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DSE Mathematics

(Compulsory Part)

Number and Algebra

Polynomials

e.g. 2x and 6x are like terms and 2x + 6x can be simplified as (2 + 6)x = 8x

4pq2 and –pq2 are like terms and 4pq2 – pq2 can be simplified as (4 – 1)pq2 = 3pq2

6ab and 5ac are unlike terms and they cannot be simplified

Factorization

1. a 2 − b 2 ≡ (a + b)(a − b)

2. a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ≡ (a + b) 2

3. a 2 − 2ab + b 2 ≡ (a − b) 2

4. a 3 + b3 ≡ (a + b)(a 2 − ab + b 2 )

5. a 3 − b3 ≡ (a − b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 )

Remainder theorem

When a polynomial f ( x) is divided by a linear polynomial ax + b where a ≠ 0 , the remainder

−b

is f ( ) .

a

Factor theorem

−b

If f ( x) is a polynomial and f ( ) = 0 , then the polynomial ax + b is a factor of the

a

polynomial f ( x) .

−b

Conversely, if a polynomial ax + b is a factor of polynomial f ( x) , then f ( ) = 0 .

a

Let f ( x) = x + 4 x − 3 x − 18 .

3 2

f (2) = (2)3 + 4(2) 2 − 3(2) − 18 = 0

(b) Factorize f ( x) .

Since f (2) = 0 , x − 2 is a factor of f ( x) .

x3 + 4 x 2 − 3 x − 18 = ( x − 2)( x 2 + 6 x + 9) = ( x − 2)( x + 3) 2

The required remainder

= f (−3) = [ (−3) − 3][ 2(−3) + 1] + (−3) + 3 = −6(−5) = 30

Page 1

Number and Algebra

Solving Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

Factor method

e.g. Solve x2 + 2x – 3 = 0.

x +3

x2 + 2x − 3 = 0 x −1

( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 +3x −x = +2x

x + 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0

x = − 3 or x =1

Completing the square

q

Convert it to the form of a ( x 2 + 2 px + p 2 ) = q , a ( x + p ) 2 = q , x = − p ±

a

Quadratic formula

e.g. Solve x2 – 7x + 9 = 0.

Using the quadratic formula,

−(−7) ± (−7)2 − 4(1)(9) −b ± b 2 − 4ac

x= < Substitute a = 1, b = − 7 and c = 9 into x = .

2(1) 2a

7 ± 13 7 + 13 7 − 13

= < i.e. or

2 2 2

Nature of Roots of a Quadratic Equation

Consider the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0, where a ≠ 0.

Discriminant

∆>0 ∆=0 ∆<0

( ∆ = b 2 − 4ac )

Nature of roots 2 distinct real roots 1 double real root no real roots

If α and β are the roots of the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0, where a ≠ 0, then

b c

sum of roots = α + β = − , product of roots = αβ =

a a

e.g. Solve x 4 − 6 x 2 − 7 = 0 .

By substituting x 2 = u into the equation x 4 − 6 x 2 − 7 = 0 , we have

u 2 − 6u − 7 = 0 ◄ x4 = (x2)2 = u2

(u − 7)(u + 1) = 0

u = 7 or u = −1

Since x = u , we have

2

x=± 7

Page 2

Number and Algebra

Fractional Equations Equations with Square Root Signs

2

e.g. Solve −x=0. e.g. Solve x + 2x = 0 .

x −1

x + 2x = 0

2

−x=0

x −1 x = −2 x

2 − x( x − 1) = 0 ◄ Multiply both sides by x – 1. ( x ) 2 = (−2 x) 2 ◄ Square both sides.

2 − x2 + x = 0 x = 4x2

Check the answers since

x2 − x − 2 = 0 4x2 − x = 0 squared both sides.

( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 x(4 x − 1) = 0

x = − 1 or x=2 1

x = 0 or x= (rejected)

4

e.g. Solve 2 2 x − 2 x = 0 . ……(1) e.g. Solve (log 3 x) 2 − log 3 x = 0 . ……(2)

Substitute 2 x = u into (1). Substitute log 3 x = u into (2)

u −u = 0

2

◄2 2x

= (2 ) = u

x 2 2

u2 − u = 0

u (u − 1) = 0 u (u − 1) = 0

u = 0 or u = 1 u = 0 or u = 1

Since 2 = u , we have

x

Since log 3 x = u , we have

2 = 0 (rejected) or 2 = 1

x x

log 3 x = 0 or log 3 x = 1

x=0 x = 1 or x=3

Complex Numbers

Complex number a + bi , where a and b are real numbers and i 2 = −1, i.e. i = −1 .

a + bi is purely real if and only if b = 0 .

a + bi is purely imaginary if and only if a = 0 and b ≠ 0 .

Addition Subtraction

(a + bi ) + (c + di ) = (a + c) + (b + d )i (a + bi ) − (c + di ) = (a − c) + (b − d )i

Multiplication Division

(a + bi )(c + di ) = (a + bi )(c) + (a + bi )(di ) a + bi a + bi c − di ac + bd bc − ad

= • = + i

= (ac − bd ) + (ad + bc)i c + di c + di c − di c 2 + d 2 c 2 + d 2

Equality

a + bi = c + di if and only if a = c and b = d .

Page 3

Number and Algebra

Graphs of Quadratic Functions

Features of the graphs of quadratic functions

a>0 a<0

2

k

(a) To complete the square for x2 ± kx, add . Then

2

2 2 2

k k k k

x ± kx + = x 2 ± 2 x + = x ±

2

2

(b) For a quadratic function y = a(x – h) + k,

(i) if a > 0, then the minimum value of y is k when x = h,

(ii) if a < 0, then the maximum value of y is k when x = h.

Laws of Indices

For integral indices p and q, let a, b be real numbers.

For rational indices p and q, let a, b be non–negative numbers.

1. a p × a q = a p + q

ap

2. q

= a p − q , where a ≠ 0

a

3. (a p ) q = a pq

4. (ab) p = a p b p

p

a ap

5. = , where b ≠ 0

b bp

1

6. p

= a − p , where a ≠ 0

a

7. a 0 = 1, where a ≠ 0

p

q

a q = ( a ) p = a p for integers p and q where a, q > 0.

q

8.

Page 4

Number and Algebra

Laws of logarithms

If x = a y , a, x > 0 and a ≠ 1, then y = log a x .

For M , N , a, b > 0 and a, b ≠ 1 ,

1. log a 1 = 0

2. log a a = 1

3. log a ( MN ) = log a M + log a N

M

4. log a = log a M − log a N

N

5. log a ( M k ) = k log a M (k is any real number)

6. a log a M = M

log b N

7. log a N = , where b > 0 and b ≠ 1

log b a

Note: log a x is undefined for x ≤ 0 .

Percentages

new value = initial value × (1 + percenatge change)

new value − initial value

percentage change = × 100%

initial value

Selling problems

A book is marked at $78 for sale. A customer is offered a 10% discount. Find the selling price.

selling price = marked price × (1 – discount percent)

= $78 × (1 − 10%) = $70.2

Simple and compound interest

A= P+I

simple interest I = P × r % × n

compound interest I = P (1 + r %) n − P

where A: amount, P: principal, I: interest, r: interest rate per period, n: number of periods.

Ratio a :b = 3: 4

Given a : b = 3 : 4 and b : c = 6 : 7 . Find a : b : c . b:c = 6:7

Since L.C.M . of 4 and 6 is 12

a : b : c = 9 :12 :14 a : b : c = 9 :12 :14

Page 5

Number and Algebra

Variation

Direct variation

y ∝ x, y = kx where k ≠ 0 .

Inverse Variation

1 k

y ∝ , y = or xy = k where k ≠ 0

x x

Joint variation

1. z varies jointly as x and y

z ∝ xy, z = kxy where k ≠ 0 .

2. z varies directly as x and inversely as y

x kx

z∝ ,z= where k ≠ 0 .

y y

Partial variation

1. z partly varies as x and partly varies as y

z = k1 x + k2 y where k1 , k2 ≠ 0 .

2. z partly constant and partly varies as y

z = k1 + k2 y where k2 ≠ 0 .

3. z partly varies as x and partly varies inversely as y

k

z = k1 x + 2 where k1 , k2 ≠ 0 .

y

Errors

absolute error = measured value − true value

Note: maximum absolute error = largest possible error, in this case the true value is not known.

absolute error maximum absolute error

relative error = or

true value measured value

percentage error = relative error × 100%

Arithmetic sequence

a, a + d , a + 2d , a + 3d , L . Common difference = d . First term T (1) = a

nth term T (n) = a + (n − 1)d

Let the sum of the first n terms be S (n) = T (1) + T (2) + T (3) + L + T (n) , then

T (1) + T (n) n

S (n) = n or [ 2a + (n − 1)d ] .

2 2

x+ z

If x, y, z form an arithmetic sequence, then y = .

2

Geometric sequence

a, ar , ar 2 , ar 3 , L . Common ratio = r . First term T (1) = a

nth term T (n) = ar n −1

Let the sum of the first n terms be S (n) = T (1) + T (2) + T (3) + L + T (n) , then

a (r n − 1)

S (n) = , r ≠1

r −1

a

Sum to infinity = , −1 < r < 1

1− r

If x, y, z form a geometric sequence, then y 2 = xz , i.e. y = ± xz .

Page 6

Number and Algebra

−n

The nth term of an arithmetic sequence is . Find the first term and the common ratio.

2

−1 −2 −1 −1

T (1) = , T (2) = = −1, d = −1 − = .

2 2 2 2

Express 0.16& as a fraction.

0.16& = 0.1 + 0.06 + 0.006 + 0.0006 + L

0.06 1 6 1

= 0.1 + = + =

1 − 0.1 10 90 6

Ax + By + C = 0

y = ax + bx + c

2

By substitution

Ax + B (ax 2 + bx + c) + C = 0

Bax 2 + ( A + Bb) x + ( Bc + C ) = 0

Since A, B, C , a, b, c are known, x can be find by quadratic formula.

−( Ax + C )

Having found x, y = .

B

By graphical method

There may be 0, 1, or 2 intersecting points, depending on the number of solutions.

Inequalities

Rule 1 If a < b and b < c , then a < c .

Rule 2 Addition to both sides does not change the inequalities sign.

a < b then a + c < b + c

Rule 3 For c > 0, a < b then ac < bc .

For c < 0, a < b then ac > bc .

Graphical representation

Page 7

Number and Algebra

Solving f ( x) > k , f ( x) < k , f ( x) ≥ k and f ( x) ≤ k graphically:

Step 1 Draw the graph y = f ( x) and y = k .

Intersecting points should be labeled.

Solve x 2 + 3 x + 2 > 6

Step 2 Identify of x which f ( x) > k .

x < −4 or x > 1 .

Note: ‘>’ is different from ‘≥’. If the equation is changed to

‘ f ( x) ≥ k ’, then the solution is x ≤ −4 or x ≥ 1 .

Linear programming

(a) Solve graphically the system of inequalities:

x + 2 y ≥ 2

x+ y ≤3

x≥0

(b) Hence find the maximum and minimum value of f ( x, y ) = x − 2 y subject to the above

constraints. Consider the intersecting points

(x,y) f ( x, y ) = x − 2 y

(0,1) –2

(0, 3) –6

(4, −1) 6

Maximum value = 6 and minimum value = –6

Alternative method:

Draw a dotted line of x − 2 y = 0 .

To determine the extremes of x − 2 y , move the dotted line vertically and find the two critical

positions such that the line is about to leave the shaded region. The value of x – 2y at the two

extreme positions give the maximum and minimum.

Page 8

Number and Algebra

Different Numeral Systems

Numeral in the systems

Numeral system Numerals

Denary system 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 A, B, C, D, E and F

Binary system 0 and 1 represents 10, 11,

Hexadecimal system 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E and F 12, 13, 14 and 15

In a number, the position of each didgit has fixed place value. respectively.

3

e.g. In 430510, the place value of 3 is 10 . In C8A16, th epace value of 8 is 16.

The value of a number can be expressed in the expanded form.

e.g. 430510 = 4 × 103 + 3 × 102 + 0 × 101 + 5 × 1

111012 = 1× 24 + 1× 23 + 1× 22 + 0 × 21 + 1×1

C 8 A16 = 12 ×16 2 + 8 × 161 + 10 × 1

Converting a binary number or a hexadecimal number into a denary number

111012 = 1× 24 + 1× 23 + 1× 22 + 0 × 21 + 1×1 = 29

C 8 A16 = 12 × 162 + 8 × 161 + 10 × 1 = 3210

Converting a denary number into a binary number or a hexadecimal number.

2910 = 111012 321010 = C 8 A16

2 29 remainder 16 3210 remainder

2 14LL1 ↑ 16 200LL10 ( A) ↑

2 7 LL 0 ↑ 16 12LL 8 ↑

2 3LL 1 ↑ 16 0LL12 (C ) ↑

2 1LL 1 ↑

0LL1 ↑

Transformations of functions

The following table summarizes the transformations of the graph of a function y = f ( x) and the

corresponding transformations of the function.

Translate upwards by k units y = f ( x) + k

y = kf ( x)

Reduce along the y-axis k times the original, where 0 < k < 1

1

Enlarge along the x-axis times the original, where k > 1

k y = f (kx)

1

Reduce along the x-axis times the original, where 0 < k < 1

k

Page 9

Measures, Shape and Space

Mensuration of common plane figures and solids

Plane figures

Perimeter Area

Trapezium

a

(a + b)h

c d a+b+c+d

h 2

b

Rhombus

aa a

y xy

4a

x 2

a a

Circle

r

2π r π r2

Sector

2π rθ θ

+ 2r π r2 ×

360o 360o

Solids

Volume Surface Area

Cube

a

a3 6a 2

Cuboid

b

l

blh 2(bh + bl + hl )

h

Page 10

Measures, Shape and Space

Prism

Ah Base perimeter × h + 2 A

A h

Cylinder

π r 2h 2π rh + 2π r 2

Pyramid

1

Ah A + total area of lateral faces

3

Cone

1 2

πr h π rl + π r 2

3

Sphere

4 3

πr 4π r 2

3

V −E+F =2

where V: number of vertices, E: number of edges, F: number of faces.

Page 11

Measures, Shape and Space

Similar plane figures and soilds

2 3 1 1

l1 A1 l1 V1 l1 A1 V1

2 3

= , = , ∴ = =

l2 A2 l2 V2 l2 A2 V2

l1 : length of figure 1, l2 : corresponding length of figure 2

A1 : face area of figure 1, l2 : corresponding face area of figure 2

V1 : volume of figure 1, l2 : volume length of figure 2

Congruent Triangles

Properties of congruent triangles:

If △ABC ≅ △XYZ, then

(i) ∠A = ∠X, ∠B = ∠Y, ∠C = ∠Z,

(ii) AB = XY, BC = YZ, CA = ZX.

Conditions for congruent triangles:

(i) SSS (ii) SAS

(v) RHS

Similar Triangles

Properties of similar triangles:

If △ABC ~ △XYZ, then

(i) ∠A = ∠X, ∠B = ∠Y, ∠C = ∠Z,

AB BC CA

(ii) = = .

XY YZ ZX

Conditions for similar triangles:

AB BC CA

= =

(iii) ratio of 2 sides, inc. ∠ XY YZ ZX

Page 12

Measures, Shape and Space

Transformation and Symmetry in 2-D figures

Reflectional symmetry and rotational symmetry

3-fold rotational symmetry

Translation Reflection

axis of relection

Rotation Enlargement

Centre of rotation

Geometry

Abbreviation Meaning Abbreviation Meaning

corr. ∠s, AB // CD

vert. opp. ∠s

c = 50o a = 40o

Page 13

Measures, Shape and Space

∠ sum of △ ext. ∠ of △

a + b + c = 180° c = a+b

∠B = ∠C AB = BC .

the following

conditions If AB = BC = AC, then

(i) BD = DC ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = 60°

(ii) ∠BAD = ∠CAD

(iii) AD ⊥ BC

Pyth. theorem Converse of Pyth. thm.

In △ ABC, if In △ ABC, if

∠C = 90° , then a + b 2 = c 2 , then

2

a2 + b2 = c2 ∠C = 90°

Mid-pt. Thm.

If AM = MB and AN = Intercept Thm.

NC, then MN // BC If AB// CD // EF, then

1 BD : DF = AC : CE .

and MN = BC

2

sum of ext. ∠s of

polygon

∠ sum of polygon Sum of all interior

angles of n-sided Sum of all exterior

polygon = angles of n-sided

convex polygon = 360o

(n − 2) ×180o

∠P + ∠R = 180o

AD = BC and AB = DC

∠Q + ∠S = 180o

Page 14

Measures, Shape and Space

opp. ∠s of //gram diag. of //gram

∠A = ∠C and AO = CO and

∠B = ∠D BO = DO

prop. of //gram

diagonals bisect prop. of // gram

interior angles equal diagonals

diagonals are ⊥

prop. of square

bisects chord

prop. of rhombus If ON ⊥ AB , then AN

prop of rectangle = BN.

line joining centre to from centre

mid-pt. of chord ⊥ chord

If OM ⊥ AB ,

If AN = BN, then

ON ⊥ CD and AB =

ON ⊥ AB

CD, then OM = ON.

∠ at centre twice ∠ at

centre are equal

☼ce

If OM ⊥ AB ,

ON ⊥ CD and OM = q = 2p

ON, then AB = CD.

converse of ∠ in

∠ in semi-circle semi-circle

then ∠APB = 90º. AB is a diameter.

The angles in the

same segment of a If ∠AOB = ∠COD,

circle are equal.

) )

then AB = CD

i.e. x = y

Page 15

Measures, Shape and Space

equal ∠s, equal chords equal arcs, equal ∠s

If ∠AOB = ∠COD,

) )

If AB = CD , then

then AB = CD ∠AOB = ∠COD

) )

If AB = CD , then If AB = CD, then

AB = CD ∠AOB = ∠COD

If AB = CD, then

) ) ) )

AB : CD = x : y

AB = CD

) )

AB : CD = m : n

∠A + ∠C = 180º and

∠B + ∠D = 180º

same segment

If p = q, then A, B, C

∠DCE = ∠A

and D are concyclic.

o

If a + c = 180 (or

b + d = 180o ), then A, If p = q, then A, B, C

B, C and D are and D are concyclic.

concyclic.

converse of tangent⊥

tangent⊥radius

radius

If PQ is the tangent to If PQ⊥OT, then PQ is

the circle at T, then the tangent to the

PQ⊥OT. circle at T.

Page 16

Measures, Shape and Space

If two tangents, TP and

tangent properties TQ, are drawn to a

∠ in alt. segment

circle from an external A tangent-chord angle

point T and touch the of a circle is equal to

circle at P and Q an angle in the

respectively, then alternate segment.

(i) TP = TQ, ∠ATQ = ∠ABT

(ii) ∠POT = ∠QOT,

(iii) ∠PTO = ∠QTO.

converse of ∠ in alt.

segment

If ∠ATQ = ∠ABT, then

PQ is the tangent to the

circle at T.

AD is the median of BC in △ABC. CD is the angle bisector of ∠ACB in △ABC

.

CD is the altitude of AB in △ABC. MN is the perpendicular bisector of AC in △ABC.

Intersecting point of 3 medians Intersecting point of 3 angle bisectors

– Centroid – Incentre

Page 17

Measures, Shape and Space

Intersecting point of 3 altitudes Intersecting point of 3 ⊥ bisectors

– Orthocentre – Circumcentre

1. These 4 points exist for any triangle. But they may or may not coincide.

2. There exists exactly one circle with in–centre as centre such that it touches all the 3 sides of

the triangle. (i.e. the 3 sides are tangents.)

3. There exists exactly one circle with circumference as centre such that it passes through all the

3 vertices of the triangle.

Coordinates Geometry

Let the points A, B be ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) respectively.

Distance formul,

AB = ( x1 − x2 ) 2 + ( y1 − y2 ) 2

x + x y + y2

mid–point of AB = 1 2 , 1

2 2

nx + mx2 ny1 + my2

If AP : PB = m : n , then P = 1 ,

m+n m+n

Straight lines

y2 − y1

Slope of AB =

x2 − x1

Let m1 , m2 be slopes of lines L1, L2 respectively and L1, L2 are not vertical lines.

Then L1 // L2 , m1 = m2 , L1 ⊥ L2 , m1m2 = −1 .

Equation of straight lines

Point slope form

y − y1 = m( x − x1 )

General form

Ax + By + C = 0

−A

Slope = if B ≠ 0 (if B = 0, is undefined)

B

−C

x–intercept = if A ≠ 0 (if A = 0, the line does not cut the x–axis)

A

−C

y–intercept = if B ≠ 0 (if B = 0, the linen does not cut the y–axis)

B

Page 18

Measures, Shape and Space

Equation of a circle

Let (h,k) be the centre and r be the length of the radius.

Centre–radius form

( x − h) 2 + ( y − k )2 = r 2

General form

x 2 + y 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0

−D −E

Centre = ,

2 2

2 2

D E

Radius + − F

2 2

Polar coordinates

Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle θ

opposite side

sin θ =

hypotenuse

adjacent side

cos θ =

hypotenuse

opposite side

tan θ =

adjacent side

Sign of trigomometric ratios

Trigonometric identities

sin θ

1. tan θ = 2. sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1

cos θ

3. sin(90o − θ ) = cos θ 4. cos(90o − θ ) = sin θ

1

5. tan(90o − θ ) = 6. sin(90o + θ ) = cos θ

tan θ

−1

7. cos(90o + θ ) = − sin θ 8. tan(90o + θ ) =

tan θ

Page 19

Measures, Shape and Space

9. sin(180° − θ ) = sin θ 10. cos(180° − θ ) = − cos θ

11. tan(180° − θ ) = − tan θ 12. sin(180° + θ ) = − sin θ

13. cos(180° + θ ) = − cos θ 14. tan(180° + θ ) = tan θ

15. sin( −θ ) = sin(360° − θ ) = − sin θ 16. cos(−θ ) = cos(360° − θ ) = cos θ

17. tan(−θ ) = tan(360° − θ ) = − tan θ 18. sin(360° + θ ) = sin θ

19. cos(360° + θ ) = cos θ 20. tan(360° + θ ) = tan θ

Graphs of trigonometric functions

Graphs of y = sinx

Graphs of y = cosx

Graphs of y = tanx

Page 20

Measures, Shape and Space

Application of Trigonometry

Sine Formula

a b c

= =

sin A sin B sin C

Cosine Formula

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 − 2ab cos C

Area of a triangle

1

Area = ab sin C

2

Heron’s Formula

a+b+c

Area = s ( s − a)( s − b)( s − c) where s = .

2

Angle between a line and a plane

A. Projection on a plane

(a) Projection of a point on a plane (b) Projection of a line on a plane

(L1 and L2) on π passing through Q, then projection of B on π, then

(i) PQ is perpendicular to π, (i) BC is perpendicular to π,

(ii) Q is the projection of P on π, (ii) AC is projection of AB on π,

(iii) PQ is the shortest distance between (iii) BC is the distance between B and π.

P and π.

B. Angles between lines and planes

(a) Angle θ between two intersecting straight (b) Angle θ between a straight line and a

lines. plane.

θ is the acute angle formed by the two θ is the acute angle between the straight

lines. It is called the angle of intersection. line and its projection on the plane.

(c) Angle θ between two intersecting planes

(i) AB is the line of intersection of π1 and π2.

(ii) θ is the acute angle between two interescting

straight lines on the planes, and which are

perpendicular to AB.

C. Line of greatest slope

Lines of greatest slope

(a) AB is the line of intersection of the planes

ABCD and ABEF.

(b) PX, L1, L2 and L3 are perpendicular to AB.

They are lines of greatest slope of the inclined

plane ABEF.

Angle of elevation and angle of depression

Page 21

Data Handling

Simple Statistical Diagrams and Graphs

Pie chart Stem-and-leaf diagram

e.g. e.g.

Weights of 10 dogs

Stem (10 kg) leaf (1 kg)

1 5 6

2 1 1 7

3 3 4 6

4 2

5 1

Angle of the sector representing the 15 kg, 16 kg, 21 kg, 21 kg, 27 kg,

colour ‘Blue’ = x° = 360° × 40% = 144° . 33 kg, 34 kg, 36 kg, 42 kg, 51 kg

Histograms

e.g. The histogram on the right is constructed

from the frequency distribution table below.

wage boundaries mark

($) ($) ($)

25 – 29 24.5 – 29.5 27 15

30 – 34 29.5 – 34.5 32 22

35 – 39 34.5 – 39.5 37 11

40 – 44 39.5 – 44.5 42 4

45 – 49 44.5 – 49.5 47 3

Frequency polygon

e.g. The following table shows the amount of time spent by 60 customers in a supermarket.

(min) (min) customers

11 – 20 15.5 9

21 – 30 25.5 21

31 – 40 35.5 16

41 – 50 45.5 8

51 – 60 55.5 4

61 – 70 65.5 2

Page 22

Data Handling

Cumulative frequency polygon

The following table shows the age distribution of 50 teachers in a school

Age 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 34 35 – 39 40 – 44 45 – 49

Frequency 2 9 18 11 6 4

The cumulative frequency table of the above data is constructed below

Age less than 19.5 24.5 29.5 34.5 39.5 44.5 49.5

Cumulative

0 2 11 29 40 46 50

Frequency

The cumulative frequency polygon of the above data is constructed below

Mean

x + x + x + L + xn

Ungrouped mean x = 1 2 3

n

f x + f x + f x + L + f n xn

Grouped mean x = 1 1 2 2 3 3

f1 + f 2 + f3 + L + f n

w x + w2 x2 + w3 x3 + L + wn xn

Weighted mean x = 1 1

w1 + w2 + w3 + L + wn

Median

For ungrouped data, if number of data, n, is:

(i) odd, median = middle datum

(ii) even, median = mean of the 2 middle data

For data grouped into classes, the median can be

determined from its cumulative frequency

polygon/curve.

e.g. The cumulative frequency polygon on the right

shows the donations by a group of students to a

charity fund. From the graph, the number of

students is 100. From the graph, the median

donation by the group of students is $52.

Mode

The data item with the highest frequency.

Model class

The class with the highest frequency

Page 23

Data Handling

Measures of Dispersion

Range

Ungrouped data: range = largest datum – smallest datum

Grouped data: range = highest class boundary – lowest class boundary.

Inter-quartile range

Ungrouped data:

Grouped data:

The quartiles can be read from the corresponding cumulative frequency polygon (or curve).

inter-quartile range = upper quartile (Q3) − lower quartile (Q1).

Box-and-whisker diagram

The box-and-whisker diagram is an effective way to present the lower quartile, the upper quartile,

the median, the maximum and the minimum values about a data set

Standard deviation

( x1 − x ) 2 + ( x2 − x ) 2 + ( x3 − x ) 2 + L + ( xn − x ) 2

σ=

n

For grouped data,

f1 ( x1 − x ) 2 + f 2 ( x2 − x )2 + f 3 ( x3 − x ) 2 + L + f n ( xn − x ) 2

σ=

f1 + f 2 + f 3 + L + f n

Standard Score

For a set of data with mean x and standard deviation σ, the standard score z of a given datum x is

x−x

given by z = .

σ

Normal distribution

Characteristics of a normal curve:

1. It is bell-shaped.

2. It has reflectional symmetry about x = x .

3. The mean, median and mode are all equal to x .

Page 24

Data Handling

Probability

Theoretical probability

In the case of an activity where all the possible outcomes are equally likely, the probability of an

event E, denoted by P(E), is given by

number of outcomes favourable to the event E

Theoretical probability P( E ) =

total number of possible outcomes

where 0 ≤ P ( E ) ≤ 1 .

Note that P(impossible event) = 0 and P(certain event) = 1

Experimental probability

The experimental probability P(E) of an event E is defined as follows:

number of times event E occurs in an experiment

P( E ) = or

total number of trials

P ( E ) = relative frequency of event E

For a large number of trials, the experimental probability is close to the theoretical probability

which is deduced from theories.

Permutation

An arrangement of a set of objects selected from a group in a definite order is called a

permutation.

(i) The number of permutations of n distinct objects is n!.

e.g. Arrange 5 students in a row.

Number of arrangements = 5! = 120

(ii) The number of permutations of n distinct objects taken r at a time, denoted by Prn , is

n!

.

(n − r )!

e.g. Choose 5 out of 7 students, and arrange them in a row.

Number of arrangements = P57 = 2520

Combination

A selection of r objects from n distinct objects regardless of their order is called a combination.

n!

The number of combinations of n distinct objects taken r at a time, denoted by C rn , is .

(n − r )!r!

e.g. Choose 2 from a list of 12 friends to invite to a party.

Number of ways of choosing = C 212 = 66

Mutually exclusive events – events that cannot occur at the same time..

If events A and B are mutually exclusive, then

P ( A ∪ B ) = P ( A) + P ( B )

If events E1 , E2 , E3 , L , En are mutually exclusive events, then

P ( E1 ∪ E2 ∪ E3 ∪ L ∪ En ) = P ( E1 ) + P ( E2 ) + P( E3 ) + L + P( En )

If events A and B are not mutually exclusive, then

P ( A ∪ B ) = P ( A) + P ( B ) − P ( A ∩ B ) where P ( A ∩ B ) ≠ 0

Multiplication Law of Probability

If the probability that one event occurs is not affected by the occurrence of another event,

these two events are called independent events.

Multiplication law of probability for independent events:

If A and B are two independent events, then P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A) × P ( B )

If the probability that one event occurs is affected by the occurrence of another event, these

two events are called dependent events.

Page 25

Data Handling

Multiplication law of probability for dependent events:

If A and B are two dependent events, then P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A) × P ( B | A) , where

P ( B | A) is the probability that event B occurs given that event A has occurred.

Expected value (i.e expectation)

E ( X ) = P1 x1 + P2 x2 + P3 x3 + L + Pn xn , where P1 , P2 ,L are probabilities of events E1 , E2 , L and

x1 , x2 , L are the corresponding value of E1 , E2 , L .

Complementary events

If A and A’ are complementary events, then

(1) A’ happens if A does not happen and B does not happen if A happens;

(2) P ( A ∩ A ') = 0 (i.e. mutually exclusive);

(3) P ( A ') = 1 − P ( A)

Page 26

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