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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

P.A. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


PALLADAM ROAD, POLLACHI - 642 002
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ME 2302
COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING
TWO MARK QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS

ACADEMIC YEAR 2012 - 2013

Prepared By
Mr.M.Mohan Prasad M.E., MBA

PA College of Engineering and Technology, Mechanical Department

ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

UNIT - 1 CAD/CAM INTERFACE


PART- A
1. What are the activities of CAD?
CAD activities include product design, engineering analysis and drafting
2. What are the activities of CAM?
A CAM activity includes process planning, NC part programming, production
scheduling, and computer production monitoring and computer process
control.
3. In what way CIM differs from CAD/CAM?
A CIM includes all of the engineering function of CAD/CAM, but it also
includes the firms business functions that are related to manufacturing.
4. List few of the current trends in manufacturing engineering
a. Group technology
b. Rapid prototyping
c. Concurrent engineering
d. CAPP
5. What is group technology?
Group technology is a manufacturing philosophy in which similar parts are
identified and grouped together to get the advantages of similarities in both
design and manufacturing attributes.
6. List out any four benefits of GT?
a. Setup time and cost for MHS is reduced
b. Standardization of tooling and setups
c. Production scheduled are simplified
7. What is meant by part family?
Part family is a collection of parts which are similar either because of
geometric shape or because of similar steps that are required in their
manufacture.
8. Write the various methods of part family formation
a. Visual inspection
b. Production flow analysis
c. Part classification and coding system

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

9. What is meant by PFA method?


Production flow analysis is a method for identifying part families and
associated machine groupings that uses the information contained on
production route sheets rather than on part drawings.
10. What are the steps involved in PFA?
a. Preparation of route sheets
b. Preparation of PFA charts
c. Cluster analysis.
11. What are different types of coding structure used in part coding schemes?
a. Hierarchical codes
b. Attribute codes
c. Hybrid codes
12. List out some of the coding system commonly used in industries?
a. Optiz
b. MICLASS
c. DCLASS
d. CODE
13. What is the basis for forming groups in group Technology?
The groups are formed based on the similarities of part design and part
manufacturing attributes.
14. Define process planning.
Process planning can be defined as an act of preparing a described
processing documentation for the manufacture of a part or assembly
15. Write the various approaches in process planning.
a. Manual process planning
b. Computer aided process planning
16. What are the components of generative CAPP systems?
a. A part description
b. A sub system
c. Database
d. A report generator
17. Why the retrieval CAPP system is called as variant CAPP system?
A retrieval CAPP system has the capacity to alter an existing plan. Thats why
it is known as variant CAPP system.
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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

18. List any two commercially available retrieval CAPP systems.


a. Multi CAPP
b. MIPLAN
19. List any two commercially available generative CAPP systems.
a. APPAS
b. CMPP
c. EXCAP
d. XPLAN
20. What is meant by concurrent engineering?
Concurrent engineering deals with carrying out the design and manufacture
activities at the same time while designing the product.
21. What are the objectives of concurrent engineering?
a. Decreased product development lead time
b. Improved profitability
c. Close integration between departments
d. Improved product quality
22. What is meant by QFD?
Quality function deployment is a planning tool used to identify and carry the
customers voice through each stage of product development and
implementation.
23. What are Taguchi methods?
Taguchi methods focus on design and attempt to determine the best
combination of design parameters which results in superior performance of
the product.
24. What is rapid prototyping?
Rapid prototyping is a term used to describe number techniques which rapidly
produce solid physical models of components and products using 3D
computer data.
25. What are the various techniques used in rapid prototyping?
a. Stereo lithography
b. Selective laser sintering
c. Fused deposition modeling
d. Soldier
e. Laminated object manufacturing
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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

UNIT - 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF CNC MACHINES


PART- A
1. Define NC system?
NC is defined as a form of programmable automation in which the process is
controlled by alphanumeric data.
2. What is MCU?
MCU is a hardware system which reads, interprets and translates the program
of instructions into mechanical action of machine tool.
3. List out any four advantage of using NC?
Increased flexibility.
Reduced setup time.
Production of complex part.
Elimination of special jigs and fixtures.
4. What are the limitations of using NC?
Relatively high price.
More complicated maintenance, a special crew is desirable.
Highly skilled and properly trained programmers are needed.
5. What are all the problems encountered with NC system?
Part programming mistakes.
Non-optional speeds and feeds.
Problem with punched tape and tape reader.
Problem with controller and management information.
6. Define CNC?
CNC is defined as a NC system that utilizes a dedicated, stored computer
program to perform some or the entire basic NC functions.
7. Write the main functions of CNC?
Machine tool control.
In-process compensation.
Improved programming and operating features.
Diagnostics
8. What are the functions of diagnostic system in NC machine tools?
To identify the reason for a down time occurrence so that maintenance
personal should make repairs fast.
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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

To alert to signs that indicate the imminent failure of certain component


which are considered unreliable
9. Write any four application of NC system?
Application are in aero equipment; printed circuit boards; coil winding;
automobile parts; and blue print of complex shapes.
10. List the differences between NC and CNC system?
NC system
1. Programming and punched
tape is read every time

CNC system
Only one time the tape is
read and stored.

2. Moderate manual work.

Less manual work.

3. Medium flexible.

More flexible

4. Part programming is used

Reprogramming is easy

11. List the differences between open loop and closed loop control system?
Open loop control system

Closed loop control system

1. Feedback device is not used

Feedback device is used

2. Low accuracy.

Higher accuracy can be achieved.

3. Low maintenance is required.

More maintenance is needed

4. Less expensive.

Cost of the equipment is high

12. List any two advantages and disadvantages of open loop control system?
Advantages:
Low cost and less manual work.
Disadvantages:
Low accuracy.
Periodically adjustments are required to compensate backlash errors.
13. What is the function of a transducer?
Transducer is a device in which one form of physical quantity like speed,
velocity is converted into another form of physical quantity.
14. What are all the basic elements of closed loop control system?
a. Input parameter
b. Output variable
c. Controller.

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

d. Process.
e. Sensor.
f. Actuator.
15. Write the various types of MCU used in CNC machines?
Three types of MCU are
a. Housed MCU
b. Swing around MCU
c. Stand alone MCU.
16. Define DNC?
Direct numerical control system is defined as a manufacturing system in
which a number of machine tools are controlled by a computer through direct
connection and in real time.
17. List the main component of DNC?
Main component are
a. Central computer.
b. Bulk memory.
c. Telecommunications lines.
d. Machine tools.
18. Write the functions of DNC?
It will take some of the burden of the main computer.
Each satellite computer.
19. List out the types of CNC machine?
CNC machine can be classified as:
Machining centers
Lathe machines
Drilling machine
Turning centers
Milling machines
Gear shaping
CNC gear hobbling
20. Define the term Basic unit length?
The minimum possible incremental movement is called the Basic unit length
(BLU). The BLU might be on the order of 0.01 mm in typical machine tool
system.
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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

UNIT - 3 CONSTRUCTION FUTURES OF CNC MACHINES


PART- A
1. Write the functions of sideways.
The functions of sideways:
a. To control the line of action of the carriage/table on which the
tool/work piece is held.
b. To absorb static and dynamic forces.
2. List out the characteristics of sideways used in CNC.
The sideways should have the following characteristics.
a. Good rigidity and damping capability.
b. Good wear and friction resistance.
c. Geometric and kinematic accuracy.
d. Ensure higher velocity of slide.
e. Protect against damage and sward.
f. Provision for adjusting the play
g. Position in relation to work area.
3. What are the different types of friction guide ways?
The different types of friction guide ways are:
a. Flat guide
b. Vee guide
c. Dovetail guide and
d. Cylindrical guide.
4. List the limitations of friction guide ways?
The limitations of friction guide ways ARE:
a. Surface to surface contact between the sliding members, which
leads to more amount of wear.
b. Large amount of friction and heat developed in the sliding parts.
5. Write the advantages of LM guide ways?
The following are the advantages:
a. To reduce the amount of wear
b. To reduce the friction.

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

c. To reduce heat generation


d. To improve smoothness.
e. Zero stick slip.
6. What is hydrostatic guide ways? State the classification of it?
The guide ways in which the surface contact between the sliding parts is
separated by a thin layer of fluid (oil or air) is known as hydrostatic guide
ways.
7. What is actuating system? Write the various types of actuating system used in
CNC?
Actuation systems are used to convert the rotational movement into
translation movement. The two types of actuation systems used in CNC are:
a. Screw and nut, and
b. Rack and pinion.
8. What are the advantages of ball screws sideways over conventional
sideways.
a. Ball screws have longer life.
b. Higher accuracy can be maintained.
c. Low frictional resistance and hence used for carrying heavier loads at
faster rate.
d. Low power requirement for driving.
9. What is meant by feed drive? List the different types of feed drives.
Feed drive is used to provide motion to the slide as per the motion
commands. Feed drives are classified as follows:
I.

Servo motors,
a. AC servo motor,
b. DC servo motor,
c. Brushless DC servo motor

II.

Stepper motors, and

III.

Linear motors.

10. What is the function of ATC?


The function of ATC is to change the tool once the particular operation is over
and the next tool is automatically changed and positioned for machining
based on the tool sequence given in part program.

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

11. What is machining center? Write the different types of machining centre. How
it differs from conventional CNC milling machines?
The centers which consists of multi function CNC machines equipped with
ATC which are capable of carrying out milling, reaming, tapping, boring,
counter boring and allied operations without operator intervention is called
machining centre.
Different types of machining centers are:
a. Horizontal machining centre,
b. Vertical machining centre,
c. Universal machining centre.
12. What are the functions of feedback drives?
The functions of feedback drives are:
a. To convert one form of physical quantity like speed, displacement, etc.,
into electrical signals.
b. This electrical signal is then compared with the reference signal to
check whether the desired motion of tool/worktable is achieved or not.
13. Enumerate the various feedback devices used in CNC system?
There are two types of feedback devices used in CNC system.
a. Position feedback devices (Example : Linear transducers, encoders)
b. Velocity feedback devices (Example : Tachogenerator)
14. What is the use of position feedback circuits and classify it.
Position feedback circuits are used to measure the position of the tool edge
with reference to the machine slide. They may be classified as:

Rotary transducers

Linear transducers

a. Rotary encoder

a. Glass scales with line gratin.

b. Resolver

b. Ferranti system.
c. Binary coded system.

15. What are the different forms of Inductosyn? Where it is used and why?
Inductosyn are classified into:
Rotary encoder and Linear encoder.

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

Rotary form is used in precision servo systems on machine tools whereas


linear forma are used in automatic machine tool slide controls.
Reason: Inductosyn is a precision feedback device for the accurate
measurement and control of angles or distances with inductive coupling
between conductors separated by a small space.
16. What is a rotary type encoder? Where it is used?
An encoder is a rotary transducer that provides continuous or discrete signal
value of an angular or linear movement.
It is used in the CNC at the end of the slide screw directly or through gearing
timer belt.
17. What is the role of optical grating in CNC drive?
An optical grating is a glass strip marked with series of equally spaced
transparent opaque lines. They are used as transducers on machine tools.
This is used to measure the position of the table.
18. What is Inductosyn?
Inductosyn is a analogue type position back device which is used for the,
measurement of control angle and/or linear distance.
19. Write the various measures employed in CNC machine to minimize the
structural deformation.
To avoid the structural deformation, following precautions have to be
considered.
a. Providing a proper design mild steel structure having higher stiffness.
b. Use of ribs, braces and plates to increase the stiffness of machine.
c. Providing large heat removing surfaces.
d. Use of excellent coolants.
e. Reduction of ambient temperature by using air conditioning units
20. Write the salient features of tooling system?
The following features should be considered before the selection of tooling.
a. Rigidity to withstand higher cutting forces
b. Rigidity to transmit the spindle power at higher speed.
c. Perform variety of cutting operations.
d. To keep down time

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

UNIT - 4 PART PROGRAMMING FOR CNC MACHINE


PART- A
1. Define numerical control.
Numerical control is a form of programmable automation in which the
mechanical action of machine tool or other processing equipment are
controlled by a program containing alphanumeric data numbers, letters and
symbols.
2. How tapes are standardized? List some of them.
Tape standardization covers two important categories.
a. Physical dimensions, and
b. Character coding.
3. What are the different types of dimensioning system used?
a. Absolute dimensioning or baseline dimensioning system.
b. Incremental dimensioning or delta dimensioning system.
4. What is BIT? What is the use of it?
Bit is an abbreviation of Binary digit which can be 1 or 0.Uses in binary
coded decimal system.
5. What is block? Write the significance of it?
Block is the basic unit of a part program input to the control. It contains
adequate information for the machine to perform a movement and for
functions.
6. What Is G code? How G codes are represented?
It is the series of combination of 1s and 0s.It represents a number or an
alphabet or any symbol.
7. Write the different types of tape programming format?
The following are the types of tape programming format.
a. Word address format,
b. Table sequential format,
c. Fined block format.
8. Explain the functions of codes G28 and M30.
G28 = Mirroring

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

M30 = End of data.


9. State the function of post processor in CAPP.
Post processor is separate computer program which has been used to
prepare the punched tape for a specific machine tool.
10. List out some of the important NC languages.
a. APT
b. ADAPT
c. EXAPT
d. Compact II
e. PROMPT
f. CINTURNII
11. What are the four statements used in APT language?
a. Geometric statements
b. Motion statements
c. Post processor statements
d. Auxiliary statements.
12. How can you represent an APT geometric statement?
Symbol = Geometry/Descriptive data
Example: point, line, circle, plane
13. What are the different types of surfaces used for achieving continuous path
commands?
a. Drive surface, which guides the tool.
b. Part surface, on which the bottom of the tool rides.
c. Check surface, which stops the movement of the tool.
14. List the motion command words used in achieving path commands.
a. GOLFT
b. GORGT
c. GOFWD
d. GOBACK
e. GOUP
f. GODOWN
15. What are the modifiers used with motion command words?
a. TO
b. ON
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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

c. PAST
d. TANTO
16. List any four post processor statements.
a. COOLANT/ON,OFF,MIST
b. RAPID
c. TURRET
d. MACHIN
17. Write any four auxiliary statements.
a. INTOL
b. OUTTOL
c. CLPRNT
d. PARTNO
e. FINI
18. What are the identifications needed to store a tool library?
a. Tool dimension details and
b. Tool assembly details.
19. Difference between 21/2 and 3 axes machine.
a. 21/2 axis machining implies that the machine movements are in planes
parallel to the X-Y plane.
b. 3 axes machining implies that machine movements are in all the 3 axes
(X, Y and Z)
20. What is the role of computer aided part programming?
The role of computers in CAPP is as follows:
a. Input translation
b. Arithmetic calculations
c. Cutter offset compensators
d. Post processor.

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

UNIT - 5 COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS PLANNING AND DATA


BASE FOR CAM
PART- A
1. What is meant my process planning?
Process planning is the systematic determination of the methods by which a
product is to be manufactured, economically and competitively.
2. List the activities and associated with process planning.
a. Analysis finished part requirements
b. Determining operating sequence
c. Selecting machines
d. Selecting material parameters
e. Calculating processing times
f. Documenting process planning
3. What is meant by CAPP?
CAPP refers to computer-aided process planning. CAPP is used to overcome
the drawbacks of manual process planning. With the use of computers in the
process planning, one can reduce the routine clerical work of manufacturing
engineers. Also it provides the opportunity to generate rational, consistent and
optimal plans.
4. What are the basic approaches of CAPP?
a. Retrieval (or variant) CAPP system, and
b. Generative CAPP system.
5. Differentiate the underlying concepts of variant and generative CAPP
systems.
In variant CAPP system, a process plan for new part is created by
recalling, identifying and retrieving an existing plan for a similar part,
and making the necessary modifications for the new part.
Whereas the generative CAPP system automatically generates the
process plan based on decision logics and pre coded algorithms.
6. List the various components of a generative CAPP system.
A part description.
A subsystem to define the machining parameters.
A subsystem to select and sequence individual operations.

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A database
A report generator
7. List some commercial variant and generative CAPP software systems.
Some of the commercial variant CAPP systems include CUTPLAN,
COMCAPP V, DCLASS, and INTELLICAP
Some of the commercial generative CAPP systems include AUTAP,
CMPP, GENPLAN, and LOCAM
8. What is CMPP?
The CMPP stands for computer-managed process planning. It is a
commercial generative process planning system capable of automatically
making process decisions.
9. Define the terms database and data model.
A database may be defined as a well organized collection of data that are
related in a meaningful way which can be accessed in differential logical
orders but are stored only once. A data model is a logical representation of a
collection of data elements/fields.
10. Define the terms schema and PBMS?
The schema is a diagrammatic representation of the database
structure.
A database management system (DBMS) is the collection of software
which generates runs and maintains a database.
11. What is the use of data definition language (DDL) and data manipulation
language (DML)?
A data definition language is used to describe the schema, the
database definitions and the logical links between the data to the
DBMS.
A data manipulation language is used to describe only access or
retrieval transactions and to pass data to user programs.
12. What is data modeling?
Data modeling is a method of depicting graphically data groupings and the
relationship between groupings.
13. Classify data models.
a. Record - based data models
Hierarchical data models.
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Network data models.


Relational data models
b. Object - oriented data models.
14. What is a hierarchical data model?
In a hierarchical database, fields or records area arranged in related groups
resembling a family tree, with lower - level records subordinate to higher levels.
15. What is a relational data model?
A relational data model relates or connects data in different files through the
use of a key field, or common data element.
16. What is an object - oriented database system?
An object - oriented database system uses objects, software written in small,
rescale chunks, as elements within database files.
17. What are data associations?
Data associations are the relationship between the attributes of an
entity.
Associations between attributes of an entity can be of three types.

One to one association,

One-to-many association, and

Many-to-many association.

18. List various relational database operators.


a. Union
b. Intersection
c. Difference
d. Product
e. Select
f. Project
g. Join
h. Divide
19. Write the purpose of data operators select and join.
Select creates a relation by extracting specific rows from a specified
relation, usually by reference to particular attribute values.

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Join builds a relation from the rows of two specified relations on the
basis of equal values in an attribute which is part of both constituent
relations.
20. List some important features of DBMS.
a. Data dictionary
b. Utilities
c. Query language
d. Data recovery
e. Report generator
f. Access security

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