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You are on page 1of 20

Prepare for Recitation October 20th

ALEKS Objective 8 due October 18th

ANGEL Quiz 8, October 20th

Lecture 22: October 12th

Lecture 23: October 14th

Lecture 24: October 17th

Read: Ch. 10.1-10.9

Additional Preparation:

BLB 10: 5,23,30,45,71,75,82-84; Packet 10: 1-15

BLB 25: 11,12,25

Part 3: Real Gases

KEY QUESTIONS: THE BIG PICTURE

What does partial pressure mean?

What type of mixtures do gasses form?

What state equation can we use to

describe mixtures of gasses?

Remember: macroscopic properties

come from microscopic origins

How does the energy of a molecule in a

gas compare with intermolecular forces?

How can we describe mixtures of

gasses?

How do real gasses differ from ideal

gasses?

Kinetic-molecular theory

Real gases (van der Waals)

Effusion:

Diffusion:

more ______ than lighter ones.

r proportional to

1

M

r1

r2

M2

=

M1

collisions between gas molecules, but it also

obeys Grahams Law.

CH110 FA11 SAS

Practice Problem

An unknown gas effuses at a rate 1.49 times

faster than Cl2. What is the molecular weight

of the gas?

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

16.0 g/mol

31.9 g/mol

47.6 g/mol

106 g/mol

157 g/mol

The rate of diffusion

follows Grahams Law

At STP molecules

collide ~ 1010 times

per second

N2 speed = 500 m/s

but

in 1 s it collides 1010 times

Mean Free Path (MFP):

pressure decrease?

CH110 FA11 SAS

The Ideal Gas Law

m (mass)

n moles =

M (molar mass)

The Ideal Gas Law becomes:

m

d=

V

Practice Problem

Silicon tetrachloride is a starting material for

the production of electronics-grade silicon.

Calculate the density of pure silicon

tetrachloride vapor at 85oC and 758 torr.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

0.238 g/L

5.77 g/L

1.00 g/L

24.3 g/L

0.056 g/L

For an ideal gas:

PV

=1

nRT

PV = nRT

true for ____ pressure or ___ temperature.

Reasons:

1. Molecules have finite size.

PV

>1

nRT

2. Molecules exert attractive forces (IMF)

PV

<1

nRT

Why does PV = nRT ?

Kinetic Molecular Theory has 5 key

postulates:

1) straight-line motion in random directions

2) Molecules are small & have no volume

3) No intermolecular interactions

4) Elastic collisions

5) Mean kinetic energy temperature

E = mv2

Deviations from ideal gas behavior are

caused because gas molecules/atoms have

___________ and have _______________

when they are close together.

CH110 FA11 SAS

Postulate 2 in KMT is Not True

For 1 mole of ideal gas: PV/RT = 1

behavior is small.

At high pressures, use of the ideal gas law

leads to an appearance of larger n.

CH110 FA11 SAS

10

Postulate 3 in KMT is Not True

For 1 mole of ideal gas: PV/RT = 1

the appearance of a smaller n.

(IMF cause molecules to stick together)

As temperature increases the behavior of

real gases becomes more ideal.

CH110 FA11 SAS

11

Attractive forces lead

to the appearance of a

smaller volume or

smaller n (depending

on which was given)

High

Pressure

Very High

Pressure

Finite molecular

volume leads to

repulsion and the

appearance of a larger

volume or larger n

Low Pressure

finite molecular

volume have minimal

impact

As Temperature

increases the

behavior of

real gases

becomes more ideal

CH110 FA11 SAS

kinetic energy

overcomes the

attractive forces

12

Measured Pressure

For any gas we can

measure P, V, T

But at higher P, the

measured P is too

small because of

attractive forces

to:

1) the size of the attractive forces (a)

2) the frequency of collisions (n/V)2

To compensate, use:

CH110 FA11 SAS

13

Measured Volume

For any gas we can measure P, V, T

But at higher P, the measured V is too

large because of the finite molecular

volume per mole (b)

Actual volume:

Vactual = Vmeasured Vexcluded

To compensate, use:

CH110 FA11 SAS

14

The Equation of state for IDEAL gases:

PV = nRT

The Equation of state for REAL gases:

2

n

( P + 2 a )(V nb) = nRT

V

for various gas molecules.

CH110 FA11 SAS

15

Practice Problem

What is the pressure P of 1.0 mol Cl2 in a

2.0 L vessel at 273 K?

Ideal Gas:

a = 6.49

L2 atm

mol2

b = 0.0562 L/mol

16

Does This Make Sense?

2

n

( P + 2 a )(V nb) = nRT

V

postulates and two have caused

problems:

2) Molecules are small & have no volume

3) No intermolecular interactions

CH110 FA11 SAS

17

Does This Make Sense?

n2

( P + 2 a )(V nb) = nRT

V

Molecules are small & have no volume.

At LOW Pressure:

The volume of the container is ________

compared with the volume of the particles

At HIGH pressures:

The volume of the particles becomes

________ and the volume available to the

gas is _________ the container volume

Gas

Ne

Ar

Kr

Xe

b (L/mol)

0.0171

0.0322

0.0398

0.0510

Size

18

Does This Make Sense?

n2

( P + 2 a )(V nb) = nRT

V

Molecules in a gas have no interactions.

At LOW Temperature:

Intermolecular forces tend to be _________

and the KE is insufficient to overcome them

At HIGH Temperature:

The KE of the particles becomes ________

the intermolecular forces and the behavior

of the gas becomes __________

Gas a (atm L2/mol2) IMF

CH4

2.25

NH3

4.17

H2O

5.46

Strength

19

Kinetic Molecular Theory

How does KMT explain the pressure and

temperature of a gas, the gas laws, and

the rates of effusion and diffusion?

Real Gases

What effect does the V of a gas particle

have when we assume an ideal gas?

What effects do intermolecular forces

have on the observed properties of gases

when we assume an ideal gas?

How does the van der Waals Equation

explain the properties of real gases?

In what way do you expect a real gas to

deviate from ideal behavior as pressure

is increased from low to high?

In what way do you expect a real gas to

deviate from ideal behavior as

temperature increases?

CH110 FA11 SAS

20

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