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Multicasting is the technique that is used for sending packets to large

number of users in IP network by using different types of source based
and shared trees. The multicasting is commonly used in different
applications of internet such as IPTV, Video Conferencing, Seminars, Web
meeting and others. There are different practical applications that are
commonly using the multicasting techniques such as iTV player,
multiparty gaming and others. The multicasting provides more benefits
and features as compare to unicast services. There are different types of
protocols used for configuration of multicasting in IP networks such as
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), and Protocol Independent
Multicast (PIM). These protocols are providing different functions in
multicast networks such as IGMP provides efficient management of
information about hosts and PIM provides services for transmitting video
packets from source to multicast groups. The multicasting is depending on
multicast group, whereas three modes of PIM can be used in IP network
such as Dense mode, Sparse mode and Sparse-Dense mode. The dense
mode is providing source based services in multicast network by flooding
traffic directly from source to multicast groups in (S,G) fashion. The Sparse
mode is using designated routers to function as rendezvous points in
multicast network. The Sparse-dense mode is function as both dense and
sparse mode. The rendezvous points can be deployed by using three
different methods such as Static RP method, Dynamic RP with Auto-RP
and Dynamic RP with Bootstrap routers. This report is helping Sleeze
Company to understand the in depth information about multicasting
networks, whereas explanations are provided in terms of PIM modes, RP
deployment methods and recommendations to deploy multicast network
in their hotel chains.
2. PIM Modes:
The multicasting networks are heavily relying on Protocol Independent
Multicast (PIM) protocol, whereas all services provided between multicast
sources and membership hosts are decided by PIM protocols. The three

The PIM dense mode is operating as Push model. The whole mechanism is called RPF mechanism. The source is sending traffic to multicast groups after receiving the join requests. The tables are organised by using the reverse path mechanism. The operation of PIM dense mode is depending on two types of messages from membership hosts such as join and prune messages. whereas these sources stop sending multicast traffic after receiving prune message from hosts. protection from denial of service attacks. 2. whereas sources can provide multicast services to different hosts in multicast network. whereas all operations of dense mode are conducted through RPF mechanism. There are different functions of PIM dense mode in multicasting networks such as high security through encryption techniques. During the IP multicast routing. 2008). The operation of PIM dense mode can be understood by explaining the RPF mechanism and Source based tree mechanism. (Minoli. All the hosts requesting to join the multicast group are flooded with multicast traffic until multicast source router receives the prune message from membership host. source based tree management and services.different types of mode are used within PIM protocol. the routers are forwarding the packets away from source in order to make progress along the distribution tree. and encoded unicast features. whereas PIM dense mode is using the RPF tables to multicast traffic from source to all willing hosts. These functions are provided by PIM dense mode by using the mechanism of “Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF)”. There is no designated router required for this mode of PIM protocol. whereas these three modes differ with each other in terms of their operations and functions.1 PIM Dense mode: The mode of PIM protocol recognised for flooding of multicast traffic among all the registered hosts of multicast networks is called as “PIM Dense Mode”. whereas these packets are forwarded away to prevent routing loops. whereas traffic is flooded to all PIM neighbours. All . interactions of MGSB and IGMP. whereas multicast forwarding state of router is logically defining the reverse path from receive to root of distribution tree.

The operation of PIM dense mode can be explained by provided figure 1.multicasting is depending on source and failure can result in closure of whole tree. There are two versions of PIM sparse mode. There can be single or multiple RPs in multicast network.2 PIM Sparse Mode: The mode of PIM protocol using shared tree mechanism for multicasting traffic in network by using the designated router is called PIM sparse mode. whereas only one RP is active in multicast network. 2001). The Multicasting Routing Information Base – MRIB is used for storing the information collected from multicast routing table about joining hosts. The designated routers are commonly known as rendezvous points. whereas these two versions can support different techniques for deployment of RP such as . whereas these designated routers are responsible for managing and forwarding multicast packets to hosts without disturbing the multicast source. (Cisco. 2001) 2. The active RP is collecting information about joining hosts through multicast routing table. Figure 1: Operation of PIM Dense mode for flooding multicast traffic (Cisco. whereas RPs are making specific source or any source based trees for multicasting packets.

2007) . 2007). The shared tree multicasting is denoted by (*. Figure 2: Example of PIM sparse mode with router D as rendezvous point (Cisco. G) in multicasting routing. whereas RP is connected with source tree and respond back to requesting multicast group in shared tree multicasting mode. auto selection of RP. less interference with source. proper identification of joining hosts. (Cisco. hello message mechanism. The operation of PIM sparse mode can be explained by understanding the shared tree mechanism. whereas shared trees are using common root placed (RP) for sending packets to multicast groups. the whole operation is managed by RP in shared tree fashion. mapping agents to determine RP. where as asserted messages are sent and processed for providing the routing metrics for destination host addresses. Thus. The unidirectional traffic from multicast groups are sent to RP. 2008). There are different functions of PIM sparse mode such as efficient mechanism for failover of RP. whereas fast responses are provided to multicast group through shared content mechanism. shared tree mechanism. This PIM mode is using IGMP and MLD protocols for operation in shared tree. faster delivery of multicast packet. (Harte.static RP and bootstrap RP. less attacks and vulnerabilities. The given below figure 2 is showing the operation of PIM sparse mode with router D functioning as RP in shared tree multicasting. and high QoS features. high security.

2007). only the command “IP pim-sparse-dense” is defined on each interface. 2007). services for all multicast group. The operation of PIM sparse dense mode is similar to previous modes. This mode is more suitable in large multicast networks.3 PIM Sparse Dense Mode: The mode of PIM protocol that uses both dense and sparse mode characteristics is known as PIM dense sparse mode. efficient delivery of multicast packets and support for multiple RPs. (Cisco. The configuration is also same for enabling multicast services. efficient quality of service. . Cisco. whereas whole mechanism is depending on multicast group. 2011. This mode is usually configured in mixed multicasting networks. The functions of both dense and sparse mode can be obtained by using this combined mode.2. This mode is also capable of operating in both source tree and shared tree multicast. depending on which mode is active for multicast group. whereas most suitable technique with PIM sparse dense mode is based on selection of dynamic RP through Auto-RP technique. (Juniper. multi-mode operation. The Auto-RP feature is considered the most beneficial function of PIM sparse dense mode for automatically selecting the RP with highest IP address. where both sparse and dense multicasting is required. The major functions of this mode are high security.