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Regulations regarding

Coal Ash Utilisation in Europe

Hans-Joachim Feuerborn

European
Coal Combustion
Products Association
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

Content

1. Introduction
2. Regulations for use of coal ash in
- cement production
- concrete
- road construction
3. Environmental regulations
4. Concluding remarks

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

Introduction

Production of CCPs in Europe (EU-15) in 2003


Fly Ash
67.8 %

9.3 %
17.2 %
FGD Gypsum
SDA Product, 0.8%

Bottom Ash
Boiler Slag, 3.2 %
FBC Ash 1.7 %

total amount 65 million tonnes


NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

Introduction
Utilisation of CCPs in Europe (EU-15) in 2003
Utilization in construction Industry
and Underground Mining

52.4%

Restoration of Open
Cast Mines, Quarries
and Pits
35.9%

Disposal, 3.7%
Temporary stockpile, 8.0%

total amount 65 million tonnes


NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

Introduction

Demands of the construction market


 availability of huge amounts of material
 constant quality (continuous process)
 sufficient product properties (grain size
distribution, surface,reactivity, ...)
 long term availability
 meeting of technical requirements
 environmental compatibility

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

Introduction
Utilisation of fly ash in the construction industry and in
underground mining in Europe (EU 15) in 2003
Concrete
Addition

Concrete Blocks
27.8%

Blended
Cement

11.3%

5.8%

23.4%

Road
Construction,
Filling
Application

25.9%
Cement
Raw Material

Infill, 3.3%
Others, 2.5%

(total utilisation 21.1 million tonnes)


NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

Introduction
Utilisation of Bottom Ash in the Construction Industry
and Underground Mining in Europe (EU 15) in 2003
Road Construction,
Filling Application
33.1%

4.6%

48.2%

Others

10.4%
Cement
Concrete
Blocks

3.7%
Concrete

(total utilisation 2.7 million tonnes)


NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

Introduction
Utilisation of Fly Ash in the cement and concrete
industry in Europe (EU 15) from 1993 to 2003
clinker raw material

blended cement

concrete

utilization in million tonnes

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

Regulations for use of coal ash for cement


Chemical parameters of fly ashes from coal and lignite
Parameter

Fly ash from Coal

Fly Ash from Lignite

SiO2

36 60

18 80

Al2O3

23 35

1 19

FeO3

3 17

1 22

CaO

0,3 8,5

2 52

CaOfrei

0,1 25

MgO

0,5 5,4

0,5 11

K 2O

0,5 6

0,1 2

Na2O

0,1 3,5

0,01 2

SO3

0,1 2,1

1 15

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

Regulations for use of coal ash for cement


Requirements for Siliceous and Calcareous
Fly Ash by DIN EN 197-1
Parameter

siliceous fly ash


V

calcareous fly ash


W1

W2

5 % by mass

Loss on ignition
Reactive calcium oxide1)

10 % by mass

Free calcium oxide

1 % by mass 2)

10 15 % by
mass

15 % by mass

25 % by mass

Reactive silicon dioxide3)

Compressive strength at 28d4)

10 N/mm

Expansion5)

10 mm

1)

CaOreactiv = total CaO reduced by fraction calculated as CaCO3 and CaSO4


CaOfree-= amount up to 2,5 % by mass accepted when soundness is given (see 5))
3)
SiO2reactiv = fraction of SiO2 which is soluble after treatment with HCl and boiling KOH-solution
4)
mortars with ground fly ash as binder, amount < 40m between 10 and 30 % by mass
5)
mixture of 30 % by mass ground fly ash, 70 % by mass cement
2)

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

10

Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete

Utilisation of fly ash as an addition to concrete has


a long history in several countries.

In 1994, the first European Standard EN 450


"Fly Ash for Concrete" was published.

About 6 million tonnes of fly ash are used


as concrete addition every year in Europe.

In May 2005, the harmonized standard EN 450 part 1


and part 2 was published. This standard has to be
introduced to national law in 2006.

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

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Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete

Chemical Requirements for Fly Ash for Concrete by EN 450


Parameter

Requirements

Test Frequency

Loss On Ignition

max. 5.0 w.-%

SO3

max. 3.0 w.-%

Cl

max. 0.01 w.-%

CaOfree

max. 2.5 w.-%1)

d:
w:
m:

daily
once per week
once per month

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

1)

fly ash with CaOfree higher than 1 w.-% but less


than 2.5 w.-% must comply with the requirements
for soundness

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Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


Physical Requirements for Fly Ash for Concrete by EN 450
Parameter

Requirements

Test Frequency

Soundness 1)

max. 10 mm

Fineness 2)

max. 40 w.-%

Fineness variation

3) 10 w.-%

after 28 days

min 75 %

2m

after 90 days

min 85 %

2m

3) 150 kg/m3

Activity index

Density variation
d : daily
w: once per week
m: once per month
2 m: twice per month
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

1)

required only if CaOfrei > 1,0 w.-%


mass proportion in % of the ash retained when wet sieved
on a 0,045 mm mesh sieve
3)
average value as declared by the producer
2)

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Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete

EN 450-1
Fly ash for concrete - Part 1:
Definition, specifications and conformity criteria

EN 450-2
Fly ash for concrete - Part 2:
Conformity evaluation

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

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Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


EN 450-1: Fly ash for concrete

Definition of fly ash


fine powder of mainly spherical particles, derived from
burning of pulverized coal, with or without co-combustion
materials, which has pozzolanic properties and consists
essentially of SiO2 and Al2O3,...

Reactive SiO2 min 25 % by mass


Reactive CaO max 10 % by mass
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

15

Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


EN 450-1: Fly ash for concrete

New items of EN 450


Introduction of three categories of loss on ignition
Introduction of two categories of fineness
Acceptance of fly ash obtained from co-combustion
Consideration of processing plants as
production plants

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

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Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


EN 450-1: Fly ash for concrete

LOI Categories of EN 450-1

Category

LOI in % by mass
min

max

5.0

2.0

7.0

4.0

9.0

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

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Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


EN 450-1: Fly ash for concrete

Fineness Categories of EN 450-1


Category

Amount retained on a
0.045 mm mesh sieve
in% by mass

Fineness variation from


declared value
in percentage points

40

10

12

no requirement

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

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Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


EN 450-1: Fly ash for concrete

Types of Co-combustion Materials


1

Vegetable material like wood chips, straw, olive


shells and other vegetable fibres

Green wood and cultivated biomass

Animal meal

Municipal sewage sludge

Paper sludge

Petroleum coke

Virtually ash free liquid and gaseous fuels

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

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Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete

Limitation of Co-combustion Materials


Minimum percentage of coal (Kc) shall not be less than 80 %
by mass of the fuel
Maximum proportion of ash from co-combustion
materials (M) shall not be greater than 10 % by mass of the
fly ash

K1 A1 + K 2 A 2 + .... + Kn An
10 %
M = 100
K c A c + (K1 A1 + K 2 A 2 + .... + Kn An )
Ki and Kc are the proportions of co-combustion materials
and coal being fired
Ai and Ac are the ash contents of the co-combustion
materials and the coal
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

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Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


EN 450-1: Fly ash for concrete

The new standard covers also fly ash


produced by:
classification

blending

selection

grinding

sieving

carbon
reduction

drying

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

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Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


Processing Plants in Europe

United Kingdom

classification (BS 3892)


carbon reduction (ST I - process)

STI separation unit


installed at:
- Longannet Power
Station (Scotland)
- Didcot Power
Station (England)

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

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Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


Processing Plants in Europe

The Netherlands

silo, mixing and sieving installation


(SMZ centre, Rotterdam)
SMZ Center in
Maasflakte near
Rotterdam
construction in 1995
capacity
250.000 tpa

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

(source: Vliegasunie)

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Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


Processing Plants in Europe

France

re-drying facilities (Carling, Hornaing)

Carling; capacity 80 tph


NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

Hornaing; capacity 50 tph


(source: Surschiste)

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Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


Processing Plants in Europe

Germany

re-drying facility (Lnen)

capacity
60.000 tpa
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

(source: SEG)

25

Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


Comparison of the chemical requirements of EN 450: 1994 / 2005
EN 450:1994-09

DIN EN 450-1:2005-05

LOI

5.0 % by mass

cat. A:
5.0 % by mass
cat. B: 2.0 and 7.0 % by mass
cat. C: 4.0 and 9.0 % by mass

Cl

0.1 % by mass

0.1 % by mass

SO3

3.0 % by mass

3.0 % by mass

CaOfree

2.5 % by mass1)

2.5 % by mass1)

CaOreactive

10 % by mass

10 % by mass

SiO2reactive

25 % by mass,
based on definition

25 % by mass2)

1)
2)

if CaOfree-amount is > 1.0 % by mass soundness has to be proven


requirement to be fulfilled for fly ash obtained from co-combustion

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

26

Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete

Comparison of the chemical requirements of EN 450: 1994 / 2005


EN 450:1994-09

DIN EN 450-1:2005-05

SiO2,
Al2O3,
Fe2O3,
CaO

amount of SiO2,
Al2O3, Fe2O3,
CaO to be provided
on request

amount of
SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 70 % by
mass1)

Na2Oeq

to be provided on
request

5.0 % by mass (as Na2Oeq)1)

MgO

4.0 % by mass (as Na2Oeq)1)

P2O5soluble

100 mg/kg1)

1)

requirement to be fulfilled for fly ash obtained from co-combustion

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

27

Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete

Comparison of the physical requirements of EN 450: 1994 / 2005


requirement

EN 450:1994-09

fineness
40 % by mass
(residue on
45 m mesh sieve)
fineness variations 10 % by mass
1)
(deviation from
declared value)
density variation
1)

1)

150 kg/m

DIN EN 450-1:2005-05
cat. N: 40 % by mass
cat. S: 12 % by mass,
cat. N: 10 % by mass
cat. S: (note: the 10 % percentage
points are not applicable)
1)

200 kg/m

average value as declared by the producer

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

28

Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


Comparison of the physical requirements of EN 450: 1994 / 2005
requirement

EN 450:1994-09

DIN EN 450-1:2005-05

soundness1)

max. 10 mm (50/50)2) max. 10 mm (30/70)3)

activity index
after 28 days
after 90 days

75 %
85 %

75 %
85 %

initial setting time

120 min more than cement


paste with test cement 4)5)

water demand

category N: not valid


category S: 95 % of that for
test cement alone

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

required only if amount of free calciumoxide is > 1 % by mass


paste made from 50 % by mass of fly ash and 50 % by mass of cement
paste made from 30 % by mass of fly ash and 70 % by mass of cement
paste made from 25 % by mass of fly ash and 75 % by mass of cement
requirement is assumed to be met for fly ash produced by combustion of pure coal

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

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Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


EN 450-2 "Conformity evaluation"

DIN 18990
Fly ash for concrete
Attestation of conformity

EN 450-2
Fly ash for concrete - Part 2:
Conformity evaluation
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

30

Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


EN 450-2 "Conformity evaluation"

Producer
Factory production control

Internal quality control

Autocontrol testing of fly ash samples

Certification body
Initial inspection
Evaluation of results of autocontrol testing
Audit testing of fly ash samples
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

31

Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


EN 450-2 "Conformity evaluation"

Producer
operator of a production plant
or
a person (natural or legal) authorised
by the production plant

The producer is named in the certificate


of conformity !

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

32

Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


EN 450-2 "Conformity evaluation"
... The producers documentation and procedures for the
production control shall be described in a works quality
manual. The manual has to contain:
statement on aims and organisation structure,
responsibilities and powers of responsible staff
production and quality control techniques,
processes and systematic actions that will be used
inspections and tests during and after production,
and test frequency
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

33

Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


production
control

scope of the production control according to EN 450-2


= responsility of the producer / owner of certificate
stack
boilerl

=
internal
quality
control
+

responsibility
power plant operator
FGD
DENOX
KAT

ESP

internal
fly ash
quality control
- fineness
silo 1 EN
- LOI
450

non
EN
450

silo 2
Q II

QI

autocontrol
testing
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

final product
auto-control
testing

fly ash

responsibility producer
34

Regulations for use of coal ash in concrete


01234

EN 450-1
Fly ash for concrete
Part 1: Definitions,
specifications and
conformity criterea

AnyCo Ltd, PO Box 21, B-1050


05
01234-CPD-00234

EN 450-1

Fly ash for concrete

EN 450-2
Fly ash for concrete
Part 2:
Conformity evaluation

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

Fineness Category: N
Declared value of
fineness in case of category N: 25 %
Loss on ignition Category : A
Particle density: 2300 kg/m3
Dangerous Substance: NL, F

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Regulations for use of coal ash


Use of fly ash as aggregate (harmonized)
EN 12620 Aggregates for Concrete
EN 13055 Lightweight Aggregates for Concrete
These standards contain characteristics of
aggregates and conformity criteria. As harmonized
standards categories are defined which allow
restriction based on national experience!
National application documents in Germany!
DIN 20000-104: Aggregates for concrete
DIN 20000-105: Lightweight aggregates for
concrete.
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

36

Regulations for use of coal ash

Use of fly ash in road construction

Soil stabilisation

Landscaping

Dams and embankments

Hydraulically bound bearing layers

Asphalt filler

Additions to concrete

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

37

Regulations for use of coal ash


Principal use of CCPs in road construction

Filler in asphalt / concrete addition


Hydraulic bound layers
Base layer
Soil beneficiation
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

38

Regulations for use of coal ash


Use of fly ash in road construction

prEN 14227 Hydraulically Bound Mixtures


part 3:

Fly ash bound mixtures


definitions of mixtures for roads,
airfields and other trafficked areas

part 4:

Fly ash for hydraulically


bound mixtures
definitions of specification on physical
and chemical properties of fly ash

part 13: Soil beneficiation with fly ash


NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

39

Regulations for use of coal ash


EN 14227- 4

Hydraulically bound mixtures- Specifications Part 4: Fly ash for hydraulically mixtures

Siliceous Fly Ash

Calcereous Fly Ash

Particle size

Particle size

Loss on Ignition

Soundness

Free calcium oxide/soundness

reactive calcium oxide

water content

water content

pozzolanic activity

hydraulic activity

DIN V ENV 13282

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

Hydraulic Road Binders - Composition,


specifications and conformity criteria
40

Environmental Regulations

European Construction Products Directive (1988)


requires activities of the authorities regarding emissions
of dangerous substances from construction products
Emissions to air, surface water and ground water

CEN is mandated to develop harmonised assessment


methods and harmonized approaches regarding
dangerous substances

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

41

Environmental Regulations

Limiting values on leaching of heavy metals and


organics are set nationally in several EU member states

Leaching limit values restrict the utilisation of CCPs


in certain applications like unbound use in road
construction (e.g. embankments, grouting, filling)
Tightening up of limiting values by some EU member
states is threatening further applications of CCPs

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

42

Environmental Regulations
Requirements for bound and unbound use of CCPs by Dutch BMD
The Building Materials Decree of the Netherlands (BoustoffBesluiten) contains rules relating to the use of building
materials and earth in construction and other works. The aim
of the Decree is to establish a general level of protection for
soil and surface waters.
The Decree accords the reuse of materials such as construction
and demolition waste and residues recovered from industrial
processes a full place in the building industry by setting clear
conditions on which their use is permitted.
The immission of anorganic leachable constituents to soil and
water is calculated by the emission of the constituent. The
calculation includes leaching behaviour of the building material,
also factors as temperatur, thickness of the building material,
degree of contact to ground water, isolation measures, a.o..
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

43

Environmental Regulations
Requirements for bound and unbound use of CCPs by Dutch BMD
Unbounded
utilisation
Percolation (column) test
according NEN7343

Bounded utilisation

percolation at L/S=10 in mg/kg

Immission in mg/m2

Element
Antimoon
Arseen
Barium
Cadmium
Chroom
Cobalt
Koper
Kwik
Lood
Molybdeen
Nikkel
Seleen
Tin
Vanadium
Zink

Sb
As
Ba
Cd
Cr
Co
Cu
Hg
Pb
Mo
Ni
Se
Sn
V
Zn

Fluoride
Chloride
Sulfaat
Bromide

F
Cl
SO4
Br

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

> 10 m
0,03
0,83
2,20
0,02
0,36
0,23
0,33
0,02
0,99
0,17
0,70
0,03
0,08
1,10
2,30
3,80
560
1090
3,40

Diffusion test (standtest)


according NEN 7345

Element
Antimoon
Arseen
Barium
Cadmium
Chroom
Cobalt
Koper
Kwik
Lood
Molybdeen
Nikkel
Seleen
Tin
Vanadium
Zink

Sb
As
Ba
Cd
Cr
Co
Cu
Hg
Pb
Mo
Ni
Se
Sn
V
Zn

Fluoride
Chloride
Sulfaat
Bromide

F
Cl
SO4
Br

max
39
435
6300
12
1500
300
540
4,5
1275
150
525
15
300
2400
2100
14000
30000
45000
90

44

Environmental Regulations
Requirements for selected CCPs for use in earthworks and road
construction by German LAGA (leaching criteria)
(German federal states working group of waste)
In the requirements of LAGA different classes for
utilisation of industrial residuess in earthworks and road
construction (Z 0 to Z 2), and for disposal areas (Z 3 to Z 5)
are defined.
Class Z0: unrestricted use
Class Z1.1: restricted open use and
Class Z1.2: restricted open use with defined technical
safety measurements
Class Z2: restricted use with defined technical safety
measurements
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

45

Environmental Regulations
Requirements for selected CCPs for use in earthworks and road construction by
German LAGA (leaching criteria)
Fly Ash
wet bottom
boiler

class

fluid.bed
combustion

source/process

Bottom Ash

dry bottom
boiler

CCP

Z2

Z2

Z2

ZO

Z 1.1 Z 1.2

Grate Ash

Z2

ZO

Boiler
Slag

Z 1.1 Z 1.2/
Z2

ZO

parameter
1)

1)

x
1)
x

colour

clouding
smell

x
1)
x

1)

1)

1)

x
1)
x

1)

1)

x
1)
x

1)

1)

x
1)
x

1)

1)

x
1)
x

1)

1)

x
1)
x

1)

1)

x
1)
x

1)

pH-value
8-13 10-13 8-13 10-12 10-12 10-12 10-12 7-12
conductivity S/cm 5000 10000 5000 500 1000 1000 1000 500
As
100
40
100
10
10
40
100
10
Pb
20
40
20
Cd
10
10
10
2
2
2
Crtot
350
300
350
15
30
15
Cu
g/l
50
50
50
Ni
40
50
40
Hg
0.2
0.2
1
2
0.2
Zn
100
100
100
Cl
mg/l
50
100
50
10
20
50
50
10
SO3
mg/l 1000 2000 1000
50
75
200
200
50

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

1)

1)

x
1)
x

1)

7-12
1000
10
40
2
30
50
50
0.2
100
20
75

1)

x
1)
x

1)

x
1)
x

7-12
1000
40

6-9
200

1)

1
20
200

46

Environmental Regulations
Requirements for selected CCPs for use in earthworks and road construction by
German LAGA (content of trace element)
Bottom Ash /Grate Ash
CCP
source/process
class

ZO

parameter
colour
clouding
smell
As
Pb
Cd
Crtot
Cu
Ni
Hg
Zn
1)

1)

1)

mg/kg

x
1)
x
20
100
0.6
50
40
40
0.3
120

Z 1.1
1)

1)

x
1)
x
30
200
1
100
100
100
1
300

= to be declared

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

47

Environmental Regulations
DIBt-insignificance threshhold values for evaluation of building products
unit

insignificance
threshold values

Antimon

Sb

10

Arsen

As

10

Blei

Pb

25

Cadmium

Cd

Chrom gesamt

Cr

50

CrVI

Kobalt

Co

50

Kupfer

Cu

50

Molybdn

Mo

Nickel

Ni

50

Quecksilber

Hg

Selen

Se

10

Zink

Zn

500

Zinn

Sn

40

Cyanid gesamt

CN-

50

Cyanid leicht freisetzbar

CN-

10

F-

750

Chromat

Fluorid

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

g/l

50

48

Environmental Regulations
DIBt-insignificance threshhold values for evaluation of building products
unit

insignificance
threshold values

PAK, gesamt
Naphthalin

0,2
2

LHKW, gesamt

10

Aldrin

0,1
g/l

DDT

0,1

PCB, gesamt

0,05

Minerallkohlenwasserstoffe

200

BTX
- Benzol als Einzelstoff

20
1

Phenole

20

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

49

Environmental Regulations
DIBt-evaluation procedure for building products
(for technical approval with use of industrial by-products in concrete, only!
Building Material

step 1

Determination of trace element content

yes
requirement
not met

Criteria met?
no
information on
environmental compatibility
comparison with
similar products

Restriction
Toxic substances (R-crierias)
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

yes
requirement
met

Dangerous substances
LAGA criterias Z2
50

Environmental Regulations
step 2

production of leachate/
realistic situation!

2.1

determination of general parameters


no

requirement
not met

yes

harmful changes by
general characteristics

2.2
determination of trace element content

no
requirement
not met
param. ecotox.
concerned

2.3

threshhold insignificance
values, TOC met

yes

requirement
met

ecotox.harmlessness not proven


determination of biological parameters

requirement
not met

NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

yes

ecotoxicological

no

requirement
met

51

Environmental Regulations
Areas of application and tests required for cement bound products in drinking water areas
German Technical and Scientific Association of Gas and Water (DVGW)
tests to be performed

drinking water
supply

raw-water supply
and products in
drinkingwater-area
I

products in
drinkingwater-area
II+III

migration test

Appearance

TOC-loss

Arsen-loss1)

Lead-loss

Chrom-loss

mikrobiological test

DVGW-working paper
W2702)

-3)

test: +, no test: 1)test to be performed only when fly ash is used


2)test to be performed only when organic additives are used
3)test only for mortar
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52

Environmental Regulations
UK: Water supply regulations:
This regulation has requirements for materials, such as cementitious materials, for
use in contact with public drinking water supply. Specifications of testing is covered
by BS 6920, which gives limiting values for certain metals leachates from such material.
BS 6920

Aluminium
Antimony
Arsenic
Barium
Cadmium
Chromium
Iron
Lead
Manganese
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Silver
NCAB_workshop_Nov. 23/24, 2005

Al
Sb
As
Ba
Ca
Cr
Fe
Pb
Mn
Hg
Ni
Se
Ag

max. allowable
concentration
[g/l]
200
10
50
1000
5
50
200
50
50
1
50
10
10
53

Environmental Regulations
parameter

Provisional limit

Limit values
regardin
g table
1
[mg/kg]

Limit values
regarding
table 2
[mg/kg]

Limit values
for fly
ash
[mg/kg]

values for table 1

antimony

Sb

20

40

and table 2 of the

arsen

As

30

80

10

lead

Pb

100

500

300

cadmium

Cd

chrome total

Cr

200

500

300

copper

Cu

200

500

200

nickel

Ni

200

500

200

mercury

Hg

0.5

thallium

Th

0.5

Zinc

Zn

400

1000

1000

tin

Sn

30

80

30

barium

Ba

1500

beryllium

Be

10

cobalt

Co

100

selen

Se

vanadium

300

BUWAL
recommendation

(BUWAL =
Ministry for
Environment,
Forestry and
Agriculture)

Cr VI

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54

Concluding Remarks

52.4 % of the total CCPs produced in Europe is produced


to meet technical requirements to replace natural materials
in construction.
CCPs are accepted as raw materials due to their chemical,
mineralogical and physical properties. The acceptance is
based on more than thirty years of experience.

For nearly every field of application technical regulations or


requirements have to considered.

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Concluding Remarks
The new standard for fly ash for concrete introduces a
quality control system including

internal quality control by the producer

audit testing by a certification body notified by the


building authorities.
In order to avoid any negative impact on the environment
and on human health environmental regulations have been
developed in some European countries for

raw materials (trace elements, leaching behaviour)

products (prediction models for bound applications).


As a result of the environmental regulations no negative
impact on the environment or on human health by the
utilisation of CCPs has been reported so far.
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56

Thank you for your attention!


Hans-Joachim Feuerborn

European Coal Combustion Products Association


www.ecoba.org
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