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BIOLOGICAL APPROACH

GLOSSARY
Adoption studies

Androgen
insensitivity
syndrome
Androgenital
syndrome
Autism

Brain lateralisation
Central nervous
system
Dependent variable
Generalisability
Generalisation

Genes

Gonads
Hormones
Hypothalamus
Independent
variable
IQ (Intelligence
Quotient)
Lesion studies

MRI scan

Naturenurture

A study of people who have been adopted that compares


the adopted persons behaviour traits to that of their
biological and/or their adopted families to test the effects
of nature and/or nurture on human behaviour.
When a genetic male with XY chromosomes is not
exposed to male sex hormones and so develops female
sex organ.
When a genetic female with XX chromosomes is exposed
to male sex hormones during development, causing the
foetus to develop with male sex organs.
A developmental disorder that is categorised by an
inability to interact and build relationships with other
people
The extent to which the brain functions are controlled by
each hemisphere of the brain.
The general name we give to the structures in the body
that that make up the brain and the spinal cord.
The measured variable.
When findings from a study can be applied to other
situations, in order to build a scientific body of knowledge.
The transfer of knowledge gained in one situation (e.g.
during a specific research setting) to another (e.g. real
life).
A unit of heredity that contain DNA carrying information
from one generation to the next. Each gene influences
development by triggering the production of enzymes and
proteins that are involved in the production of certain
cells.
The sex organs of an individual.
Chemicals that are released into the bloodstream and
change the function of the body in some way.
The bodys regulator this part of the brain controls many
internal systems of the body.
The manipulated variable of an investigation.
The generally accepted measure for human intelligence.
A study, usually conducted on animals, involving the
deliberate damage of an area of the brain to test the
effect of this has on behaviour.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging a type of a structural brain
scan that use a magnetic field to show a picture of the
brain inside the skull.
The debate over what has most influence on over our

debate
Neuron
Neurotransmitter
Observational
learning
PET scan

Pituitary gland
Probability

Quasi experiment

Quota opportunity
sample

Reinforcement
Significance
Synapse
Twin studies

behaviour our genes and our biology, or our


environment and experiences.
A cell in the nervous system that receives or passed on
information through electrical impulses.
A chemical involved in passing information from one
neuron to another in synaptic transmission.
Learning from watching other people.
Positron Emission Tomography a type of functional brain
scan that shows an image of a working brain.
A small gland within the body that produces the sex
hormones and releases them into the body.
How likely it is that something will happen a statistical
measure of the likelihood that something is true or that
something will happen .
An experiment whereby the independent variable differs
between groups naturally and cannot be controlled by the
experimenter. Participants can only be part of one group
or another and random allocation to goods is not possible.
An opportunity sample involves using participants who
happen to be available when the research is taking place .
in a quota opportunity sample , the participants who are
available must fit certain criteria (eg . being in a certain
age category.
The consequences of our behaviour.
A statistical measure of how likely it is that the results of
the study are due to chance factors.
A junction between two neurons where information can be
passed from one to the other.
Research involving the study of twins to see if they share
any of the same characteristics. By studying twins who
were raised by different families it is possible to see if
traits are controlled by genes or the environment
someone is raised in.