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Synopsis

SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR USING


CHOPPER
Submitted by:1.
2.
3.
4.

Bidhan das
Subhash Chandra
Md Imran hossain
Sumit Kuila

13101611007
13101611033
13101612037
13101611035
Under the supervision of:Mrs. Chandrani Nath (Chakraborty)
Mr.Biswapriya Sen
Mr. Rahul Sarkar
Dept. Of electrical engineering

Dumkal institute of engineering & technology

Abstract

This project deals with speed control of DC motor using Chopper circuit.
Thechopper firing circuit receives signal from MOSFET and then chopper gives
variable voltage to the armature of the motor for achieving desired speed.
A chopper is a static power electronic device that converts fixed dc voltage to a
variable dc voltage.A PWM generator will be introduced in the proposed system
to enable the MOSFET.The electronic methods have higher accuracy and greater
reliability ,quick response and higher efficiency as there are no I2R losses and
moving parts. Moreover,full 4-quadrant speed control is possible to meet precise
high speed standard.

Introduction
A chopper is a static power electronic device that converts fixed dc input voltage to a variable
dc output voltage. A Chopper may be considered as dc equivalent of an ac transformer since
they behave in an identical manner. As chopper involves one stage conversion, these are more
efficient.
Choppers are now being used all over the world for rapid transit systems. These are also used in
trolley cars, marine hoist, forklift trucks and mine haulers. The future electric automobiles are
likely to use choppers for their speed control and braking. Chopper systems offer smooth
control, high efficiency, faster response and regeneration facility.
The power semiconductor devices used for a chopper circuit can be force commutated thyristor,
power BJT, MOSFET and IGBT.GTO based chopper arealso used. These devices are generally
represented by a switch. When the switch is off, no current can flow. Current flows through the
load when switch is on. The power semiconductor devices have on-state voltage drop of 0.5V
to 2.5Vacross them. For the sake of simplicity, this voltage drop across these devices is
generally neglected.
As mentioned above, a chopper is dc equivalent to an ac transformer, have continuously
variable turns ratio. Like a transformer, a chopper can be used to step down or step up the fixed
dc input voltage.

An opto-isolator, also called an optocoupler, photocoupler, or optical isolator, is a


component that transfers electrical signals between two isolated circuits by using
light. Opto-isolators prevent high voltages from affecting the system receiving the
signal. Commercially available opto-isolators withstand input-to-output voltages up
to 10 kV and voltage transients with speeds up to 10 kV/s.The PWM Generator
block generates pulses for carrier-based pulse width modulation (PWM) converters
using two-level topology. The pulses are generated by comparing a triangular
carrier waveform to a reference modulating signal. The modulating signals can be
generated by the PWM generator itselfHere either 555 Timer can be used as pulse
width modulation Generator.A gate driver is a power amplifier that accepts a lowpower input from a controller IC and produces a high-current drive input for the
gate of a high-power transistor such as an IGBT or power MOSFET.
Gate drivers can be provided either on-chip or as a discrete module. In essence, a
gate driver consists of a level shifter in combination with an amplifier

OBJECTIVE::
The objective of the project is to rotate the motor at variable speed by
varying the input pulse in the Pulse Width Modulation Generator with the help of
potentiometer

APPLICATIONS::
 In the cases of varible speed required by DC motor,there are several
applications in the industries like
 Electric traction
 Cranes
 Elevators
 Vacuum cleaner
 Hair drier
 Sewing machine

Methodology
The basic principle behind DC motor speed control is that the output speed of DC
motor can be varied by controlling armature voltage for speed below and up to rated
speed keeping field voltage constant. The PWM Generator block generates pulses
for carrier-based pulse width modulation (PWM) converters using two-level
topology .The output speed is compared with the reference speed and error signal is
fed to speed controller. Controller output will vary whenever there is a difference in
the reference speed and the speed feedback. The output of the speed controller is the
control voltage Ec that controls the operation duty cycle of (here the converter used
is a Chopper)converter. The converter output give the required V required to bring
motor back to the desired speed. The Reference speed is provided through a
potential divider because the voltage from potential divider is linearly related to the
speed of the DC motor. The output speed of motor is measured by Tacho-generator
and since Tacho voltage will not be perfectly dc and will have some ripple. So, we
require a filter with a gain to bring Tacho output back to controller level.
.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR USING


USIN
CHOPPER

In the above block diagram a dc supply will be provided to the PWM generator,
then it will generate a pulsee that will go through the opto
opto-isolator
isolator (A3120),then
(
it
will pass through the gate driver that will enable the pulse to switch on the gate
circuit of the MOSFET and hence the MOSFET will convert the DC fixed vvoltage
to DC variable Voltage . Hence
ence as per as the requirement is concern we can vary the
speed of the DC motor using Potentiometer at the PWM generator by varying the
duty cycle of the pulse
ulse Manually.
Manually

Guided by:Name
Mrs.Chadrani Nath (Chakraborty)

Signature

Mr. Biswapriya Sen


Mr. Rahul Sarkar

Submitted by:Name
Bidhan Das

Roll no.
13101611007

Subhash Chandra

13101611033

Md.ImranHossain

13101612037

Sumit Kuila

13101611035

Date :- 22/09/2014.

signature