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STEERING CONTROLLED ADAPTIVE HEADLIGHTS WITH SENSOR

INTRODUCTION
Now a days, in hilly areas, due to improper facility in the roads, no of
accidents takes place.Most of accidents takes place in the night time. The reason in
this type of accident is that the driver is not able to see the road path during the
turning condition where the street facility is not available.
So the present invention relates to headlights of an automobile, more
particularly to a direction turning device for headlights of an automobile which
enables to turn direction synchronously with the rotation of the steering and hence
increasing the safety for driving at night or in the darkness.
In this project we have implemented the same needs such i.e the rotation of the
head lights with respective to the rotation of steering using rack and pinion
mechanism.
Even headlights can also be moved in up and down direction with the
effective use of sensor called accelerometer which is controlled by a microcontroller.
In other word up and down movement takes place depending upon the orientation of
vehicle which helps the driver to drive in slope areas.
This type of technology can be implemented in normal vehicles as a very
simple mechanism is used i.e rack and pinion. It will be very cost effective because of
its simpler design and very simple principle.

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STEERING CONTROLLED ADAPTIVE HEADLIGHTS WITH SENSOR

The above figure show a four wheeler usually find difficulty to drive
especially at sharp turn. It proves that the problem starts from the headlights which do
not turn with respective to the turning movement of wheel connected to the steering.
This problem can be solved by creating environment where the headlights will
be adaptive and reacts to the steering system of the car and automatically adjust to
illuminate the road wheel. In other words, when the car turns right, the headlights
angles to the right and when the car turns to left, the headlights angles to left. In this
the reflector are fitted on either side of headlamp casing so there will be better beam
reflection.

So in this project a very simple mechanism is involved to make the headlights


adaptive i.e. (Rack and pinion mechanism). So the power to move the headlights is
obtained using mechanical linkages.

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STEERING CONTROLLED ADAPTIVE HEADLIGHTS WITH SENSOR

LITERATURE SURVEY
DEFINATION OF ADAPTIVE HEADLIGHTS:In this project , since the headlights are controlled by the
steering movement and moves up and down depending upon the
orientation so it is defined as adaptive headlights or Steering
controlled headlights.
HISTORY:We performed a survey on this project with the lorry
drivers, who travel to hill stations often. Based on their queries, we
had indulged in this project.
The present invention relates to a vehicle front lamp
light distribution control system and more particularly to a vehicle
front lamp light distribution control system capable of raising
visibility at the time of cornering by controlling light distribution
means of the front lamp.
According to Japanese Patent Publication No. H523216, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. H8-183385,
Japanese

Patent

Application

Laid-Open

No.

H11-78675

and

Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. H8-192674 a vehicle


head lamp including a fog lamp is provided with a movable
reflector and by turning the movable reflector in the steering
direction by an amount corresponding to a steering angle of the
steering wheel, the light distribution pattern of the front lamp is
changed in the direction of vehicle's turn so as to raise visibility at
the time of cornering.
However, according to the aforementioned earlier art,
the light distribution pattern of the front lamp is changed in the
steering

direction

of

the

steering

wheel

by

an

amount

corresponding to the steering angle when the vehicle turns on an


intersection or the like, cornering destination cannot be beamed
brightly enough before operating the steering wheel. Therefore, an

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art capable of beaming the cornering destination prior to operation
of the steering wheel has been demanded.
Czech

Tatra

and

1920s

Cadillacs

were

early

implementer of such a technique, producing in the 1930s a vehicle


with a central directional headlamp. The American 1948 Tucker
Sedan was likewise equipped with a third central headlamp
connected mechanically to the steering system. The 1967 French
Citron DS and 1970 Citron SM were equipped with an elaborate
dynamic

headlamp

positioning

system

that

adjusted

the

headlamps' horizontal and vertical positioning in response to


inputs from the vehicle's steering and suspension systems, though
US regulations required this system to be deleted from those
models when sold in the USA.
Ken chi Nishimura [3], suggested that the apparatus for automatically adjusting a
direction of a light axis of a vehicle headlight includes a steering angle sensor
detecting a steering angle of a steering wheel of a vehicle and a swivel control unit
performing swivel control by which the direction of the light axis of the vehicle
headlight is adjusted to the target direction in accordance with the steering angle
detected by the steering angle sensor. The swivel control unit varies sensitivity or
responsiveness of the swivel control depending on a value of the steering angle
detected by the steering angle sensor.
The direction of the optical axis of each swivel light is adjusted based on a
swivel control angle obtained upon application of the filter. A filter is changed to
change a response in swivel adjustment of a direction of an optical axis of each swivel
light based on a steering angle variation of a steering angle of a steering wheel
measured with a steering angle sensor. A weaker filter is selected if the steering wheel
is quickly steered and a stronger filter is selected if the steering wheel is slowly
steered. By this filtering operation the direction of the optical axis of each swivel light
is adjusted in response to the steering operation of the steering wheel without causing
an uncomfortable feeling to a driver.
Hiroaki okuchi [4], proposed

automatic optical-axis adjusting device for

automatically adjusting direction of optical axes of front lights with respect to steering
angle of steering wheel An electronic control for automobile headlight utilizing a

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spherical sensor comprised of a metal ball surrounding by a fluid encapsulated in a
spherical sensor which is connected to the spherical sensor system. Computer
controlled unit is positioned on and close behind the headlight so that the metal ball
cooperate with sensor within the spherical sensor system to make the headlight go so
as to follow the car during turns .
Heather Steiner brown [5], electric control for automobile head lights Output of
each sensor arrangement is supplied to an ECU through a communication bus line. A
value of a turning radius of a vehicle which is used for adjusting direction of optical
axes of swivel lights is computed based on the output of each sensor arrangement is
obtained. An optical axis control angle is computed based on the normal computed
values and is used to drive actuators to adjust direction of the optical axes of the
swivel lights.
Masanori kondo [6], suggested the automatic optical axis adjusting device for
automatically adjusting direction of optical axis of from lights headlight control
apparatus and method controls an irradiation direction of a headlight. This apparatus
uses a navigation based swivel angle calculated based upon the shape of a road in a
navigation based control period and a steering based swivel angle calculated based
upon a steering angle in a steering based control period. When the control period to
the steering based control period this apparatus uses a value between the navigation
based swivel angle and the steering based swivel angle as a present control swivel
angle for controlling the irradiation direction of the headlight.
PROBLEM:In a normal vehicle, a driver in dark night actually faces the problem
of the clear path in turning at either left or right, mainly at hilly
areas which may cause a severe accident to driver and even a great
damage to vehicle.

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The two figure shows that if we implement the technology used in the project, there
will be much better visibility than before method.

METHEDOLOGY
For finding solution we have to study about steering System
Primary function of the steering system is to achieve angular
motion of the front wheels to negotiate a turn. This is done through linkage and
steering gear which convert the rotary motion of the steering wheel into angular
motion of the front road wheels. Secondary function of steering system is:1. To provide directional stability of the vehicle when going straight ahead.
2. To provide perfect steering condition, i.e., perfect rolling motion of the road wheels
at all time.
3. To facilitate straight ahead recovery after completing a turn.
4. To minimize tyre wear.

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The parts of steering system are:

Steering coulumn
Tie rod joints
Rack and pinion

Steering column:The automotive steering column is a device intended primarily for connecting
the steering wheel to the steering mechanism or transferring the driver's input torque
from the steering wheel.

A steering column may also perform the


following secondary functions:
Provide mounting for: the multi-function
switch, column lock, column wiring,
column shroud(s), transmission gear
selector, gauges or other instruments as
well as the electro motor and gear units
found in EPAS systems.
Offer (height and/or length) adjustment
to suit driver preference.
Tie rod joints:
-

Tie rods are an integral


part of your vehicles
steering. Just as its name

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suggests, a tie rod ties
your vehicles steering
rack to the steering arm.
The steering arm is
attached to the wheel
Whenever you turns your steering to right, the tie rods pull the left wheel and pushes
the right wheel towards right.And whenever you turns your steering to left, the tie
rods pull the right wheel and pushes the left wheel towards left.

A rack and pinion is a type of liner actuator that comprises a pair


of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion. A circular gear called
"the pinion" engages teeth on a linear "gear" bar called "the rack"; rotational motion
applied to the pinion causes the rack to move, thereby translating the rotational
motion of the pinion into the linear motion of the rack.
Pinion is a common spur gear and Rack is a portion of spur
gear with an infinite radius.
Spur gear:-

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Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear. They consist of a
cylinder or disk with the teeth projecting radially, and although they are not straightsided in form, the edge of each tooth is straight and aligned parallel to the axis of
rotation. These gears can be meshed together correctly only if they are fitted to
parallel shafts.

Power Rack-and-pinion
When the rack-and-pinion is in a power-steering system, the rack has a slightly
different design.
Part of the rack contains a cylinder with a piston in the middle. The piston is
connected to the rack. There are two fluid ports, one on either side of the piston.
Supplying higher-pressure fluid to one side of the piston forces the piston to move,
which in turn moves the rack, providing the power assist.
We'll check out the components that provide the high-pressure fluid, as well as decide
which side of the rack to supply it to, later in the article. First, let's take a look at
another type of steering.

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FOLLOWING PARTS INVOLVED IN THIS PROJECT:Four plastic wheels


Headlights
Stepper motor
Rack
Pinion
Mild steel materials(for linkages)
Microcontroller AT89C51
Printed circuit board(PCB)
Accelerometer
Battery(Power supplies)/Adapter
ADC(Anologue to digital converter)
L298 stepper motor controller

FOUR PLASTIC WHEELS:-

The above shown four plastic wheels are fixed at the four ends. The front two wheels
moves with respective to the steering movement at either left or right. And the rear
wheels fixed and have only one degree of freedom.

Stepper motor

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Electric motors are broadly classified into two different categories: DC (Direct
Current) and AC (Alternating Current). Within these categories are numerous types,
each offering unique abilities that suit them well for specific applications. In most
cases, regardless of type, electric motors consist of a stator (stationary field) and a
rotor (the rotating field or armature) and operate through the interaction of magnetic
flux and electric current to produce rotational speed and torque. DC motors are
distinguished by their ability to operate from direct current.
There are different kinds of D.C. motors, but they all work on the same
principles. In this chapter, we will study their basic principle of operation and their
characteristics. Its important to understand motor characteristics so we can choose
the right one for our application requirement.
Electromechanical Energy Conversion
An electromechanical energy conversion device is essentially a medium of transfer
between an input side and an output side. Three electrical machines (DC, induction
and synchronous) are used extensively for electromechanical energy conversion.
Electromechanical energy conversion occurs when there is a change in magnetic
flux linking a coil, associated with mechanical motion.
Electric Motor
The input is electrical energy (from the supply source), and the output is mechanical
energy (to the load).
Electric Generator
The Input is mechanical energy (from the prime mover), and the output is electrical
energy.
Stator
The stator is the stationary outside part of a motor.
The stator of a permanent magnet dc motor is composed of two or more permanent
magnet pole pieces.
The magnetic field can alternatively be created by an electromagnet. In this
case, a DC coil (field winding) is wound around a magnetic material that forms
part of the stator.
Rotor

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The rotor is the inner part which rotates.
The rotor is composed of windings (called armature windings) which are
connected to the external circuit through a mechanical commutator.
Both stator and rotor are made of ferromagnetic materials. The two are separated by
air-gap.
Winding
A winding is made up of series or parallel connection of coils.
Armature winding - The winding through which the voltage is applied or induced.
Field winding - The winding through which a current is passed to produce flux (for
the electromagnet)
Windings are usually made of copper.
Principle of operation
Consider a coil in a magnetic field of flux density .When the two ends of the coil are
connected across a DC voltage source, current I flows through it. A force is exerted
on the coil as a result of the interaction of magnetic field and electric current. The
force on the two sides of the coil is such that the coil starts to move in the direction
of force.

In an actual DC motor, several such coils are wound on the rotor, all
of which experience force, resulting in rotation. The greater the current in
the wire, or the greater the magnetic field, the faster the wire moves because
of the greater force created.

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STEPPER MOTOR
A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless DC electric motor that divides a full
rotation into a number of equal steps. The motors position can then be commanded
to move and hold at one of these steps without any feedback sensor (an open-loop
controller), as long as the motor is carefully sized to the application.
WORKING
DC brushed motors rotate continuously when DC voltage is applied to their terminals.
The stepper motor is known by its important property to convert a train of input
pulses (typically square wave pulses) into a precisely defined increment in the shaft
position. Each pulse moves the shaft through a fixed angle. Stepper motors effectively
have multiple "toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece
of iron. The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit, such as
a microcontroller. To make the motor shaft turn, first, one electromagnet is given
power, which magnetically attracts the gear's teeth. When the gear's teeth are aligned
to the first electromagnet, they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet. This
means that when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the
gear rotates slightly to align with the next one. From there the process is repeated.
Each of those rotations is called a "step", with an integer number of steps making a
full rotation. In that way, the motor can be turned by a precise angle.

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GENERATION OF ROTARY MOTION

ELECTRIC POWER

MECHANICAL OUTPUT

GENERATION OF POWER

Mechanical input

Electric output

RACK:-

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It is a part which is used to covert the rotary motion of steering wheel into
reciprocating motion in order to turn the headlights and the wheel into left and right
direction. In this project the type of material used is plastic as a rack.
PINION:It is a part which is fixed above the rack to receive the rotary motion of the steering
and to transmit to wheels through the rack. In this also type of material used is
plastic .

MILD STEEL:In this project, the material used for connecting parts is mild steel such as for linkages
and to connect the steering to rack and to make housing,etc

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What is mild steel?


Mild steel is a carbon steel typically with a maximum of 0.25% Carbon and 0.4%0.7% manganese, 0.1%-0.5% Silicon and some + traces of other elements such as
phosphorous, it may also contain lead (free cutting mild steel) or sulphur (again free
cutting steel called re-sulphurised mild steel)
Many everyday objects are made of mild steel, even some of your pots and pans are
also made.
Mild steel (a so-called carbon steel) is a general term for a range of low carbon (a
maximum of about 0.3%) steels that have good strength and can be bent, worked or
can be welded into an endless variety of shapes for uses from vehicles (like cars and
ships) to building materials
Properties of mild steel:

Abrasive wear
Toughness
Tensile strength
Hardness

MICROCONTROLLER AT89C51:A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated C, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a


single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable
input/output peripherals.
A microcontroller can be considered a self-contained system with a processor,
memory and peripherals and can be used as an embedded system. The majority of
microcontrollers in use today are embedded in other machinery, such as automobiles,
telephones, appliances, and peripherals for computer systems.

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.

Features
Compatible with MCS-51 Products
4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz
Three-level Program Memory Lock
128 x 8-bit Internal RAM
32 Programmable I/O Lines
Two 16-bit Timer/Counters
Six Interrupt Sources
Programmable Serial Channel
Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
Description

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The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with
4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The
device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology
and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pinout. The
on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a
conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU
with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer
which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded
control applications.
The AT89C51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of Flash, 128 bytes
of RAM, 32 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five vector two-level interrupt
architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. In
addition, the AT89C51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero
frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode
stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt
system to continue functioning. The Power-down Mode saves the RAM contents but
freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.

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Pin Description
VCC
Supply voltage.
GND
Ground.
Port 0
Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port. When 1s are written to port 0
pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0 may also be configured to
be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external program
and data memory. In this mode P0 has internal pull-ups.
Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming, and outputs the code
bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program
verification.
Port 1
Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 1 output
buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are
pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins
that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal

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pull-ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming
and verification.
Port 2
Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 2 output
buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are
pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins
that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal
pull-ups.
PORT 3
Port 3 is an 8 bit quasi bi-directional i/o port with internal pull ups. It also
serves the function of various special features of the MCS-51th. Family as listed
below:
Port pin Alternate function
P3.0 RXD (serial input port)
P3.1 TXD (serial input port)
P3.2 INTO (external interrupt)
P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt)
P3.4 TO (timer /counter 1 external input)
P3.5 T1 (timer/ counter 1 external input)
P3.6 WR (external data memory write strobe)
P3.7 RD (external data memory read strobe)
The output latch corresponding to a secondary function must be programmed
to a one (1) for that function to operate. Port 3 can sink /source 4 LSTTL loads.
RST
A high on this pin for two-machine cycle while the oscillator is running rests
the devices. A small external pull down resistor (=8.2 kilo ohms) from RST to VSS
permits power on reset when a capacitor (=10 microfarad) is also connected from this
pin to VCC.

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ALE
Address latch enable output for latching the low byte of the during access to
external memory. ALE is activated at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency
except during an external data memory access at which time one ALE pulse is
skipped. ALE can sink / source 8 LSTTL inputs.
PSEN
The program store enable output for latching the low byte of the during access
to external memory six oscillator periods except during external data memory access
PSEN remains high during internal program memory. Do not float EA during normal
operation.
XTAL 1
Input to the inverting amplifier that forms the part of the oscillator and input to
the internal clock generator. XTAL2 receives the oscillator signal when an external
oscillator used.
XTAL 2
Output of the inverting amplifier that forms the part of the oscillator and input
to the interval clock generator. XTAL2 receives the oscillator signal when an external
oscillator

L298 stepper motor driver

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This controller is used to control the stepper motor with the help of microcontroller to
give the angular movements to the headlights i.e up and down
This board allows you to control one stepper motor, as well as receive input from two
limit switches. It is based around the L297/L298 stepper driver combo. The L298
takes the signals from your microprocessor and translates them into stepping signals
to send to the L298 which actually drives your stepper motor. The L298 is capable of
driving up to 2A per coil. One interesting feature of the L297 is its current sensing and
'chopping' abilities. The L297 will sense the amount of current flowing through the
coils, and will 'chop' the signal to the L298 so that the average current flowing is the
desired amount. You can configure this current by setting the trimpot on the board and
measuring the voltage on the test point.

Accelerometer
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It is a device used to measure the orientation of the vehicle as vehicle move upwards
or downwards. Depending upon the orientation it gives a anologue value to the
microcontroller using ADC(anologue to digital converter) and then microcontroller
decides the movement of headlight as per the program.
For example:If a vehicle moves towards up, then the anologue value in the accelerometer varies
and the value goes down. As it moves down ,it gives a signal to microcontroller with
the effective use of ADC and makes headlight to move down
If a vehicle moves towards down, then the anologue value in the accelerometer varies
and the value goes up. As it moves up ,it gives a signal to microcontroller with the
effective use of ADC and makes headlight to move up

ADC(Anologue to digital converter)

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The following program implemented in the project for step


movement

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STUDY AREA

1-Entrance

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2-Staff table
3-Blackboard
4-Cupboard for material storage
5-Lathe machines
6-Work tables
7-Wash basin
8-Hacksaw cutting machine
9-Drilling machine
10-Shaper machines
11-Milling machines
12-Grinding area
13-Forging area

Methodology/Design/Fabrication/Tests

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In this we are going to show the several design and fabrications made in this project .
We are also going to show you the whole estimation done before project had started.

The above figures showing the chassis of the project having a very simple
construction.

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The above figures showing the steering connected to pinion to transmit the motion to
rack

The above figure showing the type of wheel used for the movement of
vehicle

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The above two figures showing the rack and linkages construction. This shows how
a linear movement of rack is transmitted to angular motion of headlights using the
linkages.

ASSEMBLED VIEW OF DESIGNED MODEL

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The below are the sketches showing what is the differerence between the
conventional headlights and adaptive headlights
`

ADAPTIVE HEADLIGHTS

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CONVENTIONAL HEADLIGHTS

This above figure showing that headlights becomes adaptive , the visibility
towards road will be much better than normal during cornering or while
vehicle taking a turn.

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