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How many memory locations can be addressed by 8085 microprocessor?

2^n=memory size
N=no of address lines
Memory size for 8085 Microprocessor is 64KB


Give an example for direct and indirect addressing modes of 8085.

Direct addressing mode example: LDA 8500H
Indirect addressing mode example: LDAX B


Identify the addressing mode of the following 8085 instruction.

(a) SHLD 2500H

(b) DCR E

SHLD 2500H Direct Addressing mode, DCR E-Register addressing mode


Name the machine cycles needed to execute the 8085 instruction MVI B, 4FH.
Two machine cycles namely Opcode Fetch and Memory Read.
7 T states are required.


List out the 8086 pin details other than address pins and data pins.


What are Assembler directives? Give an example.

An assembler program is a program that has its own programming language that must be
understood before any program can be written. Assembler directives are nothing but the
kind of instructions whose work is to instruct the assembler to assemble or translate the


Identify the addressing modes involved in the following 8086 instructions:

MOV AX, 0005H-Immediate Addressing mode; MOV AX, 50H [BX][SI]-Base Indexed
addressing mode.


What are the two internal sections of 8087 architecture?

1. Control Unit
2. Execution unit


Compare closely coupled configuration with loosely coupled configuration.

Closely Coupled Configuration
1. Closely coupled processor may take

Loosely coupled configuration

Each module is capable of being the bus

control of the bus independently.

master. Any module could be a processor

capable of being a bus master, a coprocessor
configuration or a closely coupled

2. 8089 shares CPUs clock and bus control

No direct connections between the modules.


Each share the system bus and

communicate through shared resources

3. Communication with host CPU is by way

It has shared system bus, system memory,

of shared memory

and system I/O

4. Host sets up a message(command)in

Processor in their separate modules can


simultaneously access their private

subsystems through their local busses, and
perform their local data references and
instruction fetches independently

10. Mention the need for co-processor in a microprocessor based system.

Due to limited data width of lack of Floating point arithmetic inctructions,8086 requires
many instructions for computing even single floating point operation. For this Numeric
Data Processor(8087) can help 8086.Using ESC instruction, co processor executes
instructions fetched by 8086.
11. List any four 8087 data formats.
1. Binary integers

2. Packed Decimal Numbers-80bit
3. Floating point/Real numbers
Short Real(32 bit), Long Real(64 bit), Temporary Real(80 bit)
12. Why a latch is used for an O/P port, but a tri-state buffer can be used for an input port?
A latch is necessary to hold the output data for display. The input data byte is obtained by
enabling a tri-state buffer and placed in the accumulator.
13. How many address lines and data lines are necessary for accessing 32Kx8 memory?
15 address lines and 8 data lines

14. What is DMA?

Data can be accessed directly between I/O and memory devices without the intervention of
processor are referred to as Direct Memory Access.
A data transfer between Magnetic disc and memory can be controlled and confirmed by the
speed of CPU. But in order to increase the speed of data transfer, better avoiding the
intervention of CPU and is replaced by a memory bus peripheral. This is called as DMA.
DMA Controller controls the Data transfer between I/O and memory directly by means of
15. Name the sensors used in a microprocessor based temperature controller.
Thermistor, Thermocouples.
16. What are the advantages of using a microcontroller in place of a microprocessor?
Microcontrollers are single chip Microprocessor with timers and counters, Analog to digital
Converter, Digital to analog converter, Serial ports and Interrupt logic. The functional
components like memory and other peripherals are connected internally , as not like in
microprocessors, where the functional components and other peripherals are connected
externally to the chip to make a complete microprocessor board.

17. What are the functions of the following signals of 8051? ALE/PROG, PSEN.
ALE-Address Latch Enable signal to de-multiplex the lower order address and databus.
Read strobe signal given by the microcontroller is PSEN. This active low signal is
connected to the Read selection line of the memory chips.
18. What are the sources of interrupts in 8051?
1. Timer 0 Overflow
2. Timer 1 Overflow
3. Reception/transmission of serial character
4. External hardware interrupt 0
5. External hardware interrupt 1
19. How do you select the register bank in 805l microcontroller?
The register banks are identified with two bits in the processor status word (PSW). The
PSW has two bits for identifying the register bank ie 00 represents bank 0, 01 represents
bank 1, 10 represents bank 2 and 11 represents bank3.
20. With XTAL = 11.0592 MHz, what value should be loaded into TH1 to have 9600
baud rate?
The value of TH1 is -3 in decimal and FD in hexadecimal.
21. Assume that the accumulator contains data bytes 82H and the instruction MOV C, A is
fetched. List the steps in decoding and executing the instruction.
Write the steps whatever will do for this.
22. What are the second bytes in the instruction IN and OUT of 8085 microprocessor?
8-bit Input and output port address.
23. Give any two single byte instructions that clear the accumulator register of 8085.
24. List the machine cycles involved in the execution of the following 8085 instructions:

PUSH PSW-3 Machine cycles and 12 T states

Mov A, M-2 Machine cycles and 7 T states
25. What are the general purpose registers in 8086?
Eight 16 bit General purpose registers are AX,BX,CX,DX,SP,BP,SI and DI.AX,BX and
CX registers are further divided into AH and AL, BH and BL, CH and CL, and DH and
The general purpose registers can be used to store 8-bit or 16-bit data during program
26. Give the importance of the assembler directive EVEN.
The EVEN directive updates the location counter o the next even address, If the current
location counter content is not an even counter.
The EVEN directive can also be used at the beginning of a procedure, so that the
instructions in it can be fetched quickly
27. List the pointer and index registers of 8086 architecture.
Pointer registers are IP, SP, BP and Index registers are SI and DI.
28. State the use of cascading signals of 8259 programmable interrupt controller.
The 8259A can be easily interconnected in a system of one master with up to eight slaves
to handle up to 64 priority levels. The use of cascading signals of 8259 Multiplexes 64
interrupts sources into one. The master controls the slaves through the 3 line cascade bus.
The cascade bus acts like chip selects to the slaves during the INTA sequence.
29. How does co-processor identify the instructions meant for it?
The control unit of 8087(Co-processor) internally maintains a parallel queue , identical to
the instruction queue of the 8086. The 8087 uses the QS0 and QS1 pins to obtain and
identify the instructions fetched by the 8086.
30. Name the signals used by the processor to communicate with an I/O processor.
RQ/GT (Request Grant) signal is used to communicate processor with an I/O processor.
31. Why a latch is used for an O/P port, but a tri-state buffer can be used for an input port?
A latch is necessary to hold the output data for display. The input data byte is obtained by
enabling a tri-state buffer and placed in the accumulator.
32. List the six modes of timer.
Mode 0-Interrupt on terminal count

Mode 1-Programmable one shot

Mode 2-Rate Generator
Mode 3-Square wave generator
Mode 4-Software Triggered strobe
Mode 5-Hardware Triggered strobe
33. What is the size of the on-chip program memory and on-chip data memory of 8051
On chip program memory size is 4KB and on-chip data memory size is 256 bytes.
34. List the features of the parallel ports of 8051 microcontroller.
8051 has four parallel ports namely Port 0,Port1,Port 2 and Port 3.
Port 1 is used for input and output functions. The other port pins have functions other
than input and output. So the 24 pins of ports 0,2, and 3 perform functions other than
parallel data transfer. These functions are decided by the hardware interfaced and the
instructions being executed. All the four ports are bi-directional. They can be
programmed to perform input or output operation.
35. What is pipelining?
8086 uses the time slot of the external bus efficiently to achieve the overlapped fetch and
execution cycles. While the fetched instruction is executed internally, the external bus is
used to fetch the machine code of the next instruction and arrange it in a queue known as
precoded instruction byte queue.
36. What are the three basic schemes of Loosely coupled configuration?
1. Daisy Chaining-characterized by its simplicity and low cost
2. Polling-Uses set of lines sufficient to address each module
3. Independent requesting-Resolves priority in parallel fashion
37. What information is converged when QS0 and QS1 are 00, 01, 10 and 11?
Queue is idle
First byte of Opcode is read from the queue
Queue is empty
Subsequent byte of opcode is read from the queue

38. Draw the flowchart to show the communication between 8086 and 8087

39. List Timer modes of 8051

Mode0-13-bit Timer
Mode 1-16 bit timer
Mode 2-8-bit Auto reload
Mode 3-Split timer mode
40. List the Port 3 alternate functions.
RXD(Serial Input data line),TXD(Transmit data line),INT0(External interrupt
0),INT1(External interrupt 1),TO(Timer 0),T1(Timer 1),WR(External data memory write
strobe),RD(External data memory read enable)