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Adding and Subtracting

Rational Expressions

12-5

12-5
1. Plan

What Youll Learn

Check Skills Youll Need

To add and subtract rational

Simplify each expression.

expressions with like


denominators

1. 94 + 92 23
1
4. 65 + 92 118

To add and subtract rational


expressions with unlike
denominators

GO for Help

3. 12 + Q2 52 R 2
5 -3
1
6. 12
4 3

2. 37 - 75 2
7
1
5. 14 - 31 12

2x 2x
x x
7. 4x
8. 7x
9 + 9 3
12 - 12 2
Factor each quadratic expression.

. . . And Why

10.

To find the time of a roundtrip flight, as in Example 5

+ 3x + 2
(x 2)(x 1)
x2

11.

+ 7y + 12
(y 3)(y 4)
y2

Lessons 2-2 and 9-5

Objectives
1

7 - 1 1
9. 12y
12y 2y

Examples
12.

- 4t + 4
(t 2)2
t2

2
3

11
Part

Adding
Adding and
and Subtracting
Subtracting Rational
Rational Expressions
Expressions With
With Like
Like Denominators
Denominators

5
Adding rational expressions with like denominators is like adding rational
numbers with like denominators. If a, b, and c represent polynomials (with c 0),
b
then ac + bc = a 1
c .

EXAMPLE

Adding Expressions With Like Denominators

Add x 1 3 and x 1 3 .
215
5
2
x13+x13=x13
7
=x1
3

Quick Check

1 Add.
5
3
2
a. x 1
2 + x12 x12

Add the numerators.


Simplify the numerator.

EXAMPLE

Subtract

Math Background

More Math Background: p. 662D


y
3y
4y
b. y 2 5 + y 2 5 y 2 5

2n
7n
c. n 5n
11+n11 n11

Lesson Planning and


Resources

Similarly, you can subtract rational expressions with like denominators.

Adding Expressions With


Like Denominators
Subtracting Expressions With
Like Denominators
Adding Expressions With
Monomial Denominators
Adding Expressions With
Polynomial Denominators
Real-World Problem Solving

Rewriting rational expressions


with a common denominator
uses the fact that 1 is the
multiplicative identity and also
the fact that aa = 1 for a 2 0.

To add and subtract rational


expressions with like
denominators
To add and subtract rational
expressions with unlike
denominators

See p. 662E for a list of the


resources that support this lesson.

Subtracting Expressions With Like Denominators

n 1 4
2n 1 1
from 2 3
.
2
2n 1 5n 2 3
2n 1 5n 2 3

3n 1 4 2 (2n 1 1)
3n 1 4
- 2 2n 1 1
=
2n 1 5n 2 3
2n 1 5n 2 3
2n2 1 5n 2 3
= 3n 12 4 2 2n 2 1
2n 1 5n 2 3
= 2n13
2n 1 5n 2 3
2

n 1 31

PowerPoint

Subtract the numerators.

Bell Ringer Practice

Use the Distributive Property.

Check Skills Youll Need


For intervention, direct students to:

Simplify the numerator.

= (2n 2 1) (n 1 3)
1

Factor the denominator. Divide


out the common factor n 3.

= 2n 12 1

Simplify.

Subtracting Rational Numbers


Lesson 2-2: Example 3
Extra Skills and Word
Problem Practice, Ch. 2

Factoring Trinomials
Lesson 12-5 Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions

Special Needs

Below Level

L1

Have students write a rational expression with a


denominator of (x + 1), (x + 2), or (x + 3) on a piece
of paper. Have them form groups of those who have
used the same denominator. Have each group
calculate the sum of their expressions.

learning style: tactile

687

Lesson 9-5: Examples 13


Extra Skills and Word
Problem Practice, Ch. 9

L2

Have students explain the steps they use to add and


subtract fractions in Check Skills Youll Need.

learning style: verbal

687

2. Teach

Quick Check

Guided Instruction

2 Subtract.
5
4 a. t 2
2
t22
t 21 2

To add or subtract rational expressions with different denominators, you can write
the expressions with the least common denominator (LCD), which is the least
common multiple (LCM) of the denominators.

6
4
2
1 Add x 1
3 and x 1 3. x 1 3

from

LCM of Whole Numbers

LCM of Variable Expressions

4=2?2

4x = 2 ? 2 ? 3 ? x

6=2?2?3

6x2 = 2 ? 2 ? 3 ? x ? x

LCM = 2 ? 2 ? 3 = 12

PowerPoint

Additional Examples

1 x
3
3 Add 4x
+ 81. 6 8x

EXAMPLE

LCM = 2 ? 2 ? 3 ? x ? x = 12x2

Adding Expressions With Monomial Denominators

2 + 1.
Add 3x
6

3
7
4 Add x 1
4 and x 2 5.

2 and 1.
Step 1 Find the LCD of 3x
6

10x 2 23
(x 1 4)(x 2 5)

3x = 3 ? x

5 The distance between Seattle,

LCD = 2 ? 3 ? x = 6x.
Step 2 Rewrite using the LCD and add.
1?x
2
2?2
1
3x + 6 = 2 ? 3x + 6 ? x
4 + x
= 6x
6x
4
1
x
= 6x

Quick Check

Rewrite each fraction using the LCD.


Simplify numerators and denominators.
Add the numerators.

3 Add or subtract.

9 1 14y2
a. 3 4 + 2 2
4

7y

Resources
Daily Notetaking Guide 12-5

3y

21y

4 - 49 16 2 49x
b. 25x
100x
100

c. 5 + 15 2 5b 12 5
12b

36b

12b

You can also nd the LCD of rational expressions that have polynomials with two
or more terms in the denominator.

L3

Daily Notetaking Guide 12-5


L1
Adapted Instruction

Closure
Ask: How do you add and
subtract rational expressions?
If the expressions have like
denominators, add or subtract
numerators as indicated and
place over the denominator. If
they have unlike denominators,
factor if needed, find the LCD,
rewrite the expressions with the
common denominator, add or
subtract as indicated, and
simplify.

Factor each denominator.

6=2?3

Washington, and Miami, Florida, is


about 5415 miles. The ground
speed for jet traffic from Seattle to
Miami can be about 14% faster
than the ground speed from
Miami to Seattle. Use r for the jets
ground speed. Write and simplify
an expression for the round-trip
5415 10,165
air time. 5415
r 1.14r ;
r

EXAMPLE

Adding Expressions With Polynomial Denominators

5
6
Add c 1
2 and c 2 3 .

nline

Step 1 Find the LCD of c + 2 and c - 3.


Since there are no common factors, the LCD is (c + 2)(c - 3).
Step 2 Rewrite using the LCD and add.
5(c 2 3)
6(c 1 2)
5
6
c 1 2 + c 2 3 = (c 1 2)(c 2 3) + (c 1 2)(c 2 3)
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Web Code: ate-0775

688

Rewrite the fractions using


the LCD.

6c 1 12
2 15
= (c 15c2)(c
2 3) + (c 1 2)(c 2 3)

Simplify each numerator.

1 6c 1 12
= 5c(c21152)(c
2 3)

Add the numerators.

23
= (c 111c
2)(c 2 3)

Simplify the numerator.

Chapter 12 Rational Expressions and Functions

Advanced Learners

L4

a
Challenge students to simplify 3 1 a
.
21
5a 2 6
2

a22

688

2c 1 5
5m 1 2

2b 2 3
b 1 2

Additional Examples

3x 1 5
3x2 1 2x 2 8
1
4x 1 7
.
3x2 1 2x 2 8 3x 2 4

2c 1 1 - 3c 2 4
c. 5m
12
5m 1 2

Addingand
andSubtracting
SubtractingRational
RationalExpressions
ExpressionsWith
WithUnlike
UnlikeDenominators
Denominators
1 2 Adding
Part

PowerPoint

2 Subtract

22
b17
b. 7b
3b 1 6 - 3b 1 6

learning style: verbal

English Language Learners ELL


In Example 5, relate a round trip to a circle; if you
start in one place and continue around the circle, you
return to the point where you started.

learning style: visual

Quick Check

3. Practice

4 Add.

b. 2mm1 1 + m 32 1

5 + 3
a. t 1
4
t21

3a
c. a 22
1 2 + 2a 2 1

m 2 1 5m 1 3
(2m 1 1)(m 2 1)

8t 1 7
(t 1 4)(t 2 1)

3a 2 1 2a 1 2
(a 1 2)(2a 2 1)

Assignment Guide

You can combine rational expressions to investigate real-world situations.

5
2 5 00 m

iles
New York

Los Angeles

Real-World

EXAMPLE

1 A B 1-12, 30-33

Problem Solving

2 A B

Air Travel The ground speed for jet trafc from Los Angeles to New York City can
be about 15% faster than the ground speed from New York City to Los Angeles.
This difference is due to a strong westerly wind at high altitudes. If r is a jets
ground speed from New York City to Los Angeles, write and simplify an
expression for the round-trip air time. The two cities are about 2500 miles apart.
NYC to LA time: 2500
r

time distance

2500
LA to NYC time: 1.15r

time

rate
distance
rate

15% more than a number


is 115% of the number.

1270
1.12r
N 2404
r

Add or subtract.

Example 1

5 + 4 9
1. 2m
2m 2m

3
7
4
2. 6t 2
1 + 6t 2 1 6t 2 1

5 + 9
14
4. c 2
5
c25c25

2
2
2
c 2 28 6c 2 28
5. s 2 1 3 + s 2 2 2 2s2 1 1 6. 2c 5c
1 7 + 2c 1 7 2c 1 7
4s
1 2
4s 1 2
4s 1 2

Example 2
(page 687)

a discussion about stereotypes


of older people. Ask students to
describe the stereotype and then
name people they know who
do not fit the stereotype. The
Guiness Book of Records describes
a 98-year-old man and an
82-year-old woman who each
completed marathons.

Exercises 3040 When


For more exercises, see Extra Skill and Word Problem Practice.

Practice by Example
(page 687)

Homework Quick Check

Error Prevention!

Practice
Practiceand
andProblem
ProblemSolving
Solving

GO for
Help

55-58
59-66

Exercise 29 Use this problem for

5 Air Travel The distance between Atlanta, Georgia, and Albuquerque, New Mexico,
is about 1270 miles. The ground speed for jet trafc from Atlanta to Albuquerque
can be about 12% faster than the ground speed from Albuquerque to Atlanta. Use r
for a jets ground speed. Write and simplify an expression for the round-trip air time.

EXERCISES

23
1 - 4
7. 2 2
b
22b22b

2y 1 1
y12
10. y 2 1 - y 2 1 1

n + 2
n 1 2
3. n 1
3
n13 n13

5t
5
22t
- 2 6 21
9. 2t 3t
2 3 - 2t 2 3 2t 2 3
t2 1 1
t 11 t 11
12
n26
3 - b
11. 3n
12. b 2
n14 -n14 2
3
b 2 3 1

8.

subtracting, students sometimes


forget to distribute the negative
sign to all terms in the numerator.
Suggest to them that they put
parentheses around the
numerator.

GPS Guided Problem Solving

L3
L4

Enrichment

L2

Reteaching

Example 3
(page 688)

Find the LCD of each pair of expressions.


13. 1; 42 2x 2
2 x

14. b6; 2b
9 18

3 7z
15. 1z; 7z

16. 8 ; 123 35b3c


5b 7b c

Practice
Name

Class

Practice 12-6

L3

Date

Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions

Simplify.

Add or subtract.
7 + 2 35 1 6a
17. 3a
15a
5
9 1 2m
3
1
20.
+
3
8m3
12m2 24m

lesson quiz, PHSchool.com, Web Code: ata-1205

L1

Adapted Practice

2 2x
18. x4 - 23 12 3x
21. 273 - 9 2 189 23 9n
7n
n
7n

2
19. 6 8 + 4 6 18 1 20x
15x8
5x
3x
2
22. 9 2 + 9 45 1 36x
20x 2
5
4x

Lesson 12-5 Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions

689

1. 3x
2x
4
4

3 1 5
2. x
x

3. 5x
2 2x
3
6

4. x
1x
3
5

5. 3m
1 5m
4
12

3x
6. 4x
7 2 14

6 2 3
7. 7t
7t

8. d
1 4d
3
3

10.

3 1 4
3d
2d2

13. 7a
1a
6
6

7 2 3
9. 2d
2d

11. m 91 1 2 m 62 1

3 2 7
12. x
x

4 2 8
14. k 1
3
k13

15. 3 2 1 7 2
4z
4z

16.

6
1 7
x21
x2 2 1

17.

19.

4 2 1
3a2
2a3

4 1 6
20. a 1
4
a14

4 1 6
21. x 1
3
x22

22.

6 2 8
3t
7t3

4
23. 2x 31 6 1 6x 1
18

5 2 3
24. 8a
8a

25.

5
1 7
r12
r2 2 4

26.

6
1 29
a2 2 2
a 22

27. 5x
2x
4
4

29.

4
1 1
c13
c2 1 4c 1 3

30.

28. 3x 41 6 2 2x 31 4

2x 2 3
x11
x2 2 1

18. 3t
1 3t
8
8

6
2 4
x22
x2 2 3x 1 2

31. Brian rode his bike 2 mi to his friends house. Brians bike had a at tire,
so he had to walk home. His walking rate is 25% of his biking rate.
a. Write an expression for the amounts of time Brian spent walking
and riding his bike.
b. If Brians biking rate is 12 mi/h, how much time did he spend
walking and riding his bike?
32. Trudi and Sean are on a river canoeing. Because of the current of the
river, their downstream rate is 250% of their upstream rate. They canoe
3 mi upstream and then return to their starting point.
a. Write an expression for the amount of time Trudi and Sean spend
canoeing.
b. If their upstream rate is 2 mi/h, how much time do Trudi and Sean
spend canoeing?

Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Test Prep
Mixed Review

Diversity

2500 + 2500 = 2875 + 2500 Rewrite using the LCD, 1.15r.


r
1.15r
1.15r
1.15r
5375
= 1.15r
Add the numerators.
< 4674
Simplify.
r

1270
r

13-29, 34-50
51-54

To check students understanding


of key skills and concepts, go over
Exercises 8, 24, 34, 42, 43.

2500
An expression for the total time is 2500
r + 1.15r .

Quick Check

C Challenge

c. If their upstream rate is 3 mi/h, how much time do Trudi and Sean
spend canoeing?

689

4. Assess & Reteach

Example 4
(page 688)

PowerPoint

Lesson Quiz
1.
2.

Example 5
(page 689)

2
5x

1 5x
Add
+ 91. 1845x
6
Add 3x 21 4 + x 1
2.
4(5x 1 7)
(3x 1 4)(x 1 2)

3. Subtract
5
x2 2 4

8
x2 2 4
6y 2 7

c 2 1 7c 1 20
(c 1 5)(c 1 3)

26.

2
27. 4t 2 1 5t 1 5

t (t 1 1)

1 3
28. (2a 118a
1)(2a 2 1)

3
.
x2 2 4

2y 2 11

Apply Your Skills

Add.

17m 2 47
(m 1 2)(m 2 7)

a2 1 12a 1 15
4(a 1 3)

a2 1 9a 1 12
(a 1 3)(a 1 5)

23. m 91 2 + m 82 7
c + 4
26. c 1
c13
5

a +a15
25. a 1
3
4
28. 2a 31 1 + 2a 62 1

a + 4
24. a 1
3
a15
27. 52 + 4
t

t11

2628. See left.


29. Exercise Jane walks one mile from her house to her grandparents house. Then
she returns home, walking with her grandfather. Her return rate is 70% of her
normal walking rate. Let r represent her normal walking rate.
1
a. Write an expression for the amount of time Jane spends walking.1r 0.7r
17
b. Simplify your expression. 7r
c. Suppose Janes normal walking rate is 3 mi/h. About how much time does
she spend walking? about 0.8 h
Add or subtract. 3040. See margin.

2 4 9x 1 20
5. Add 8 + xx 1
3. x 1 3

2
y 2 1 2y 2 1
2y 2 2 3
- 3y 1 1 31. h 2 1 1 + 2 h
3y 1 1
2t 2 7
2t 2 7
51z
2
2
x
3k
k
33.
34.
+
xy 2z
xy 2z
2m2
2m

Alternative Assessment

c2 - a 2
36. ab
bc
39. 2 x
-

4. Subtract y 1 2 - y 1 2 .

32. r 2 53 - 2k 1 13

30.

4(y 1 1)
y 1 2

x 29

x23
37. 9 + x
12
x
x 2 1 6x 1 9

40.
2
x 1 3

91p
12 - 15
35. ab
bc

91p

t
38. 2t 2
3 - 11
k 2 24
3
+k11

k2 2 3k 2 18
3
x 1 1

k13

k26

5
2x 1 4 . What

41. Error Analysis A student wrote that


+
=
error did
the student make? The student added the terms in the denominators.

Group students in pairs. Have


each student write detailed stepby-step solutions to problems that
his or her partner creates that are
analogous to the examples in the
lesson.

42. Rowing A rowing team practices rowing 2 mi upstream and 2 mi downstream.


GPS The team can row downstream 25% faster than they can row upstream.
a. Let r represent their rate upstream. Write and simplify an expression for the
2
amount of time they spend rowing. 2r 1.25r
; 18
5r
b. Let d represent their rate downstream. Write and simplify an expression for
9
2
the amount of time they spend rowing. d2 0.8d
; 2d
c. Critical Thinking Do the expressions you wrote in parts (a) and (b)
represent the same time? Explain. See margin.
Real-World

Connection

Dragon boat racing has


become popular in North
American cities in recent years.

43. Writing When adding or subtracting rational expressions, will the answer be in
simplest form if you use the LCD? Explain. See margin.
44. Open-Ended Write two rational expressions with different denominators. Find
the LCD and add the two expressions. See margin.
For f(x) 8x, g(x) x1 , and h(x)
Samples

GO

2
1
= 8x
x 1x

nline

C
30.

Challenge

33.
34.
35.

1 2y 1 2
3y 1 1

690

46. f(x) ? g(x) 8

48. f(x) ? h(x) x32x


25

25
49. g(x) 4 h(x) x 4x

Simplify each expression.

23x 2 5
47. g(x) - h(x) x(x
2 5)
50. h(x) 4 f(x) 2x(x12 5)

2x 3 1 6x 2 1 35x 2 50
x(x 1 5)(x 2 1 x 2 10)

51.

2
31. h 12 h 1 1

32.

45. f(x) - g(x) 8x2 2 1

1 3
10
7d 2 2
- 4 - d d
52. 3 7x 2
- 1
d14
d22 d14
x15
d 2 1 2d 2 8
x 1 x 2 2 10x
2
x
2 ?a21-a22? 3
53. 2 x
- x ? 3 x1
54.
4
21a 52a
a25 a12
x14 x23
x 1 x 2 12
5a 2 8

Exercises

2y 2

2t 2 7
r 2 2k 2 6
9 1 p3
23 2 x 2 z
xy 2z
k 1 3km
2m 2
12c 2 15a
abc

= 8x2

2
= 8x x1 1

Homework Help
Visit: PHSchool.com
Web Code: ate-1205

pages 689691

4 , perform the indicated operation.


x25
f(x) + g(x) = 8x + x1
f(x) 4 g(x) = 8x 4 x1
x
1
= 8x
= 8x Q x1 R
1 Qx R 1 x

(a 1 2)(a 2 5)

690

Chapter 12 Rational Expressions and Functions

3 2 a3
36. c abc

37.

10x 1 15
x 1 2

38.

221t 1 33
2t 2 3

39.

6x
(x 2 3)(x 1 3) 2

1
40. kk 2
26
42. c. Yes; they both
represent the
time it takes
to make a
round trip.

43. Answers may


vary. Sample:
Not always;
the numerator
may contain a
factor of
theLCD.

44. Answers may vary.


2

3w
Sample: w2w
1 3, w 2 3;
3w3 1 11w2 2 6w
(w 1 3)(w 2 3)

Test Prep

Test Prep
Standardized
Test Prep
Multiple Choice

Resources

5x
55. Subtract 3x 2x
2 2 from 3x 2 2 . D

B. 3x23x
22

A. -2

C. 3x7x
22

56. What is the least common denominator of


F. x + 1

G. x - 1

x
x2 2 1

H. x 2 - 1

D. 3x3x
22
and 22 ? H
x 2 1

J. A x 2 - 1 B (x - 1)

57. A band director found that he could line up the musicians in the brass section
in rows of 4, 5, or 8. What is the least number of brass players in the band? D
A. 16 players
B. 24 players
C. 32 players
D. 40 players

Short Response

58. The members of a bicycle club rode a 20-mile round-trip route. On the
way back, they had a tail wind and averaged 3 mi/h faster than on the
first 10 miles of the trip. ab. See margin.
a. Use r for the rate. Write an expression for the total ride time. Simplify
the expression.
b. Suppose the bicyclists averaged a rate of 12 mi/h for the first half of
the ride. How long did the round trip take? Show your work.

For additional practice with a


variety of test item formats:
Standardized Test Prep, p. 719
Test-Taking Strategies, p. 714
Test-Taking Strategies with
Transparencies

10
58. [2] a. 10
r r 1 3 total
time;
10(r 1 3) 1 10r

r(r 1 3)
10r 1 30 1 10r

r(r 1 3)
20r 1 30
r(r 1 3)
10(2r 1 3)
r(r 1 3)

Mixed Review
Review
Mixed

GO for
Help

Lesson 12-5

b.
Divide.
59. A 2x 4 +

Lesson 11-3

x2
2 2x 1
3
8x - 4x 2 B 4 4x 2

Lesson 10-3

10(24 1 3)
12(15)

5b2 10b 30 b 60
1 2
60. A 10b + 5b 3 B 4 (b + 2)

10(27)
180

Solve each radical equation. Check your answers. If there is no solution, write
no solution.
61. x = !5x 1 6 6

62. n = !24 2 5n 3

65. 2n 2 = 30 w3.9

270
180
23

The ride took 1 12


hours.

63. !16y = -8
no solution

Solve each equation by nding square roots. Round to the nearest tenth. If the
equation has no solution, write no solution.
64. a 2 - 48 = 0 w6.9

10(2(12) 1 3)
12(12 1 3)

[1] one computational


error OR no work
shown

66. 3p 2 + 60 = 0
no solution

Algebra at Work
Electrician
More than half a million men and women work as electricians. All are highly
skilled technicians licensed by the states in which they work. Electricians use
formulas containing rational expressions. For example, when a circuit connected
in parallel contains two resistors with resistances R1 and R2 ohms, the total
resistance RT (in ohms) of the circuit can be found using the formula R1 = R1 + R1 .
T

PHSchool.com

For: Information about a career as an electrician


Web Code: atb-2031

Lesson 12-5 Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions

691

691