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direction to the first vector.

b

c=a-b

same vector under translation. PQ is a free vector because it

can be repositioned as shown in the following diagram.

y

Vectors x, y and z are linearly dependent if there exist nonzero scalars p, q and r such that

px + qy + rz = 0.

linearly independent.

A position vector is not a free vector because it cannot be

translated. It always starts from a reference point O, the origin.

Example 1

3w

2y

z

Q

P

O

Therefore, w, x, y and z are linearly dependent.

same quantity.

independent.

Exceptions:

1. Addition of two position vectors is undefined.

2. A displacement vector can be added to a position vector to

give a new position vector.

3. Subtraction of 2 position vectors is defined as displacement.

perpendicular to each other.

Addition of vectors is carried out by putting the head of one

to the tail of the other. The order is irrelevant.

b

a

c=a+b

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a vector c which is linearly dependent on a and b. Find

another vector d which is also linearly dependent on a and b.

A possible vector c is c = a + b because c a b = 0; a

possible vector d is d = a 2b because d a 2b = 0.

Example 4 Given that vectors p, q and r are linearly

independent, and a 2 (p + q r) = (a + 6)p + (2a + 3)q 9r,

find the value(s) of a.

a 2 (p + q r) = (a + 6)p + (2a + 3)q 9r,

(a 2 a 6) p + (a 2 2a + 3) q (a 2 9) r = 0.

Since p, q and r are linearly independent,

a 2 a 6 = a 2 2a + 3 = (a 2 9) = 0,

A vector is resolved into rectangular components when it is

expressed in terms of i, j and k, e.g. r = li + mj + nk.

The magnitude of r is |r| = r = l 2 + m 2 + n 2 .

Example 1 An aeroplane is 50 km NE of Melbourne Airport

and it is flying at an altitude of 10 km. Resolve its position

vector from Melbourne Airport into i, j and k components.

They are respectively pointing east, north and up. What is the

straight-line distance of the plane from the runway?

y

a = 3 is the only value that satisfies all three equations.

50

45o

Unit vectors

unit vector in the direction of vector s is labelled as . It is

found by dividing vector s by its magnitude |s|, i.e. = s/|s|.

There are three unit vectors, i, j and k that are particularly

useful in vector analysis. i, j and k are in the direction of x, y

and z axes respectively. They are perpendicular to each other

and therefore, linearly independent, i.e. if pi + qj + rk = 0,

then p = q = r = 0.

= 25 2 i + 25 2 j +10 k.

Distance from the runway = OP = 50 2 + 10 2 = 10 26 km

Example 2 Find the magnitude of s = 2i j + 2.5k, and a

unit vector in the direction of s.

3 5

.

2

Unit vector in the direction of s:

|s| = s = 2 2 + ( 1) + 2.5 2 =

2

z

y

k

3 5

2

( 2i j + 2.5k).

=

2

3 5

i

x

Any vector can be written in terms of i, j and k, e.g.

s = 2i j + 2.5k.

s

2.5k

requirements of many physical situations,

e.g. in physics work done W joules by a force F newtons in

displacing an object s metres is

F

W = Fs cos

s

If the scalar product of F and s is defined as F.s = Fs cos ,

then W = F.s.

2i

j

s, i, j and k are linearly dependent.

vectors that are placed tail to tail.

(2) r.r = r 2 , r = r.r

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5

the two vectors are parallel.

120 o

2 i + j 2 k.

60 o

i + cj + 6k.

(2i + 2j k).(i + cj + 6k) = 0, 2 + 2c 6 = 0, c = 2 .

Parallel and perpendicular vectors

multiplied by a constant, p = q.

Two parallel vectors are linearly dependent.

The angle between two parallel vectors is either zero or 180 o .

F.s = Fs or Fs.

Two vectors are perpendicular ( = 90 ) if F.s = 0.

Conversely, F.s = 0 if two vectors are perpendicular.

o

Note that i.i = j.j = k.k = 1 and i.j = j.k = k.i = 0.

Scalar product of vectors in i, j, k components

F

s = xi + yj + zk, then

F.s = ( ai + bj + ck ).( xi + yj + zk ) = ax + by + cz.

ax + by + cz

Since F.s = Fs cos , cos =

.

Fs

Hence cos =

ax + by + cz

a + b + c2 x2 + y2 + z2

2

r.g = 0. l 2m + 3n = 0 .

Let m = 0 and n = 1 , l = 3.

Hence r = 3i + k is a vector (out of an infinite number of

them) perpendicular to g.

and (a) on the same plane, (b) not on the same plane.

Let u = li + mj + nk be a unit vector to p = 2i 3j,

l 2 + m 2 + n 2 = 1, l 2 + m 2 + n 2 = 1 and 2l 3m = 0 .

zero, i.e. n = 0. Hence l 2 + m 2 = 1 (1)

and 2l 3m = 0 (2)

Solve the simultaneous equations for l and m:

2

From (2), m = l ...(3). Substitute (3) in (1),

3

2 13

3

3 13

4

13

, m =

l 2 + l 2 = 1, l 2 = 1, l =

.

=

9

9

13

13

13

Hence u =

3 13

2 13

3 13

2 13

i+

j or

i

j.

13

13

13

13

as p. It contains i, j and k components.

l 2 + m 2 + n 2 = 1 (1) and, 2l 3m = 0 (2)

2

From (2), m = l ...(3). Substitute (3) in (1),

3

13

4

13

l 2 + l 2 + n 2 = 1, l 2 + n 2 = 1, n = 1 l 2 .

9

9

9

Choose l =

Example 1 Show that p = 3i + 2j + 4k is parallel to

1

1

1

q = i + j + k.

4

6

3

1

1

1

3

2

4

q= i+ j+ k=

i+

j+

k

4

6

3

12

12

12

1

1

=

(3i + 2j + 4k) =

p. p and q are parallel.

12

12

n = 1

1

13

13

2

2 13

, then m =

and

=

13

39

3 13

13 2

1

2 2

l = 1 =

.

9

9

3

13

2 13

2 2

i+

j+

k, or

13

39

3

13

2 13

2 2

u=

i+

j

k.

13

39

3

Hence u =

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Direction cosines

direction of h is:

a

b

c

=

i +

j+

k,

a2 + b2 + c2

a2 + b2 + c2

a2 + b2 + c2

where

a 2 + b 2 + c 2 = |h|.

Let the angles that the unit vector make with the x, y and zaxes be , , respectively.

z

c

cos =

.

2

a + b2 + c2

0

a

x

and cos =

a

a +b +c

c

2

Since a, b and c are orthogonal, a.b = 0, b.c = 0 and c.a = 0.

perpendicular) vectors. Find an expression for the cosine of

the angle between (a + b + c) and c.

Consider the scalar product of two vectors: p.q = pq cos ,

(a + b + c).c = |a + b + c| |c| cos ,

cos =

axes.

1

1

2

1

|s| = 6 , =

(i 2j k) =

i

j

k.

6

6

6

6

1

2

1

, cos =

, and cos =

.

cos =

6

6

6

, cos =

a2 + b2 + c2

a + b2 + c2

2

be resolved in other ways, e.g. vector q can be resolved into

two perpendicular components, one component q1 parallel to

another vector s and the other component q2 to s.

q1

angles of 30 o , 45 o and 60 o respectively with i, j and k.

Express r in terms of i, j and k.

r = 10 cos 30 o i + 10 cos 45 o j + 10 cos 60 o k

r = 5 3 i + 5 2 j +5 k.

q2

of q parallel to s (or the scalar and vector projections of q onto

s).

q2 and q2 are respectively called the scalar and vector resolutes

of q perpendicular to s.

q1 = q. and q1 = q1 = (q.) ,

3i 4j + 5k.

Magnitude = 3 2 + ( 4 ) + 5 2 = 5 2 .

i.e. scalar resolute of 4i + k in the direction of 3i + j 2k.

Unit vector =

3

5 2

4

5 2

4

j+

5

5 2

3

5 2

k.

3 2

,

10

2 2

5

2

cos =

=

and cos =

=

.

5

2

5 2

5 2

Unit vector in the direction of g: =

1

14

(3i + j 2k).

1

1

h. = (4i + k).

(3i + j 2k) =

(12 2) = 14 .

14

14

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b = i 2j + k in the direction of a = 2i 3j and, perpendicular

to a.

1

=

(2i 3j).

13

1

8

.

Scalar resolute of b parallel to a: b. =

(2 + 6) =

13

13

Vector resolute of b parallel to a:

8

1

8

(b.) =

(2i 3j) = (2i 3j).

13

13

13

the cosine rule.

B

notations.

8

3

2

b (b.) = (i 2j + k) (2i 3j) = i j + k.

13

13 13

c.c = b.b b.a a.b + a.a.

Since a.b = b.a = 0, c 2 = a 2 + b 2 .

c.c = b.b b.a a.b + a.a.

Since a.b = b.a = ab cos = ab cos C ,

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2ab cos C .

182

3 2

|b (b.)| = + + 12 =

.

13

13 13

circle is a right angle.

A

C

q

perpendicular.

Consider rhombus OPQR, OP = PQ = QR = OR .

Q

respectively.

AO = p, AC = AO + OC = p + q, CB = OB OC = p q,

AC CB = (p + q).(p q) = p.p q.q = p 2 q 2 = 0,

because p = q = radius of the circle.

P

O

OQ = OP + OR, RP = OP OR,

)(

OQ RP = OP + OR OP OR

)

a

= OP OP OP OR + OR OP OR OR

2

= OP OR = 0 .

the diagonals are perpendicular.

O

m

AB

m+n

m

1

(b a) =

(ma + na + mb ma)

=a+

m+n

m+n

1

=

(na + mb).

m+n

OP = OA + AP = OA +

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concurrent, and the intersection trisects each median.

B

described by r(t) = t 2 i (t1)j, t 0 .

Vector equation: r(t) = t 2 i (t1)j, t 0 .

Parametric equations: x = t 2 , y = (t 1) .

Cartesian equation:

P

O

c

equation, x = (1 y ) 2 , y = x + 1

Since t 0 , y = (t 1) 1 , y = x + 1 .

A

y

AM and BN are medians and CP is a line segment passing

1

Let OA = a, OB = b and OC = c. OM = (b + c) and

2

1

ON = (a + c). Let m, n and p be some positive constants

2

such that OM = m a, ON = n b and OP = p c.

1

1

m a = (b + c) and n b = (a + c).

2

2

From the last two equations, 2ma b = 2nb a,

hence (1 2m)a (1 2n)b = 0.

Since a and b are not parallel, they are independent and

1

hence 1 2m = 0 and (1 2n) = 0, i.e. m = n = .

2

1

1

b = (a + c), b = a c.

2

2

r(t) = (3 sin t + 1) i + (2 cos t 1) j, and t 0 .

Vector equation: r(t) = (3 sin t + 1) i + (2 cos t 1) j, and t 0 .

Parametric equations:

AP = AO + OP = a pc, and AB = b a = 2a c.

x 1

,

3

y +1

y = 2 cos t 1, cos t =

.

2

Cartesian equation:

1

1

i.e. k = and p = . P is the mid-point of AB and CP is

2

2

a median. Hence the three medians are concurrent at O and the

intersection O trisects each median.

x 1 y +1

Since sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1,

= 1,

+

3 2

equations (2-dimensional)

x = 3 sin t + 1, sin t =

i.e.

(x 1)2 + ( y + 1)2

9

= 1.

is at x = 1, y = 1. At t = , it is at x = 2.5, y = 3 1 .

6

the particle starts at (1,1) and moves clockwise.

can be described with a position vector r(t) that is expressed in

terms of i and j components, r(t) = x(t)i + y(t)j.

This equation is called a vector equation and t the parameter.

of the parameter t. They are called parametric equations.

equations, we obtain a cartesian equation of the locus (path),

f(x,y) = 0.

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1

1

by r(t) = t + i + t j, t > 0.

t

t

1

1

Vector equation: r(t) = t + i + t j, t > 0.

t

t

Parametric equations:

1

1

x = t + (1), y = t (2)

t

t

Cartesian equation:

x+ y

(1) + (2), x + y = 2t , t =

.

2

x+ y

2

Substitute into (1), x =

+

,

2

x+ y

x =

(x + y )2 + 4 ,

2(x + y )

position vectors are r(t) = (2t + 11)i + (7t +6)j and

r(t) = (5t + 7)i + (4t + 10)j, where t 0 . When and where do

the ships collide?

The two ships collide when they are at the same place and at

the same time. Let (2t + 11)i + (7t +6)j = (5t + 7)i + (4t + 10)j.

Equate corresponding components:

4

2t + 11 = 5t + 7 and 7t +6 = 4t + 10, t = .

3

4

41

46

At t = , the ships are at the same position r(t) =

i +

j.

3

3

3

Example 6 The position vectors for particles A and B are

rA(t) = (2t 2 + t 1) i +(2t + 3) j and rB(t) = (t 2 + 5t 4) i +3tj

respectively. Find an expression for their separation at time

t 0 . When and where do they collide?

2 x( x + y ) = (x + y ) + 4 ,

2

2 x 2 + 2 xy = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 4, x 2 y 2 = 4,

i.e.

x2 y2

= 1.

4

4

rB rA

For t > 0 , x > 0, the locus consists of the right hand branch

only. At t 0 , x +, y , the particle moves

upwards along the hyperbola.

y

0

rA

1

1

t

t

Parametric equations:

1

1

x = t 2 + 2 (1), y = t 2 2 (2)

t

t

Cartesian equation:

x+ y

(1) + (2), x + y = 2t 2 , t 2 =

.

2

x+ y

2

x2 y2

Substitute into (1), x =

+

,

= 1.

2

x+ y

4

4

= (t 2 4t + 3) i + (t 3) j

(t

4t + 3 + (t 3) .

2

i.e.

(t

4t + 3 + (t 3) = 0, t 2 4t + 3 + (t 3) = 0 ,

2

derivatives with respect to t are respectively

d

dx

dy

d2

d 2x

d2y

r=

i+

j and

r=

i+

j.

2

2

dt

dt

dt

dt

dt

dt 2

y

0

Example 4 A particle has position vector

1

1

t

t

motion of this particle with that in example 3.

rB

vector v(t), and the second derivative is an acceleration vector

a(t).

v(t) =

d

d

r , a(t) =

v or a(t) =

dt

dt

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d2

r.

dt 2

plane is given by r(t) = t 3 i + t 2 j, t 0 . (a) Find its velocity,

speed and acceleration when t = 1 . (b) Draw the graph of the

locus, and the velocity and acceleration vectors at t = 1 .

(a) r(t) = t 3 i + t 2 j, t 0 , v(t) =

v=

(3t ) + (2t )

a(t) =

d

v = 6t i + 2j.

dt

2 2

d

r = 3t 2 i +2t j,

dt

= 9t 4 + 4t 2 ,

(a)

At t = 1, v = 3i + 2j, v = 13 , a = 6i + 2j.

2

2

1

(b) x = t , y = t , y = x 3 = x 3 . Since t 0 , x 0 .

y

2

r(t) = et i + e t j, v(t) =

(e ) + ( e )

t 2

t 2

a = 4 r. Hence a is opposite in direction to r.

x = 3 cos(2t ),

x

y

= cos(2t ). y = 3 sin(2t ), = sin(2t ).

3

3

= e 2t + e 2t , a(t) =

y

a

1

v

and moves anticlockwise.

y

v

d

v = e t i + e t j.

dt

Parametric equations: x = e t , y = e t .

1

1

Cartesian equation: y = e t = t , y = . When t = 0, x = 1

x

e

and y = 1. the particle starts from (1,1) .

x y

Use sin 2 A + cos 2 A = 1 to eliminate t: + = 1,

3 3

2

2

x + y = 9. The locus is a circle of radius 3 and centre

(0,0) . At t = 0, x = 3 cos 0 = 3, y = 3 sin 0 = 0.

d

r = e t i e t j,

dt

At t = 0, v = i j, a = i + j.

particle whose position vector is given by r(t) = et i + e t j,

t 0. Sketch the path of the particle and draw the velocity and

acceleration vectors at t = 0 .

v=

r = 3cos(2t)i +3sin(2t)j,

d

v=

r = 6 sin(2t ) i + 6 cos(2t ) j,

dt

d

a = v = 12 cos(2t ) i 12 sin( 2t ) j.

dt

(c)

1

0

time t is given by r = 3cos(2t)i + 3sin(2t)j for t 0 .

(a) Find the velocity and acceleration at time t.

(b) Show that in this case, v is perpendicular to r, and a is

opposite in direction to r.

(c) Sketch the locus of the particle and show the velocity and

acceleration vectors at time t.

r(t) = cos t i + 2 sin t j, t 0 . (a) Show that the path is

elliptical. (b) Show that the acceleration points towards the

origin.

y

(a) x = cost , y = 2 sin t , = sin t.

2

2

y

Eliminate t, x 2 +

= 1. Path is elliptical.

4

(b) r(t) = cos t i + 2 sin t j, v = sin t i +2 cos t j,

a = cos t i 2 sin t j = (cos t i +2 sin t j) = r. a is opposite

to r and hence it is towards the origin.

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position is r(t) =

velocity is v(t) =

v(t) dt.

when t = 0, r = 2i and v = 2j, of a particle.

(a) Show that the speed of the particle is constant.

(b) Show that the velocity and the acceleration are always

perpendicular.

(c) Show that the acceleration is always towards the centre

of the circular path.

(d) Show that the path is circular.

(e) Sketch the path, and show the direction of motion of the

particle at time t.

Hence v = 10t j + 7i + 10j = 7i +(10 10t ) j.

r = 7 i dt + (10 10t ) j dt = 7t i + (10t 5t 2 ) j + d, where d

is a constant vector.

When t = 0, the position r = 0, d = 0.

Hence r = 7t i + (10t 5t 2 ) j.

(b) x = 7t , y = 10t 5t 2 .

10

5 2

x x

x ,

Eliminate t, y = 10 5 , y = x

7

49

7 7

y=

(2 sin t )2 + ( 2 cos t )2

Hence v =

the position is r = 0 and the velocity is v = 7i + 10j.

(a) Find the position vector at time t 0 .

(b) Describe the path.

(c) At what time is the y-coordinate the same as that at t = 0?

(d) What is the x-coordinate at that time?

5

5 2

5 2

2

x 14 x =

x 14 x + 49 + 5 = (x 7 ) + 5 .

49

49

49

y

5

= 4 = 2 , a constant.

(c)

14

(c) At t = 0, y = 0. When y = 0, 10t 5t 2 = 0, t = 2.

a = r. Hence a is always towards the origin, i.e. the centre

of the circular path.

(d)

x

y

x = 2 cos t , = cos t. y = 2 sin t , = sin t.

2

2

2

x y

Use sin A + cos A = 1 to eliminate t: + = 1,

2 2

2

2

x + y = 4. The path is a circle of radius 2 and centre (0,0 ) .

2

(e)

y

v

velocity given by v = i + j + 10k, and it has a constant

acceleration a = 10k. The unit vector k is pointing vertically

upward.

(a) Find the velocity vector of the particle at time t.

(b) Find the position vector of the particle at time t.

(c) Find the maximum height above the origin.

(d) Find the distance of the particle from the origin when it

returns to the same level as the origin.

(a) a = 10k, v = 10 k dt = 10t k + c, where c is a

(d) At t = 2, x = 2t = 14.

constant vector.

When t = 0, the velocity is v = i + j +10k, c = i + j + 10k.

Hence v = 10t k + i + j + 10k = i + j + (10 10t ) k.

(b) r =

i dt +

j dt + (10 10t ) k dt

2

Hence r = t i +t j + (10t 5t 2 ) k.

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the k component of v is zero. 10 10t = 0, t = 1.

At t = 1, the k component of r is 10t 5t 2 = 10 5 = 5, the

maximum height is 5.

(d) When the particle returns to the starting level, the k

component of r is zero. 10t 5t 2 = 0, t = 2.

At t = 2, r = t i +t j + (10t 5t 2 ) k = 2i + 2j.

distance from origin = |r(2)| = 2 2 + 2 2 = 2 2 .

The last two examples are projectile motions under constant

acceleration due to gravity, g.

constant acceleration due to gravity (2 D)

x

x = (v0 cos )t , t =

. Substitute into

v0 cos

1

y = (v0 sin )t gt 2 ,

2

2

x

1

x

,

g

v0 cos 2 v0 cos

g

y = x tan

x 2 . This is the equation of the

2(v0 cos ) 2

locus of the projectile satisfying the conditions stated in the

opening sentence.

y = (v0 sin )

respectively r = 0 and v = v0 cos i + v0 sin j.

Range

Initial speed v0

a

v0 sin

j

i

v0 cos

c = v0 cos i + v0 sin j.

Hence v = gt j + v0 cos i + v0 sin j

= v0 cos i + (v0 sin gt ) j.

v sin

.

zero, i.e. v0 sin gt = 0, t = 0

g

v sin

At t = 0

,

g

= (v0 cos )t i + ((v0 sin )t

1 2

gt ) j + d, where d is a constant

2

vector.

When t = 0, the position r = 0, d = 0.

1

r = (v0 cos )t i + ((v0 sin )t gt 2 ) j.

2

Hence at time t, the horizontal and vertical components of the

velocity vector are v = v0 cos and v = v0 sin gt

respectively.

Also, at time t, the horizontal and vertical components of the

1

position vector are x = (v0 cos )t and y = (v0 sin )t gt 2

2

respectively.

1 2 (v0 sin ) 2

.

gt =

2

2g

(v0 sin ) 2

.

2g

Also, maximum height is reached at mid-range where

2

2

v sin v0 sin cos v0 sin 2

=

=

.

x = (v0 cos )t = (v0 cos ) 0

g

g

2g

maximum height =

v0 sin 2

.

g

2

60o with the horizontal from the origin. Take g = 10 ms-2.

(a) Find the equation of the path of the particle.

(b) Find the maximum height reached.

(c) Find the range of the particle.

(a) y = x tan 60 o

x2

10

x 2 , y = 3x .

o 2

20

2(20 cos 60 )

=

= 15 m.

2g

2 10

=

= 20 3 m.

10

g

2

(c) Range =

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