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Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines

ME306 - Fall 2013

Chapter (2)
Mechanisms and Machines

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Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 .. etc. (2) crank shaft. The slider-crank mechanism converts the reciprocating motion of the slider into a rotary motion of the crank or vice-versa. ternary link (‫ )الوصالت الثالثية‬and quaternary links (‫)الوصالت الرباعية‬. the slider-crank mechanism shown in Figure (1) consists of four links: (1) frame. Figure (1): Slider-crank Mechanism 1. depending upon their ends on which revolute or turning pairs can be placed. (3) connecting rod and (4) piston or slider. For example. Figure (1) shows a mechanism which is known as slider-crank mechanics. (a) Binary link (b) Ternary link (c) Quarternary link Figure (2): Kinematic links 2 .Fall 2013 Chapter (2) Mechanisms and Machines (‫)األليات والماكينات‬ 1. The link may consist of several parts which are rigidly joined together so that they do not move relative to one another. The links illustrated in Figure (2) are rigid links and there is no relative motion between the joints within the link. Links can be classified into binary links (‫)الوصالت الثنائية‬. Introduction (‫)مقدمة‬ A mechanism is a combination of rigid parts or components arranged or connected in a specific order to produce a required motion.1 Element or Kinematic Link (‫)الوصلة الحركية‬ Each part of a machine that moves relative to another part is known as a kinematic link or element (or a simple link).

If the relative motion between these two links is completely constrained.Fall 2013 1. A body is said to be a resistant body if it is capable of transmitting the required forces with negligible deformation. For example: jacks and brakes. but it must be a resistant body.Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . the pair is known as a kinematic pair.4 Kinematic Pair (‫)زوج الحركية‬ The two links or elements of a machine (when in contact with each other) are said to form a pair. chains and ropes are flexible links and transmit tensile forces. Then the link should have the following two characteristics: (i) The link should have relative motion. and (ii) The link must be a resistant body. 1. (3) Fluid link (‫ )وصلة السائل‬is formed by having a fluid in a receptacle and the motion is transmitted through the fluid by pressure or compression.2 Rigid and Resistant Bodies (‫)األجسام المقاومة والصلبة‬ A link or element needs not to be a rigid body. (2) Flexible link (‫ )الوصلة المرنة‬is partly deformed in a manner not to affect the transmission of motion. Figure (3): Slider-crank mechanism 3 . 1. in the slider-crank mechanism shown in Figure (3). For example: belts.3 Types of Links (‫)أنواع الوصالت‬ (1) Rigid link (‫ )الوصلة الصلبة‬does not undergo any deformation while transmitting motion. For example: crank shaft in slider-crank mechanism (as shown in the figure). link 2 (crank) rotates relative to link 1 (frame) and then links 1 and 2 is a kinematics pair. Similarly link 2 is having relative motion to link 3 and then links 2 and 3 is also a kinematics pair. For example.

(ii) wheel rolling on a surface.Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . Examples for higher pairs are: (i) cam and follower.5. then the kinematic pair is known as higher pair. Also the contact surfaces of the two links are similar. Also the contact surfaces of the two links are not similar. (i) Shaft rotating in a bearing (ii) Nut turning on a screw Figure (4): Lower kinematics pairs (iii) Sliding pair (2) Higher Pair: If the two links (or a pair) has a point or line of contact between them.5 Classifications of Kinematics pairs (‫)تصنيفات أزواج الحركيات‬ Kinematics pairs can be classified according to: 1. Cam-follower mechanism Meshing spur gears Figure (5): Higher pairs 4 Wheel rolling on a surface . and (iii) sliding pairs. Examples of lower pairs shown in Figure (4) are (i) shaft rotating in a bearing.Fall 2013 1.1 Nature of contact between links The kinematic pairs according to the nature of contact are classified as: (1) Lower pair: A kinematic pair is known as lower pair if the two links has surface or area contacts between them. and (iii) meshing gear-teeth. (ii) nut turning on a screw.

Spherical pair: When a spherical link turns inside a fixed link.Fall 2013 1. it is known as rolling pair. Sliding pair: When one link slides relative to another link. 4.3 Mechanical constraint between links Based on the nature of mechanical constrained.5. it is known as sliding pair. 2.5. it is known as turning pair 3. the pairs are classified as: 5 . it is known as spherical pair. Rolling pair: When one link rolls over the other pair.2 Relative motion between links The kinematics pairs (Fig. Screw pair: If two pairs have turning as well as rolling motion between them. 6) can be classified according to the following considerations: 1. Turning pair: When one link turns or revolves relative to another link. Sliding pair: Piston and cylinder Turning pair: Cycle wheels turning over their axles Rolling pair: Ball bearing Screw pair: Bolt with nut Spherical pair: Car mirror Figure (6) 1. 5.Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . it is known as screw pair.

n 2 = number of binary links. 1. The above equations are applied only for kinematics chains having lower pairs but if these equations are applied for the kinematic chains having higher pairs. where. A cam-follower mechanism which held in contact due to spring force is an example for unclosed pair. the following two equations are used: L  2 p  4 . p = Number of pairs. In order to check whether the mechanism of links having lower pairs forms a kinematic chain or not. (2) Unclosed pairs: If the two links of the pair are not held mechanically but are held in contact by the action of external forces. and 3 J  L 2 2 in which L = number of links. Figure (7) shows the kinematic chains in car engine and bike. All lower kinematic pairs are closed pairs. for example. spherical pairs. turning pairs and screw pairs.Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . 6 . and J  2n 2  3n3  4n 4  2 is the total number of binary joints.6 Kinematic Chain (‫)السلسلة الحركية‬ The combination of links and pairs without a fixed link is not a mechanism but a kinematic chain. Figure (7): Kinematic chains in car engine and bike.Fall 2013 (1) Closed pairs: When the links (or elements) of the pair are held together mechanically. and n 4 = number of quaternary links. n 3 = number of ternary links. then each higher pair must be taken equivalent to two lower pairs plus one additional link. sliding pairs.

LHS = RHS 2 2 Then. j  4 : Equation 1: LHS  4 . Check that the mechanism is locked. 3 3 Equation 2: LHS  3 . Example: Determine whether each of the following mechanisms is a kinematic chain or not. j  3 . both equations are satisfied. LHS=RHS.Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . RHS  L  2   4  2  4 .5 . The left hand side (LHS) > right hand side (RHS). then. LHS > RHS 2 2 Since the three links mechanism does not satisfy the two equations. (a) Three-bar links (b) Four-bar chain (c) Five-bar chain (a) For three-bar links: L  3 . and as LHS > RHS. RHS  2 p  4  2(3)  4  2 . RHS  2 p  4  2(4)  4  4 . thus the four-links mechanism is a constrained kinematic chain. (b) For four-bar links: L  4 . (i) If LHS > RHS then the chain is locked (‫)مؤمنة‬. (ii) If LHS = RHS then the chain is constrained (‫)مقيدة‬. p  3 . (iii) If LHS < RHS then the chain is unconstrained (‫)غير مقيدة‬. the mechanism is locked chain. 7 . constrained or unconstrained. the mechanism is not a kinematic chain. p  4 . RHS  L  2  3  2  2. then: Equation 1: LHS  3 . 3 3 Equation 2: LHS  4 .Fall 2013 In the above two equations.

then the number of lower pairs is determined as follows: p1  1 2L2  3L3  4L4  . Note 1: For a kinematic chain consists of different types of links. The degrees of freedom for some mechanisms are shown (Fig.8 Degrees of Freedom for Planar Mechanism The degrees of freedom for planar mechanism can be determined using the Grubler’s criterion. and (3) A ball-socket joint has three degrees of freedom.7 Degrees of Freedom (Mobility) of a Mechanism The number of degrees of freedom (or mobility) of the mechanisms is the first important consideration in the design or analysis of the mechanisms. 8 . and p 2 is the number of higher pairs. it must be counted as  k  1 joints. L is the total number of links in the mechanism. and so on. p1 is the number of lower pairs.. L3 is the number of ternary links..Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . (2) A rectangular bar sliding in a rectangular hole has one degree of freedom. Translation S Translation S 3 translations + 3 rotations then DOF = 6 Rotation θ DOF = 1 (Translation S) DOF = 1 (S or θ) Figure (8): Degrees of freedom for some mechanisms 2. Note 2: when the joint has k links at a single joint. The degrees of freedom (DOF) is defined as the number of independent translational and rotational motions the body can have.Fall 2013 1. i... 2 where L 2 is the number of binary links. D F  3L  1  2 p1  p 2 S where D F is the degrees of freedom (DOF) of the mechanism. 8) and given as: (1) A rigid body in space has six degrees of freedom.e..

Example: Find the number of degrees of freedom for the mechanisms shown in Figure (9). number of higher pairs p2=0  D F  3 L  1  2 p1  p 2  34  1  2(4)  1 Or (another solution based on number of links and joints): Number of links L=4. number of higher pairs p2=1  DF  3L  1  2 p1  p 2  34  1  2(3)  1  2 9 . number of lower pairs p1=6.e.. 3 3 2 (a) 4 1 2 3 5 1 4 2 4 (b) 1 (b) Figure (9) Solution: (a) Total number of links L=5. number of higher pairs p2=0  D F  3L  1  2 p1  p 2  35  1  2(6)  0 (b) Total number of links L=4. The number degrees of freedom (DF) of a mechanism in terms of number of links (L) and number of joints (J) can be obtained by: D F  3L  1  2 J where L is the number of links in the mechanism. J is the number of simple joints (having two links). there is no movability of the device).Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . number of lower pairs p1=4. number of simple joints j=4  D F  3L  1  2 j  34  1  2(4)  1 (e) (c) Total number of links L=4. number of lower pairs p1=3.  the device is a mechanism with DF degrees of freedom.Fall 2013 Note 3: (1) If D F  0 (2) If D F  1  the device is a structure (i.

LHS=RHS (b) Then. The number of joints is obtained as: J 2n 2  3n3  4n 4  2  2    3     4  0  7 2 Eqn. LHS < RHS. p=5 (three lower pairs having surface contacts between links 1-2. LHS=RHS. p=4. RHS=2p-4=2(5)-4=6. Eqn. Eqn. RHS=2p-4=2(4)-4=4. LHS=RHS. 1: LHS=4. the mechanism is locked kinematic chain. p=4. 10 . p=5. 5 and 6 and two ternary links 1 and 4). RHS=2p-4=2(5)-4=6. Then. the mechanism is a constrained kinematic chain. (a) (b) L=4. 2: LHS=7. (four binary links 2. (c) (d) L=5. (e) L=6. LHS<RHS. 2-3 and 3-4 and one higher pair (rolling pair) having a line contact between links 1-4). RHS=(3L/2)-2= (36/2)-2=7 . (d) Then. 3. J=5 Equation: L= 2p-4 LHS=5.Fall 2013 Examples 1– Kinematic Chains Find the type of chain for the mechanisms shown in Figure (1). 2-3. RHS=2p-4=2(4)-4=4. (four lower pairs having surface contacts between links 1-2 . 1: LHS=4. (a) L=5. the mechanism is an unconstrained chain. the mechanism is a constrained kinematic chain. (c) L=4.Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . 2: LHS=3. (two lower pairs (turning pairs) having surface contacts between links 1-2 and 1-3 and one higher pair (rolling pair) having a line contact between links 2-3). LHS=RHS (e) Then. RHS=(3L/2)-2= (34/2)-2=4 . the mechanism is not a kinematic chain but it is an unconstrained chain. Then. 3-4 and 1-4 ). J=3. 1: LHS=5. Eqn. Eqn.

the mechanism has one degree of freedom. Then.2(5)= 2 (d) Total number of links (N) =6 2 DF= 3(N-1)-2J = 3(7-1)2(8)= Number binary joints (n2) =has 3 (at B. 1 (e) Number of binary links (n2) = 4 Number of ternary links (n3) = 2 Total number of links (N)= n2 +n3 = 4+ 2=6 Number of joints J  (e) 2n 2  3n3   2    3    7 2 2 DF= 3(N-1)-2 J= 3(6-1). theofmechanism shown DF= 3(N-1)-2 p1 –p2= 3(5-1).2(7)= 1 Then. the mechanism shown has two degrees of freedom.Fall 2013 Examples 2– Degrees of Freedom for Mechanisms (a) Total number of links (N) =number of binary links (n2)+ number of ternary links (n3)=6+1=7 Number of joints (J) =  2    3    4  0  8 2 2 DF= 3(N-1)-2J = 3(7-1). the mechanism shown has one degree of freedom. Total number of links (N) =4 Number of lower pairs (p1) = 3 Number of higher pairs (p2) = 1 DF= 3(N-1)-2 p1 –p2= 3(4-1).degrees C and E)of freedom.Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 .2(3)-1= 2 (b) 4 3 5 2 1 (c) C 3 4 B D 6 2 A 5 E (d) 2n 2  3n3  4n 4  (c) Total number of links (N) =5 Number of lower pairs (p2(8)= DF= 3(N-1)-2J = 3(7-1)1) = 52 Number higher pairs (p2) =has 0 two degrees of freedom. Then. J (a) (b) The mechanism has a higher pair (rolling pair). 11 .2(8)= 2 Then. theofmechanism shown two Number of ternary joints (n3) = 2 (at A and D) Total number of joints (J)= 3+ 2(2)=7 DF= 3(N-1)-2 J= 3(6-1).2(7)= 1 Then.

(c) DF=1. of Q2: (a) N=5.Fall 2013 Assignment (1) Q1: Find the degrees of freedom for the shown mechanisms. (e) DF=1. DF=0. (d) DF=1. J= 6. n2=3.Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . 12 . determine the mobility (degrees of freedom) for each linkage. (f) DF=1. Ans. Q2: For the given linkages. n3=2. (b) DF=1.