You are on page 1of 17

I.

Cumin:

Classification:
Species name: Cuminum cyminum

Kingdom:

Plantae

Division:

Magnoliophyta

Class:

Magnoliopsida

Order:

Apiales

Family:

Apiaceae

Genus:

Cuminum

Part Economically Important: Cumin or jeera is basically a tiny seed of an annual plant in
the parsley family, native to the Mediterranean. Hence part economically important is the seed.
Chemical constituents present: Monoterpenes beta-pinene, p-cymene and gamma-terpinene and
the terpenoid aldehydes cuminic aldehyde and the isomeric menthadien carboxaldehydes are some of
the chemicals present in cumin oil that has healing powers.

World Major Producers: The main producer and consumer of cumin is India. It produces 70%
of the world production and consumes 90% of its own production (which means that India
consumes 63% of the world's cumin). Other producers are Syria, Turkey and Iran.
Major Indian state producers: Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Habit Sketch:Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is a thin herbaceous annual plant growing to a height of
30-45 cm. The plant is slender, with a main stem that branches up to five secondary branches from
the base; each branch may have 2-3 sub-branches. All the branches attain the same height, giving
the plant a uniform canopy. The plant has a branched glabrous stem, 3-5cm in diameter, with a grey
or dark green color, having alternate, dissected leaves with filiform segments, angular, sparsely hairy,
bluish green and petioles sheathing the stem at the base.The inflorescence is a compound umbel with
white or pinkish flowers. The leaves are pinnate or bi-pinnate with thread-like leaflets (Figure 1). The
flowers are small and either pink or white colored. Typical to the Apiaceae family the flowers are born
in umbels, and each umbel has 5 to 7 umbellets. The fruit is a schizocarp, 4-5 mm long, containing
two mericarps with a single seed. Cross pollination, mediated through bees,is the rule although the
occurrence and intensity of cross pollination varies. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene,
containing a single seed. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance, but are

smaller and darker in color. The fruits have eight ridges with oil canals. Seeds are hairy, in some
varieties these hairs are prominent, and otherwise it is difficult to see them.
Economic Importance:
Besides its culinary uses, this aromatic spice is known for its medicinal properties since
ancient times
Medicinal uses:
1. Treatment of Boils: Boils are outlet for the elimination of toxic substances and foreign matters
such as microbes etc. Occurrence of boils indicates the accumulation of toxic substances in
the body. Regular usage of cumin in your food helps in keeping your skin free from boils,
rashes, pimples etc. This is because it has components such as Cuminaldehyde, Thymol and
phosphorus which are good detoxifying agents. They help in facilitating regular removal of
toxins from the body through the excretory system and not through boils.
2. Treatment of Skin Disorders: Cumin has a high content of vitamin E which keeps your skin
healthy and glowing. Besides, the essential oils, cumin have disinfectant and anti-fungal
properties which protect your skin from fungal and microbial infections. Topical application of
cumin paste on boils, pimples, eczema, psoriasis and other skin disorders facilitates quick
healing. A dash of ground cumin powder can also be added to your face pack to treat skin
issues. Cumin is also a good source of dietary fiber which helps in the cleaning process and
removes toxins.
3. Anti-ageing Benefits: Vitamin E present in cumin triggers the anti-ageing processes within the
body, thus preventing pre mature ageing symptoms. It acts as an antioxidant to combat the
free radicals that attack the skin and cause signs of ageing like wrinkles, age spots and
sagging skin. This combination of antioxidant effect and antibacterial capacity of cumin
provides you with a healthy, beautiful skin that lasts far into your old age.
4.

Treatment of Dandruff:Oil

extract from cumin is a great stimulant, carminative, antioxidant and

diuretic. It is often used for massage in aromatherapy and scalp treatments to get rid of
dandruff.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

For Blood Level:

Cumin helps to lower blood sugar levels and thus helps in maintaining proper
blood content levels in the body. This is a great boon for people suffering from Diabetes.
For Iron: Cumin seeds are very rich in iron, which makes it an essential natural health
ingredient. This iron content helps to treat anaemia, makes blood rich in haemoglobin content
and also helps in acting as a carrier of oxygen to the cells in the body.
Cancer: Cumin is helpful in treating colon and breast cancer. The seeds contain thymoquinone,
dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone and thymol which are anti-carcinogenic agents.
Cold and Respiration: Cumin is rich in Vitamin C and has anti-fungal properties. These help to
cure cold and other respiratory problems. Cumin seeds are also suggested for kidney health.
Digestion: Enzymes present in cumin help to breakdown foods and thus aid in digestion.
Genetic engineering/ Transgenic developed in "Name of plant": Cumin is a diploid species
and with 14 chromosomes (i.e. 2n = 14). The chromosomes of the different varieties have
morphological similarities and there is no distinct variation in length and volume. Most of the
varieties available today are selections. Cumin is a cross-pollinator, i.e. the breeds are already
hybrids. Therefore, methods used for breeding are in vitro regenerations, DNA technologies
and gene transfers. The in vitro cultivation of cumin allows the production of genetically
identical plants. The main sources for the explants used in vitro regenerations are embryos,
hypocotyl, shoot internodes, leaves and cotyledons. One goal of cumin breeding is to improve
its resistance to biotic (fungal diseases) and abiotic (cold, drought, salinity) stresses.
News regarding CUMIN:

Article I.
Indian Spices Market up Due to Escalating Export Demand
Published on: May 01, 11:04

Higher domestic and export demand increased the value during the period. The Indian spices market
is pegged at 40,000 crore annually of which the branded segment makes up 15 per cent. Demand for
major spices increases like Black pepper, Cumin seed, Coriander, Cardamom, Red Chilli etc. In
International market demand for Indian spices increasing day by day due to higher quality.

II.

FENNEL:

Classification:
Common fennel, sweet fennel, bitter fennel, carosella, Florence fennel, finocchio,
garden fennel, large fennel, wild fennel
Common names:

Botanical name: Fennel (Foeniculum


Family: Umbelliferae (Apiaceae)
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Apiales

vulgare ) or F. officinale,

Part Economically Importance: The bulb, foliage, seeds and the small flowers of fennel are
economically important.
Chemical constituents present: The seeds contain large amounts of the phytochemical alphapinene, which acts as an expectorant and helps to loosen phlegm in the lungs. Fennel seed contains
volatile oil, most of which is identified as trans-anethole, with a much smaller amount identified as
fenchone. Other components of the essential oil include limonene, camphene, and alpha-pinene.
World Major Producers: India, Mexico, China, Iran, Bulgaria, Syria, Morocco, Egypt, Canada,
Afghanistan, USA
Major Indian state producers: Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Meghalaya.
Habit Sketch: It is erect, glaucous green, and grows to heights of up to 2.5 m, with hollow stems.
The leaves grow up to 40 cm long; they are finely dissected, with the ultimate segments filiform
(threadlike), about 0.5 mm wide. The finely divided leaves, with numerous thread-like segments, grow
from a sheath surrounding the stalk at the base of the leaf stem. The flowers are produced in terminal
compound umbels 515 cm wide, each umbel section having 2050 tiny yellow flowers on short
pedicels. The fruit is a dry seed from 410 mm long, half as wide or less, and grooved.

Economic Importance:
(a) Culinary uses
(b) Medicinal preparations:

digestive aid

remedy for flatulence

eases stomach pains

speeds up the digestion of fatty foods

also used for coughs and colds

helps improve eyesight and reduce irritation and eye-strain

(C)The flowers produce a yellow tint and the leaves a light brown hue as a natural dye for wool fabrics.
Impact of Plant on Environment: Fennel can form dense monospecific stands by competing with
other plant species for light, water, and soil nutrients. Research suggests it may also have an
allelopathic effect on other species. This reduces the growth of plants surrounding fennel.

III.

Hibiscus:

Classification:

Common name: karkade, red tea, red sorrel, Jamaica sorrel, rosella.
Kingdom:

Plantae

Division:

Angiosperms

Class:

Eudicots

Order:

Malvales

Family:

Malvaceae

Subfamily:

Malvoideae

Tribe:

Hibisceae

Genus:

Hibiscus
L.

Part Economically Important: Roots, flowers, leaves.


Chemical constituents present: bioflavonoids
World Major Producers: found all around the world

Major Indian state producers: in all gardens.


Habit Sketch: The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, often with a toothed or lobed margin.

The flowers are large, conspicuous, trumpet-shaped, with five or more petals, color from white to pink, red,
orange, purple or yellow, and from 418 cm broad. Flower color in certain species, such as H.
mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, changes with age.[5] The fruit is a dry five-lobed capsule, containing
several seeds in each lobe, which are released when the capsule dehisces (splits open) at maturity. It is of
red and white colours. It is an example of complete flowers.
Economic Importance:

Landscaping: Many species are grown for their showy flowers or used as landscape shrubs, and
are used to attract butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.[6]

Paper: One species of Hibiscus, known as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is extensively used
in paper-making.

Beverage: The tea made of hibiscus flowers is known by many names in many countries around
the world and is served both hot and cold. The beverage is well known for its color, tanginess and
flavor.

Food: Dried hibiscus is edible, and it is often a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and
used as a garnish.[7]The roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is used as a vegetable.

Certain species of hibiscus are also beginning to be used more widely as a natural source of food
coloring.

MEDICINAL:
1) hibiscus tea lowers blood pressure
2) The roots are used to cure cough, hair loss or hair greying.
3) Hibiscus tea helps prevent an increase in LDL cholesterol
4)

treats loss of appetite, colds, heart and nerve diseases, fluid retention, stomach irritation.

Genetic engineering/ Transgenics developed in "Name of plant": Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of many

plant species with a genetic characteristic known as polyploidy, in which there are more than two complete
sets of chromosomes, unlike most other species. [13] A side effect of polyploidy is a condition where
the phenotype of the offspring may be quite different from the parent, or indeed any ancestor, essentially
allowing possibly random expression of all (or any) of the characteristics of all the generations that have
gone before. Because of this characteristic, H. rosa-sinensis has become popular with hobbyists who cross
and recross varieties, creating new named varieties and holding competitions to exhibit and judge the many
resulting new seedlings and often strikingly unique flowers.

IV.

Aloe Vera:

Classification:

Common names: Chinese Aloe, Indian Aloe, True Aloe, Barbados Aloe, Burn Aloe, First Aid Plant

Kingdom:

Plantae

Clade:

Angiosperms

Clade:

Monocots

Order:

Asparagales

Family:

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Subfamily: Asphodeloideae

Genus:

Aloe

Species:

A. vera

Binomial name

Aloe vera
(L.) Burm.f.

Part Economically Important: Leaves.


Chemical constituents present: Aloe vera leaves contain phytochemicals under study for possible

bioactivity, such as acetylated mannans, polymannans,anthraquinone Cglycosides, anthrones, anthraquinones, such as emodin, and various lectins.
Habit Sketch:

Aloe vera is a stemless or very short-stemmed succulent plant growing to 60100 cm (2439 in) tall,
spreading by offsets. The leaves are thick and fleshy, green to grey-green, with some varieties showing
white flecks on their upper and lower stem surfaces.[7] The margin of the leaf is serrated and has small
white teeth. The flowers are produced in summer on a spike up to 90 cm (35 in) tall, each flower being
pendulous, with a yellow tubular corolla 23 cm (0.81.2 in) long.

Economic Importance:
1. Aloe Vera juice or gel when consumed helps in digestion and effectively cleanses the digestive system. It is a
laxative that makes food particles to pass through the intestine much easier.
2. This wonderful plant is also full of antioxidants that are known as natural immunity enhancers. They fight free
radicals and the damage caused by them in the body.
3. Drinking aloe Vera juice regularly reduces the stiffness of bones and also decreases swelling and relieves
painful joints. It is excellent for treatment of deep scars, burns and cuts.

4. It also soothes wound/cuts and has anti-bacterial properties that fight bacteria
5. The anti-allergic properties present in aloe vera are useful for treating various skin diseases like eczema,
psoriasis, itchy skin and the like. They can cure blisters, insect bites and many other allergic reactions too. Aloe
Vera face packs are a blessing for people with sensitive skin type.
6. Aloe vera is a great conditioning agent as well. It restores the shine and luster of your hair, and leaves it silky
and smooth. The gel like substances found in aloe vera is quite identical to keratin in chemical composition. It
penetrates the skin of the scalp and the scalp absorbs the benefits of it up to 7 layers deep. The amino acids
present in aloe vera work their magic and strengthen the hair and enhance its beauty and suppleness.
Genetic engineering/ Transgenic developed in "Name of plant": Using chloroplast DNA sequence

comparison and ISSR profile it has been suggested that it is closely related to Aloe forbesii, Aloe
inermis, Aloe scobinifolia, Aloe sinkatana, and Aloe striata.[25] With the exception of the South African
species A. striata, these Aloe species are native to Socotra (Yemen), Somalia, and Sudan.[25] The lack of
obvious natural populations of the species has led some authors to suggest Aloe vera may be
of hybrid origin

News regarding that particular plant:


Aloe Vera Soap making training underway
40 participants of three different Self Help Groups (SHGs) under Dimapur district for Aloe Vera soap making and its by-products
got underway at State Horticulture Nursery, 4th Mile, Dimapur October 6. The topics include production technology of Aloe
Vera, handmade Aloe Vera soap making and production of various by-products of Aloe Vera such as jam, jelly, shampoo, juice,
etc., of Aloe Vera.

Aloe vera will change economy of state farmers


HT Correspondent, Hindustan Times Hamirpur, October 01, 2014

Plantation of aloe vera on large scale would bring a change in the lifestyle and economy of the people in
the district, where wild animals destroy crops every year. Aloe vera is highly-resistant to the attacks of wild
animals and that is why the state government had decided to take up this campaign in five selected villages
of Bamsan development block of Hamirpur district.

V.

Eucalyptus:

Classification:

Scientific classification

Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked):

Angiosperms

(unranked):

Eudicots

(unranked):

Rosids

Order:

Myrtales

Family:

Myrtaceae

Subfamily:

Myrtoideae

Tribe:

Eucalypteae

Genus:

Eucalyptus
L'Hr.

Part Economically Important: tree trunk, leaves.


Chemical constituents present: macrocarpals (phloroglucinol-sesquiterpenes), other monoterpenes (D-limonene, pinene, -pinene, p-cymene), alkaloids, eucalyptin, phenols, 8-desmethyl-eucalyptin, tannins, terpenoid phenolaldehyde.

World Major Producers: Australia,

Brazil, Uruguay, South Africa, Sri Lanka, India.

Major Indian state producers: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala, Karnataka.

Habit Sketch: The leaves are leathery and hang obliquely or vertically. The flower petals

cohere to form a cap when the flower expands. The fruit is surrounded by a woody, cupshaped receptacle and contains numerous minute seeds. Possibly the largest fruitsfrom 5
to 6 centimetres (2 to 2.5 inches) in diameterare borne by E. macrocarpa, also known as
the mottlecah, or silverleaf, eucalyptus.
The eucalypti grow rapidly, and many species attain great height. E. regnans, the giant
gum treeor mountain ash of Victoria and Tasmania, attains a height of about 90 metres (300
feet) and a circumference of 7.5 m.
Economic Importance:

eucalyptus oil: Its chief use is medical.


i)

ii)
iii)

Used to treat infections, fever, upset stomach.


The leaf is also used for treating respiratory tract infections, whooping cough, asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis,
osteoarthritis, joint pain (rheumatism), acne, wounds, poorly healing ulcers, burns, bacterial dysentery,
ringworms, liver and gallbladder problems, loss of appetite, and cancer.
Diluted eucalyptus oil is applied directly to the skin for pain and swelling of respiratory tract mucous membranes,
joint pain, genital herpes, and nasal stuffiness.
It is also used as an insect repellent.

iv)
v) In dentistry, eucalyptus oil is included in products used as sealers and solvents for root canal fillings.
Eucalyptus wood :
i) Used as fuel

ii) timber is commonly used in buildings and fencing, papermaking and tanning
Genetic engineering/ Transgenics developed in "Name of plant": Hybrid individuals have not always been

recognised as such on first collection and some have been named as new species, such as E.
chrysantha (E. preissiana E. sepulcralis) and E. "rivalis" (E. marginata E. megacarpa). Hybrid
combinations are not particularly common in the field, but some other published species frequently seen in
Australia have been suggested to be hybrid combinations. For example, E. erythrandra is believed to be E.
angulosa E. teraptera and due to its wide distribution is often referred to in texts
Impact of Plant on Environment:
Water consumption: It is a fast grower and large producer of biomass. But in doing so, it consumes more water
than other, less productive species. Growing Eucalyptus in low rainfall areas may cause adverse environmental
impacts due to competition for water with other species and an increased incidence of allelopathy
Nutrient cycling: When Eucalyptus is grown as a short rotation crop for high biomass production and removal,
soil nutrients are depleted rapidly.Eucalyptus foliage and bark contains a large amount of nutrients, and the
retention of foliage and debarking of logs at the felling site is therefore a good management practice in order to
retain a sufficient amount of nutrients at the site.

VI.

Ginger:

Classification:

Scientific classification

Kingdom:

Plantae

Clade:

Angiosperms

Clade:

Monocots

Clade:

Commelinids

Order:

Zingiberales

Family:

Zingiberaceae

Genus:

Zingiber

Species:

Z. officinale

Binomial name

Zingiber officinale
Alternate names: common ginger, canton ginger, stem ginger

Part Economically Important: The edible parts of the ginger plant are the rhizomes and the above-ground

stems when they are young and tender.

Chemical constituents present: zingerone, shogaols and gingerols, volatile oils that compose one to three

percent of the weight of fresh ginger. Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose
main constituents are sesquiterpenoids, with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. Smaller amounts of
other sesquiterpenoids (-sesquiphellandrene, bisabolene and farnesene) and a
smallmonoterpenoid fraction (-phelladrene, cineol, and citral) have also been identified.

World Major Producers: India, china, Nepal, Nigeria, Thailand.

Major Indian state producers: Major ginger production centers in India are Kerala, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh,
Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and West Bengal.

Habit Sketch: Stems: about 1m high

Leaves: 15-30 cm long


Flowers: cone-like yellow spikes produced from white and pink buds

Economic Importance:

Useful food preservative.[8][9]

Culinary uses.

Medicinal use and research:

1)

cancer treatment

2)

be more effective than placebo for treating nausea caused by seasickness, morning
sickness and chemotherapy.

VII.

Coffee

Classification:

Scientific classification

Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked):

Angiosperms

(unranked):

Eudicots

(unranked):

Asterids

Order:

Gentianales

Family:

Rubiaceae

Subfamily:

Ixoroideae

Tribe:

Coffeeae

Genus:

Coffea
L.

Type species

Coffea arabica
L.

Part Economically important: beans/ berries


Chemical constituents present: Coffee is slightly acidic (pH 5.05.1[1]) and can have a stimulating effect on

humans because of its caffeine content.


The primary psychoactive chemical in coffee is caffeine, an adenosine antagonist that is known for
its stimulant effects. Coffee also contains the monoamine oxidase inhibitors -carboline and harmane,
which may contribute to its psychoactivity.
World Major Producers: Brazil, Vietnam, Indonesia, Colombia and Ethiopia.
Major Indian state producers: Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
Habit Sketch:All coffee plants are classified in the large family Rubiaceae. They are evergreen shrubs or

small trees that may grow 5 m (15 ft) tall when unpruned. The leaves are dark green and glossy, usually
1015 cm (46 in) long and 6 cm (2.4 in) wide, simple, entire, and opposite. Petioles of opposite leaves
fuse at base to form interpetiolar stipules, characteristic of Rubiaceae. The flowers are axillary, and clusters
of fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously. Gynoecium consists of inferior ovary, also characteristic
of Rubiaceae. Flowers followed by oval berries of about 1.5 cm (0.6 in).[42] Green when immature, they ripen
to yellow, then crimson, before turning black on drying. Each berry usually contains two seeds, but 510%
of the berries[43] have only one; these are called peaberries.[44] Arabica berries ripen in six to eight months,
while robusta take nine to eleven months.

Economic Importance:

Other studies suggest coffee consumption reduces the risk of Alzheimer's disease, dementia,Parkinson's
disease, heart disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, gout and cancer
of liver, skin, prostate, bowel, brain, gullet, colon, endometrium,breast,mouth and throat.
The fact that decaffeinated coffee also exhibits preventative effects against diseases such as prostate
cancer and type 2 diabetes suggests that coffee's health benefits are not solely a product of
its caffeine content.

Once scientists have a genome,


they also have a roadmap for making small genetic modifications that could make coffee
more (or less) caffeinated, taste less bitter, or make the plant more hardy (or yield more fruit).
Genetic engineering/ Transgenics developed in "Name of plant":

Impact of Plant on Environment: coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy. This

causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields, but requires the clearing of trees
and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides, which damage the environment and cause health problems.
[66]

Unshaded coffee plants grown with fertilizer yield the most coffee, although unfertilized shaded crops
generally yield more than unfertilized unshaded crops: the response to fertilizer is much greater in full sun.
[67]

Although traditional coffee production causes berries to ripen more slowly and produce lower yields, the

quality of the coffee is allegedly superior.[68] In addition, the traditional shaded method provides living space
for many wildlife species. Proponents of shade cultivation say environmental problems such as
deforestation, pesticide pollution, habitat destruction, and soil and water degradation are the side effects of
the practices employed in sun cultivation.

VIII. Camphor
Classification:

Scientific classification

Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked): Angiosperms

(unranked): Magnoliids

Order:

Laurales

Family:

Lauraceae

Genus:

Cinnamomum

Species:

Cinnamomum
camphora

Binomial name

Cinnamomum camphora
Common names: camphor tree, camphorwood or camphor laurel)
Part Economically Important: Camphor used to be made by distilling the bark and wood of the camphor tree.
Chemical constituents present: Camphor laurel contains volatile chemical compounds in all plant parts,

and the wood and leaves are steam distilled for the essential oils. Camphor laurel has six different chemical
variants called chemotypes, which are camphor, linalool, 1,8-cineole, nerolidol, safrole, or borneol.

World Major Producers: China south of the Yangtze River, Taiwan, southern Japan, Korea, and Vietnam
Major Indian state producers: source of camphor in south India and also in Dehra Dun, Saharanpur
and Calcutta at an elevation of 1,500-2,000 m.
Habit Sketch:Camphor is an evergreen tree with oval to elliptical leaves, arranged alternately on the stem.

Slender twigs are initially green but change to reddish brown. Buds are sharply pointed, roughly 1/2 inch in
length. Camphor tree bark is variable, from scaly to irregularly furrowed with flat topped ridges. The camphor
tree habit ranges from small to medium (25 to 40 feet tall), but some specimens have attained over 100 feet.
Leaf margins are entire, but can be wavy with a shiny, dark green color. Fragrant flowers are greenish white to
pale yellow, borne on panicles about 3 inches long. The fruit is dark blue to black, fleshy and approximately 1
to 1.5 cm in diameter. These are produced in large quantities during the winter and spring months in central
and north Florida.

Economic Importance: Vicks VapoRub. Camphor is used topically to increase local blood flow and as a counterirritant,
which reduces pain and swelling by causing irritation. It is important not to apply camphor to broken skin, because it can enter
the body quickly and reach concentrations that are high enough to cause poisoning.
Some people use camphor topically to treat respiratory tract diseases and to treat heart disease symptoms. Camphor is also
used topically as an eardrop, and for treating minor burns.
Some people inhale camphor to reduce the urge to cough.

The camphor tree produces a white crystalline substance, camphor, which has been much used as insect
repellant. If you have ever smelled a moth ball-thats camphor.
The trees essential oils are found in the leaves as well as in the wood, and a few drops of the oil, or
camphor crystals mixed with coconut oil and massaged into the scalp strengthens hair and promotes hair
growth, allegedly. Camphor is absorbed through the skin and has a cooling effect; or rather it can act as a
local anaesthetic. It is one of the ingredients in Vicks rubs for bronchitis which you might have been
subjected to as a child. It is also used in balms for chapped lips, chilblains, skin problems, and a variety of
other medications for respiratory problems and is good for colds and coughs as is menthol and eucalyptus.
Impact of Plant on Environment: The Camphor laurel as it is called in Australia was introduced there in

1822 as an ornamental but now it is invasive in New South Wales and Queensland, as its leaves when they
fall, prevent other plants from growing. It is also threatening the native eucalyptus trees, which the
endangered koalas rely on. The trees extensive root systems are wreaking havoc with sewage and
drainage systems.

IX.

Coriander

Classification:

Scientific classification

Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked):

Angiosperms

(unranked):

Eudicots

(unranked):

Asterids

Order:

Apiales

Family:

Apiaceae

Genus:

Coriandrum

Species:

C. sativum

Binomial name

Coriandrum sativum
L.

Part Economically Important: All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are

the parts most traditionally used in cooking.


Chemical constituents present: Coriander contains active phenolic acid compounds, including caffeic
and chlorogenic acid. The flavonoids include quercetin, keampferol, rhamnetin and apigenin. Most
of these com- pounds are obtained through the diet and known to inhibit free radicals generated in
the body. There is still narrow knowledge of the mechanisms through which they act but initial
research indicates that Coriandrum sativum is effective in both treatment and prevention of several
chronic diseases.
World Major Producers: The major global producers are India, Morocco, Canada, Romania, Russia and

Ukraine. The other producers are Iran, Turkey, Israel, Egypt, China, US, Argentina and Mexico.

Major Indian state producers: Rajasthan (54%) and Madhya Pradesh (17%) are the two largest producing

states in the country contributing over two-thirds to the country's total production in 2006-07. The other producers
are Gujarat (6.9%), Assam (6.6%), Andhra Pradesh (3.5%, Karnataka (3.3%), Orissa (3.2%) and Tamil Nadu
(2%).

Habit Sketch: It is a soft plant growing to 50 cm (20 in) tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed

at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems. The flowers are borne in
small umbels, white or very pale pink, asymmetrical, with the petals pointing away from the centre of the
umbel longer (56 mm or 0.200.24 in) than those pointing toward it (only 13 mm or 0.0390.118 in long).
The fruit is a globular, dry schizocarp 35 mm (0.120.20 in) in diameter. Although sometimes eaten alone,
the seeds are often used as a spice or an added ingredient in other foods.
Economic Importance: Coriander is used for digestion problems including upset stomach, loss of
appetite,hernia, nausea, diarrhea, bowel spasms, and intestinal gas. It is also used to treatmeasles, hemorrhoids, toothaches,
worms, and joint pain, as well as infections caused by bacteria and fungus.
Some breast-feeding women use coriander to increase milk flow.
In foods, coriander is used as a culinary spice and to prevent food poisoning.
In manufacturing, coriander is used as a flavoring agent in medicines and tobacco and as a fragrance in cosmetics and soaps.

X.

Tomato:

ClassificationCommon name-tomato
Botanical name-Solanumlycopersicum
Order:

Solanales

Family:

Solanaceae[1]

Genus:

Solanum[1]

Part Economically important: Fruit


Major producers in the world: India, china, US, Turkey, Egypt.
Major Producing states in India: Bihar, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.

Habit Sketch: typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported,although
erect bush varieties have been bred, generally three feet tall or shorter.The leaves are 1025
cm (410 in) long, odd pinnate, with five to 9 leaflets on petioles,[61] each leaflet up to 8 cm
(3 in) long, with a serrated margin; both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy.
Their flowers, appearing on the apical meristem, have the anthers fused along the edges,
forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. Flowers in domestic cultivars tend to be selffertilizing. The flowers are 12 cm (0.40.8 in) across, yellow, with five pointed lobes on the
corolla; they are borne in a cyme of three to 12 together. Their flowers, appearing on the
apical meristem, have the anthers fused along the edges, forming a column surrounding the
pistil's style. Flowers in domestic cultivars tend to be self-fertilizing. The flowers are 12 cm
(0.4-0.8 in) across, yellow, with five pointed lobes on the corolla; they are borne in a cyme of
three to 12 together.

Economic benefits1.

Wards off Cancer

Numerous studies have concluded that the more tomatoes people eat the lower their risks of
certain cancers, especially lung, stomach and prostate cancers. A substance called lycopene,
which is responsible for tomatoes red color, is thought to be the reason for this cancer
protective effect. Processed tomatoes contain even more lycopene than raw ones. The
process of cooking breaks down the cell walls, helping to release the lycopene. Eating
tomatoes with a little bit of fat, such as olive oil, helps lycopene to be better absorbed by the
body.
2.

Prevent DNA Damage

Tomatoes are high in important antioxidants such as vitamin C and Vitamin A. These vitamins
work to fend of DNA damage from free radicals. Consequently, tomatoes may help to ward off
age related diseases such as atherosclerosis and diabetes.
3.

Reduce the Risk of Heart Disease

Tomatoes contain important nutrients, such as niacin, folate and vitamin B6, that have
associated with the reduction of heart disease risk. One study found that women who ate 7 to
10 servings of tomato products per week had a 29 percent lower risk of cardiovascular
disease than women who consumed less than a serving and a half of tomato products each
week. Results were even more impressive when the women ate oil-rich tomato products.
4.

Protect Against Thrombosis

Another study showed that drinking 8 ounces of tomato juice daily reduced platelet
aggregation significantly, among study subjects. Those drinking a placebo showed no benefit.
Its important to drink low-sodium tomato juice if you are trying to protect against thrombosis
(blood clots in the blood vessel) , as high sodium levels can cause negative effects for this
type of disease.
5.

Ward off Inflammation

A double blind study found that drinking a glass of tomato juice a day can reduce blood levels
of TNF-alpha by 34 percent. TNF-alpha causes inflammation. High levels have been found in
individuals with most chronic, degenerative diseases such as heart disease, cancer,
osteoporosis and Alzheimers.

Effects on environmentGrowing tomatoes in glasshouses has a great effect on environment. British tomato growers
claim outstanding achievements in environmental protection. These achievements are based
on:

A substantial reduction in energy use for heating glasshouses.

The almost complete elimination of pesticide use.

Major reductions in the use of fertilisers and their loss into the environment.

Highly efficient use of water, an increasingly scarce resource.

Substitution for imports with their associated "food miles" and lower environmental
production standards.

Genetic modificationTomatoes that have been modified using genetic engineering have been developed, and
although none are commercially available now, they have been in the past. The first
commercially available genetically modified food was a variety of tomato named (the
FlavrSavr), which was engineered to have a longer shelf life. Scientists are continuing to
develop tomatoes with new traits not found in natural crops, such as increased resistance to
pests or environmental stresses. Other projects aim to enrich tomatoes with substances that
may offer health benefits or provide better nutrition.