- group is eliminated creating a carbocation. This is foltuting species into a nucleophilic, electrophilic or radical lowed by a rapid reaction with the nucleophile.[38]
substitution.
In the SN2 mechanism, the nucleophile forms a transition state with the attacked molecule, and only then the
leaving group is cleaved. These two mechanisms differ in the stereochemistry of the products. SN1 leads
to the non-stereospecic addition and does not result in
a chiral center, but rather in a set of geometric isomers
(cis/trans). In contrast, a reversal (Walden inversion) of
the previously existing stereochemistry is observed in the
SN2 mechanism.[39]
SN1 mechanism
Electrophilic substitution is the counterpart of the nu-

SN2 mechanism
In the rst type, a nucleophile, an atom or molecule with
an excess of electrons and thus a negative charge or partial
charge, replaces another atom or part of the substrate
molecule. The electron pair from the nucleophile attacks the substrate forming a new bond, while the leaving
group departs with an electron pair. The nucleophile
may be electrically neutral or negatively charged, whereas
the substrate is typically neutral or positively charged.
Examples of nucleophiles are hydroxide ion, alkoxides,
amines and halides. This type of reaction is found mainly
in aliphatic hydrocarbons, and rarely in aromatic hydrocarbon. The latter have high electron density and enter
nucleophilic aromatic substitution only with very strong
electron withdrawing groups. Nucleophilic substitution
can take place by two dierent mechanisms, SN1 and
SN2. In their names, S stands for substitution, N for nucleophilic, and the number represents the kinetic order of
the reaction, unimolecular or bimolecular.[37]

cleophilic substitution in that the attacking atom or


molecule, an electrophile, has low electron density and
thus a positive charge. Typical electrophiles are the carbon atom of carbonyl groups, carbocations or sulfur or
nitronium cations. This reaction takes place almost exclusively in aromatic hydrocarbons, where it is called
electrophilic aromatic substitution. The electrophile attack results in the so-called -complex, a transition state
in which the aromatic system is abolished. Then, the leaving group, usually a proton, is split o and the aromaticity is restored. An alternative to aromatic substitution is
electrophilic aliphatic substitution. It is similar to the nucleophilic aliphatic substitution and also has two major
types, SE1 and SE2[40]

Mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution

In the third type of substitution reaction, radical substitution, the attacking particle is a radical.[36] This process usually takes the form of a chain reaction, for example in the reaction of alkanes with halogens. In the rst
step, light or heat disintegrates the halogen-containing
molecules producing the radicals. Then the reaction
proceeds as an avalanche until two radicals meet and
recombine.[41]
X + RH XH + R
The three steps of an SN2 reaction. The nucleophile is

R + X2 RX + X

10

9 REACTIONS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

attached to its ends, and the preferred conguration can


be predicted with the Markovnikovs rule.[45] This rule
states that In the heterolytic addition of a polar molecule
to an alkene or alkyne, the more electronegative (nucle9.2 Addition and elimination
ophilic) atom (or part) of the polar molecule becomes attached to the carbon atom bearing the smaller number of
The addition and its counterpart, the elimination, are re- hydrogen atoms.[46]
actions which change the number of substitutents on the
If the addition of a functional group takes place at the
carbon atom, and form or cleave multiple bonds. Double
less substituted carbon atom of the double bond, then the
and triple bonds can be produced by eliminating a suitable
electrophilic substitution with acids is not possible. In
leaving group. Similar to the nucleophilic substitution,
this case, one has to use the hydroborationoxidation rethere are several possible reaction mechanisms which are
action, where in the rst step, the boron atom acts as elecnamed after the respective reaction order. In the E1
trophile and adds to the less substituted carbon atom. At
mechanism, the leaving group is ejected rst, forming a
the second step, the nucleophilic hydroperoxide or halocarbocation. The next step, formation of the double bond,
gen anion attacks the boron atom.[47]
takes place with elimination of a proton (deprotonation).
The leaving order is reversed in the E1cb mechanism, that While the addition to the electron-rich alkenes and
is the proton is split o rst. This mechanism requires alkynes is mainly electrophilic, the nucleophilic addiparticipation of a base.[42] Because of the similar condi- tion plays an important role for the carbon-heteroatom
tions, both reactions in the E1 or E1cb elimination always multiple bonds, and especially its most important representative, the carbonyl group. This process is often
compete with the SN1 substitution.[43]
associated with an elimination, so that after the reaction the carbonyl group is present again. It is therefore
called addition-elimination reaction and may occur in carboxylic acid derivatives such as chlorides, esters or anhydrides. This reaction is often catalyzed by acids or
bases, where the acids increase by the electrophilicity
of the carbonyl group by binding to the oxygen atom,
whereas the bases enhance the nucleophilicity of the attacking nucleophile.[48]
Reactions during the chain reaction of radical substitution

E2 elimination

The E2 mechanism also requires a base, but there the


attack of the base and the elimination of the leaving
group proceed simultaneously and produce no ionic intermediate. In contrast to the E1 eliminations, dierent
stereochemical congurations are possible for the reaction product in the E2 mechanism, because the attack of
the base preferentially occurs in the anti-position with respect to the leaving group. Because of the similar conditions and reagents, the E2 elimination is always in competition with the SN2-substitution.[44]

Electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide

Acid-catalyzed addition-elimination mechanism

Nucleophilic addition of a carbanion or another


nucleophile to the double bond of an alpha, beta unsaturated carbonyl compound can proceed via the Michael
reaction, which belongs to the larger class of conjugate
additions. This is one of the most useful methods for the
mild formation of CC bonds.[49][50][51]
Some additions which can not be executed with nucleophiles and electrophiles, can be succeeded with free radicals. As with the free-radical substitution, the radical addition proceeds as a chain reaction, and such reactions are
the basis of the free-radical polymerization.[52]

The counterpart of elimination is the addition where double or triple bonds are converted into single bonds. Similar to the substitution reactions, there are several types of 9.3
additions distinguished by the type of the attacking particle. For example, in the electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide, an electrophile (proton) attacks the double
bond forming a carbocation, which then reacts with the
nucleophile (bromine). The carbocation can be formed
on either side of the double bond depending on the groups

Other organic reaction mechanisms

11

Substrate

Enzyme changes shape


slightly as substrate binds

Products

Active site

The Cope rearrangement of 3-methyl-1,5-hexadiene


Substrate entering
active site of enzyme

Mechanism of a Diels-Alder reaction

Orbital overlap in a Diels-Alder reaction

Enzyme/substrate
complex

Enzyme/products
complex

Products leaving
active site of enzyme

Illustration of the induced t model of enzyme activity

enzyme which is usually found in a cleft or pocket lined


by amino acid residues, and the rest of the enzyme is
used mainly for stabilization. The catalytic action of enzymes relies on several mechanisms including the molecular shape (induced t), bond strain, proximity and orientation of molecules relative to the enzyme, proton donation or withdrawal (acid/base catalysis), electrostatic
interactions and many others.[57]

The biochemical reactions that occur in living organisms


are collectively known as metabolism. Among the most
important of its mechanisms is the anabolism, in which
dierent DNA and enzyme-controlled processes result in
the production of large molecules such as proteins and
carbohydrates from smaller units.[58] Bioenergetics studies the sources of energy for such reactions. An important energy source is glucose, which can be produced by
plants via photosynthesis or assimilated from food. All
organisms use this energy to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which can then be used to energize other
Cyclic rearrangements include cycloadditions and, more
reactions.
generally, pericyclic reactions, wherein two or more double bond-containing molecules form a cyclic molecule.
An important example of cycloaddition reaction is the
DielsAlder reaction (the so-called [4+2] cycloaddition) 11 Applications
between a conjugated diene and a substituted alkene to
form a substituted cyclohexene system.[54]
In a rearrangement reaction, the carbon skeleton of a
molecule is rearranged to give a structural isomer of the
original molecule. These include hydride shift reactions
such as the Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement, where a
hydrogen, alkyl or aryl group migrates from one carbon
to a neighboring carbon. Most rearrangements are associated with the breaking and formation of new carboncarbon bonds. Other examples are sigmatropic reaction
such as the Cope rearrangement.[53]

Whether or not a certain cycloaddition would proceed


depends on the electronic orbitals of the participating
species, as only orbitals with the same sign of wave function will overlap and interact constructively to form new
bonds. Cycloaddition is usually assisted by light or heat.
These perturbations result in dierent arrangement of
electrons in the excited state of the involved molecules
and therefore in dierent eects. For example, the [4+2]
Diels-Alder reactions can be assisted by heat whereas the
[2+2] cycloaddition is selectively induced by light.[55] Because of the orbital character, the potential for developing
stereoisomeric products upon cycloaddition is limited, as
described by the WoodwardHomann rules.[56]

10

Biochemical reactions

Biochemical reactions are mainly controlled by enzymes.


These proteins can specically catalyze a single reaction,
so that reactions can be controlled very precisely. The
reaction takes place in the active site, a small part of the

Thermite reaction proceeding in railway welding. Shortly after


this, the liquid iron ows into the mould around the rail gap

Chemical reactions are central to chemical engineering


where they are used for the synthesis of new compounds
from natural raw materials such as petroleum and mineral ores. It is essential to make the reaction as ecient
as possible, maximizing the yield and minimizing the

12

14

amount of reagents, energy inputs and waste. Catalysts


are especially helpful for reducing the energy required for
the reaction and increasing its reaction rate.[59][60]
Some specic reactions have their niche applications. For
example, the thermite reaction is used to generate light
and heat in pyrotechnics and welding. Although it is less
controllable than the more conventional oxy-fuel welding, arc welding and ash welding, it requires much less
equipment and is still used to mend rails, especially in
remote areas.[61]

12

Monitoring

14 References
[1] IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed.
(the Gold Book) (1997). Online corrected version:
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[2] Weyer, J. (1973). Neuere Interpretationsmglichkeiten
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[3] Friedman, Leonard J.; Friedman, Samantha J. (2008).
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[4] Stranges, Anthony N. (2000). Germanys synthetic fuel
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Mechanisms of monitoring chemical reactions depend


strongly on the reaction rate. Relatively slow processes
[5]
can be analyzed in situ for the concentrations and identities of the individual ingredients. Important tools of [6]
real time analysis are the measurement of pH and analysis of optical absorption (color) and emission spectra. [7]
A less accessible but rather ecient method is introduction of a radioactive isotope into the reaction and mon- [8]
itoring how it changes over time and where it moves to;
this method is often used to analyze redistribution of substances in the human body. Faster reactions are usually studied with ultrafast laser spectroscopy where uti- [9]
lization of femtosecond lasers allows short-lived transition states to be monitored at time scaled down to a few
femtoseconds.[62]
[10]

13

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[11] Frenking, Gernot (2006). Elementarreaktionen. Rmpp


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Chemical reaction
Substrate

[12] Kandori, Hideki (2006). Retinal Binding Proteins. In


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Reagent

[13] Atkins, p. 114.

Catalyst

[14] Atkins, pp. 106108

Product

[15] Reaction Web

Chemical reaction model

[16] Atkins, p. 150

Chemist

[17] Atkins, p. 963

Chemistry

[18] To react or not to react? Utah State Oce of Education.


Retrieved 4 June 2011.

Limiting reagent
List of organic reactions
Organic reaction
Reaction progress kinetic analysis
Combustion
Mass balance

[19] Six Types of Chemical Reactions MrGuch ChemFiesta.


[20] Glusker, Jenny P. (1991). Structural Aspects of Metal
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13

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[42] Brckner, p. 192

[23] Wiberg, p. 409

[43] Brckner, p. 183

[24] Wiberg, pp. 11801205

[44] Brckner, p. 172

[25] IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed.


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[45] Wiberg, pp. 950, 1602

[26] IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed.


(the Gold Book) (1997). Online corrected version:
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16
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