Rational Expressions
125
125
1. Plan
1. 94 + 92 23
1
4. 65 + 92 118
GO for Help
3. 12 + Q2 52 R 2
5 3
1
6. 12
4 3
2. 37  75 2
7
1
5. 14  31 12
2x 2x
x x
7. 4x
8. 7x
9 + 9 3
12  12 2
Factor each quadratic expression.
. . . And Why
10.
+ 3x + 2
(x 2)(x 1)
x2
11.
+ 7y + 12
(y 3)(y 4)
y2
Objectives
1
7  1 1
9. 12y
12y 2y
Examples
12.
 4t + 4
(t 2)2
t2
2
3
11
Part
Adding
Adding and
and Subtracting
Subtracting Rational
Rational Expressions
Expressions With
With Like
Like Denominators
Denominators
5
Adding rational expressions with like denominators is like adding rational
numbers with like denominators. If a, b, and c represent polynomials (with c 0),
b
then ac + bc = a 1
c .
EXAMPLE
Add x 1 3 and x 1 3 .
215
5
2
x13+x13=x13
7
=x1
3
Quick Check
1 Add.
5
3
2
a. x 1
2 + x12 x12
EXAMPLE
Subtract
Math Background
2n
7n
c. n 5n
11+n11 n11
n 1 4
2n 1 1
from 2 3
.
2
2n 1 5n 2 3
2n 1 5n 2 3
3n 1 4 2 (2n 1 1)
3n 1 4
 2 2n 1 1
=
2n 1 5n 2 3
2n 1 5n 2 3
2n2 1 5n 2 3
= 3n 12 4 2 2n 2 1
2n 1 5n 2 3
= 2n13
2n 1 5n 2 3
2
n 1 31
PowerPoint
= (2n 2 1) (n 1 3)
1
= 2n 12 1
Simplify.
Factoring Trinomials
Lesson 125 Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions
Special Needs
Below Level
L1
687
L2
687
2. Teach
Quick Check
Guided Instruction
2 Subtract.
5
4 a. t 2
2
t22
t 21 2
To add or subtract rational expressions with different denominators, you can write
the expressions with the least common denominator (LCD), which is the least
common multiple (LCM) of the denominators.
6
4
2
1 Add x 1
3 and x 1 3. x 1 3
from
4=2?2
4x = 2 ? 2 ? 3 ? x
6=2?2?3
6x2 = 2 ? 2 ? 3 ? x ? x
LCM = 2 ? 2 ? 3 = 12
PowerPoint
Additional Examples
1 x
3
3 Add 4x
+ 81. 6 8x
EXAMPLE
LCM = 2 ? 2 ? 3 ? x ? x = 12x2
2 + 1.
Add 3x
6
3
7
4 Add x 1
4 and x 2 5.
2 and 1.
Step 1 Find the LCD of 3x
6
10x 2 23
(x 1 4)(x 2 5)
3x = 3 ? x
LCD = 2 ? 3 ? x = 6x.
Step 2 Rewrite using the LCD and add.
1?x
2
2?2
1
3x + 6 = 2 ? 3x + 6 ? x
4 + x
= 6x
6x
4
1
x
= 6x
Quick Check
3 Add or subtract.
9 1 14y2
a. 3 4 + 2 2
4
7y
Resources
Daily Notetaking Guide 125
3y
21y
4  49 16 2 49x
b. 25x
100x
100
c. 5 + 15 2 5b 12 5
12b
36b
12b
You can also nd the LCD of rational expressions that have polynomials with two
or more terms in the denominator.
L3
Closure
Ask: How do you add and
subtract rational expressions?
If the expressions have like
denominators, add or subtract
numerators as indicated and
place over the denominator. If
they have unlike denominators,
factor if needed, find the LCD,
rewrite the expressions with the
common denominator, add or
subtract as indicated, and
simplify.
6=2?3
EXAMPLE
5
6
Add c 1
2 and c 2 3 .
nline
688
6c 1 12
2 15
= (c 15c2)(c
2 3) + (c 1 2)(c 2 3)
1 6c 1 12
= 5c(c21152)(c
2 3)
23
= (c 111c
2)(c 2 3)
Advanced Learners
L4
a
Challenge students to simplify 3 1 a
.
21
5a 2 6
2
a22
688
2c 1 5
5m 1 2
2b 2 3
b 1 2
Additional Examples
3x 1 5
3x2 1 2x 2 8
1
4x 1 7
.
3x2 1 2x 2 8 3x 2 4
2c 1 1  3c 2 4
c. 5m
12
5m 1 2
Addingand
andSubtracting
SubtractingRational
RationalExpressions
ExpressionsWith
WithUnlike
UnlikeDenominators
Denominators
1 2 Adding
Part
PowerPoint
2 Subtract
22
b17
b. 7b
3b 1 6  3b 1 6
Quick Check
3. Practice
4 Add.
b. 2mm1 1 + m 32 1
5 + 3
a. t 1
4
t21
3a
c. a 22
1 2 + 2a 2 1
m 2 1 5m 1 3
(2m 1 1)(m 2 1)
8t 1 7
(t 1 4)(t 2 1)
3a 2 1 2a 1 2
(a 1 2)(2a 2 1)
Assignment Guide
5
2 5 00 m
iles
New York
Los Angeles
RealWorld
EXAMPLE
1 A B 112, 3033
Problem Solving
2 A B
Air Travel The ground speed for jet trafc from Los Angeles to New York City can
be about 15% faster than the ground speed from New York City to Los Angeles.
This difference is due to a strong westerly wind at high altitudes. If r is a jets
ground speed from New York City to Los Angeles, write and simplify an
expression for the roundtrip air time. The two cities are about 2500 miles apart.
NYC to LA time: 2500
r
time distance
2500
LA to NYC time: 1.15r
time
rate
distance
rate
1270
1.12r
N 2404
r
Add or subtract.
Example 1
5 + 4 9
1. 2m
2m 2m
3
7
4
2. 6t 2
1 + 6t 2 1 6t 2 1
5 + 9
14
4. c 2
5
c25c25
2
2
2
c 2 28 6c 2 28
5. s 2 1 3 + s 2 2 2 2s2 1 1 6. 2c 5c
1 7 + 2c 1 7 2c 1 7
4s
1 2
4s 1 2
4s 1 2
Example 2
(page 687)
Practice by Example
(page 687)
Error Prevention!
Practice
Practiceand
andProblem
ProblemSolving
Solving
GO for
Help
5558
5966
5 Air Travel The distance between Atlanta, Georgia, and Albuquerque, New Mexico,
is about 1270 miles. The ground speed for jet trafc from Atlanta to Albuquerque
can be about 12% faster than the ground speed from Albuquerque to Atlanta. Use r
for a jets ground speed. Write and simplify an expression for the roundtrip air time.
EXERCISES
23
1  4
7. 2 2
b
22b22b
2y 1 1
y12
10. y 2 1  y 2 1 1
n + 2
n 1 2
3. n 1
3
n13 n13
5t
5
22t
 2 6 21
9. 2t 3t
2 3  2t 2 3 2t 2 3
t2 1 1
t 11 t 11
12
n26
3  b
11. 3n
12. b 2
n14 n14 2
3
b 2 3 1
8.
L3
L4
Enrichment
L2
Reteaching
Example 3
(page 688)
14. b6; 2b
9 18
3 7z
15. 1z; 7z
Practice
Name
Class
Practice 126
L3
Date
Simplify.
Add or subtract.
7 + 2 35 1 6a
17. 3a
15a
5
9 1 2m
3
1
20.
+
3
8m3
12m2 24m
L1
Adapted Practice
2 2x
18. x4  23 12 3x
21. 273  9 2 189 23 9n
7n
n
7n
2
19. 6 8 + 4 6 18 1 20x
15x8
5x
3x
2
22. 9 2 + 9 45 1 36x
20x 2
5
4x
689
1. 3x
2x
4
4
3 1 5
2. x
x
3. 5x
2 2x
3
6
4. x
1x
3
5
5. 3m
1 5m
4
12
3x
6. 4x
7 2 14
6 2 3
7. 7t
7t
8. d
1 4d
3
3
10.
3 1 4
3d
2d2
13. 7a
1a
6
6
7 2 3
9. 2d
2d
11. m 91 1 2 m 62 1
3 2 7
12. x
x
4 2 8
14. k 1
3
k13
15. 3 2 1 7 2
4z
4z
16.
6
1 7
x21
x2 2 1
17.
19.
4 2 1
3a2
2a3
4 1 6
20. a 1
4
a14
4 1 6
21. x 1
3
x22
22.
6 2 8
3t
7t3
4
23. 2x 31 6 1 6x 1
18
5 2 3
24. 8a
8a
25.
5
1 7
r12
r2 2 4
26.
6
1 29
a2 2 2
a 22
27. 5x
2x
4
4
29.
4
1 1
c13
c2 1 4c 1 3
30.
28. 3x 41 6 2 2x 31 4
2x 2 3
x11
x2 2 1
18. 3t
1 3t
8
8
6
2 4
x22
x2 2 3x 1 2
31. Brian rode his bike 2 mi to his friends house. Brians bike had a at tire,
so he had to walk home. His walking rate is 25% of his biking rate.
a. Write an expression for the amounts of time Brian spent walking
and riding his bike.
b. If Brians biking rate is 12 mi/h, how much time did he spend
walking and riding his bike?
32. Trudi and Sean are on a river canoeing. Because of the current of the
river, their downstream rate is 250% of their upstream rate. They canoe
3 mi upstream and then return to their starting point.
a. Write an expression for the amount of time Trudi and Sean spend
canoeing.
b. If their upstream rate is 2 mi/h, how much time do Trudi and Sean
spend canoeing?
Test Prep
Mixed Review
Diversity
1270
r
1329, 3450
5154
2500
An expression for the total time is 2500
r + 1.15r .
Quick Check
C Challenge
c. If their upstream rate is 3 mi/h, how much time do Trudi and Sean
spend canoeing?
689
Example 4
(page 688)
PowerPoint
Lesson Quiz
1.
2.
Example 5
(page 689)
2
5x
1 5x
Add
+ 91. 1845x
6
Add 3x 21 4 + x 1
2.
4(5x 1 7)
(3x 1 4)(x 1 2)
3. Subtract
5
x2 2 4
8
x2 2 4
6y 2 7
c 2 1 7c 1 20
(c 1 5)(c 1 3)
26.
2
27. 4t 2 1 5t 1 5
t (t 1 1)
1 3
28. (2a 118a
1)(2a 2 1)
3
.
x2 2 4
2y 2 11
Add.
17m 2 47
(m 1 2)(m 2 7)
a2 1 12a 1 15
4(a 1 3)
a2 1 9a 1 12
(a 1 3)(a 1 5)
23. m 91 2 + m 82 7
c + 4
26. c 1
c13
5
a +a15
25. a 1
3
4
28. 2a 31 1 + 2a 62 1
a + 4
24. a 1
3
a15
27. 52 + 4
t
t11
2 4 9x 1 20
5. Add 8 + xx 1
3. x 1 3
2
y 2 1 2y 2 1
2y 2 2 3
 3y 1 1 31. h 2 1 1 + 2 h
3y 1 1
2t 2 7
2t 2 7
51z
2
2
x
3k
k
33.
34.
+
xy 2z
xy 2z
2m2
2m
Alternative Assessment
c2  a 2
36. ab
bc
39. 2 x

4. Subtract y 1 2  y 1 2 .
32. r 2 53  2k 1 13
30.
4(y 1 1)
y 1 2
x 29
x23
37. 9 + x
12
x
x 2 1 6x 1 9
40.
2
x 1 3
91p
12  15
35. ab
bc
91p
t
38. 2t 2
3  11
k 2 24
3
+k11
k2 2 3k 2 18
3
x 1 1
k13
k26
5
2x 1 4 . What
Connection
43. Writing When adding or subtracting rational expressions, will the answer be in
simplest form if you use the LCD? Explain. See margin.
44. OpenEnded Write two rational expressions with different denominators. Find
the LCD and add the two expressions. See margin.
For f(x) 8x, g(x) x1 , and h(x)
Samples
GO
2
1
= 8x
x 1x
nline
C
30.
Challenge
33.
34.
35.
1 2y 1 2
3y 1 1
690
25
49. g(x) 4 h(x) x 4x
23x 2 5
47. g(x)  h(x) x(x
2 5)
50. h(x) 4 f(x) 2x(x12 5)
2x 3 1 6x 2 1 35x 2 50
x(x 1 5)(x 2 1 x 2 10)
51.
2
31. h 12 h 1 1
32.
1 3
10
7d 2 2
 4  d d
52. 3 7x 2
 1
d14
d22 d14
x15
d 2 1 2d 2 8
x 1 x 2 2 10x
2
x
2 ?a21a22? 3
53. 2 x
 x ? 3 x1
54.
4
21a 52a
a25 a12
x14 x23
x 1 x 2 12
5a 2 8
Exercises
2y 2
2t 2 7
r 2 2k 2 6
9 1 p3
23 2 x 2 z
xy 2z
k 1 3km
2m 2
12c 2 15a
abc
= 8x2
2
= 8x x1 1
Homework Help
Visit: PHSchool.com
Web Code: ate1205
pages 689691
(a 1 2)(a 2 5)
690
3 2 a3
36. c abc
37.
10x 1 15
x 1 2
38.
221t 1 33
2t 2 3
39.
6x
(x 2 3)(x 1 3) 2
1
40. kk 2
26
42. c. Yes; they both
represent the
time it takes
to make a
round trip.
3w
Sample: w2w
1 3, w 2 3;
3w3 1 11w2 2 6w
(w 1 3)(w 2 3)
Test Prep
Test Prep
Standardized
Test Prep
Multiple Choice
Resources
5x
55. Subtract 3x 2x
2 2 from 3x 2 2 . D
B. 3x23x
22
A. 2
C. 3x7x
22
G. x  1
x
x2 2 1
H. x 2  1
D. 3x3x
22
and 22 ? H
x 2 1
J. A x 2  1 B (x  1)
57. A band director found that he could line up the musicians in the brass section
in rows of 4, 5, or 8. What is the least number of brass players in the band? D
A. 16 players
B. 24 players
C. 32 players
D. 40 players
Short Response
58. The members of a bicycle club rode a 20mile roundtrip route. On the
way back, they had a tail wind and averaged 3 mi/h faster than on the
first 10 miles of the trip. ab. See margin.
a. Use r for the rate. Write an expression for the total ride time. Simplify
the expression.
b. Suppose the bicyclists averaged a rate of 12 mi/h for the first half of
the ride. How long did the round trip take? Show your work.
10
58. [2] a. 10
r r 1 3 total
time;
10(r 1 3) 1 10r
r(r 1 3)
10r 1 30 1 10r
r(r 1 3)
20r 1 30
r(r 1 3)
10(2r 1 3)
r(r 1 3)
Mixed Review
Review
Mixed
GO for
Help
Lesson 125
b.
Divide.
59. A 2x 4 +
Lesson 113
x2
2 2x 1
3
8x  4x 2 B 4 4x 2
Lesson 103
10(24 1 3)
12(15)
5b2 10b 30 b 60
1 2
60. A 10b + 5b 3 B 4 (b + 2)
10(27)
180
Solve each radical equation. Check your answers. If there is no solution, write
no solution.
61. x = !5x 1 6 6
62. n = !24 2 5n 3
65. 2n 2 = 30 w3.9
270
180
23
63. !16y = 8
no solution
Solve each equation by nding square roots. Round to the nearest tenth. If the
equation has no solution, write no solution.
64. a 2  48 = 0 w6.9
10(2(12) 1 3)
12(12 1 3)
66. 3p 2 + 60 = 0
no solution
Algebra at Work
Electrician
More than half a million men and women work as electricians. All are highly
skilled technicians licensed by the states in which they work. Electricians use
formulas containing rational expressions. For example, when a circuit connected
in parallel contains two resistors with resistances R1 and R2 ohms, the total
resistance RT (in ohms) of the circuit can be found using the formula R1 = R1 + R1 .
T
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