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Q1. Define a system and its main types.

What are important steps towards

creation of a model of a system? Develop a mathematical model of a simple
system of your choice and explain.
A system is an organized, purposeful structure regarded as a whole and consisting of interrelated
and interdependent elements (components, entities, factors, members ,parts etc). These elements
continually influence one another (directly or indirectly) to maintain their activity.


Physical or Abstract Systems

Open or Closed Systems.
State Maintaining Systems.
Goal Seeking Systems.
Purposeful Systems.
Reactive Systems.

Physical systems are solid entities that may be static or dynamic in operation.
The physical parts of the computer center are the offices , desk and chairs that facilitate operation
of the computer. They can be seen and counted as they are static. In contrast, a programmed
computer is a dynamic demands or the priority of the information requested changes. Abstract
systems are conceptual or non physical entities.



Define system.
Background Research
State Project Goal
Define Relationships
Develop Model

Mathematical model of a spring, mass System

The elasticity, or stiffness k provides a restoring force as represented

by a spring. The reaction force fk on each end of the spring is the same
and is equal to the product of stiffness k and the amount of deformation
of the spring. End c has a position yc and end d has a position yd measured from
the respective equilibrium positions.
The force equation, in accordancewith the Hooks law is
fk = k ( yc- yd)
If the end d is stationary, then yd = 0 and the above equation reduces
Fk = k y

Q2. Differentiate between a state maintaining, a goal seeking, a purposeful

and areactive system. Give related examples from daily life to clarify each
1. State-maintaining system:
A state maintain system is one that can react in only one way to any one external or
internal event but it reacts differently to different external or internal events.



A heating system whose internal controller turns it on when the room temperature is below a
desired level, and turns it off when the temperature is above this level, is state maintaining.In
general most systems with stats e.g thermostats and humidistats are state maintaining.
A compass is also state maintain because in many different environments it points to the
magnetic north pole

Goal seeking systems:

Goal seeking systems is one that can respond differently to one or more different external
or internal events in one or more different external or internal states and that can respond differently to a
particular event in an unchanging environment until it produces a particular state.


Systems with automatic pilots are goal seeking.

3. Purposeful System
A purposeful system is one which can produce the same outcome in different ways in the same
(internal or external) state and can produce different outcomes in the same and different states.
Thus a purposeful system is one which can change its goal under constant conditions.


Human Beings are the most familiar examples of such systems.

Reactive systems

The reactive systems are those in which reaction ofan event or events in terms of a

response are set.

A coin operated soft drink machineswitches on its advertising lights when someoneapproaches it
within two meters distance. Suchmachines are reactive systems.

Q3.What are major parts of a model of a system? How one can identify them;

provide examples to describe each part.

Parts of a System:

Functional Relationships,
Criterion Functions.

1. Elements of a system:
The elements of a system are components that takentogether with interactions will produce a
basic structureof the system.
A model of a missile may have apropulsion sub-system, a guidance sub-system, a controlsubsystem and a structural sub-system and these subsystemscan be termed as main elements of the
2. Parameters of a system:
Parameters of a system are quantities that are assigned by the properties of system components
or elements. For instance, in a system based on a mathematical equation
f(x) = ax2 + bx + c;

thea, b, and c are the parameters and x is a variable.

3. Constraints of a system:
It's some factor that limits what the system canachieve. If it is not limited then the system might
be able to achieve much more inrealizing its goal. The limiting factor may be internal or external
to the system. It may be a physicalcomponent, a condition, or an imposed policy of some kind.



x<3, y<7,

Q.4Where physical models are used and how they are different from the actual

How industry is employing physical models for simulationpurposes?
Make a detailed study for one system.
Physical models and Actual models:
A model is a simplified representation of a system at some particular point in time or space
intended to promote understanding of the real system.
Physical models allow visualization, from examining the model, of information about the thing
the model represents. A model can be a physical object such as an architectural model of a
building. Uses of an architectural model include visualization of internal relationships within the
structure or external relationships of the structure to the environment.
Model of building

A physical model of something that can move, like a vehicle or machine, may be completely
static, or have parts that can be moved manually, or be powered. A physical model may show
inner parts that are normally not visible.

Actual system is some kind of a working system may be on a small scale or on a large scale.
Ejector Air removal Actual system

How industry employing physical models for simulation

Industry uses simulation and modelling to observe the output
Consider a consulting company which has 120 employees. These 120 employees are composed
of 60 rookies and 60 professionals. The company wishes to maintain the total number of
employees at 120 so it hires a new rookie for each professional who quits. Rookies don't quit!
Professionals quit at a rate of 10 per month and it takes 6 months to develop a professional from
a rookie. Additionally, the company bills out rookies at $10k/month and professionals at
$15k/month. All 120 employees are fully applied.

Model of the system:

If we run this model we find it exists in essentially a steady state,

Now, in the 10th month the company notices its revenue has dropped from $1.5m/month to
$1.35m/month and it wonders what has happened. And where do wethink it looks for the
problem? All around the 10th month of course. And what does it find? The company finds that it
still has 120 employees, yet there are now 30 professionals and 90 rookies
As it turns out, there was an organizational policy change made in month 3 which seemed to
annoy professionals more than in the past, and the quit rate jumped from 10 to 15 professionals a
month. The system, with it's built in hiring rule, essentially an auto pilot no thought action, hired
one rookie for each professional that quit. What this one time transition in quit rate actually did
was set off a 6 month transition within the organization leading to a new equilibrium state with
30 professionals and 90 rookies. The following graph represents this transition.

Thus, one of the real benefits of modeling and simulation is its ability to accomplish a time and
space compression between the interrelationships within a system. This brings into view the
results of interactions that would normally escape us because they are not closely related in time
and space. Modeling and simulation can provide a way of understanding dynamic

Example 2:

Complete Vehicle Model

The main driveline subsystems are:



Transmission controller

Vehicle and tires

Coupling the Engine to the Transmission

Torque Converter Stage

Like clutch, a torque converter couples two independent driveline axes in such a way as to
transfer angular motion and torque from an input to an output shaft. However, unlike a clutch, a

torque converter never locks and the output shaft never exactly reaches the speed of the input.
(The torque converter transfers motion by hydrodynamic viscosity, not by surface friction.) Thus
a torque converter does not step through discrete stages and avoids the motion discontinuities
inherent in friction clutches.

Engine Speed and Power

The Engine RPM scope shows the engine speed in revolutions per minute (rpm), as well as the
engine output power delivered to the Torque Converter, in watts (W). When the transmission
shifts to second gear at 10 seconds, the engine reaches its maximum speed and power.

Vehicle Speed
The Vehicle Velocity scope displays the vehicle's linear velocity in miles per hour (mph).

Drive Ratio

The Speed ratio scope measures the effective gear ratio of the speed transmission by computing
the ratio of the output shaft to the input shaft angular velocities, respectively. (This ratio is the
reciprocal of the drive ratio.) As the transmission shifts through each gear from 1 to 4, its speed
ratio goes up, and the drive ratio goes down.

Q5. Explain discrete and continuous models. How a stochastic model differ
froma deterministic model, explain these differences using some systems?

1. Discrete model: The state variables change only at a countable number of points in time.
These points in time are the ones at which the event occurs/change in state.
2. Continuous model:The state variables change in a continuous way, and not abruptly
from one state to another (infinite number of states).

Deterministic and stochastic model

A system is deterministic if the variables of the system are deterministic or completely
predictable and no such variable or activity displays any degree of randomness. A stochastic
process is a collection of random variables { Xt , t T }.
If T is countable set { Xt , t T } is called discrete time stochastic process. If T is an
uncountable subset of the set oof real numbers { Xt , t T } is called continuous time stochastic

Example of deterministic model

Suppose y = 2+3x-.4x2. We can predict that if x=3, then y=7.4.
Note that this "prediction" does not necessarily occur in the past, future, or even the present. It is
simply a hypothetical, "what-if" statement. It helps us identify what would be the outcome if we
were to use a particular x. For example, what would be the maximum stress (y) that a dam could
bear, if we were to use x=(thickness of concrete).

Example of stochastic model

For example, suppose you wish to predict whether the next customer will buy either a red car, a
gray car, or a green car. The possible values of y are "red", "gray", or "green", and the
distribution p(y) might have the form:
green .25
The model does not tell you precisely what the next customer will do, but does allow aggregate
what-if predictions of the following type.