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Ministry of Earth Sciences

Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology


Centre for Advanced Training in Earth System Sciences and
Climate

SYLLABUS FOR THE FIRST SEMESTER


1.0

INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SYSTEMS AND CLIMATE


(Total 40 lectures)
( Dr.Vinu Valsala, Dr.Raghuram Murtugudde )

1.1. Global change on short and long time-scales: The sun


planetary system the planet earth its uniqueness,
radiation, Global warming and Greenhouse Effects, role of
long-term variability of solar luminosity.
1.2. Global Energy balance: Sensible heat fluxes, latent heat
fluxes, atmospheric constituents influencing the balance,
greenhouse effect: greenhouse gases, clouds, radiation
balance. Earths blanket in pre-CO2 atmosphere.
1.3. Water cycles: Water on earth - ocean structure, physical
and chemical characteristics of sea water, evaporation,
evapotranspiration, precipitation , ice, water balance.
1.4. Oceans and the Atmosphere-I: Wind-belts, ocean
currents, Coriolis effect, Solar forcing.
1.5. Oceans and the Atmosphere-II: Atmospheric and oceanic
circulation, cells, seasons, deserts, bio-physical feedbacks.
1.6. Global Carbon Cycle -I: Recycling elements: Life on Earth,
marine productivity, inorganic carbon, warm/cold waters,
residence/response times, missing sink. Variability of
atmospheric CO2 and implications for future climate.
1.7. Global Carbon Cycle-II: Ecosystems, biological pump,
biomass, biodiversity, stability, and interactions with the
environment, Carbon burial and CO2 variability.

1.8. Pleistocene Glaciations: Milankovitch Cycles, paleo


proxies and geochemical techniques.
1.9. Short-term climate variability: The Holocene, El Nio,
Southern Oscillation and present-day climate variability.
1.10.
Global Warming - Role of humans: Human
geography, urbanization, urban heat islands, desertification.
1.11.
Future worlds: Earth at extremes.
Guest Lectures
Daisy World - Introduction to Systems and feedbacks: Systems, components
Evidences for evolution of life - Fractionation
Methanogenesis and non-oxygenic photosynthesis
Oxygenic photosynthesis and rise of atmospheric oxygen and ozone
Other elemental cycles: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silica
Long-term Climate Regulation: Faint Young Sun Paradox
Bio-geochemical cycles
Books recommended
Charles Cockell (ed), An Introduction to Earth-Life Systems.
L.R.Kump, J.F.Kasting and R.G.Crane, The Earth System.
Jacobson, Charlson, Rodhe and Oriens, Earth System Science.
Herbert Riehl, Introduction to the Atmosphere, 1978.
John G. Lockwood, World Climate Systems, 1985.
Edward Aguado and James E. Burt, Weather and Climate, 2007.
Paul R. Pinet, Invitation to Oceanography, 2006.
Earth System Analysis for Sustainability, MIT, 2004.
Earths Climate- Past, Present and Future, Ruddiman.

2.0 PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF THE ATMOSPHERE


(Total 40 lectures)
( Dr.G.Beig, Dr. G.Panditurai, Dr. A.Hazra )
2.1.

Atmospheric Radiation (10 Lectures)

2.1.1. Role of atmospheric radiation in the climate system: An


introductory survey
2.1.2. Electromagnetic spectrum, Basic radiometric quantities,
Concepts of scattering and absorption
2.1.3. Concepts of extinction and emission, Simple aspects of
radiative transfer, Optical depth, The Beer-Bouguer-Lambert
law, Schwarzschilds radiative transfer equation.
2.1.4. Blackbody radiation laws, Solar spectrum, estimation of solar constant
2.1.5. Basic properties of gases, aerosols that are important for
radiative transfer modeling
2.1.6.Atmospheric aerosols and their direct and indirect radiative effects: Aerosol
radiative properties; Direct and indirect radiative forcing estimation
2.1.7.
Absorption and Emission by Atmospheric Gases: Gaseous
composition of the atmosphere; Basic principles of molecular
emission/absorption; Absorption spectra of main atmospheric gases; Spectral
line shapes: Lorentz, Doppler and Voigt profile
2.1.8.
Radiative heating / cooling rates: Solar heating rates; Total
radiative heating/cooling rates in a cloudy atmosphere; Total radiative
heating/cooling rates in an aerosol-laden atmosphere; Global distribution of
radiative heating/cooling rates
2.1.9.
Terrestrial infrared radiative processes: Fundamentals of the
thermal IR radiative transfer; Line-by-line computations of radiative transfer
in IR.
2.1.10. Radiation and Climate
2.1.11. Fundamentals of the thermal IR radiative transfer.
2.1.12. Line-by-line computations of radiative transfer in IR.
2.1.13. Examples of simple energy balance models

2.2. Thermodynamics of the Atmosphere (10 Lectures)


2.2.1. First law and second law of thermodynamics: Joules law,
Specific heat; Enthalpy, entropy; Clausius-Clapeyron
equation
2.2.2. Water vapour in air: Water vapour and moist air; Phase-Transition
Equilibria for water; Enthalpy, Internal energy and entropy of moist air of a
cloud; Thermodynamic diagrams (LCL, LFC, CCL); Determination of
mixing ratio from relative humidity
2.2.3. Thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere: Saturated
adiabatic and pseudo-adiabatic process; Adiabatic isobaric mixing with and
without condensation; Effect of freezing in a cloud; Equilibrium vapor
pressure over a curved surface; The Kelvin effect.
2.2.4. Atmospheric stability: Concept of an air parcel and
environment; Unsaturated, saturated air; Moist static energy
and convective instability;
2.3.

Cloud physics and Precipitation (10 Lectures)

2.3.1. Clouds an overview: Why clouds are important; Cloud


classification, space-time scale of cloud and precipitration
2.3.2. Formation and growth of cloud droplets & droplet activation:
General idea of cloud and precipitation formation; Nucleation of liquid
water in water vapour; Atmospheric condensation nuclei (CCN, GCCN);
The Kohler equation, Solute effect, curvature effect
2.3.3. Formation and growth of ice crystals and related processes:
Nucleation of the ice phase Homogeneous, Heterogeneous; Atmospheric
ice nuclei (dust, anthropogenic, biological); Cloud particle interaction
(mixed phase) Collision-Coalescence; Bergeron-Findeisen Processes
2.3.4. Rain initiation and precipitation processes:
Physics of natural
precipitation processes; Drop-size distribution; Classification of solid
precipitation

2.4. Atmospheric Chemistry (10 lectures)


2.4.1. Chemistry of the atmosphere : Evolution of earths atmosphere, Nitrogen,
hydrogen halogen, sulfur, carbon-containing compounds in the atmosphere,
ozone and neutral chemistry, chemical and photochemical processes,
Chemical and dynamical life time of atmospheric constituent.
2.4.2. Ozone in the Atmosphere: Evolution of the ozone layer, sources and sinks of
tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone and UVradiations, supersonic transport.
2.4.3. Atmospheric aerosols: Concentration and size, sources, and transformation,
Chemical composition, transport and sinks, residence times of aerosols,
geographical distribution and atmospheric effects.
2.4.4. Air Pollution : Sources of anthropogenic pollution, Atmospheric effectssmog, visibility

3.0 GENERAL CIRCULATION AND CLIMATE


(Total 40 lectures )
( Prof. B.N.Goswami and Dr. S.Chakraborty)
3.1. Definition of general circulation and climate: History of buildup of concept
of general circulation;
Observing techniques and observations of
atmospheric and oceanic parameters, limitations etc.
3.2. Climatological mean structure of the atmosphere: Horizontal and vertical
distribution of time mean winds, temperature, humidity, surface pressure and
rainfall; Latitude-height distribution of the time mean and zonal mean of the
variables.; Statistics of the transients. S.D. of daily fluctuations of winds and

temperature; Meridional transport of heat and momentum by transient eddies


and stationary eddies.
3.3. Maintenance of the general circulation: Basic equations and balance
requirements; Fulfillment of requirement of balance for Water, Angular
Momentum and for Energy.
3.4. Stationary eddies, their structure and possible origin: Nature and origin of
Low frequency transients in extra-tropics; Low frequency transients in the
tropics; MJO. Monsoon Intraseasonal Oscillations.
3.5. Theory of general circulation. Role of the eddies: Maintenance of the mean
meridional circulation; Example of some regional climate such as the Indian
monsoon; What drives and sustains the Indian monsoon.
3.6. Examples of Climate variability: Interannual variability, Monsoon and
ENSO; Also QBO. Dynamics of these variability; Decadal variability.
3.7. Paleoclimate reconstruction and long term climate variability: Climate
change; Climate feedbacks; Milankovitch hypothesis and ice ages.
3.8. Climate models: Energy balance models, radiative-convective equilibrium
models, 2-D models and GCMs; Predictability and prediction of climate.
Books recommended
Physics of Climate , J. P. Peixoto and A H Oort, 1992, AIP Press, Springer, 520pp.
Middle Atmosphere Dynamics, Andrews, Holton and Leovy, 1987, Academic
Press, 489pp.
The Nature and Theory of General Circulation of the Atmosphere, E. N.Lorenz,
WMO-No 218,TP.115. 158pp.
(some more references on different aspects of variability of climate will be
provided later)

4.0 GEOPHYSICAL FLUID DYNAMICS-I


(Total 35 lectures)
( Dr.R.Krishnan and Dr. A.K.Sahai )
4.1. Introduction:
Driving forces of the ocean-atmosphere climate system; Large-scale
phenomena in the tropical atmosphere / ocean system
4.2. Dynamics of a rotating fluid:
Fundamental forces / mass conservation; Equation of atmospheric motion,
Thermodynamic energy equation; Moisture equation, Scale analysis of
atmospheric motions; Different types of flows (Geostrophic flow, Gradient
flow, Thermal winds, Cyclostrophic and Inertial motion)
4.3. Circulation and vorticity:
Concepts of circulation and vorticity, Circulation theorem, Vorticity equation;
Divergence equation, Stream function and velocity potential; Dynamics of
large-scale circulations in the tropics (Hadley cell, Walker cell, Monsoon
circulation)
4.4. Wave motions in the atmosphere and oceans:
Conservation of absolute and potential vorticity; Shallow water dynamics
(Mid-latitude beta plane; Equatorial beta plane); Matsuno theory for quasigeostrophic theory in low-latitudes;
Equatorially-trapped waves, Gravity, Rossby, Kelvin, Mixed Rossby-Gravity
etc; Free and forced solutions (eg., Gills model of dynamical flows to tropical
heat source / sinks)
Books recommended
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics - Joseph Pedlosky.
Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics - Adrian G. Gill.
An Introduction to Dynamical Meteorology James R. Holton.
Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey -Wallace and Hobbs.
Physics of the Climate -Abrahm Oort.

5.0 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC


SCIENCES
(Total 40 lectures)
( R.H. Kripalani )
5.1 Introduction:
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
5.2. Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion (grouped and ungrouped
data)
Mean, Median, Mode, Quartiles, Deciles, and Percentiles; Range, QuartileDeviation, Mean Deviation, Standard Deviation, Coefficient of Variation
5.3. Some Standard Theoretical / Parametric Distributions
Discrete - Binomial, Poisson; Continuous - Normal, Chi-square, Students-t,
Gamma, Fishers F
5.4. Correlation Analysis,
Linear and Non-Linear Correlation, Serial Correlation, Lag Correlation;
Auto-correlation, Partial Correlation, Multiple Correlation; Scatter
Plots,Covariance Method, Rank Method; Correlation Matrices, Correlation
Maps; Coefficient of Determination; Variation Explained; Standard and
Probable Error
5.5. Regression Analysis
Simple and Multiple Regression; Statistical Weather / Climate Forecasting;
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
5.6. Hypothesis Testing
Sampling and Tests of Significance; One-tailed and two-tailed Tests
5.7. Time Series Analysis:
Concepts: Power Spectrum, Harmonic Analysis, Wavelet Analysis, Filters;
Computational Procedure for Spectrum Analysis; Filters: Moving-average,
low-pass, high-pass, band-pass; Recursion technique for Band-Pass Filter;
Trend Analysis

5.8. Probability
Conditional Probability; Markov Chains
5.9. Multivariate Analysis
Introduction to Matrix Algebra: Eigen values / Eigen vectors;
Empirical Orthogonal Functions / Principal Component Analysis; Extended
Empirical Orthogonal Functions;
Maximum Correlation Analysis;
Canonical Correlation Analysis; Singular Value Decomposition; Pattern
Recognition Methods;
Map-to-Map Correlation method, k-means
Clustering Method;
Neural Networks
5.10. Extreme Value Analysis (Introduction)
5.11. Nonparametric Statistics (Introduction)
5.12. Above topics will be illustrated with several numerical examples relevant
to Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences
5.13. Hands-on Training / Regular Assignments
Books Recommended
Applied General Statistics: FE Croxton, DJ Cowden and S Klein (Acc No. 5125).
Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology: John C Davis (Acc No. 3945).
Statistical Methods in Atmospheric Sciences: DS Wilks (Acc No. 7504).
WMO Technical Note No. 79: Climatic Change (Acc No. WMO-479).
Statistical Analysis in Climate Research: H von Storch and FW Zwiers.
Analysis of Climate Variability: H von Storch and A Navarra.

6.0 MATHEMATICS FOR ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCES


(Elective - Total 40 lectures)
( Dr. C.Gnanaseelan and Dr.Subodh Saha )
6.1. Vector Analysis :
Definition and introductions, Scalar and vector products, Triple scalar and
vector product, Gradient, divergence and curl Derivatives, Integral
6.2. Orthogonal Coordinate Systems :
Cartesian coordinate, Spherical polar coordinate, Circular cylindrical
coordinate
6.3. Functions of Complex variable :
Cauchy-Riemann conditions, Cauchy's integral theorem, Cauchy's integral
formula, Conformal mapping, Singularities, Calculus of Residues.
6.4. Matrix Algebra :
Vector space,,Linear operators, basis functions,,Matrices, System of
quations,Homogeneous equations, Eigenvalues and their applications,
Eigenvalue problems, EOF and principle component analysis
6.5. Differential Equations :
Basic concepts, Linear first order differential equation,Linear differential
equation of the second order, General solutions, Complex root of
characteristic equation, Homogeneous linear equation of nth order
6.6. Partial Differential Equation :
Basic concept, Separation of variables, One-dimensional heat flow,
Laplace's equation, Potential, Laplace's equation in spherical coordinate,
Legendre's equation
6.7. Fourier Series :
General properties, Advantage, use of Fourier series, Application of Fourier
series,
Discrete Fourier transform
6.8. Integral Transform :
Fourier transform of derivatives, Transfer functions , Laplace transform,
Inverse Laplace transform

7.0 SYNOPTIC METEOROLOGY


(Elective - Total 30 lectures & 15 hrs of practicals)
( Dr.Somnath Dutta - IMD)
7.1 Synoptic Meteorology (Theory)
7.1.1.

Scales of weather systems (Meso, Synoptic and

Planetary scales): Network of observatories; Surface, upper


air and special observations (satellite, radar, aircraft etc.);
Representation and analysis of fields of meteorological
elements on synoptic charts; Vertical time/cross sections and
their analysis.
7.1.2.
Wind and pressure analysis: Isobars on level surface
and contours on constant pressure surface; Isotherms,
Streamline and Isotachs analysis.
7.1.3.
Favourable synoptic situation for the development of
thunderstorm; Life cycle of a mature thunderstorm and types
of thunderstorm; Climatology of thunderstorm in India.
7.1.4.
Tropical cyclone: Genesis parameters and criteria for
tropical cyclone; Life cycle of a tropical cyclone; Horizontal
and vertical structure of a tropical cyclone; Movement and
Intensification of Cyclones and associated synoptic features;
Interaction between
surge.
7.1.5.
Southwest

two cyclones-Fujiwara effect; Storm

monsoon

in

India:

Synoptic

features

associated with onset and advance of Southwest monsoon;


Quasi permanent features of Southwest monsoon;
and

Break

monsoon

phases

and

associated

Active
synoptic

conditions; Synoptic monsoon disturbances.


7.1.6.
Mid latitude synoptic Meteorology: Air masses and
fronts; Fronts and associated weather; Development theory
for Extra tropical cyclone; Structure and life cycle of an Extra
tropical cyclone; Zonal index, index cycle, Cut off low and
blocking

high;

Western

Disturbance,

its

structure

and

associated weather affecting India.


7.2 Synoptic Meteorology - Analysis of tropical weather systems-surface and
upper air (Practicals)
7.2.1.
7.2.2.

Weather Codes: Plotting of Charts; Chart reading


Surface chart analysis

7.2.3. Streamline and Isotachs / subtropical jet stream analysis


7.2.4. Analysis of constant pressure charts
7.2.5. Vertical time section /cross section analysis
7.2.6. Tropical Cyclone
7.2.7. Monsoon Depression
7.2.8. Active and Break Monsoon
7.2.9. Western Disturbance
7.2.10. North-east Monsoon / Easterly wave

8.0

COMPUTER PROGRAMMIG
(Elective - Total 35 lectures)
( M.K.Tandon)

8.1

Fortran-77 Features (Post Fortran-66) & Related Computer Working:

8.1.1. Concept of an address, address table, binding of a variable to its address,


Collating Sequence ASCII & EBCDIC collating sequences, ordinal value of a
character and its use by the computer. Concept of a Key Word.
8.1.2. Concept of a Data Type, Memory allocation and data type, Conversion rules and
complementary conversion rules used by computer while handing variables of
different types.
8.1.3. Concepts and meanings of terms Token, Syntax and Semantics of a language,
Process of translating source code into machine oriented executable code,
underlying process and their sequences, classification of FORTRAN language as
per (a) translator and (b) low/high level. Concept of Code Optimization and Level
of Optimization, Optimizing and non-optimizing compilers and their objectives.
8.1.4. Concept and objective of memory sharing through COMMON and
EQUIVALENCE, ambiguous use of COMMON-EQUIVALENCE combination,
limitations of COMMON feature. Purpose of the name of a COMMON block, Use
of (a) Tabulation controls - Tn, TLn and TRn, (b) Format terminator, (c) Sign
attributes S, SS, SP and (d) Descriptor Iw.m for INTEGER type in FORMAT
statements. DO Top tested loop in Fortran-77, REAL DO-loop variable.
8.1.5. Functionality underlying a dimensioned variable (a.k.a Array), related
nomenclature, why it is called Dimensioned Variable?, Attributes and
characteristics of a collection represented by an array, Definition of an array,
concepts of positional values and their ranges, indexing of an array collection,
index values, index variable, index data type, dimension of collection. Kinds of
array implementation in computer, implementation of dimensioned variables of
FORTRAN, Assumed Size and Adjustable size of a dimensioned argument of
a Subroutine/Function subprogram.
8.1.6. Objective and use of label of a Fortran statement as the value of an argument of
a Fortran, SUBROUTINE. Use of, *, as the name of an argument of a subroutine
and its purpose, Multiple returns, RETURN n - multiple entry points in the code of
a program after the execution of a subprogram, ENTRY - multiple entry points in
the code of a subroutine during its execution.
8.1.7. Objective and use of SAVE in subroutine and functions through simple codes.
8.1.8. CHARACTER * - a new data type in Fortran, Concept of a string in Fortran, Use
of built-n lexical operators and string related built-in library functions and
operators on sample data, Substrings, FORMAT as the value of a string variable,
Design and use of dynamical formats in simple I/O statements, Internal files in
Fortran-77, Use of memory of a character variable as a file. Use of CHARACTER

* variables as (a) arguments of subroutine and (b) return type and argument of
function subprogram.
Simple file handling in Fortran-77.

8.2

ANSI C Language:

8.2.1.

C Fundamentals: C Character Set, Identifiers and Keywords under ANSI C.


Data Types, Constants: int, float, double, char. Qualifiers: long, short, unsigned
and signed. Escape sequences (like \n,\b etc.). Arithmetic Expressions and
different built-in Operators. Pre-processor directives (like #include, #define),
concept of header files, Symbolic constants, Comments, size of, steps involved
in compilation of C
Program. Concept of typed ef for renaming a built-in data type.

8.2.2.

Built-in operators and functions: Console based I/O and related built-in I/O
functions: printf(), scanf(); getch(), getchar(), putchar(), gets(), puts().

8.2.3.

Decision and Case Control Structure: if statement; if-else construct; use of


logical operators and Compound Relational Tests; Nested if statements; The
else if construct; the relational operators; the conditional expression (ternary)
operator. The Switch Statement with or without break, concept of a case label,
goto statement, concept of a goto label,comparison between goto and case
labels.

8.2.4.

Loop Control Structure : Concept of Loop, loops supported by C, concept of


top tested and bottom tested loops, the for loop statement; Nested for Loop ; for
loop variants; the while loop statement; simple and nested while loop,
Increment/decrement operators; Use of Break and Continue; the do-while loop,
comparison between for, while and do while loops.

8.2.5.

Arrays : Concept of a collection, types of collections supported by C, Array


collection and its features, concept of indexing, index variable, index type,
positional value of a member of array collection, concept of dimension and size
of an array, C syntax for the declaration of array, name of the array and its
type, Referring individual elements, Entering data into an array, reading data
from an array concept of Array initialization and list of initializers, size option,
Bounds checking, the concept of two dimension arrays and related syntax,
similarities between dimension and nesting.

8.2.6.

Character Strings: What are strings, standard library string functions like
strlen(), strcat(), strcpy(), strcmp(), similarity between string and1-D array of
char.

8.2.7.

Functions : Concept of a subprogram, the interface of a subprogram, role of a


interface, Arguments of a subprogram, kinds of subprograms supported by C,
return statement as an interface, local variables; Default Return type and the
type void; Passing values between functions through interfaces; Declaration of
function type; iterative and
recursive subprograms, Recursion; concept of
call by value, call by reference, return and their underlying implementation
should be explained, similarities and differences between Function & Macros,
concept of nested macros and their use, recursion as a special nested call.

8.2.8.

Pointers : Concept of Pointers, Pointer as an address variable, concept of a


pointer data type and its syntax, built-in address operator, Pointers to existing
variables of different data types and their uses, use of indirection operator, the
name of the array as a pointer variable, Pointers and Arrays, Pointers
arithmetic, use of unary operators (++, --), One Dimension Arrays and Pointer,
concept of array of pointers and simple use, command line arguments for the
main, pointer as a return type of a function.

8.2.9.

Structures : Structure as a homogeneous and heterogeneous collection,


possible applications, syntax of declaring structure, Initializing structures,
structure variables, accessing structure elements using member operator,
Arrays of Structures, and array as
member of structure, conceptual
difference between array and structure collection, Functions and Structures,
nested structures, concept of anonymous structures and their use, Concept of
self-referential structure, pointer as member of structure and pointer to structure
use of member selector operator (->), comparison between indirection (*)
operator and member selector operator (->), structure as an argument to
function and return type of a function.

8.2.10. Unions : Concept of Union collection, Syntax of declaration and its use,
comparison of Array, Structure and Union, array of unions and union as a
member of structure, structure as a member of union and array as member of
union, concept of memory saving and union, union as a generic data type,
concept of anonymous union.
8.2.11. Console based I/O : use of console as a file environment, use of keyboard and
VDU as I/O files: Use of stdin, stdout and stderr as built-in file pointers for
console environment, use of printf(), scanf() as fprintf() and fscanf().
8.2.12. File based I/O : Concept of a file, text files in C, concept of a predefined FILE
pointer
and its definition as given in header file stdio.h, meanings of
different members of the structure representing FILE, Disk I/O Functions: High
level file I/O or standard functionsfopen(),
putc(),
getc(),
fclose(),
fgets(),fputs(),feof(), simple file based programs showing the working of
different members of FILE structure.

8.2.13. Dynamic Memory Allocation and Memory functions : Concept of dynamic


environment as run time environment, concept of dynamic memory
management, use of built-in dynamic memory management tools of C viz.
malloc(), free(), simple programs
using malloc() and free()
8.2.14. Bitwise Operator : Concept of modifying the value using bit shifting, built-in bit
shift operators left bit shift operator(<<) and right bit shift operator (>>) their
uses, limitations of bitwise operators, use of bitwise relational operators.
8.2.15. Other features and Miscellaneous functions : Use of atof(), atoi(), atol(),
toupper(), tolower(), isalnum(), isalpha(), isdigit(),exit().
8.2.16. Storage Classes : Automatic, Register, Static (local and global), External.
Scope rules.
Books recommended
Programming in ANSI C by Balgurusamy..
Programming in C by S. G. Kochan.
Born to code in C by Herbert Schildt.
The Art of C by Herbert Schildt.
ANSI C Programming by Kerninghan and Ritchie - 2nd Edition.
Programming in ANSI C by Agarwa.l
ANSI C Programming with Problem Solving by Jacqueline A Jones, Keith Harrow.
The Spirit of C by Mullish Cooper.
C Programming by Schaum Series.
C Tools for Scientists and Engineers by L. Barker.
A Book on C by R. E. Berry and B. A. E. Meekings.
The C Primer by L. Hancock and M. Krieger.
The C Toolbox by W. J. Hunt.
Understanding C by B. H. Hunter.
C Programming Language : An Applied Perspective by L. H. Miller and Q. A. Quilici.
C Programming Guide by J. J. Purdum.
Encyclopaedia C by R. A. Radeliffe.
C Made Easy by Herbert Schildt.
Advanced C by Herbert Schildt.
The C Programming Tutor by L. A. Wortman and T. O. Sidebottom.
Let Us C by Yashwant Kanitkar.