You are on page 1of 27

# Revision Summary of

DSE Mathematics
(Compulsory Part)
Number and Algebra
Polynomials

## Like terms and unlike terms

e.g. 2x and 6x are like terms and 2x + 6x can be simplified as (2 + 6)x = 8x
4pq2 and –pq2 are like terms and 4pq2 – pq2 can be simplified as (4 – 1)pq2 = 3pq2
6ab and 5ac are unlike terms and they cannot be simplified

Factorization
1. a 2 − b 2 ≡ (a + b)(a − b)
2. a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ≡ (a + b) 2
3. a 2 − 2ab + b 2 ≡ (a − b) 2
4. a 3 + b3 ≡ (a + b)(a 2 − ab + b 2 )
5. a 3 − b3 ≡ (a − b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 )

## Remainder and Factor Theorems

Remainder theorem
When a polynomial f ( x) is divided by a linear polynomial ax + b where a ≠ 0 , the remainder
−b
is f ( ) .
a
Factor theorem
−b
If f ( x) is a polynomial and f ( ) = 0 , then the polynomial ax + b is a factor of the
a
polynomial f ( x) .
−b
Conversely, if a polynomial ax + b is a factor of polynomial f ( x) , then f ( ) = 0 .
a
Let f ( x) = x + 4 x − 3 x − 18 .
3 2

## (a) Find f (2) .

f (2) = (2)3 + 4(2) 2 − 3(2) − 18 = 0
(b) Factorize f ( x) .
Since f (2) = 0 , x − 2 is a factor of f ( x) .
x3 + 4 x 2 − 3 x − 18 = ( x − 2)( x 2 + 6 x + 9) = ( x − 2)( x + 3) 2

## Let f ( x) = ( x − 3)(2 x + 1) + x + 3 . Find the remainder when f ( x) is divided by x + 3 .

The required remainder
= f (−3) = [ (−3) − 3][ 2(−3) + 1] + (−3) + 3 = −6(−5) = 30

Page 1
Number and Algebra
Solving Quadratic Equations in One Unknown
Factor method
e.g. Solve x2 + 2x – 3 = 0.
x +3
x2 + 2x − 3 = 0 x −1
( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0  +3x −x = +2x
x + 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0
x = − 3 or x =1
Completing the square
q
Convert it to the form of a ( x 2 + 2 px + p 2 ) = q , a ( x + p ) 2 = q , x = − p ±
a
e.g. Solve x2 – 7x + 9 = 0.
−(−7) ± (−7)2 − 4(1)(9) −b ± b 2 − 4ac
x= < Substitute a = 1, b = − 7 and c = 9 into x = .
2(1) 2a
7 ± 13 7 + 13 7 − 13
= < i.e. or
2 2 2
Nature of Roots of a Quadratic Equation
Consider the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0, where a ≠ 0.
Discriminant
∆>0 ∆=0 ∆<0
( ∆ = b 2 − 4ac )
Nature of roots 2 distinct real roots 1 double real root no real roots

## Sum and Product of Roots of a Quadratic Equation

If α and β are the roots of the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0, where a ≠ 0, then
b c
sum of roots = α + β = − , product of roots = αβ =
a a

## Equations of Higher Degree

e.g. Solve x 4 − 6 x 2 − 7 = 0 .
By substituting x 2 = u into the equation x 4 − 6 x 2 − 7 = 0 , we have
u 2 − 6u − 7 = 0 ◄ x4 = (x2)2 = u2
(u − 7)(u + 1) = 0
u = 7 or u = −1
Since x = u , we have
2

## x2 = 7 or x 2 = −1 (rejected) ◄ For any real number x, x2 ≥ 0.

x=± 7

Page 2
Number and Algebra
Fractional Equations Equations with Square Root Signs
2
e.g. Solve −x=0. e.g. Solve x + 2x = 0 .
x −1
x + 2x = 0
2
−x=0
x −1 x = −2 x
2 − x( x − 1) = 0 ◄ Multiply both sides by x – 1. ( x ) 2 = (−2 x) 2 ◄ Square both sides.
2 − x2 + x = 0 x = 4x2
x2 − x − 2 = 0 4x2 − x = 0 squared both sides.
( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 x(4 x − 1) = 0
x = − 1 or x=2 1
x = 0 or x= (rejected)
4

## Exponential Equations Logarithmic Equations

e.g. Solve 2 2 x − 2 x = 0 . ……(1) e.g. Solve (log 3 x) 2 − log 3 x = 0 . ……(2)
Substitute 2 x = u into (1). Substitute log 3 x = u into (2)
u −u = 0
2
◄2 2x
= (2 ) = u
x 2 2
u2 − u = 0
u (u − 1) = 0 u (u − 1) = 0
u = 0 or u = 1 u = 0 or u = 1
Since 2 = u , we have
x
Since log 3 x = u , we have
2 = 0 (rejected) or 2 = 1
x x
log 3 x = 0 or log 3 x = 1
x=0 x = 1 or x=3

Complex Numbers
Complex number a + bi , where a and b are real numbers and i 2 = −1, i.e. i = −1 .
a + bi is purely real if and only if b = 0 .
a + bi is purely imaginary if and only if a = 0 and b ≠ 0 .
(a + bi ) + (c + di ) = (a + c) + (b + d )i (a + bi ) − (c + di ) = (a − c) + (b − d )i
Multiplication Division
(a + bi )(c + di ) = (a + bi )(c) + (a + bi )(di ) a + bi a + bi c − di ac + bd bc − ad
= • = + i
= (ac − bd ) + (ad + bc)i c + di c + di c − di c 2 + d 2 c 2 + d 2
Equality
a + bi = c + di if and only if a = c and b = d .

Page 3
Number and Algebra
Features of the graphs of quadratic functions

a>0 a<0

## Finding the Optimum Values of Quadratic Functions

2
k 
(a) To complete the square for x2 ± kx, add   . Then
2
2 2 2
k k k  k
x ± kx +   = x 2 ± 2  x +   =  x ± 
2

## 2 2 2  2

2
(b) For a quadratic function y = a(x – h) + k,
(i) if a > 0, then the minimum value of y is k when x = h,
(ii) if a < 0, then the maximum value of y is k when x = h.

Laws of Indices
For integral indices p and q, let a, b be real numbers.
For rational indices p and q, let a, b be non–negative numbers.
1. a p × a q = a p + q
ap
2. q
= a p − q , where a ≠ 0
a
3. (a p ) q = a pq
4. (ab) p = a p b p
p
a ap
5.   = , where b ≠ 0
b bp
1
6. p
= a − p , where a ≠ 0
a
7. a 0 = 1, where a ≠ 0
p
q
a q = ( a ) p = a p for integers p and q where a, q > 0.
q
8.

Page 4
Number and Algebra
Laws of logarithms
If x = a y , a, x > 0 and a ≠ 1, then y = log a x .
For M , N , a, b > 0 and a, b ≠ 1 ,
1. log a 1 = 0
2. log a a = 1
3. log a ( MN ) = log a M + log a N
M
4. log a = log a M − log a N
N
5. log a ( M k ) = k log a M (k is any real number)
6. a log a M = M
log b N
7. log a N = , where b > 0 and b ≠ 1
log b a
Note: log a x is undefined for x ≤ 0 .

## Graphs of exponential functions and logarithmic functions

Percentages
new value = initial value × (1 + percenatge change)
new value − initial value
percentage change = × 100%
initial value
Selling problems
A book is marked at \$78 for sale. A customer is offered a 10% discount. Find the selling price.
selling price = marked price × (1 – discount percent)
= \$78 × (1 − 10%) = \$70.2
Simple and compound interest
A= P+I
simple interest I = P × r % × n
compound interest I = P (1 + r %) n − P
where A: amount, P: principal, I: interest, r: interest rate per period, n: number of periods.

Ratio a :b = 3: 4
Given a : b = 3 : 4 and b : c = 6 : 7 . Find a : b : c . b:c = 6:7
Since L.C.M . of 4 and 6 is 12
a : b : c = 9 :12 :14 a : b : c = 9 :12 :14

Page 5
Number and Algebra
Variation
Direct variation
y ∝ x, y = kx where k ≠ 0 .
Inverse Variation
1 k
y ∝ , y = or xy = k where k ≠ 0
x x
Joint variation
1. z varies jointly as x and y
z ∝ xy, z = kxy where k ≠ 0 .
2. z varies directly as x and inversely as y
x kx
z∝ ,z= where k ≠ 0 .
y y
Partial variation
1. z partly varies as x and partly varies as y
z = k1 x + k2 y where k1 , k2 ≠ 0 .
2. z partly constant and partly varies as y
z = k1 + k2 y where k2 ≠ 0 .
3. z partly varies as x and partly varies inversely as y
k
z = k1 x + 2 where k1 , k2 ≠ 0 .
y

Errors
absolute error = measured value − true value
Note: maximum absolute error = largest possible error, in this case the true value is not known.
absolute error maximum absolute error
relative error = or
true value measured value
percentage error = relative error × 100%

Arithmetic sequence
a, a + d , a + 2d , a + 3d , L . Common difference = d . First term T (1) = a
nth term T (n) = a + (n − 1)d
Let the sum of the first n terms be S (n) = T (1) + T (2) + T (3) + L + T (n) , then
 T (1) + T (n)  n
S (n) = n   or [ 2a + (n − 1)d ] .
 2  2
x+ z
If x, y, z form an arithmetic sequence, then y = .
2

Geometric sequence
a, ar , ar 2 , ar 3 , L . Common ratio = r . First term T (1) = a
nth term T (n) = ar n −1
Let the sum of the first n terms be S (n) = T (1) + T (2) + T (3) + L + T (n) , then
a (r n − 1)
S (n) = , r ≠1
r −1
a
Sum to infinity = , −1 < r < 1
1− r
If x, y, z form a geometric sequence, then y 2 = xz , i.e. y = ± xz .

Page 6
Number and Algebra
−n
The nth term of an arithmetic sequence is . Find the first term and the common ratio.
2
−1 −2 −1 −1
T (1) = , T (2) = = −1, d = −1 − = .
2 2 2 2
Express 0.16& as a fraction.
0.16& = 0.1 + 0.06 + 0.006 + 0.0006 + L
0.06 1 6 1
= 0.1 + = + =
1 − 0.1 10 90 6

## Simultaneous equations in two unknowns

 Ax + By + C = 0

 y = ax + bx + c
2

By substitution
Ax + B (ax 2 + bx + c) + C = 0
Bax 2 + ( A + Bb) x + ( Bc + C ) = 0
Since A, B, C , a, b, c are known, x can be find by quadratic formula.
−( Ax + C )
Having found x, y = .
B
By graphical method

## The coordinates of intersecting points ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) represents the solutions.

There may be 0, 1, or 2 intersecting points, depending on the number of solutions.

Inequalities
Rule 1 If a < b and b < c , then a < c .
Rule 2 Addition to both sides does not change the inequalities sign.
a < b then a + c < b + c
Rule 3 For c > 0, a < b then ac < bc .
For c < 0, a < b then ac > bc .
Graphical representation

Page 7
Number and Algebra
Solving f ( x) > k , f ( x) < k , f ( x) ≥ k and f ( x) ≤ k graphically:
Step 1 Draw the graph y = f ( x) and y = k .
Intersecting points should be labeled.
Solve x 2 + 3 x + 2 > 6
Step 2 Identify of x which f ( x) > k .
x < −4 or x > 1 .
Note: ‘>’ is different from ‘≥’. If the equation is changed to
‘ f ( x) ≥ k ’, then the solution is x ≤ −4 or x ≥ 1 .

## Solving a Linear Inequality in Two Unknowns Graphically

Linear programming
(a) Solve graphically the system of inequalities:
x + 2 y ≥ 2

 x+ y ≤3
 x≥0

(b) Hence find the maximum and minimum value of f ( x, y ) = x − 2 y subject to the above
constraints. Consider the intersecting points
(x,y) f ( x, y ) = x − 2 y
(0,1) –2
(0, 3) –6
(4, −1) 6
Maximum value = 6 and minimum value = –6
Alternative method:
Draw a dotted line of x − 2 y = 0 .
To determine the extremes of x − 2 y , move the dotted line vertically and find the two critical
positions such that the line is about to leave the shaded region. The value of x – 2y at the two
extreme positions give the maximum and minimum.

Page 8
Number and Algebra
Different Numeral Systems
Numeral in the systems
Numeral system Numerals
Denary system 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9  A, B, C, D, E and F
Binary system 0 and 1 represents 10, 11,
Hexadecimal system 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E and F 12, 13, 14 and 15
In a number, the position of each didgit has fixed place value. respectively.
3
e.g. In 430510, the place value of 3 is 10 . In C8A16, th epace value of 8 is 16.
The value of a number can be expressed in the expanded form.
e.g. 430510 = 4 × 103 + 3 × 102 + 0 × 101 + 5 × 1
111012 = 1× 24 + 1× 23 + 1× 22 + 0 × 21 + 1×1
C 8 A16 = 12 ×16 2 + 8 × 161 + 10 × 1
Converting a binary number or a hexadecimal number into a denary number
111012 = 1× 24 + 1× 23 + 1× 22 + 0 × 21 + 1×1 = 29
C 8 A16 = 12 × 162 + 8 × 161 + 10 × 1 = 3210
Converting a denary number into a binary number or a hexadecimal number.
2910 = 111012 321010 = C 8 A16
2 29 remainder 16 3210 remainder
2 14LL1 ↑ 16 200LL10 ( A) ↑
2 7 LL 0 ↑ 16 12LL 8 ↑
2 3LL 1 ↑ 16 0LL12 (C ) ↑
2 1LL 1 ↑
0LL1 ↑

Transformations of functions
The following table summarizes the transformations of the graph of a function y = f ( x) and the
corresponding transformations of the function.

## Transformation of the graph Transformation of the function

Translate upwards by k units y = f ( x) + k

## Enlarge along the y-axis k times the original, where k > 1

y = kf ( x)
Reduce along the y-axis k times the original, where 0 < k < 1
1
Enlarge along the x-axis times the original, where k > 1
k y = f (kx)
1
Reduce along the x-axis times the original, where 0 < k < 1
k

Page 9
Measures, Shape and Space
Mensuration of common plane figures and solids
Plane figures
Perimeter Area
Trapezium
a
(a + b)h
c d a+b+c+d
h 2

b
Rhombus
aa a
y xy
4a
x 2
a a

Circle

r
2π r π r2

Sector

2π rθ θ
+ 2r π r2 ×
360o 360o

Solids
Volume Surface Area
Cube

a
a3 6a 2

Cuboid

b
l
blh 2(bh + bl + hl )
h

Page 10
Measures, Shape and Space
Prism

Ah Base perimeter × h + 2 A

A h

Cylinder

π r 2h 2π rh + 2π r 2

Pyramid

1
Ah A + total area of lateral faces
3

Cone

1 2
πr h π rl + π r 2
3

Sphere

4 3
πr 4π r 2
3

## Eulaer’s formula (for a convex polyhedron only)

V −E+F =2
where V: number of vertices, E: number of edges, F: number of faces.

Page 11
Measures, Shape and Space
Similar plane figures and soilds

2 3 1 1

 l1  A1  l1  V1 l1  A1   V1 
2 3

  = ,   = , ∴ =    =
 l2  A2  l2  V2 l2  A2   V2 
l1 : length of figure 1, l2 : corresponding length of figure 2
A1 : face area of figure 1, l2 : corresponding face area of figure 2
V1 : volume of figure 1, l2 : volume length of figure 2

Congruent Triangles
Properties of congruent triangles:
If △ABC ≅ △XYZ, then
(i) ∠A = ∠X, ∠B = ∠Y, ∠C = ∠Z,
(ii) AB = XY, BC = YZ, CA = ZX.
Conditions for congruent triangles:
(i) SSS (ii) SAS

## (iii) AAS (iv) ASA

(v) RHS

Similar Triangles
Properties of similar triangles:
If △ABC ~ △XYZ, then
(i) ∠A = ∠X, ∠B = ∠Y, ∠C = ∠Z,
AB BC CA
(ii) = = .
XY YZ ZX
Conditions for similar triangles:

## (i) AAA (ii) 3 sides prop.

AB BC CA
= =
(iii) ratio of 2 sides, inc. ∠ XY YZ ZX

Page 12
Measures, Shape and Space
Transformation and Symmetry in 2-D figures
Reflectional symmetry and rotational symmetry

## order of rotational symmetry = 3

3-fold rotational symmetry

## Transformation of 2-D figures

Translation Reflection

axis of relection

Rotation Enlargement

Centre of rotation

Geometry
Abbreviation Meaning Abbreviation Meaning

## a + 47o = 180o b + 75o + 135o = 360o

corr. ∠s, AB // CD
vert. opp. ∠s

c = 50o a = 40o

## b = 50o c + 150o = 180o

Page 13
Measures, Shape and Space

∠ sum of △ ext. ∠ of △
a + b + c = 180° c = a+b

## If AB = AC, then If ∠A = ∠C. then

∠B = ∠C AB = BC .

## prop. of isos. △ If AB = AC and one of prop. of equil. △

the following
conditions If AB = BC = AC, then
(i) BD = DC ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = 60°
Pyth. theorem Converse of Pyth. thm.
In △ ABC, if In △ ABC, if
∠C = 90° , then a + b 2 = c 2 , then
2

a2 + b2 = c2 ∠C = 90°

Mid-pt. Thm.
If AM = MB and AN = Intercept Thm.
NC, then MN // BC If AB// CD // EF, then
1 BD : DF = AC : CE .
and MN = BC
2

sum of ext. ∠s of
polygon
∠ sum of polygon Sum of all interior
angles of n-sided Sum of all exterior
polygon = angles of n-sided
convex polygon = 360o
(n − 2) ×180o

## prop. of trapezium opp. sides equal

∠P + ∠R = 180o
AD = BC and AB = DC
∠Q + ∠S = 180o

Page 14
Measures, Shape and Space
opp. ∠s of //gram diag. of //gram
∠A = ∠C and AO = CO and
∠B = ∠D BO = DO

## prop. of rhombus prop. of rectangle

prop. of //gram
diagonals bisect prop. of // gram
interior angles equal diagonals
diagonals are ⊥

## line from centre ⊥ chord

prop. of square
bisects chord
prop. of rhombus If ON ⊥ AB , then AN
prop of rectangle = BN.

## equal chords, equidistant

line joining centre to from centre
mid-pt. of chord ⊥ chord
If OM ⊥ AB ,
If AN = BN, then
ON ⊥ CD and AB =
ON ⊥ AB
CD, then OM = ON.

## chords equidistant from

∠ at centre twice ∠ at
centre are equal
☼ce
If OM ⊥ AB ,
ON ⊥ CD and OM = q = 2p
ON, then AB = CD.

converse of ∠ in
∠ in semi-circle semi-circle

## If AB is a diameter, If ∠APB = 90º, then

then ∠APB = 90º. AB is a diameter.

## ∠s in the same segment equal ∠s, equal arcs

The angles in the
same segment of a If ∠AOB = ∠COD,
circle are equal.
) )
then AB = CD
i.e. x = y

Page 15
Measures, Shape and Space
equal ∠s, equal chords equal arcs, equal ∠s

If ∠AOB = ∠COD,
) )
If AB = CD , then
then AB = CD ∠AOB = ∠COD

## equal arcs, equal chords equal chords, equal ∠s

) )
If AB = CD , then If AB = CD, then
AB = CD ∠AOB = ∠COD

If AB = CD, then
) ) ) )
AB : CD = x : y
AB = CD

## arcs prop. to ∠s at ☼ce opp. ∠s, cyclic quad.

) )
AB : CD = m : n
∠A + ∠C = 180º and
∠B + ∠D = 180º

## ext.. ∠, cyclic quad Converse of ∠s in the

same segment
If p = q, then A, B, C
∠DCE = ∠A
and D are concyclic.

## opp. ∠s supp. ext. ∠ = int. opp. ∠

o
If a + c = 180 (or
b + d = 180o ), then A, If p = q, then A, B, C
B, C and D are and D are concyclic.
concyclic.

converse of tangent⊥
If PQ is the tangent to If PQ⊥OT, then PQ is
the circle at T, then the tangent to the
PQ⊥OT. circle at T.

Page 16
Measures, Shape and Space
If two tangents, TP and
tangent properties TQ, are drawn to a
∠ in alt. segment
circle from an external A tangent-chord angle
point T and touch the of a circle is equal to
circle at P and Q an angle in the
respectively, then alternate segment.
(i) TP = TQ, ∠ATQ = ∠ABT
(ii) ∠POT = ∠QOT,
(iii) ∠PTO = ∠QTO.
converse of ∠ in alt.
segment
If ∠ATQ = ∠ABT, then
PQ is the tangent to the
circle at T.

## Special lines in a triangle

AD is the median of BC in △ABC. CD is the angle bisector of ∠ACB in △ABC

.
CD is the altitude of AB in △ABC. MN is the perpendicular bisector of AC in △ABC.

## Special points of a triangle

Intersecting point of 3 medians Intersecting point of 3 angle bisectors
– Centroid – Incentre

Page 17
Measures, Shape and Space
Intersecting point of 3 altitudes Intersecting point of 3 ⊥ bisectors
– Orthocentre – Circumcentre

1. These 4 points exist for any triangle. But they may or may not coincide.
2. There exists exactly one circle with in–centre as centre such that it touches all the 3 sides of
the triangle. (i.e. the 3 sides are tangents.)
3. There exists exactly one circle with circumference as centre such that it passes through all the
3 vertices of the triangle.

Coordinates Geometry
Let the points A, B be ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) respectively.
Distance formul,
AB = ( x1 − x2 ) 2 + ( y1 − y2 ) 2
 x + x y + y2 
mid–point of AB =  1 2 , 1 
 2 2 
 nx + mx2 ny1 + my2 
If AP : PB = m : n , then P =  1 , 
 m+n m+n 

Straight lines
y2 − y1
Slope of AB =
x2 − x1
Let m1 , m2 be slopes of lines L1, L2 respectively and L1, L2 are not vertical lines.
Then L1 // L2 , m1 = m2 , L1 ⊥ L2 , m1m2 = −1 .
Equation of straight lines
Point slope form
y − y1 = m( x − x1 )
General form
Ax + By + C = 0
−A
Slope = if B ≠ 0 (if B = 0, is undefined)
B
−C
x–intercept = if A ≠ 0 (if A = 0, the line does not cut the x–axis)
A
−C
y–intercept = if B ≠ 0 (if B = 0, the linen does not cut the y–axis)
B

Page 18
Measures, Shape and Space
Equation of a circle
Let (h,k) be the centre and r be the length of the radius.
( x − h) 2 + ( y − k )2 = r 2
General form
x 2 + y 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0
 −D −E 
Centre =  , 
 2 2 
2 2
D E
Radius   +  − F
2 2

Polar coordinates

## Polar coordinates of P = (r , θ ) , r = OP , tan θ = slope of OP

Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle θ
opposite side
sin θ =
hypotenuse
cos θ =
hypotenuse
opposite side
tan θ =

## Trigonometric ratios any angle θ

Sign of trigomometric ratios

Trigonometric identities
sin θ
1. tan θ = 2. sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1
cos θ
3. sin(90o − θ ) = cos θ 4. cos(90o − θ ) = sin θ
1
5. tan(90o − θ ) = 6. sin(90o + θ ) = cos θ
tan θ
−1
7. cos(90o + θ ) = − sin θ 8. tan(90o + θ ) =
tan θ

Page 19
Measures, Shape and Space
9. sin(180° − θ ) = sin θ 10. cos(180° − θ ) = − cos θ
11. tan(180° − θ ) = − tan θ 12. sin(180° + θ ) = − sin θ
13. cos(180° + θ ) = − cos θ 14. tan(180° + θ ) = tan θ
15. sin( −θ ) = sin(360° − θ ) = − sin θ 16. cos(−θ ) = cos(360° − θ ) = cos θ
17. tan(−θ ) = tan(360° − θ ) = − tan θ 18. sin(360° + θ ) = sin θ
19. cos(360° + θ ) = cos θ 20. tan(360° + θ ) = tan θ
Graphs of trigonometric functions
Graphs of y = sinx

Graphs of y = cosx

Graphs of y = tanx

Page 20
Measures, Shape and Space
Application of Trigonometry
Sine Formula
a b c
= =
sin A sin B sin C
Cosine Formula
c 2 = a 2 + b 2 − 2ab cos C
Area of a triangle
1
Area = ab sin C
2
Heron’s Formula
a+b+c
Area = s ( s − a)( s − b)( s − c) where s = .
2
Angle between a line and a plane
A. Projection on a plane
(a) Projection of a point on a plane (b) Projection of a line on a plane

## If PQ is perpendicular to any straight line If AB intersects π at A, and C is the

(L1 and L2) on π passing through Q, then projection of B on π, then
(i) PQ is perpendicular to π, (i) BC is perpendicular to π,
(ii) Q is the projection of P on π, (ii) AC is projection of AB on π,
(iii) PQ is the shortest distance between (iii) BC is the distance between B and π.
P and π.
B. Angles between lines and planes
(a) Angle θ between two intersecting straight (b) Angle θ between a straight line and a
lines. plane.

θ is the acute angle formed by the two θ is the acute angle between the straight
lines. It is called the angle of intersection. line and its projection on the plane.
(c) Angle θ between two intersecting planes
(i) AB is the line of intersection of π1 and π2.
(ii) θ is the acute angle between two interescting
straight lines on the planes, and which are
perpendicular to AB.
C. Line of greatest slope
Lines of greatest slope
(a) AB is the line of intersection of the planes
ABCD and ABEF.
(b) PX, L1, L2 and L3 are perpendicular to AB.
They are lines of greatest slope of the inclined
plane ABEF.
Angle of elevation and angle of depression

Page 21
Data Handling
Simple Statistical Diagrams and Graphs
Pie chart Stem-and-leaf diagram
e.g. e.g.
Weights of 10 dogs
Stem (10 kg) leaf (1 kg)
1 5 6
2 1 1 7
3 3 4 6
4 2
5 1

## The data presented above are:

Angle of the sector representing the 15 kg, 16 kg, 21 kg, 21 kg, 27 kg,
colour ‘Blue’ = x° = 360° × 40% = 144° . 33 kg, 34 kg, 36 kg, 42 kg, 51 kg

Histograms
e.g. The histogram on the right is constructed
from the frequency distribution table below.

## Hourly Class Class Frequency

wage boundaries mark
(\$) (\$) (\$)
25 – 29 24.5 – 29.5 27 15
30 – 34 29.5 – 34.5 32 22
35 – 39 34.5 – 39.5 37 11
40 – 44 39.5 – 44.5 42 4
45 – 49 44.5 – 49.5 47 3

Frequency polygon
e.g. The following table shows the amount of time spent by 60 customers in a supermarket.

## Time spent Class mark No. of

(min) (min) customers
11 – 20 15.5 9
21 – 30 25.5 21
31 – 40 35.5 16
41 – 50 45.5 8
51 – 60 55.5 4
61 – 70 65.5 2

Page 22
Data Handling
Cumulative frequency polygon
The following table shows the age distribution of 50 teachers in a school
Age 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 34 35 – 39 40 – 44 45 – 49
Frequency 2 9 18 11 6 4
The cumulative frequency table of the above data is constructed below
Age less than 19.5 24.5 29.5 34.5 39.5 44.5 49.5
Cumulative
0 2 11 29 40 46 50
Frequency
The cumulative frequency polygon of the above data is constructed below

## Measures of central tendency

Mean
x + x + x + L + xn
Ungrouped mean x = 1 2 3
n
f x + f x + f x + L + f n xn
Grouped mean x = 1 1 2 2 3 3
f1 + f 2 + f3 + L + f n
w x + w2 x2 + w3 x3 + L + wn xn
Weighted mean x = 1 1
w1 + w2 + w3 + L + wn
Median
For ungrouped data, if number of data, n, is:
(i) odd, median = middle datum
(ii) even, median = mean of the 2 middle data
For data grouped into classes, the median can be
determined from its cumulative frequency
polygon/curve.
e.g. The cumulative frequency polygon on the right
shows the donations by a group of students to a
charity fund. From the graph, the number of
students is 100. From the graph, the median
donation by the group of students is \$52.
Mode
The data item with the highest frequency.
Model class
The class with the highest frequency

Page 23
Data Handling
Measures of Dispersion
Range
Ungrouped data: range = largest datum – smallest datum
Grouped data: range = highest class boundary – lowest class boundary.
Inter-quartile range
Ungrouped data:

## inter-quartile range = upper quartile (Q3) − lower quartile (Q1)

Grouped data:
The quartiles can be read from the corresponding cumulative frequency polygon (or curve).
inter-quartile range = upper quartile (Q3) − lower quartile (Q1).
Box-and-whisker diagram
The box-and-whisker diagram is an effective way to present the lower quartile, the upper quartile,
the median, the maximum and the minimum values about a data set

Standard deviation
( x1 − x ) 2 + ( x2 − x ) 2 + ( x3 − x ) 2 + L + ( xn − x ) 2
σ=
n
For grouped data,
f1 ( x1 − x ) 2 + f 2 ( x2 − x )2 + f 3 ( x3 − x ) 2 + L + f n ( xn − x ) 2
σ=
f1 + f 2 + f 3 + L + f n
Standard Score
For a set of data with mean x and standard deviation σ, the standard score z of a given datum x is
x−x
given by z = .
σ
Normal distribution
Characteristics of a normal curve:
1. It is bell-shaped.
2. It has reflectional symmetry about x = x .
3. The mean, median and mode are all equal to x .

Page 24
Data Handling
Probability
Theoretical probability
In the case of an activity where all the possible outcomes are equally likely, the probability of an
event E, denoted by P(E), is given by
number of outcomes favourable to the event E
Theoretical probability P( E ) =
total number of possible outcomes
where 0 ≤ P ( E ) ≤ 1 .
Note that P(impossible event) = 0 and P(certain event) = 1
Experimental probability
The experimental probability P(E) of an event E is defined as follows:
number of times event E occurs in an experiment
P( E ) = or
total number of trials
P ( E ) = relative frequency of event E
For a large number of trials, the experimental probability is close to the theoretical probability
which is deduced from theories.
Permutation
An arrangement of a set of objects selected from a group in a definite order is called a
permutation.
(i) The number of permutations of n distinct objects is n!.
e.g. Arrange 5 students in a row.
Number of arrangements = 5! = 120
(ii) The number of permutations of n distinct objects taken r at a time, denoted by Prn , is
n!
.
(n − r )!
e.g. Choose 5 out of 7 students, and arrange them in a row.
Number of arrangements = P57 = 2520
Combination
A selection of r objects from n distinct objects regardless of their order is called a combination.
n!
The number of combinations of n distinct objects taken r at a time, denoted by C rn , is .
(n − r )!r!
e.g. Choose 2 from a list of 12 friends to invite to a party.
Number of ways of choosing = C 212 = 66

Mutually exclusive events – events that cannot occur at the same time..
If events A and B are mutually exclusive, then
P ( A ∪ B ) = P ( A) + P ( B )
If events E1 , E2 , E3 , L , En are mutually exclusive events, then
P ( E1 ∪ E2 ∪ E3 ∪ L ∪ En ) = P ( E1 ) + P ( E2 ) + P( E3 ) + L + P( En )
If events A and B are not mutually exclusive, then
P ( A ∪ B ) = P ( A) + P ( B ) − P ( A ∩ B ) where P ( A ∩ B ) ≠ 0
Multiplication Law of Probability
If the probability that one event occurs is not affected by the occurrence of another event,
these two events are called independent events.
Multiplication law of probability for independent events:
If A and B are two independent events, then P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A) × P ( B )
If the probability that one event occurs is affected by the occurrence of another event, these
two events are called dependent events.

Page 25
Data Handling
Multiplication law of probability for dependent events:
If A and B are two dependent events, then P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A) × P ( B | A) , where
P ( B | A) is the probability that event B occurs given that event A has occurred.
Expected value (i.e expectation)
E ( X ) = P1 x1 + P2 x2 + P3 x3 + L + Pn xn , where P1 , P2 ,L are probabilities of events E1 , E2 , L and
x1 , x2 , L are the corresponding value of E1 , E2 , L .
Complementary events
If A and A’ are complementary events, then
(1) A’ happens if A does not happen and B does not happen if A happens;
(2) P ( A ∩ A ') = 0 (i.e. mutually exclusive);
(3) P ( A ') = 1 − P ( A)

Page 26