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# Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines

ME306 - Fall 2013

Chapter (2)
Mechanisms and Machines

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(ii) wheel rolling on a surface.Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . Examples for higher pairs are: (i) cam and follower.5. then the kinematic pair is known as higher pair. Also the contact surfaces of the two links are similar. Also the contact surfaces of the two links are not similar. (i) Shaft rotating in a bearing (ii) Nut turning on a screw Figure (4): Lower kinematics pairs (iii) Sliding pair (2) Higher Pair: If the two links (or a pair) has a point or line of contact between them.5 Classifications of Kinematics pairs (‫)تصنيفات أزواج الحركيات‬ Kinematics pairs can be classified according to: 1. Cam-follower mechanism Meshing spur gears Figure (5): Higher pairs 4 Wheel rolling on a surface . and (iii) sliding pairs. Examples of lower pairs shown in Figure (4) are (i) shaft rotating in a bearing.Fall 2013 1.1 Nature of contact between links The kinematic pairs according to the nature of contact are classified as: (1) Lower pair: A kinematic pair is known as lower pair if the two links has surface or area contacts between them. and (iii) meshing gear-teeth. (ii) nut turning on a screw.

Spherical pair: When a spherical link turns inside a fixed link.Fall 2013 1. it is known as rolling pair. Sliding pair: When one link slides relative to another link. 4.3 Mechanical constraint between links Based on the nature of mechanical constrained.5. it is known as sliding pair. 2.5. it is known as turning pair 3. the pairs are classified as: 5 . it is known as spherical pair. Rolling pair: When one link rolls over the other pair.2 Relative motion between links The kinematics pairs (Fig. Screw pair: If two pairs have turning as well as rolling motion between them. 6) can be classified according to the following considerations: 1. Turning pair: When one link turns or revolves relative to another link. Sliding pair: Piston and cylinder Turning pair: Cycle wheels turning over their axles Rolling pair: Ball bearing Screw pair: Bolt with nut Spherical pair: Car mirror Figure (6) 1. 5.Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . it is known as screw pair.

LHS = RHS 2 2 Then. j  4 : Equation 1: LHS  4 . Check that the mechanism is locked. 3 3 Equation 2: LHS  3 . Example: Determine whether each of the following mechanisms is a kinematic chain or not. j  3 . both equations are satisfied. LHS=RHS.Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . RHS  L  2   4  2  4 .5 . The left hand side (LHS) > right hand side (RHS). then. LHS > RHS 2 2 Since the three links mechanism does not satisfy the two equations. (a) Three-bar links (b) Four-bar chain (c) Five-bar chain (a) For three-bar links: L  3 . and as LHS > RHS. RHS  2 p  4  2(3)  4  2 . RHS  2 p  4  2(4)  4  4 . thus the four-links mechanism is a constrained kinematic chain. (b) For four-bar links: L  4 . (i) If LHS > RHS then the chain is locked (‫)مؤمنة‬. (ii) If LHS = RHS then the chain is constrained (‫)مقيدة‬. p  3 . (iii) If LHS < RHS then the chain is unconstrained (‫)غير مقيدة‬. the mechanism is locked chain. 7 . constrained or unconstrained. the mechanism is not a kinematic chain. p  4 . RHS  L  2  3  2  2. then: Equation 1: LHS  3 . 3 3 Equation 2: LHS  4 .Fall 2013 In the above two equations.

then the number of lower pairs is determined as follows: p1  1 2L2  3L3  4L4  . Note 1: For a kinematic chain consists of different types of links. The degrees of freedom for some mechanisms are shown (Fig.8 Degrees of Freedom for Planar Mechanism The degrees of freedom for planar mechanism can be determined using the Grubler’s criterion. and (3) A ball-socket joint has three degrees of freedom.7 Degrees of Freedom (Mobility) of a Mechanism The number of degrees of freedom (or mobility) of the mechanisms is the first important consideration in the design or analysis of the mechanisms. 8 . and p 2 is the number of higher pairs. it must be counted as  k  1 joints. L is the total number of links in the mechanism. and so on. p1 is the number of lower pairs.. L3 is the number of ternary links..Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . (2) A rectangular bar sliding in a rectangular hole has one degree of freedom. Translation S Translation S 3 translations + 3 rotations then DOF = 6 Rotation θ DOF = 1 (Translation S) DOF = 1 (S or θ) Figure (8): Degrees of freedom for some mechanisms 2. Note 2: when the joint has k links at a single joint. The degrees of freedom (DOF) is defined as the number of independent translational and rotational motions the body can have.Fall 2013 1. i... 2 where L 2 is the number of binary links. D F  3L  1  2 p1  p 2 S where D F is the degrees of freedom (DOF) of the mechanism. 8) and given as: (1) A rigid body in space has six degrees of freedom.e..

Example: Find the number of degrees of freedom for the mechanisms shown in Figure (9). number of higher pairs p2=0  D F  3 L  1  2 p1  p 2  34  1  2(4)  1 Or (another solution based on number of links and joints): Number of links L=4. number of higher pairs p2=1  DF  3L  1  2 p1  p 2  34  1  2(3)  1  2 9 . number of lower pairs p1=6.e.. 3 3 2 (a) 4 1 2 3 5 1 4 2 4 (b) 1 (b) Figure (9) Solution: (a) Total number of links L=5. number of higher pairs p2=0  D F  3L  1  2 p1  p 2  35  1  2(6)  0 (b) Total number of links L=4. The number degrees of freedom (DF) of a mechanism in terms of number of links (L) and number of joints (J) can be obtained by: D F  3L  1  2 J where L is the number of links in the mechanism. J is the number of simple joints (having two links). there is no movability of the device).Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . number of lower pairs p1=4. number of simple joints j=4  D F  3L  1  2 j  34  1  2(4)  1 (e) (c) Total number of links L=4. number of lower pairs p1=3.  the device is a mechanism with DF degrees of freedom.Fall 2013 Note 3: (1) If D F  0 (2) If D F  1  the device is a structure (i.

LHS=RHS (b) Then. The number of joints is obtained as: J 2n 2  3n3  4n 4  2  2    3     4  0  7 2 Eqn. LHS < RHS. p=5 (three lower pairs having surface contacts between links 1-2. LHS=RHS. p=4. RHS=2p-4=2(5)-4=6. Eqn. Eqn. RHS=2p-4=2(4)-4=4. LHS=RHS. 1: LHS=4. the mechanism is locked kinematic chain. p=4. 10 . p=5. 5 and 6 and two ternary links 1 and 4). RHS=2p-4=2(5)-4=6. Then. the mechanism is a constrained kinematic chain. (a) (b) L=4. 2: LHS=7. (four binary links 2. (c) (d) L=5. (e) L=6. LHS<RHS. 2-3 and 3-4 and one higher pair (rolling pair) having a line contact between links 1-4). RHS=(3L/2)-2= (36/2)-2=7 . (d) Then. 3. J=5 Equation: L= 2p-4 LHS=5.Fall 2013 Examples 1– Kinematic Chains Find the type of chain for the mechanisms shown in Figure (1). 2-3. RHS=2p-4=2(4)-4=4. (four lower pairs having surface contacts between links 1-2 . 1: LHS=4. (a) L=5. the mechanism is an unconstrained chain. the mechanism is a constrained kinematic chain. (c) L=4.Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . 2: LHS=3. (two lower pairs (turning pairs) having surface contacts between links 1-2 and 1-3 and one higher pair (rolling pair) having a line contact between links 2-3). LHS=RHS (e) Then. RHS=(3L/2)-2= (34/2)-2=4 . the mechanism is not a kinematic chain but it is an unconstrained chain. Then. 3-4 and 1-4 ). J=3. 1: LHS=5. Eqn. Eqn.

the mechanism has one degree of freedom. Then.2(5)= 2 (d) Total number of links (N) =6 2 DF= 3(N-1)-2J = 3(7-1)2(8)= Number binary joints (n2) =has 3 (at B. 1 (e) Number of binary links (n2) = 4 Number of ternary links (n3) = 2 Total number of links (N)= n2 +n3 = 4+ 2=6 Number of joints J  (e) 2n 2  3n3   2    3    7 2 2 DF= 3(N-1)-2 J= 3(6-1). theofmechanism shown DF= 3(N-1)-2 p1 –p2= 3(5-1).2(7)= 1 Then. the mechanism shown has two degrees of freedom.Fall 2013 Examples 2– Degrees of Freedom for Mechanisms (a) Total number of links (N) =number of binary links (n2)+ number of ternary links (n3)=6+1=7 Number of joints (J) =  2    3    4  0  8 2 2 DF= 3(N-1)-2J = 3(7-1). the mechanism shown has one degree of freedom. Total number of links (N) =4 Number of lower pairs (p1) = 3 Number of higher pairs (p2) = 1 DF= 3(N-1)-2 p1 –p2= 3(4-1).degrees C and E)of freedom.Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 .2(3)-1= 2 (b) 4 3 5 2 1 (c) C 3 4 B D 6 2 A 5 E (d) 2n 2  3n3  4n 4  (c) Total number of links (N) =5 Number of lower pairs (p2(8)= DF= 3(N-1)-2J = 3(7-1)1) = 52 Number higher pairs (p2) =has 0 two degrees of freedom. Then. J (a) (b) The mechanism has a higher pair (rolling pair). 11 .2(8)= 2 Then. theofmechanism shown two Number of ternary joints (n3) = 2 (at A and D) Total number of joints (J)= 3+ 2(2)=7 DF= 3(N-1)-2 J= 3(6-1).2(7)= 1 Then.

(c) DF=1. of Q2: (a) N=5.Fall 2013 Assignment (1) Q1: Find the degrees of freedom for the shown mechanisms. (e) DF=1. DF=0. (d) DF=1. J= 6. n2=3.Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines ME306 . 12 . determine the mobility (degrees of freedom) for each linkage. (f) DF=1. Ans. Q2: For the given linkages. n3=2. (b) DF=1.