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# PAKISTAN NAVY ENGINEERING COLLEGE, NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF

## SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY, KARACHI

PNEC NUST

INSTRUMENTATION &
MEASUREMENT
EL-314

Lab Manual

## UNIFIED CURRICULA 2012

PNEC, PNS JUAHER, HABIB REHMATULLAH ROAD, KARACHI
75350

## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

EL-314 INSTRUMENTATION & MEASUREMENT
LAB CONTENTS
S No.

Objectives

Remarks

the measurements

## To construct the Ohm Meter using PMMC for different ranges.

To construct the digital event counter for 4bit and 8bit decimal counting.

To construct time base for digital frequency counter for 1ms , 10ms,
100ms and 1s.

## Using the event counter (experiment#5), make the digital frequency

counter with selectable time base.

## To construct a resistive bridge circuit for receiving the proportional

differential output voltage against a sensor (use LDR, PT-100,
thermistors , thermocouple etc as sensor)

Use LVDT in a bridge circuit to measure the displacement and display the
proportional voltage.

10

## Using the bridge in experiment#8 measure/ display the output voltage

with the help of a differential ADC.

11

12

13

Mini Projects

## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

Experiment # 1
Objective: To investigate the internal architecture of analog multimeter
and reading the measurement
THEORY:
Basic parts of a permanent-magnet moving coil meter

A. Schematic Diagram

B.Pictorial Diagram

Analog multimeters are the PMMC instruments as they use a pointer and the
calibrated scale to indicate the values.
They consist of a coil of a wire (copper wire) suspended in the field of
permanent magnet. A pointer is attached on the coil, current is passed through the
coil to produce a magnetic field that interacts with the field from magnet, resulting
in the partial rotation of the coil. A pointer connected to the coil deflected over a
calibrated scale, indicating the level of current flowing in the wire. i.e

D I
D=BLIND
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Where,
B = Magnetic Flux Density (Tesla)
L = Length of coil (meter)
I = Current in the coil (Amperes)
N = Number of turns of coil
D = Diameter of coil
Three forces are operating in the electromechanical mechanism inside the
instrument:
The deflecting force causes the pointer to move from its zero position when a
current flows. As the current flows, a magnetic field is set up, which interacts with
the field of the permanent magnet. Hence, a force is exerted on the coil turns,
causing the coil to rotate on its pivots. The pointer is fixed to the coil, so it moves
over the scale as the coil rotates.
The controlling force in the PMMC instrument is provided by spiral springs. The
springs retain the coil and pointer at their zero position when no current is flowing.
When the current flows, the springs wind up as the coil rotates and the force they
exert on the coil increases. The coil and pointer stop rotating when the controlling
force becomes equal to the defecting force.
The pointer and the coil tend to oscillate for some time before settling down at
their position, hence a damping force is required to minimize the oscillations. The
damping force is provided by eddy currents. Eddy currents induced in the coil
former (made of aluminium)set up a magnetic field that opposes the coil motion,
thus damping the oscillations of the coil.
Without rectifier it is purely a DC instrument.
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The PMMC instrument is a low level ammeter but with the use of parallel
connected resistors, it can be employed to measure a wide range of direct
current levels.
The instrument may also be made to function as a Dc voltmeter by
connecting appropriate value resistors in series with it.
Analog Multi-meters:

## An analogue meter moves a needle along a scale. Switched range analogue

multi-meters are very cheap but are difficult for beginners to read accurately,
especially on resistance scales. The meter movement is delicate and
dropping the meter is likely to damage it! Each type of meter has its
advantages. Used as a voltmeter, a digital meter is usually better because its
resistance is much higher, 1 M or 10 M, compared to 200 K for an

## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

analogue multi-meter on a similar range. On the other hand, it is easier to
follow a slowly changing voltage by watching the needle on an analogue
display. Used as an ammeter, an analogue multi-meter has a very low
resistance and is very sensitive, with scales down to 50 A. More expensive
digital multi-meters can equal or better this performance. Most modern
multi-meters are digital and traditional analogue types are destined to
become obsolete.
Resolution of analog multi-meters is limited by the width of the scale
pointer, parallax, vibration of the pointer, the accuracy of printing of scales,
zero calibration, number of ranges, and errors due to non-horizontal use of
the mechanical display. Accuracy of readings obtained is also often
compromised by miscounting division markings, errors in mental arithmetic,
parallax observation errors, and less than perfect eyesight. Mirrored scales
and larger meter movements are used to improve resolution; two and a half
to three digits equivalent resolution is usual (and is usually adequate for the
limited precision needed for most measurements).
Resistance measurements, in particular, are of low precision due to the
typical resistance measurement circuit which compresses the scale heavily at
the higher resistance values. Inexpensive analog meters may have only a
single resistance scale, seriously restricting the range of precise
measurements. Typically an analog meter will have a panel adjustment to set
the zero-ohms calibration of the meter, to compensate for the varying
voltage of the meter battery.
Build the following circuit and measure the voltage and current across each
component with the help of analog multimeter.
R1
330

R2
660

V1
10 V

CALCULATIONS:

CONCLUSION:

## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

Experiment # 2
Objective: To investigate and construct a dc-ammeter by using PMMC
instrument
THEORY
Many dc meters use the DArsonval (PMMC) meter movement
which measures current. The addition of a series resistance allows
the measurement of voltage. The addition of a battery allows the
measurement of resistance.
Many direct-current ammeters and voltmeters are designed to
measure current and voltage by making use of the well-known
fact that when a current-carrying conductor is placed in a
magnetic field, a force is exerted on the conductor. Furthermore,
the force is directly proportional to the current. The way directcurrent ammeters and voltmeters make use of this interaction
between the magnetic field and the current is best described with
the aid of the diagrams in Figure. The current to be measured is
passed through the movable coil, where it reacts with the
magnetic field of the permanent magnet, thus creating a torque
on the coil. The coil rotates until the torque on it is balanced by
the restoring spring. This spring is designed so that its torque is
directly proportional to the angle through which the coil rotates,
and the uniform magnetic field is oriented so that the force on the
coil is always perpendicular to its axis. Thus, the deflection of the
pointer is directly proportional to the current in the movable coil.
The numerical value of the current is read from a calibrated scale
placed at the end of the pointer.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

Design the circuit by taking different values of Rshunt and tabulate
the measured values.

OBSERVATION TABLE
S.NO

RS

Vm

Rm

Im

Is

IT

volts

amperes

amperes

amperes

1.
2.
3.
4.

CALCULATIONS:

## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

CONCLUSION:

Experiment # 3
Objective: To investigate and construct a dc-voltmeter by using PMMC
instrument
THEORY:
The deflection of a PMMC instrument is proportional to the current
flowing through the moving coil. The coil current is directly proportional to the
voltage across the coil. Therefore, the scale of the PMMC meter could be
calibrated to indicate voltages. The coil resistance is normally quite small, and thus
the coil voltage is also usually very small. Without any additional series resistance
the PMMC instrument would only be able to measure very low voltage levels. The
voltmeter range is easily increased by connecting a resistance in series with the
instrument (as shown below in circuit diagram). Because it increases the range of
voltmeter, the series resistance is termed a multiplier resistance. The PMMC
instrument can be converted into a DC voltmeter by adding a series resistance
(multiplier).

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

10

Im

Rm=500

## Im= full scale deflection current of the movement

Rm= internal resistance of movement
Rmultiplier= multiplier resistance
V=full range voltage of the instrument

## From the circuit:

-V + Im (Rmultiplier + Rm) =0
Im (Rmultiplier + Rm) = V
V

Rmultiplier = I m Rm

Design and implement voltmeter of ranges 1 volt, 10 volt, 14.7 volts, 30 volts. Also
find out values of Rs.

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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

OBSERVATION TABLE:
Movement

Rmultiplier

Total

E
I
R

CALCULATIONS:

Design a multi range voltmeter 0f 1V, 3V,10V, 15V.

OBSERVATION TABLE:
Movement

Rmultiplier

Total
12

E
I
R

CALCULATIONS:

CONCLUSION:

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Experiment # 4
Objective: To construct the ohmmeter using PMMC for different ranges
THEORY:
The simplest ohmmeter circuit consists of a voltage source connected
in series with a pair of terminals, a standard resistance and a low current PMMC
instrument.
The resistance to be measured (Rx) is connected across terminals A & B.
If R1 (standard resistance) are selected (or if R1 is adjusted) to give FSD when A
and B are short circuited, FSD is marked as zero ohms.
When terminals A and B are open circuited, the effective value of resistance Rx is
infinity. No meter current flows, and the pointer indicates zero current. This point
(zero current) is marked as infinity () on the resistance scale.
If a resistance Rx with a value between zero and infinity is connected across
terminals A and B, the meter current is greater than zero but less than FSD. The
pointer position on the scale now depends on the relationship between Rx and
R1+Rm.

## Ohmmeter With Zero Adjustment:

When the battery voltage falls, the instrument scale is no longer correct. Falling
battery voltage can be taken care of by an adjustable resistor connected in parallel
with the meter. The battery current splits up into meter current Im and resistor
current I. with terminals A and B short circuited, R2 is adjusted to give FSD on the

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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

meter. Each time the ohmmeter is used, terminals A and B are first short circuited
and R2 is adjusted for zero-ohm indication on the scale (i,e for FSD). If this

procedure is followed, then even when the battery voltage falls below its initial
level, the scale remains correct. Rx+R1+(R2Rm)
Equations:
Basic Circuit:
Eb

Rx = I m (R1+ Rm)
Eb

At Rx = 0, Im = R 1+ R m

## Ohmmeter With Zero Adjustment:

Ib =

Eb
R x + R 1+(R 2 R m)

Where,
Rx = Resistance to be measured
R1 = Standard Resistance
Rm = Meter Resistance
Eb = Battery voltage

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Circuit Diagram:
Basic Circuit:
Resistance to be
RX
Standard Resistance
Batter
y

Eb

R1
Meter Movement

Rm

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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

RX
Ib
Batter
y

Eb

Rm
Meter Movement

R1
Zero
contr
ol

R2
G

50%

First open circuit the terminals A and B, and show that Im = 0A. then find Rx at
0.5IFSD, 0.75IFSD,0.25IFSD.

OBSERVATIONS:

CALCULATIONS:

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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

a) Set R2=Rx=0,see that full scale deflection occurs.
b) Set Rx=0, and adjust R2, so that full scale deflection occurs.
c) Find Rx at 0.5IFSD,0.25IFSD,0.75IFSD..

OBSERVATIONS:

CALCULATIONS:

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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

Conclusion:

Experiment # 5
Objective: To construct the digital event counter for 4bit and 8bit
decimal counting
THEORY:
The digital event counter measures the number of events of a
particular sort occurring in a set period of time. I.C MM74C926 is commonly used
for this purpose. It is a 4 digit counter with an internal output latch. Seven segment
display (common cathode) is used to display the number of pulses.

LOGIC DIAGRAMS:

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Use MM74C296 IC as digital event counter to count the incoming pulses by using
a variable frequency generator and latch and reset the clock pulses.

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CONCLUSION:

Experiment # 6
Objective: To construct time base for digital frequency counter for
1s, 10s, 100s, 1ms , 10ms, 100ms and 1s

THEORY:
Many digital measuring techniques require an accurate time period or
time base. The 1MHZ crystal controlled oscillator provides an extremely accurate
output frequency (with a time period of 1us). The output frequency from final
decade counter is exactly one-tenth of the input (toggling) frequency. This means
the output time period is ten times the time period of input waveform. Thus the
output time period from decade counter 1 is precisely 10us. Similarly the 6th
decade counter is having a time period of exactly 1s.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

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Pin configuration:
1. Pin 1 to pin 7 and pins 9, 10and 11 are all the outputs of the IC.
2. Pin 16 is for the positive supply and pin 8 is ground.
3. Pin 15 is the reset point of the IC. A logic '0' to this pin (or by connecting it
to the ground), gives a green signal to the IC, so that it can function. A
logic '1' or a positive supply here will bring its proceedings to a stand still
and will reset it. At this position pin 3 of the IC4017 stays at logic '1'
where as all other outputs are logic 'lo'.
4. Pin 14 is the clock input of the IC 4017. An external clock signal to this
point will make a logic '1' to proceed sequentially, beginning from pin 3
and ending at pin 11.
5. Pin 13 is the clock enable point. A logic '1' to this pin will stop the IC 4017
from proceeding and its output will freeze at that instant at the particular
output. Even if the clock signal at pin 14 is ON, the output cant shift as
long as pin 13 is held at logic'1', therefore this point should be grounded.
On the contrary if pin 14 is held at logic'1' and clock signal is applied at
pin 1, every falling edge of the pulse will make the outputs to change state
sequentially.
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6. Our main focus is on pin number 12 which gives output whose frequency
is divided by 10.this is fed to input 14 of each decade counter.

PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Connect 6 ICs 4017 in series such that output of each one from pin 12 is
input clock of other at pin number 14.
Connect 5 volts to pin 16 and ground rest of pins exept pin 14 (input)
and pin (12).
Give input from 1mhz crystal to first IC as clock.
Time period of pulses of crystal is 1us.
Every decade counter divides the frequency by 10 and multiplies time
period by 10.
So output of first decade counter is 10us.
Similarly outputs of next decade counters are 100us,1ms,10ms,100ms
and 1s
By using jumpers output at various points can be taken to use a
particular time base.
This is shown in figure.
Check and compare input (crystal) time and time bases generated at
decoder 3, 4,5 and on oscilloscope and calculate times to verify.

OBSERVATION :
Write down the Time periods after decade counters 3,4,5 and 6.
TRUTH TABLE:
Time
Crystal

Counter 6

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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

CONCLUSION:

Experiment # 7
Objective: Using the event counter (experiment#5), make the digital frequency
counter with selectable time base

THEORY:
A convenient and accurate way of measuring frequency is to use a
frequency counter. The frequency of a periodic waveform is defined as the number
of cycles that occur per second. A frequency counter uses a precise internal time
base and digital counters to produce a digital frequency readout.
A frequency counter measures the frequency of the signal over a
defined interval. To a frequency counter, the definition of frequency is

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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

f=

n
Tc

where,
n = number of cycles of the waveform counted
Tc = time interval over which the cycles are counted
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A FREQUENCY COUNTER:

Figure 7.1

The above figure shows a block diagram of a basic frequency counter. The signal
being measured is amplified and changed into a digital pulse train. This pulse train
pulses through an electronic switch called the main gate and drives a series of
digital counter. If the main gate is open, the value of digital counter increases by
one for each new cycle of the signal being measured. If the main gate were to
remain open, the digital counter would keep counting up indefinitely (or at least it
ran out of digits). Instead the main gate is opened for a known length of time and
the resulting number of cycles of the waveform is measured. This number
represents the frequency of the waveform. To perform another measurement, the
digital counter is reset and the main gate is once again reopened. The waveforms
associated with this operation are shown in the figure given below:

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Figure 7.2

Measure the frequency of the signal with time base 1s, 10s,
100s,1ms, 100ms and 1s.

CONCLUSION:

Experiment # 8
Objective: To construct a resistive bridge circuit for receiving the
proportional differential output voltage against a sensor (use ldr, pt-100,
thermistors , thermocouple etc as sensor)
THEORY:
Making measurements with sensors is a common way in which many
engineers and scientists encounter electrical devices. There are many different
ways in which physical variables like temperature, light intensity and pressure can
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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

be measured electrically. Devices used to measure a physical variable are called
sensors.
UNDERSTANDING A BRIDGE CIRCUIT:
The bridge circuit has two arms (R1 and R2 constitute one arm here, and R3 and
RT constitute the other arm). Each arm is composed of two resistors in series, and
you may want to think of each arm as a voltage divider. The output is
the difference between the outputs of the two voltage dividers. In the bridge circuit
above we have also included some source resistance for the source which drives
the bridge circuit.

Assuming negligible current flows through the voltmeter, the circuit paths abc and
dfg can be assumed parallel and we can apply (1) to obtain

## Now we can measure the voltage difference between nodes f and g to be

The bridge is balanced when Vfb = 0, i.e. voltage reading in meter M is zero. This
occurs when RT / R3 = R2 / R1 .

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LAB A
Using an RTD:
Procedure:
1) Construct the circuit as shown in the figure.

## 2) First adjust R2 which is a variable resistor to make the meter deflection to

zero and find the resistance of RTD at room temperature by using the
formula:

3) Now obtain the meter reading at different temperatures by heating the water
with some heating mechanism.(Hint: You can measure the temperature with
a thermometer.)
S
No.

Temperature in oC

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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

4) Now obtain the Voltage vs Temperature curve it should be a straight line.
5) Now obtain a linear fit of temperature as a function of voltage, i.e. determine
the
slope m and intercept b such that:
T=mV+b

LAB B
USING A THERMISTOR:
PROCEDURE:
1) Construct the circuit as shown in the figure.

29

## 2) First adjust R2 which is a variable resistor to make the meter deflection to

zero.
3) Obtain the meter reading at different temperatures by heating the water with
some heating mechanism.(Hint: You can measure the temperature with a
thermometer.)

S.
No.

Temperature in oC

Voltage (V)

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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

4) Now obtain the Voltage vs Temperature curve it should not be a straight line.
5) Obtain a polynomial fit of temperature as a function of voltage.
A fourth-order polynomial given by :
T = a V4 + b V3 + cV2 + d V + e
Note: Similarly perform the lab for other sensors such as LDR,
Thermocouple etc.

Experiment # 9
Objective: Use LVDT in a bridge circuit to measure the displacement and

## display the proportional voltage

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. ITB-12-CE
2. LVDT Set up
3. Multimeter
4. Power chords

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THEORY:
The linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) is a type of electrical
transformer used for measuring linear displacement. The transformer has three
solenoid coils placed end-to-end around a tube. The centre coil is the primary, and
the two outer coils are the secondary. A cylindrical ferromagnetic core, attached to
the object whose position is to be measured, slides along the axis of the tube. An
alternating current is driven through the primary, causing a voltage to be induced in
each secondary proportional to its mutual inductance with the primary. The
frequency is usually in the range 1 to 10 kHz. As the core moves, these mutual
inductances change, causing the voltages induced in the secondarys to change.
The coils are connected in reverse series, so that the output voltage is the
difference (hence "differential") between the two secondary voltages. When the
core is in its central position, equidistant between the two secondary, equal but
opposite voltages are induced in these two coils, so the output voltage is zero.
When the core is displaced in one direction, the voltage in one coil increases
as the other decreases, causing the output voltage to increase from zero to a
maximum. This voltage is in phase with the primary voltage. When the core moves
in the other direction, the output voltage also increases from zero to a maximum,
but its phase is opposite to that of the primary. The magnitude of the output voltage
is proportional to the distance moved by the core (up to its limit of travel), which is
why the device is described as "linear". The phase of the voltage indicates the
direction of the displacement. Because the sliding core does not touch the inside of
the tube, it can move without friction, making the LVDT a highly reliable device.
The absence of any
sliding or rotating contacts allows the LVDT to be completely sealed against the
environment.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

P
ROCEDURE:
1. Install the LVDT position sensor and interface the 9 pin connector with ITB-12CE.
2. Switch on the kit.
3. Connect the multimeter (or) CRO (in ac mv mode) across the T4 and T7 for the
secondary output voltage measurement.
4. Adjust the micrometer in 10mm displacement and turns the zero displacement
POT to 0 mm displacement on display.
5. Adjust the micrometer to 20mm displacement and turns the gain adjustment
POT to 10mm on the display.
6. Repeat the zero and span calibration until the core displacement is 0mm for
10mm displacement in micrometer and 10mm for 20mm displacement.
7. After completion of the calibration, give the displacement in micrometer to core
of the LVDT system.

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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

8. Gradually increase the micrometer displacement from 10mm to 20mm and note
down the forward core displacement from 0mm to 10mm on the display and see
the output voltage across T4 and T7.
9. Similarly decrease the micrometer displacement from 10mm to 0mm and note
down the reverse core displacement of 0 to 10mm on the display and see the output
voltage across T4 and T7.
10. Tabulate the readings of core displacement (mm), micrometer displacement and
output voltage (mv).
11. Plot the graph between core displacements (mm) along X-axis and see the
output voltage (mv) across Y-axis.
12. The same procedure repeated and note down the reverse core displacement of 0
to 10mm on the display and signal.
13. Tabulate the readings of the core displacement, micrometer displacement and
signal conditioned output voltage (V).
14. Plot the graph between core displacement (mm) along X-axis and signal
conditioned output voltage (V) along Y-axis.

OBSERVATIONS:

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S. NO.

Micrometer
Displacement
(mm)

Core
Displacement
(mm)

Secondary
Output
Voltage
(mv)

Signal
Conditioned
Output
Voltage
(mv)

CALCULATIONS:

CONCLUSION:

Experiment # 10
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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

Objective: Using the bridge in experiment#8 measure/ display the
output voltage with the help of a differential ADC
THEORY:
The bridge circuit has two arms (R1 and R2 constitute one arm here, and
R3 and RT constitute the other arm). Each arm is composed of two resistors in
series, and you may want to think of each arm as a voltage divider. The output is
the difference between the outputs of the two voltage dividers. In the bridge circuit
above we have also included some source resistance for the source which drives
the bridge circuit.

Assuming negligible current flows through the voltmeter, the circuit paths abc and
dfg can be assumed parallel and we can apply (1) to obtain

## Now we can measure the voltage difference between nodes f and g to be

The bridge is balanced when Vfb = 0, i.e. voltage reading in meter M is zero. This
occurs when RT / R3 = R2 / R1 .

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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

Display the output of bridge circuit with the help of differential ADC.

Experiment # 11
Objective: To construct a digital volt meter using IC l7106/ IC l7107
THEORY:
The digital voltmeter is ideal to use for measuring the output voltage of
your DC power supply. It includes a 3.5-digit LED display with a negative voltage
indicator. It measures DC voltages from 0 to 199.9V with a resolution of 0.1V. The
voltmeter is based on single ICL7107 chip and may be fitted on a small 3cm x 7cm
printed circuit board. The circuit should be supplied with a 5V voltage supply and
consumes only around 25mA.
Brightness of the LED display segments can be varied by adding or removing
1N4148 small signal diodes that are connected in series. Use two 1N4148 diodes
for higher LED display brightness.
The use of 7805 5V voltage regulator is highly recommended to prevent the
damage of ICL7107, 7660 ICs and to extend the operating voltages.
220 Ohm resistor should be connected to the PIN 4 on the first LED display.
The voltmeter can also be configured to measure different voltage ranges and
display higher voltage resolution. Replacing 1M with 100K resistor will allow to
measure 0 - 19.99V voltages with 0.01V (10mV) accuracy.
Use 10K potentiometer to set the reference voltage between PIN 35 and PIN 36 of
the ICL7107 IC to 1V.

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

Construct a
voltmeter
multiple

digital
for
ranges.

Experiment # 12
Objective: to understand and analyze signals on oscilloscope and
spectrum analyzer
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:

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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

Spectrum analyzer
Oscilloscope
Function generator
Dual DC-power supply

Theory:
An oscilloscope is an electronic test instrument that displays electrical
signals graphically, usually as a voltage (vertical or Y axis) versus time (horizontal
or X axis) as shown in figure 1. The intensity or brightness of a waveform is
sometimes considered the Z axis. There are some applications where other vertical
axes such as current may be used, and other horizontal axes such as frequency or
another voltage may be used.
Oscilloscopes are also used to measure electrical signals in response to physical
stimuli, such as sound, mechanical stress, pressure, light, or heat. For example, a
television technician can use an oscilloscope to measure signals from a television
circuit board while a medical researcher can use an oscilloscope to measure brain
waves.
Oscilloscopes are commonly used for measurement applications such as:
observing the wave shape of a signal
measuring the amplitude of a signal
measuring the frequency of a signal
measuring the time between two events
observing whether the signal is direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC)
observing noise on a signal
A spectrum analyzer measures the magnitude of an input signal versus
frequency within the full frequency range of the instrument. The primary use is to
measure the power of the spectrum of known and unknown signals.
The input signal a spectrum analyzer measures is electrical,
however, spectral compositions of other signals, such as acoustic pressure waves
and optical light waves, can be considered through the use of an
appropriate transducer.
Byanalyzingthe spectra of electrical signals,dominant frequency, power, distortion,
harmonics, bandwidth, and other spectral components of a signal can be observed
that are not easily detectable in time domain waveforms. These parameters are
useful in the characterization of electronic devices, such as wireless transmitters.
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The display of a spectrum analyzer has frequency on the horizontal axis and the
amplitude displayed on the vertical axis. To the casual observer, a spectrum
analyzer looks like an oscilloscope and, in fact, some lab instruments can function
either as an oscilloscope or a spectrum analyzer.

SPECTRUM ANALYZER:
LINE SPECTRA OF PERIODIC SIGNALS:
1. Familiarize yourself with the controls of the spectrum analyzer [your instructor
will give you a quick run on how to use the analyzer]. Use the following control
settings: [Start freq: 0.0 Hz, Span: 6.25kHz].
2. Use the oscilloscope to adjust the output of the function generator to 3V (p-p)
sinusoid @ 500 Hz. Display this signal on the spectrum analyzer and record your
results in table(1).
3. Set the output of the function generator to 3V (p-p) square wave @ 500 Hz;
display thesignal spectrum and record in Table (1).
Repeat the step using a triangular wave instead of a square wave.

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## TIME (FREQUENCY) SCALING:

4. Set the symmetry - control of the function generator fully clockwise. Adjust the
frequency dial of the generator to generate a single pulse [1 msec duration]
repeated at a relatively slow rate ( 7.5 msec). Display this signal on the frequency
analyzer. Plot the spectrum display on Graph (1).
5. Adjust the frequency of the function generator to generate a single pulse of 0.5
msec duration repeated at a relatively slow rate. Display this signal on the
frequency analyzer and plot the spectrum on Graph (1).

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## Pakistan Navy Engineering College (NUST)

Compare the frequency spectrum of the 1 msec-pulse with that of the 0.5 msecpulses; both are of equal amplitude.

OSCILLOSCOPE:
a. Reset the oscilloscope back to a known starting point and use the front- panel
controls to create this display. Normally, for greatest accuracy, the waveform is
adjusted vertically to fill as much of the display as possible
Determine the amplitude of the signal by counting the number of vertical divisions
and multiplying that by the vertical scale factor. Write the amplitude here: