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Collections of computer programs are available for calculating multiple and

stepwise multiple linear regression equations for the oplimum prediction of

criterion variables by a set of independent variables. Sources of computer
programs for these purposes include the statistical package for the social
sciences (spss) by nie et al. (1975) and biomedical computer programs
(bmd), edited by dixon (1973). Often a combination of two or more individual
variables yield much more predictive information than any of the individual
variables does separately, and therefore the prediction has a higher probality
of being valid.

Bloking using variables identified from previous research as being highly
correlated with the response variables helps to identify variance that may
not otherwise be distinguishable from error variance. The identification and
separation of variance due to the blocking variable reduces the error
variance of the inferential statistic and may improve the probability of
identifying effects due to the treatment conditions. Blocking should be a
priori and should be incorporated into the sampling procedure. Every effort
should be made to have equal cell sizes, since the analyses are generally not
seriously affected by violating assumtions of normality and equal variance
when cell sizes are equal. Further elaboration of the effects of unequal cells
can be found in glass and stanley (1970, pp 368 376).

Analysis of covariance
Analysis of covariance is another procedure that can be used to increase the
power of statistical test. A variables or variable correlated highly with the
response variables can be used to reduce the variability in teh transformed
response variable. The relationship between a coveriate and a response
variable is used to identify a regression equation. From the regression
equation the variability in the response variable, which can be predicted from
a knowledge of the covariate, can be remofed from the total variability.
Analysis of covariance tends to reduce the unidentified or error variance
resulting in more power for the calculation of the F-ratio test of significance.
It is important that the covariate be identified prior to the study. As is the
case for the usual statistical inference tests, the researcher should recognize

the importance of random assigment to treatments when using analysis of

The following guidelines should be used in the analysis of covariance;
1. The correlation of the covariate and the response variable should be
statistically and educationally significant.
2. The covariate should have a high reliability.
3. The covariate should be a variable that is measured prior to any
portions of the treatments.
4. The conditions of homogeneity of regression should be met. The slopes
of the regression lines describing the linear reliationships of the
criterion variable and the covariate from cell to cell must not be
statistically different.
5. All follow-up procedures for significant interaction or post hoc
comparisons should be made with the adjusted cell or adjusted
marginal means.
The analysis of covariance is a transformation of the raw scores to a new set
of scores adjusted for the effects of the covariate. Conceptually the new set
of adjusted scores becomes the data for an analysis of variance. Therefore
the means for the adjusted scores are the referents for any differences
detected. The analysis of covariance is often used in an attempt to
compensate for not having made a random assigment of subjects to groups.
The analysis of covariance is, at best, inadequate to compensate for the lack
of random assigment but is commonly used this way. At times there may be
no other viable alternative for analysis, but the interpretations can be highly
misleading and generalizations should not be made.

Repeated-measures analyses
Repeated measures and t tests for dependent groups are analysis
procedures that allow for the identification of individual subject differences.
The variability due to individual differences from one testing time to an other
can be identified and separated from the residual variance for computing the
F ratio of analysis of variance. The resulting benefit may be an increase in
the power of the statistical tests. Trend analysis procedures are described by
winer (1971, pp. 296-300) and glass, willson and gottman (1975, pp. 1-19).
When the observations are expected to be correlated over time, as they
would be when the same individuals are repeatedly tested, repeated

measures analysis procedures assist the researcher in capitalizing on this

dependence. When the number of subjects in each cell is small, additional
power can often be obtained by collecting response variable measures over

Multivariate procedures
Multivariate procedures can be used to detect complex influences of
treatments on a set of response variables. In studies where several response
variables have been measured, it may be that no single variable show a
statistically or educationally significant effect but that a consistent trend
involving a number of variables might be significant. Multivariate analysis of
variance procedures spesifically include the correlation of the response.