You are on page 1of 21

H. R.

1308

One Hundred Third Congress of the


United States of America
AT THE FIRST SESSION
Begun and held at the City of Washington on Tuesday, the fifth day of January, one thousand
nine hundred and ninety-three

An Act
To protect the free exercise of religion.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America
in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

This Act may be cited as the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993.
SEC. 2. CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS AND DECLARATION OF PURPOSES.

(a) FINDINGS.The Congress finds that


(1) the framers of the Constitution, recognizing free exercise of religion as an unalienable
right, secured its protection in the First Amendment to the Constitution;
(2) laws neutral toward religion may burden religious exercise as surely as laws intended
to interfere with religious exercise;
(3) governments should not substantially burden religious exercise without compelling
justification;
(4) in Employment Division v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872 (1990) the Supreme Court virtually
eliminated the requirement that the government justify burdens on religious exercise
imposed by laws neutral toward religion; and
(5) the compelling interest test as set forth in prior Federal court rulings is a workable test
for striking sensible balances between religious liberty and competing prior governmental
interests.
(b) PURPOSES.The purposes of this Act are
(1) to restore the compelling interest test as set forth in Sherbert v. Verner, 374 U.S. 398
(1963) and Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U.S. 205 (1972) and to guarantee its application in all
cases where free exercise of religion is substantially burdened; and
(2) to provide a claim or defense to persons whose religious exercise is substantially
burdened by government.
SEC. 3. FREE EXERCISE OF RELIGION PROTECTED.

(a) IN GENERAL.Government shall not substantially burden a persons exercise of religion


even if the burden results from a rule of general applicability, except as provided in
subsection (b).
(b) EXCEPTION.Government may substantially burden a persons exercise of religion only if
it demonstrates that application of the burden to the person
15:39 Nov 04, 1993 VerDate 01-JUL-93 Jkt 059200 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 6655 Sfmt 6501 E:\BILLS\H1308.ENR bend06

H. R. 13082
(1) is in furtherance of a compelling governmental interest; and
(2) is the least restrictive means of furthering that compelling governmental interest.
(c) JUDICIAL RELIEF.A person whose religious exercise has been burdened in violation
of this section may assert that violation as a claim or defense in a judicial proceeding and
obtain appropriate relief against a government. Standing to assert a claim or defense under
this section shall be governed by the general rules of standing under article III of the
Constitution.
SEC. 4. ATTORNEYS FEES.

(a) JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS.Section 722 of the Revised Statutes (42 U.S.C. 1988) is amended
by inserting the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, before or title VI of the Civil
Rights Act of 1964.
(b) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS.Section 504(b)(1)(C) of title 5, United States Code, is
amended
(1) by striking and at the end of clause (ii);
(2) by striking the semicolon at the end of clause (iii) and inserting , and; and
(3) by inserting (iv) the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993; after clause (iii).
SEC. 5. DEFINITIONS.

As used in this Act


(1) the term government includes a branch, department, agency, instrumentality, and
official (or other person acting under color of law) of the United States, a State, or a subdivision of a State;
(2) the term State includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico,
and each territory and possession of the United States;
(3) the term demonstrates means meets the burdens of going forward with the evidence
and of persuasion; and
(4) the term exercise of religion means the exercise of religion under the First Amendment
to the Constitution.
SEC. 6. APPLICABILITY.

(a) IN GENERAL.This Act applies to all Federal and State law, and the implementation of
that law, whether statutory or otherwise, and whether adopted before or after the enactment
of this Act.
(b) RULE OF CONSTRUCTION.Federal statutory law adopted after the date of the enactment of
this Act is subject to this Act unless such law explicitly excludes such application by
reference to this Act.
(c) RELIGIOUS BELIEF UNAFFECTED.Nothing in this Act shall be construed to authorize any
government to burden any religious belief.
SEC. 7. ESTABLISHMENT CLAUSE UNAFFECTED.

Nothing in this Act shall be construed to affect, interpret, or in any way address that
portion of the First Amendment prohibiting laws respecting the establishment of religion
(referred to in this section as the Establishment Clause). Granting government funding,
benefits, or exemptions, to the extent permissible under the Establishment Clause, shall not
constitute a violation of this
15:39 Nov 04, 1993 VerDate 01-JUL-93 Jkt 059200 PO 00000 Frm 00002 Fmt 6655 Sfmt 6501 E:\BILLS\H1308.ENR bend06

H. R. 13083
Act. As used in this section, the term granting, used with respect to government funding,
benefits, or exemptions, does not include the denial of government funding, benefits, or
exemptions.

Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Vice President of the United States and


President of the Senate.

15:39 Nov 04, 1993 VerDate 01-JUL-93 Jkt 059200 PO 00000 Frm 00003 Fmt 6655 Sfmt 6501 E:\BILLS\H1308.ENR bend06

All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act of... Page 1 of 15

All Bill Information (Except Text) for H.R.1308 Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993
103rd Congress (1993-1994)

Back to this bill


LAW
Sponsor:

Rep. Schumer, Charles E. [D-NY-9] (Introduced


03/11/1993)

Subject
Policy Area:

Committees:

House - Judiciary

Civil Rights and


Liberties,
Minority Issues

Committee Reports:

H.Rept 103-88 Part 1

View subjects

Latest Action:

11/16/1993 Became Public Law No: 103-141.

Major Recorded Votes: 10/27/1993 : Passed Senate


Tracker:
Introduced

Passed House

Resolving Differences

Passed Senate

To President

Became Law

There are 6 versions of this bill. View text


Jump to: Summary | Major Actions | All Actions | Titles | Subjects | Cosponsors | Committees | Related Bills

Summary (2)
There are 2 summaries for this bill. View summaries
Shown Here:
Passed Senate amended (10/27/1993)
Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 - Prohibits any agency, department, or official of the United States or any Stat
(the government) from substantially burdening a person's exercise of religion even if the burden results from a rule of gen
applicability, except that the government may burden a person's exercise of religion only if it demonstrates that application
the burden to the person: (1) furthers a compelling governmental interest; and (2) is the least restrictive means of furtherin
that compelling governmental interest.
Sets forth provisions pertaining to judicial relief, attorney's fees, and applicability.

https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info

3/30/2015

All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act of... Page 2 of 15

Declares that: (1) nothing in this Act shall be construed to interpret the clause of the First Amendment to the Constitution
prohibiting the establishment of religion; (2) the granting of government funding, benefits, or exemptions, to the extent
permissible under that clause, shall not constitute a violation of this Act; and (3) as used in this Act, "granting" does not inc
the denial of government funding, benefits, or exemptions.

Major Actions (8)


Date
11/16/1993

Became Public Law No: 103-141.

11/16/1993

Signed by President.

11/05/1993

Presented to President.

11/03/1993

Resolving differences -- House actions: On motion that the House agree to the Senate
amendment Agreed to without objection.(consideration: CR H8713-8715)

10/27/1993

Passed/agreed to in Senate: Passed Senate in lieu of S. 578 with an amendment by Yea-Nay


Vote. 97-3. Record Vote No: 331.

05/11/1993

Passed/agreed to in House: On motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill Agreed to by voice
vote.

05/11/1993

Reported by the Committee on Judiciary. H. Rept. 103-88.

03/11/1993

Introduced in House

All Actions, Including Floor Amendments (26)


Date

Chamber

11/16/1993

Became Public Law No: 103-141.

11/16/1993

Signed by President.

11/05/1993

House

Presented to President.
Action By: House of Representatives

https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info

3/30/2015

All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act of... Page 3 of 15

Date

Chamber

11/03/1993-1:10pm

House

Motion to reconsider laid on the table Agreed to without objection.


Type of Action: Resolving Differences
Action By: House of Representatives

11/03/1993-1:10pm

House

On motion that the House agree to the Senate amendment Agreed to


without objection. (consideration: CR H8713-8715)
Type of Action: Resolving Differences
Action By: House of Representatives

11/03/1993-1:04pm

House

Mr. Brooks asked unanimous consent that the House agree to the
Senate amendment.
Type of Action: Resolving Differences
Action By: House of Representatives

10/27/1993

Senate

Message on Senate action sent to the House.


Type of Action: Resolving Differences
Action By: Senate

10/27/1993

Senate

Passed Senate in lieu of S. 578 with an amendment by Yea-Nay Vote.


97-3. Record Vote No: 331.
Type of Action: Floor Consideration
Action By: Senate

10/27/1993

Senate

Senate struck all after the Enacting Clause and substituted the language
of S. 578 amended.
Type of Action: Floor Consideration
Action By: Senate

10/27/1993

Senate

Measure laid before Senate by unanimous consent. (consideration: CR


S14470-14471)
Type of Action: Floor Consideration
Action By: Senate

05/13/1993

Senate

Received in the Senate. Read twice. Placed on Senate Legislative


Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 64.
Type of Action: Calendars
Action By: Senate

05/11/1993-1:31pm

House

Motion to reconsider laid on the table Agreed to without objection.


Type of Action: Floor Consideration
Action By: House of Representatives

05/11/1993-1:31pm

House

On motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill Agreed to by voice vote.
Type of Action: Floor Consideration
Action By: House of Representatives

https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info

3/30/2015

All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act of... Page 4 of 15

Date

Chamber

05/11/1993-12:49pm

House

DEBATE - The House proceeded with forty minutes of debate.


Type of Action: Floor Consideration
Action By: House of Representatives

05/11/1993-12:49pm

House

Considered under suspension of the rules. (consideration: CR H23562363)


Type of Action: Floor Consideration
Action By: House of Representatives

05/11/1993-12:49pm

House

Mr. Brooks moved to suspend the rules and pass the bill.
Type of Action: Floor Consideration
Action By: House of Representatives

05/11/1993

House

Placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 43.


Type of Action: Calendars
Action By: House of Representatives

05/11/1993

House

Reported by the Committee on Judiciary. H. Rept. 103-88.


Type of Action: Committee Consideration
Action By: House Judiciary

03/24/1993

House

Ordered to be Reported.
Type of Action: Committee Consideration
Action By: House Judiciary

03/24/1993

House

Committee Consideration and Mark-up Session Held.


Type of Action: Committee Consideration
Action By: House Judiciary

03/17/1993

House

Forwarded by Subcommittee to Full Committee.


Type of Action: Committee Consideration
Action By: House Judiciary Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional
Rights

03/17/1993

House

Subcommittee Consideration and Mark-up Session Held.


Type of Action: Committee Consideration
Action By: House Judiciary Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional
Rights

03/16/1993

House

Referred to the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights.


Type of Action: Committee Consideration
Action By: House Judiciary

03/11/1993

House

Referred to the House Committee on Judiciary.


Type of Action: Introduction and Referral
Action By: House of Representatives

https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info

3/30/2015

All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act of... Page 5 of 15

Date

Chamber

03/11/1993

House

Referred to the House Committee on Judiciary.


Type of Action: Introduction and Referral
Action By: House of Representatives

03/11/1993

House

Introduced in House
Type of Action: Introduction and Referral
Action By: House of Representatives

Titles (5)
Popular Titles:
Religious Freedom Restoration Act (Identified by CRS)

Short Titles:
Short Titles as Enacted:
Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993

Short Titles - House of Representatives

Short Titles - Senate

Short Titles as Introduced:

Short Titles as Passed Senate:

Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993

Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993

Official Titles:
Official Titles - House of Representatives
Official Title as Introduced:
To protect the free exercise of religion.

Subjects (9)
Subject Policy
Area:
Civil Rights and
Liberties, Minority
Issues
Legislative analysts
closely examine each
bill and resolution to
assign a policy area
term that best

Actions and defenses


Administrative remedies
Civil Rights and Liberties, Minority Issues
Government spending
Judicial review of administrative acts
Law
Legal fees

https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info

3/30/2015

All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act of... Page 6 of 15

describes the entire


measure. There are
33 policy area terms
which span across all
legislation from 1973
to the present.

Religion
Religious liberty

Legislative subject
terms like those listed
to the right thoroughly
describe a measure's
substance and effects.
There are
approximately 1,000
issue-oriented, entity,
and geographic terms.

Cosponsors (170)
* = Original cosponsor

Cosponsor

Date Cosponsored

Rep. Cox, Christopher [R-CA-47]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Nadler, Jerrold [D-NY-8]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Maloney, Carolyn B. [D-NY-14]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Gilman, Benjamin A. [R-NY-20]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Moran, James P. [D-VA-8]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Lewis, John [D-GA-5]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Woolsey, Lynn C. [D-CA-6]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Washington, Craig A. [D-TX-18]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Cooper, Jim [D-TN-4]*

03/11/1993

https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info

3/30/2015

All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act of... Page 7 of 15

Cosponsor

Date Cosponsored

Rep. Ackerman, Gary L. [D-NY-5]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Cardin, Benjamin L. [D-MD-3]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Yates, Sidney R. [D-IL-9]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Meek, Carrie P. [D-FL-17]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Kopetski, Mike [D-OR-5]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Ramstad, Jim [R-MN-3]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Deutsch, Peter [D-FL-20]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Price, David E. [D-NC-4]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Swift, Al [D-WA-2]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Shepherd, Karen [D-UT-2]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Towns, Edolphus [D-NY-10]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Morella, Constance A. [R-MD-8]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Crapo, Mike [R-ID-2]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Frank, Barney [D-MA-4]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Berman, Howard L. [D-CA-26]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Edwards, Don [D-CA-16]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Byrne, Leslie L. [D-VA-11]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Pelosi, Nancy [D-CA-8]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Sundquist, Don [R-TN-7]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Bryant, John W. [D-TX-5]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Hutchinson, Tim [R-AR-3]*

03/11/1993

https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info

3/30/2015

All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act of... Page 8 of 15

Cosponsor

Date Cosponsored

Rep. Unsoeld, Jolene [D-WA-3]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Molinari, Susan [R-NY-13]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Hall, Tony P. [D-OH-3]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Slaughter, Louise McIntosh [D-NY-28]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Hastings, Alcee L. [D-FL-23]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Gutierrez, Luis V. [D-IL-4]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Weldon, Curt [R-PA-7]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Gordon, Bart [D-TN-6]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Spratt, John M., Jr. [D-SC-5]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Sawyer, Thomas C. [D-OH-14]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Andrews, Robert E. [D-NJ-1]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Rush, Bobby L. [D-IL-1]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Lehman, Richard H. [D-CA-19]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Glickman, Dan [D-KS-4]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Gonzalez, Henry B. [D-TX-20]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Johnston, Harry [D-FL-19]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Johnson, Nancy L. [R-CT-6]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Matsui, Robert T. [D-CA-5]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Owens, Major R. [D-NY-11]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Martinez, Matthew G. [D-CA-31]*

03/11/1993

Rep. McDermott, Jim [D-WA-7]*

03/11/1993

https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info

3/30/2015

All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act of... Page 9 of 15

Cosponsor

Date Cosponsored

Rep. Porter, John Edward [R-IL-10]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Jefferson, William J. [D-LA-2]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Eshoo, Anna G. [D-CA-14]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Herger, Wally [R-CA-2]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Saxton, Jim [R-NJ-3]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Smith, Lamar [R-TX-21]*

03/11/1993

Rep. McHale, Paul [D-PA-15]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Sanders, Bernard [I-VT-98]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Waters, Maxine [D-CA-35]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Wynn, Albert Russell [D-MD-4]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Thornton, Ray [D-AR-2]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Neal, Stephen L. [D-NC-5]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Wyden, Ron [D-OR-3]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Margolies-Mezvinsky, Marjorie [D-PA-13]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Lantos, Tom [D-CA-12]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Reynolds, Mel [D-IL-2]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Levy, David A. [R-NY-4]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Studds, Gerry E. [D-MA-10]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Linder, John [R-GA-4]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Blackwell, Lucien E. [D-PA-2]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Mineta, Norman Y. [D-CA-15]*

03/11/1993

https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info

3/30/2015

All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act... Page 10 of 15

Cosponsor

Date Cosponsored

Rep. Payne, Donald M. [D-NJ-10]*

03/11/1993

Rep. McKinney, Cynthia A. [D-GA-11]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Torricelli, Robert G. [D-NJ-9]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Knollenberg, Joe [R-MI-11]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Serrano, Jose E. [D-NY-16]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Sabo, Martin Olav [D-MN-5]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Barrett, Thomas M. [D-WI-5]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Machtley, Ronald K. [R-RI-1]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Sisisky, Norman [D-VA-4]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Torres, Estaban Edward [D-CA-34]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Dellums, Ronald V. [D-CA-9]*

03/11/1993

Rep. DeFazio, Peter A. [D-OR-4]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Waxman, Henry A. [D-CA-29]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Stark, Fortney Pete [D-CA-13]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Shays, Christopher [R-CT-4]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Scott, Robert C. "Bobby" [D-VA-3]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Frost, Martin [D-TX-24]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Levin, Sander M. [D-MI-12]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Filner, Bob [D-CA-50]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Geren, Pete [D-TX-12]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Strickland, Ted [D-OH-6]*

03/11/1993

https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info

3/30/2015

All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act... Page 11 of 15

Cosponsor

Date Cosponsored

Rep. Fingerhut, Eric D. [D-OH-19]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Hochbrueckner, George J. [D-NY-1]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Gejdenson, Sam [D-CT-2]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Franks, Gary A. [R-CT-5]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Goodlatte, Bob [R-VA-6]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Houghton, Amo [R-NY-31]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Lightfoot, Jim [R-IA-3]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Schiff, Steven [R-NM-1]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Talent, Jim [R-MO-2]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Beilenson, Anthony C. [D-CA-24]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Lowey, Nita M. [D-NY-18]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Hansen, James V. [R-UT-1]*

03/11/1993

Rep. DeLauro, Rosa L. [D-CT-3]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Mfume, Kweisi [D-MD-7]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Hoyer, Steny H. [D-MD-5]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Orton, Bill [D-UT-3]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Gunderson, Steve [R-WI-3]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Williams, Pat [D-MT-1]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Hamburg, Dan [D-CA-1]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Klein, Herbert C. [D-NJ-8]*

03/11/1993

https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info

3/30/2015

All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act... Page 12 of 15

Cosponsor

Date Cosponsored

Rep. Dicks, Norman D. [D-WA-6]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Stump, Bob [R-AZ-3]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Evans, Lane [D-IL-17]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Skaggs, David E. [D-CO-2]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Stokes, Louis [D-OH-11]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Collins, Cardiss [D-IL-7]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Velazquez, Nydia M. [D-NY-12]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Vento, Bruce F. [D-MN-4]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Green, Gene [D-TX-29]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Andrews, Thomas H. [D-ME-1]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Bacchus, Jim [D-FL-15]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Fazio, Vic [D-CA-3]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Coppersmith, Sam [D-AZ-1]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Kennelly, Barbara B. [D-CT-1]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Derrick, Butler C. [D-SC-3]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Swett, Dick [D-NH-2]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Lazio, Rick [R-NY-2]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Fowler, Tillie [R-FL-4]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Franks, Bob [R-NJ-7]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Ravenel, Arthur, Jr. [R-SC-1]*

03/11/1993

Rep. McKeon, Howard P. "Buck" [R-CA-25]*

03/11/1993

https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info

3/30/2015

All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act... Page 13 of 15

Cosponsor

Date Cosponsored

Rep. Gallo, Dean A. [R-NJ-11]*

03/11/1993

Rep. Kennedy, Joseph P., II [D-MA-8]

04/02/1993

Rep. Cantwell, Maria [D-WA-1]

04/02/1993

Rep. Coleman, Ronald D. [D-TX-16]

04/02/1993

Rep. Meehan, Martin T. [D-MA-5]

04/02/1993

Rep. Lambert, Blanche M. [D-AR-1]

04/02/1993

Rep. Gingrich, Newt [R-GA-6]

04/02/1993

Rep. King, Peter T. [R-NY-3]

04/02/1993

Rep. Kreidler, Mike [D-WA-9]

04/02/1993

Rep. Zimmer, Dick [R-NJ-12]

04/02/1993

Rep. Hoekstra, Peter [R-MI-2]

04/02/1993

Rep. Jacobs, Andrew, Jr. [D-IN-10]

04/02/1993

Rep. Sangmeister, George E. [D-IL-11]

04/02/1993

Rep. Skelton, Ike [D-MO-4]

04/02/1993

Rep. McMillan, J. Alex [R-NC-9]

04/02/1993

Rep. Grandy, Fred [R-IA-5]

04/02/1993

Rep. Dickey, Jay [R-AR-4]

04/02/1993

Rep. Istook, Ernest J., Jr. [R-OK-5]

04/02/1993

Rep. Schenk, Lynn [D-CA-49]

04/02/1993

Rep. Leach, James A. [R-IA-1]

04/02/1993

Rep. Applegate, Douglas [D-OH-18]

04/02/1993

https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info

3/30/2015

All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act... Page 14 of 15

Cosponsor

Date Cosponsored

Rep. Slattery, Jim [D-KS-2]

04/02/1993

Rep. Dornan, Robert K. [R-CA-46]

04/29/1993

Rep. Wheat, Alan [D-MO-5]

04/29/1993

Rep. Roemer, Tim [D-IN-3]

04/29/1993

Rep. Dreier, David [R-CA-28]

04/29/1993

Rep. Bartlett, Roscoe G. [R-MD-6]

04/29/1993

Rep. Tucker, Walter R., III [D-CA-37]

04/29/1993

Rep. Johnson, Eddie Bernice [D-TX-30]

04/29/1993

Rep. Olver, John W. [D-MA-1]

04/29/1993

Rep. Flake, Floyd H. [D-NY-6]

05/06/1993

Rep. Payne, Lewis F., Jr. [D-VA-5]

05/06/1993

Rep. Danner, Pat [D-MO-6]

05/06/1993

Rep. Hobson, David L. [R-OH-7]

05/10/1993

Rep. Johnson, Don [D-GA-10]

05/10/1993

Committees (1)
Committees, subcommittees and links to reports associated with this bill are listed here, as well as the nature and date of
committee activity and Congressional report number.

Committee / Subcommittee

Date

Activity

House Judiciary

03/11/1993

Referral

05/11/1993

Reporting

03/24/1993

Markup

https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info

Reports

H.Rept 103-88 Pa

3/30/2015

All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act... Page 15 of 15

Committee / Subcommittee

Date

Activity

03/16/1993

Referral

03/17/1993

Reporting

03/17/1993

Markup

Reports

Related Bills (1)


A related bill may be a companion measure, an identical bill, a procedurally-related measure, or one with substantive
similarities. Bill relationships are identified by the House, the Senate, or CRS, and refer only to same-congress measures

Bill

Latest Title

Relationships
to H.R.1308

Relationships
Identified by

Latest Action

S.578

Religious Freedom Restoration


Act of 1993

Companion bill

Senate

H.R.1308
passed the
Senate in lieu
of this bill

Senate

10/27/1993 Indefinitely
postponed by Senate by
Unanimous Consent.

Text from this


bill was
inserted into
H.R.1308

Senate

https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info

3/30/2015

U.S. Senate: Roll Call Vote

Page 1 of 3

Find Your Senators


Search

SENATORS

COMMITTEES

LEGISLATION & RECORDS

ART & HISTORY

U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 103rd Congress - 1st Session


Votes
Nominations
Calendars & Schedules
Congressional Record
Treaties
Bills & Resolutions
Appropriations Bills
Legislative Process
Public Disclosure
Active Legislation

VISITORS

XML

as compiled through Senate LIS by the Senate Bill Clerk under the direction of
the Secretary of the Senate
Question: On Passage of the Bill (final passage )
Vote Number:
331 Vote Date:
October 27, 1993, 10:25 AM
Required For
Vote Result: Bill Passed
1/2
Majority:
Measure Number:
H.R. 1308 (Religious Freedom Restoration Act of
1993 )
Measure Title:
A bill to protect the free exercise of religion.
Vote
YEAs
Counts:
NAYs

97
3
By Senator Name

By Vote Position

Alphabetical by Senator Name


Akaka (D-HI), Yea
Feingold (D-WI), Yea
Baucus (D-MT), Yea
Feinstein (D-CA), Yea
Bennett (R-UT), Yea
Ford (D-KY), Yea
Biden (D-DE), Yea
Glenn (D-OH), Yea
Bingaman (D-NM), Yea Gorton (R-WA), Yea
Bond (R-MO), Yea
Graham (D-FL), Yea
Boren (D-OK), Yea
Gramm (R-TX), Yea
Boxer (D-CA), Yea
Grassley (R-IA), Yea
Bradley (D-NJ), Yea
Gregg (R-NH), Yea
Breaux (D-LA), Yea
Harkin (D-IA), Yea
Brown (R-CO), Yea
Hatch (R-UT), Yea
Bryan (D-NV), Yea
Hatfield (R-OR), Yea
Bumpers (D-AR), Yea
Heflin (D-AL), Yea
Burns (R-MT), Yea
Helms (R-NC), Nay
Byrd (D-WV), Nay
Hollings (D-SC), Yea
Campbell (D-CO), Yea
Hutchison (R-TX), Yea
Chafee (R-RI), Yea
Inouye (D-HI), Yea
Jeffords (R-VT), Yea
Coats (R-IN), Yea
Johnston (D-LA), Yea
Cochran (R-MS), Yea
Kassebaum (R-KS), Yea
Cohen (R-ME), Yea
Kempthorne (R-ID), Yea
Conrad (D-ND), Yea
Kennedy (D-MA), Yea
Coverdell (R-GA), Yea
Kerrey (D-NE), Yea
Craig (R-ID), Yea
Kerry (D-MA), Yea
D'Amato (R-NY), Yea
Kohl (D-WI), Yea
Danforth (R-MO), Yea
Lautenberg (D-NJ), Yea
Daschle (D-SD), Yea
Leahy (D-VT), Yea
DeConcini (D-AZ), Yea
Levin (D-MI), Yea
Dodd (D-CT), Yea
Lieberman (D-CT), Yea
Dole (R-KS), Yea
Lott (R-MS), Yea
Domenici (R-NM), Yea
Lugar (R-IN), Yea
Dorgan (D-ND), Yea
Durenberger (R-MN), Yea Mack (R-FL), Yea
Mathews (D-TN), Nay
McCain (R-AZ), Yea
Exon (D-NE), Yea
Faircloth (R-NC), Yea
Vote Summary

Find Votes
Find out about congressional voting
with this How to guide.

Find Bills

Vote Summary

Vote Summary

REFERENCE

By Senator Name

By Home State

Use this guide to help you find the


full text of recent bills and
resolutions on the Web, or order
them from the Senate or House
Document Rooms, or you can find
them in a library.

Find bills
You can access legislative
information, by bill number or key
words, from the Congress.gov
website. Information from the
present back to the 93rd Congress
(1973) is available on
Congress.gov.

Virtual Reference Desk


McConnell (R-KY), Yea
Metzenbaum (D-OH),
Yea
Mikulski (D-MD), Yea
Mitchell (D-ME), Yea
Moseley-Braun (D-IL),
Yea
Moynihan (D-NY), Yea
Murkowski (R-AK), Yea
Murray (D-WA), Yea
Nickles (R-OK), Yea
Nunn (D-GA), Yea
Packwood (R-OR), Yea
Pell (D-RI), Yea
Pressler (R-SD), Yea
Pryor (D-AR), Yea
Reid (D-NV), Yea
Riegle (D-MI), Yea
Robb (D-VA), Yea
Rockefeller (D-WV), Yea
Roth (R-DE), Yea
Sarbanes (D-MD), Yea
Sasser (D-TN), Yea
Shelby (D-AL), Yea
Simon (D-IL), Yea
Simpson (R-WY), Yea
Smith (R-NH), Yea
Specter (R-PA), Yea
Stevens (R-AK), Yea
Thurmond (R-SC), Yea
Wallop (R-WY), Yea
Warner (R-VA), Yea
Wellstone (D-MN), Yea
Wofford (D-PA), Yea

By Vote Position

The Votes page of the Virtual


Reference Desk provides voting
procedure information, research
guides, and essays about historic
votes.

Vote Statistics
The Votes category on the Statistic
page features facts and figures
about votes made by Senators.

By Home State

Grouped By Vote Position


Akaka (D-HI)
Baucus (D-MT)
Bennett (R-UT)
Biden (D-DE)

YEAs ---97
Feingold (D-WI)
Feinstein (D-CA)
Ford (D-KY)
Glenn (D-OH)

Metzenbaum (D-OH)
Mikulski (D-MD)
Mitchell (D-ME)
Moseley-Braun (D-IL)

http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=10...

3/30/2015

U.S. Senate: Roll Call Vote

Page 2 of 3

Bingaman (D-NM)
Bond (R-MO)
Boren (D-OK)
Boxer (D-CA)
Bradley (D-NJ)
Breaux (D-LA)
Brown (R-CO)
Bryan (D-NV)
Bumpers (D-AR)
Burns (R-MT)
Campbell (D-CO)
Chafee (R-RI)
Coats (R-IN)
Cochran (R-MS)
Cohen (R-ME)
Conrad (D-ND)
Coverdell (R-GA)
Craig (R-ID)
D'Amato (R-NY)
Danforth (R-MO)
Daschle (D-SD)
DeConcini (D-AZ)
Dodd (D-CT)
Dole (R-KS)
Domenici (R-NM)
Dorgan (D-ND)
Durenberger (R-MN)
Exon (D-NE)
Faircloth (R-NC)

Gorton (R-WA)
Graham (D-FL)
Gramm (R-TX)
Grassley (R-IA)
Gregg (R-NH)
Harkin (D-IA)
Hatch (R-UT)
Hatfield (R-OR)
Heflin (D-AL)
Hollings (D-SC)
Hutchison (R-TX)
Inouye (D-HI)
Jeffords (R-VT)
Johnston (D-LA)
Kassebaum (R-KS)
Kempthorne (R-ID)
Kennedy (D-MA)
Kerrey (D-NE)
Kerry (D-MA)
Kohl (D-WI)
Lautenberg (D-NJ)
Leahy (D-VT)
Levin (D-MI)
Lieberman (D-CT)
Lott (R-MS)
Lugar (R-IN)
Mack (R-FL)
McCain (R-AZ)
McConnell (R-KY)
NAYs ---3
Helms (R-NC)

Byrd (D-WV)
Vote Summary

By Senator Name

Grouped by Home State


Alabama:
Alaska:
Arizona:
Arkansas:
California:
Colorado:
Connecticut:
Delaware:
Florida:
Georgia:
Hawaii:
Idaho:
Illinois:
Indiana:
Iowa:
Kansas:
Kentucky:
Louisiana:
Maine:
Maryland:
Massachusetts:
Michigan:
Minnesota:
Mississippi:
Missouri:
Montana:
Nebraska:
Nevada:
New Hampshire:
New Jersey:
New Mexico:
New York:
North Carolina:

Moynihan (D-NY)
Murkowski (R-AK)
Murray (D-WA)
Nickles (R-OK)
Nunn (D-GA)
Packwood (R-OR)
Pell (D-RI)
Pressler (R-SD)
Pryor (D-AR)
Reid (D-NV)
Riegle (D-MI)
Robb (D-VA)
Rockefeller (D-WV)
Roth (R-DE)
Sarbanes (D-MD)
Sasser (D-TN)
Shelby (D-AL)
Simon (D-IL)
Simpson (R-WY)
Smith (R-NH)
Specter (R-PA)
Stevens (R-AK)
Thurmond (R-SC)
Wallop (R-WY)
Warner (R-VA)
Wellstone (D-MN)
Wofford (D-PA)

Mathews (D-TN)

By Vote Position

By Home State

Heflin (D-AL), Yea


Shelby (D-AL), Yea
Murkowski (R-AK), Yea Stevens (R-AK), Yea
DeConcini (D-AZ), Yea
McCain (R-AZ), Yea
Bumpers (D-AR), Yea
Pryor (D-AR), Yea
Boxer (D-CA), Yea
Feinstein (D-CA), Yea
Brown (R-CO), Yea
Campbell (D-CO), Yea
Dodd (D-CT), Yea
Lieberman (D-CT), Yea
Biden (D-DE), Yea
Roth (R-DE), Yea
Graham (D-FL), Yea
Mack (R-FL), Yea
Coverdell (R-GA), Yea
Nunn (D-GA), Yea
Akaka (D-HI), Yea
Inouye (D-HI), Yea
Craig (R-ID), Yea
Kempthorne (R-ID), Yea
Moseley-Braun (D-IL),
Simon (D-IL), Yea
Yea
Coats (R-IN), Yea
Lugar (R-IN), Yea
Grassley (R-IA), Yea
Harkin (D-IA), Yea
Dole (R-KS), Yea
Kassebaum (R-KS), Yea
Ford (D-KY), Yea
McConnell (R-KY), Yea
Breaux (D-LA), Yea
Johnston (D-LA), Yea
Cohen (R-ME), Yea
Mitchell (D-ME), Yea
Mikulski (D-MD), Yea
Sarbanes (D-MD), Yea
Kennedy (D-MA), Yea
Kerry (D-MA), Yea
Levin (D-MI), Yea
Riegle (D-MI), Yea
Durenberger (R-MN), Yea Wellstone (D-MN), Yea
Cochran (R-MS), Yea
Lott (R-MS), Yea
Bond (R-MO), Yea
Danforth (R-MO), Yea
Baucus (D-MT), Yea
Burns (R-MT), Yea
Exon (D-NE), Yea
Kerrey (D-NE), Yea
Bryan (D-NV), Yea
Reid (D-NV), Yea
Gregg (R-NH), Yea
Smith (R-NH), Yea
Bradley (D-NJ), Yea
Lautenberg (D-NJ), Yea
Bingaman (D-NM), Yea Domenici (R-NM), Yea
D'Amato (R-NY), Yea
Moynihan (D-NY), Yea
Faircloth (R-NC), Yea
Helms (R-NC), Nay

http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=10...

3/30/2015

U.S. Senate: Roll Call Vote

Page 3 of 3

North Dakota:
Ohio:

Glenn (D-OH), Yea

Oklahoma:
Oregon:
Pennsylvania:
Rhode Island:
South Carolina:
South Dakota:
Tennessee:
Texas:
Utah:
Vermont:
Virginia:
Washington:
West Virginia:
Wisconsin:
Wyoming:

Boren (D-OK), Yea


Hatfield (R-OR), Yea
Specter (R-PA), Yea
Chafee (R-RI), Yea
Hollings (D-SC), Yea
Daschle (D-SD), Yea
Mathews (D-TN), Nay
Gramm (R-TX), Yea
Bennett (R-UT), Yea
Jeffords (R-VT), Yea
Robb (D-VA), Yea
Gorton (R-WA), Yea
Byrd (D-WV), Nay
Feingold (D-WI), Yea
Simpson (R-WY), Yea

Vote Summary

SENATORS

Contact

Conrad (D-ND), Yea

COMMITTEES

By Senator Name

LEGISLATION & RECORDS

Content Responsibility

Usage Policy

By Vote Position

ART & HISTORY

PDF Help

Dorgan (D-ND), Yea


Metzenbaum (D-OH),
Yea
Nickles (R-OK), Yea
Packwood (R-OR), Yea
Wofford (D-PA), Yea
Pell (D-RI), Yea
Thurmond (R-SC), Yea
Pressler (R-SD), Yea
Sasser (D-TN), Yea
Hutchison (R-TX), Yea
Hatch (R-UT), Yea
Leahy (D-VT), Yea
Warner (R-VA), Yea
Murray (D-WA), Yea
Rockefeller (D-WV), Yea
Kohl (D-WI), Yea
Wallop (R-WY), Yea

VISITORS

Privacy Policy

By Home State

REFERENCE

www.senate.gov

http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=10...

3/30/2015