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Small HydroPower Handbook

A Guide to
Understanding
and Constructing
Your Own Small
Hydro Project

Indroduction
CHAPTER #1 -ENERGY FROM WATER - IS YOUR PROJECT WORTH
PERSUING?

CHAPTER #2 - SITE EXPLORATION AND STREAMFLOW DATA

CHAPTER #3 - ASSESSMENT OF THE FEASABILITY OF YOUR HYDRO SITE

CHAPTER #4 - CIVIL WORKS AND EQUIPMENT

CHAPTER #5 - PERMITS, LICENSES AND LEGAL ASPECTS FOR SMALL
HYDRO

CHAPTER #6 - ECONOMICS AND FINANCING

CHAPTER #7 - GETTING STARTED

CHAPTER #8 - LOW HEAD CONSIDERATIONS

CHAPTER #9 - COLD WEATHER CONSIDERATIONS

CHAPTER #10 - ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF A PUBLIC UTILITY

GLOSSARY

INTRODUCTION (Chapter 1 Index)

Why Small Hydro

British Columbia offers enormous small hydro potential to its inhabitants: about 2400
MW, with 550 sites near the grid. Small Hydro is part of the history of British
Columbia. Many early mills, mines and towns built some form of power generation
from small hydro, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; and waterwheels were
used much earlier - in Ashcroft, in 1863, for example. Most of these old sites have
fallen into disuse by now - rendered uneconomic in the 1950's by the availability of
cheaper electricity through an expanding, province-wide grid; and by the availability
of portable, flexible, low cost diesel generators. Diesel generators are still cheap to buy
- but the rise in the cost of oil has made them expensive to operate. And the provinces
electrical grid, while extensive, does not include a number of small communities,
resource-based businesses, farmers, and lodge owners: people in out of the way
locations who are paying an enormous cost for their independent way of life. Such
people are taking another look at water power, because it offers a stable, inflation-
proof source of electricity, using proven technology. Small hydro installations have,
historically, been cheap to run but expensive to build. That is changing now, with
smaller, lighter, and higher speed turbine equipment, lower cost electronic speed and
load control systems, and inexpensive plastic piping. Capital investments are still
higher than investing in diesel equipment of comparable capacity; but the long life and
low operating costs of small hydro make it an attractive investment for many
applications. Examples of such installations, built in B.C. during the past few years,
include: Glacier Park (150 kW); Hoeya Hilton (37 kW); Nimmo Bay (40 kW); Hasty
Creek (37 kW); Klemtu (650 kW); Kingcome (75 kW); and Rendell Creek Ranch.
Some very small, and very successful units have been installed by entrepreneurs - a
farmer in the Pemberton Valley, for example (25 kW). other, larger units, have been
build by entrepreneurs who then sell power on contract to a resource industry -
Lancaster Resources (now Synex) at Moses Inlet, selling to Crown Lumber. There are
business opportunities in small hydro - and a number of people are catching on.

Purpose of the Manual
This book is written to assist people who are interested in developing a small hydro
opportunity. It will be especially useful to people with small sites that would not justify
the expense of extensive professional engineering services. Even with small sites, such
services may be advisable if you have conditions you do not fully understand. The
book will provide you with the information you need to: - evaluate the potential of a
small hydro site; - lay out the site; - apply for necessary licences and permits; - get
financing; - select and install equipment and - understand the equipment, so that you
can operate and maintain the system yourself. The emphasis in the book is on doing as
much as possible yourself, thus keeping capital costs as low as possible. However,
advice on seeking professional help is also included - and the information contained in
these chapters will be invaluable to you in dealing with any consultants and
contractors you hire. Actual construction details are not included; general guidelines
are given, along with pointers on what help can be expected from a construction
contractor. The book does not assume any previous acquaintance with the subject.
mathematical procedures are generally limited to multiplication and division for the
fundamentals. (more sophisticated procedures may yield greater accuracy, but the
simpler procedures outlined here should be sufficient for the scope of projects
intended.) A hydro turbine generator can by very small, like the alternator for a car
(c. 500 Watts); or it can be very large, like the units at the Revelstoke Dam (several
thousands of millions of Watts). microhydro (1-100 kW) and mini-hydro plants (100
kW to 5 MW) are the smallest of the turbine generator units. This handbook is aimed
mainly at installations of less than 500 kW, although it covers licensing requirements
up to 20 mw. The writers of the chapters that follow are all experts in their fields, and
have all written as clearly and simply as possible. It will take time and study, however,
to thoroughly understand each section of the book especially the charts, tables, and
graphs. The effort will pay off: your chances of bringing a project to a successful
completion, producing reliable energy year after year, and significantly improving
your cash flow, will be greatly enhanced.

Cost of Development

Costs for smally hydro installations vary considerably, because sites, conditions and
sizes are all different. In 1985, the typical development can range from $1,500 to
$5,000 per installed kW. This would mean an investment of from $6,000 to $20,000 for
the "typical" simple family home, which requires a peak demand of 5 kW. (If that
home were using electric heating, the demand would be from 12-20 kW.) This
handbook shows how to estimate installation cost, and how to balance design
tradeoffs, cost, and projected energy production. You can significantly reduce costs by
clever management, procurement, and hard work. The system at Rendell Creek
Ranch cost only $25,000 for a 150 kW system - less than $200 per kW - because the
community did most of the work itself and was able to buy and rebuild used
equipment. In approaching costs, remember that there are two basic types of
developers: those who are interested in generating to meet only their own needs,
regardless of the site's potential; and those who want to get as much as possible out of
the site. Costs for the former developer will generally be lower because the system will
be smaller, and geared both to minimum requirements and minimum flow. Investment
for the latter will be higher, but the per kW cost may be less.

Organization of the Manual

You are encouraged to peruse the book and gain a general knowledge of its contents
before starting actual development. Chapters One, Two and Three represent the
major steps for any site development. Chapter Four then treats dams, intakes,
penstock, turbines and all equipment associated with the manufacture of a small
hydro site, in considerable detail. Chapter Five serves as a guide to developers on the
legal aspects of permits, licences and insurance. This is a weighty section, but an
understanding of the requirements is essential. Chapter Six, on Economics and
Financing, takes you through the economic feasibility of the project and helps you
decide on the economics of the project. Chapter Seven is subtitled "Getting Started".
It gives the developer some practical tips on the many logistical steps necessary to
carry through with the project, once it is designed. It will help get the project started
and help you make sure it is completed. Chapters Eight and Nine are specialized
chapters on Low Head and Cold Weather Considerations. If you are working under
either of these constraints, these chapters should be read carefully. Chapter 10 outlines
the requirements for setting up a utility, should you wish to sell your surplus power.

CHAPTER #1 - ENERGY FROM WATER - IS YOUR PROJECT WORTH
PERSUING?
1.1 ..........Introduction

1.2 ..........Your Power Requirements

1.3 ..........Power and Energy Definitions

1.4 ..........Data Collection

1.5 ..........Installations

1.6 ..........Available Power and Energy

1.7 ..........Advisors

1.8 ..........Project Costs

1.9 ..........Project Worth

1.10 ..........Continued Planning

1.11 ..........Project Data Summary

SUPPLEMENT / MEASURING HEAD AND STREAMFLOW / PRELIMINARY

1.1 ..........Introduction (Back)

Perhaps you are living close to a stream and you are considering building a small
hydro project on it. Or perhaps you are starting to plan a project and you are looking
for a suitable stream. In either case this chapter will help you. Chapter One covers: (a)
The fundamentals of providing electrical energy from water; (b) the process of
selecting a suitable stream and a site for a hydro project; (c) the simple calculations
for helping you to decide whether you should continue planning your project, or
whether you should start looking for some other way of getting electricity; and (d) the
costs, procedures and time requirements of hiring an engineer to do the preliminary
work. Probably your most valuable experience is to have lived next to a stream for
several years and to have noted the fluctuations in its flow: how high and low it can go,
how soon it reacts to a rainstorm, and how the stream changes its course when in
flood. However, without this background knowledge you will still be able to build a
good hydro project. To help you decide whether or not to continue with your the
project, you will be asked to (a) estimate the power you need; (b) estimate the
streamflow available; (c) measure or estimate the head available on the stream; (d)
estimate the power and energy available from the stream; (e) make a preliminary
layout of your project; (f) make a preliminary estimate of the cost of your project; and
(g) decide: "Is your project worth pursuing?" Each time you make an estimate or
calculation, you should enter it in Table 1.3, "Project Data Summary" at the end of
this chapter. If you have already decided to continue planning, you should still skim
through this Chapter and check that you have the data listed under all the headings in
Table 1.3.

1.2 ..........Your Power Requirements (Back)

First, you need to estimate how much power and energy you use at present, and how
much you will use, say, ten years from now. Normally some degree of load
management is used in mini-hydro plants. The loads shown in Table 1.1 assume some
degree of load management.

1.2.2 Load Estimates

An approximate estimate of the load will do at this stage. A more accurate estimate
will be made in Chapter 3. Using Table 1.1 to estimate your peak winter and summer
loads, select a value within the ranges given. These ranges indicate the difference in
loads due to different living styles and different climates. Take account of the
appliances you have, compared to those listed in the table, and the conservation or
extravagance in your use of electricity. Also consider the climate where you live: you
will use more electricity in the interior and northern parts of B.C. than you will on the
coast, on Vancouver Island, or in the Lower Mainland. Following the example below,
write down your expected future peak load value for the winter (November-April) and
summer (July-October). Use a future of 10 years time or whatever time span you wish
to consider for the hydro plant. If you want to make a more detailed estimate, turn to
the section on "Power and Energy Requirements" in Chapter 3. Do this only if you
want to learn more about load management: it gets quite complicated. Example: A
single family house with 2 bedrooms and workshop - electric lights, washer, drier,
fridge, freezer, kitchen appliances (no oil, propane or wood cooking stove), baseboard
and hot water heating, table saw, small hand tools. From Table 1.1: (In this example
case 3B, a 3 bedroom house without back-up for heating, is used to allow for additions
in the future.) Example Your Expected Loads Winter Maximum Load 12
kW ................ kW Summer Maximum Load 5 kW ................ kW (Write these values at
the top of Table 1.3)

1.2.3 Energy Conservation

Do you conserve energy as much as you can? Have you considered the following ways
of reducing your energy consumption, and thereby reducing your costs? - upgrading
insulation in basements, floors, walls, cedilings and attic; - adding storm windows or
double or triple glazing; - reducing air leaks by caulking and weatherstripping round
dorrs and windows; - servicing the oil or propane furnace and water heater; -
insulating the hot water tank and pipes;

1.3 ..........Power and Energy Definitions (Back)

The methods for calculating power and energy that are available from a stream are
covered in this section.
1.3.1 ..........Power

The calculation of the actual power from your stream is covered in Section 1.6, after
you have measured or estimated the flow and head. The theoretical power equation
(Equation 1-1) is P= Q x H x e x 9.81 Kilowatts (kW) (1-1) Where: P = Power at the
generator terminal, in kilowatts (kW). Q = Flow in pipeline, in cubic metres per
second (m3/s). H = The gross head from the pipeline intake to the tailwater, in metres
(m) (see Figure 1.2). e = The efficiency of the plant, considering head loss in the
pipeline and the efficiency of the turbine and generator, expressed by a decimal (ie
85% efficiency 0.85) 9.81 = Constant for converting flow and head to kilowatts. All
power systems produce less power than is theoretically available. The losses in a hydro
plant are: (a) losses in energy caused by flow disturbances at the intake to the pipeline,
friction in the pipeline, and further flow disturbances at valves and bends; and (b)
losses of power caused by friction and design inefficiencies in the turbine and
generator. The energy losses in the pipeline and at valves and bends, are called head
losses: they represent the difference between the gross head and the net head that is
available at the turbine (see Figure 1.2). The head losses in the pipeline could range
from 5 percent to 15 percent of the gross head, . depending on the length of the
pipeline and the velocity of the flow. The maximum turbine efficiency could range
from 80 percent to 90 percent depending on the type of turbine, and the generator
efficiency will be about 90 percent. At this stage in the planning of your hydro plant,
the head losses can be combined with the losses in the tubine and generator, and an
overall plant efficiency of 60 percent (or e = 0.60) can be used. Using e = 0.60 in
Equation 1-1, the actual power output at the generator can be calculated from the
following Equation 1-2: P x H x 5.9 (kW) (1-2) The Power Output Nomograph in
Figure 1.3 enables you to make quick estimates of power, flow or head. Example:
Suppose you know the lowest flow (discharge) in the stream (say 0.1 M3/s or 100 L/s),
and you know where to put the intake and powerhouse so you can estimate the head
(say 10 m). Example Your Values Flow 100 L/s L/s Head 10 m M In Figure 1.3 mark a
point (in pencil) at a flow of 100 L/s on the DISCHARGE (left) scale; on the HEAD
(right) scale mark a point at a head of 10 m. Draw a straight line between the two
points and where this line intersects the POWER (middle) scale is the estimated
power, in this case 5.9 kW. Power 5:9 kw' kW If you have been using your own values
of flow and head, and find that the power output is not enough for your power
requirements, don't worry: you're just trying out the nomograph. Later in this
chapter you will make the proper calculations. Other ways of using the nomograph
are: (a) to find the necessary flow, provided you know your power requirements and
can estimate the head available on the stream. Extend a straight line from the HEAD
scale through the POWER output scale and onto the DISCHARGE scale, or, (b) to
find the necessary head, provided you know your power requirements and can
estimate the minimum flow in the stream. 1-6 1.3.2 Energy The equation to calculate
energy is E = P x time Where: E = Energy, in kilowatt - hours (kW.h) P = Power, in
kilowatts kW Time = Time while power is generated or used Example: If you run a
1000 watt (1 kW) electric heater for 5 hours you use 5 kW.h of energy.

1.4 ..........Data Collection (Back)

Streamflow, head and pipeline length must be estimated or measured, before you can
calculate the power that could be developed from a stream. Streamflow is the most
difficult to measure or estimate. However you should have an understanding of its
sources, its fluctuations and flow measurements or estimates.

1.4.1 Streamflow

Streamflow comes from either rain or melting snow, but not all the rain or melting
snow immediately becomes streamflow. There are losses caused by evaporation from
the ground surface, transpiration by the vegetation whose roots have absorbed
moisture from the ground and from seepage or surface water into the ground to
become groundwater. This groundwater can take weeks or months to appear as
streamflow, and is therefore not available for power immediately after rain or
snowmelt. However, this groundwater is important, the major component of the
streamflow during dry periods in the summer or winter. A hydro project should be
designed for these dry, low flow periods. It is advised that you check both Fisheries
and Water Licenses statutes of the creek prior to doing much work, it might belong to
someone else.

Streamflow Fluctuations

We all know that streamflow fluctuates, often daily, always seasonally and yearly. To
visualise these fluctuations, values of flow are plotted against time, as shown on Figure
1.4 (A and B) these plots are called hydrographs. In Figures 1.4.A and 1.4B,
hydrographs of flows in 1980 are shown for six rivers in five different parts of B.C.
Notice the different patterns of flow in different parts of the province. The simplest
pattern is for Beatton Creek in southeast Interior (Figure 1.4A): (a) low flows in
January to March (cold weather). (b) rapidly increasing flows in April (snowmelt). (c)
high, erratic flows in May and June (snowmelt plus rain). steadily decreasing flows in
July and August (no further snowmelt). (d) low flows again through the winter. Brouse
Creek (Figure 1.4A), in the same area as Beatton Creek, is much smaller. The pattern
for these two creeks is similar except that in Brouse Creek the major snowmelt period
is in May only. Moving westward to the Coquihala River (Figure 1.4A), the effect of
winter rain is reflected in the extremely sharp peaks in December. A pronounced
snowmelt period lasted from April until June, and prolonged low flow periods
occurred in January and February and again between August and October. In the
North, the Cottonwood River hydrograph (Figure 1.4B) shows the prolonged low flows
caused by low temperatures from December through to the end of April. West of the
Coast Mountains, the Little Wedeene River hydrograph (Figure 1.4B) shows the effect
of heavy rain from September to December. The snowmelt period, April to June is not
so obvious because of the erratic rain peaks superimposed. Short periods of low flows
occurred in most months January - March and August - October. In the Northern
part of Vancouver Island, the pattern of flows for the Ucona River is less distinct;
erratic flows during the winter (rain and snowmelt), fairly steady flows April - June
(snowmelt), then decreasing flows to September (little rain). Knowing these patterns
will help you choose the right time of year to measure low flows and average flows.
You will also recognize the relation between low, average and high flows; this will
enable you to check the magnitude of your measurements or estimates.
Streamflow Measurements and Estimates While many larger streams and rivers in
B.C. have gauges installed by Federal or Provincial Government agencies, it is unlikely
that there will be a gauge on your stream. You will probably have to measure or
estimate the flow. There are several ways to measure flow: 1-8 (a) use a float to
measure velocity and a level and tape to measure the stream cross-section, (b)
construct a weir (A weir is a low dam over which the water flows) across the stream
and measure water levels or, (c) use a flow-meter to measure velocity, and a level and
tape to measure the stream cross-section. using a float is the easiest but the least
accurate method. Building a weir or using a flow-meter are the best methods for
establishing a semi-permanent measuring station to obtain flows for several months or
years. At this stage in the planning process, you should use the float method described
in Supplement 1 . 1 (at end of this chapter). What flows should be measured? This will
depend on the amount of water the hydro plant will take from the stream compared to
the minimum flow in the stream. You need to get an overall picture of the variations in
the flow of the stream. But the lowest flow is usually the most important because it can
limit the maximum power that can be produced. At this stage, you don't know how
much flow the hydro plant will take. But it is helpful, when deciding what stream flow
to measure, to keep in mind three situations: 1. The stream is large and only a small
portion of the lowest f low is needed for your hydro plant. If you know that you will
always have enough water for the plant. You don't have to measure the flow; you can
go onto the next section on "Head", however, if in doubt at all measure the flow.
Streamflow is difficult to eyeball. 2. The minimum flow in the stream is about equal to
or is slightly more than the flow needed to produce maximum power. You should
measure the lowest flow, then estimate the minimum flow that can be expected in the
stream: this is explained later. 3. The minimum flow in the stream is less than the flow
needed to produce maximum power, and water will have to be stored for part of the
year (water storage is discussed in Section 1.6.3), or a diesel generator will have to be
used when the flow is low. In this case, you need to know the low and average flows.
You should measure the lowest flow you can and also the average flow, several times.
If the stream dries in the summer or winter, measure the lowest flow about one month
before it normally dries. Measure the flow when it is low and/or average, according to
the three guidelines above. Make several measurements on different days.

1.5........ INSTALLATIONS (Back)

This is the time to decide on a preliminary arrangement for your hydro project: The
locations of the intake, dam, pipeline and powerhouse: and the type of turbine needed.
If possible, get a map of the area from a government office, a local logging company or
a forester with the Ministry of Forests maps, and where to get them are discussed in
Supplement 2.1 at the end of Chapter 3). Draw on the map the intake, dam, pipeline,
powerhouse, and transmission line. This will help you define the layout and help you
describe the project to someone else, such as a small hydro owner, a bank manager, a
person in the Water Rights Branch office:

To help you decide on a layout, the following considerations will be covered in this
section:
(a) run-of-river versus storage projects;

(b) typical project layouts;

(c) project structures ie. dam, weir, intake, canal, pipeline, powerhouse, tailrace,-

(d) to suitable turbines (Cross-flow, Francis and Pelton turbines) for love, medium and
high head projects;

(e) existing dams and;

(f) transmission lines.

1.5.1 Run-of-River versus Storage Projects

A run-of-river project is built to use some or most of the flow in a stream depending
upon the flow throughout the year. No attempt is made to store water for the dry
periods. A run-of-river project would not normally have a dam, other than an intake
weir, which is a very low structure at the intake. The intake weir keeps the water in
the stream high enough to fill the pipe at all times.

A storage project on the other hand, has a dam, which creates a water storage
reservoir to maintain flow in the stream during low flow periods. The intake to the
pipeline might be part of the dam or separate from it, depending on the location of the
pipeline.

1.5.2 Project Layouts

The layouts shown in Figure 1.5 are typical of most projects that would be built in
B.C.

Layout #1 is the simplest, with a weir or low dam across the stream, an intake to the
pipeline, the pipeline, powerhouse and tailrace channel (each structure is described in
more detail in Section 1.5.3). The weir forms a pond to ensure that there is always
water above the pipe at the intake; the pipeline carries the water, under pressure, to
the turbine in the powerhouse; the tailrace channel carries the water from the turbine
back into the stream, or into a lake or the sea.

Layout #2 illustrates a possible cost-saving arrangement, whereby a canal or low-
pressure pipeline is built to contour around a hillside, and a shorter high-pressure
pipeline, called a penstock, is used.

Layout #3 shows a pipeline intake incorporated in a storage dam.

Layout #4 shows a situation where there is a lake suitable for a storage reservoir some
way up the stream. A dam can be built at the lake to store water, which can be
released down the stream during dry periods.
Layout #5 and Layout #6 show the layout of a low head plant where there is less than
10 m gross head. Notice that there is no pipeline or dam. Layout #5 shows the weir,
intake and powerhouse combined into one structure. Layout #6 shows a power canal
between the intake and powerhouse.

Many aspects of a low head plant are different from those of a higher head plant (head
greater than 20 m): flows are higher, the turbine is larger, no pipeline is used. For
these reasons low head plants are discussed separately in Chapter 8.

1.5.3 Structures

The structures of a hydro project are described in detail in this section. Guidelines for
selecting sites for these structures are given in Chapter 2, Section 2.6. Suggestions are
given below for estimating dimensions for some of the structures. This will enable you,
in Section 1.8.1, to estimate the cost of your project.

Storage Dam

A storage dam, normally 3 m to 10 m high and constructed of earth or rock, should be
designed by an engineer.

There are many different designs for earth and rock dams. A typical earth-fill dam, as
shown in Figure 1.6, has a central section constructed of low permeable material
supported on either side by higher permeable material. The material has to be
carefully compacted in thin layers as it is built.

The pipe through the dam could continue to the turbine, or could discharge into the
stream or a canal at the downstream side of the dam. There would be a valve at the
upstream end of the pipe.

A spillway would be built into the dam to allow high flows to pass without overtopping
the dam. The crest of the spillway would be lower than the top of the dam.

Intake Weir

Normally you would need to build a low weir (1 m to 2 m high) across the stream at
the intake to the pipeline, to form a headpond (see Figure 1.6). This headpond would:

(a) ensure a high enough water level to keep water always above the top of the pipe.

(b) allow some of the sediment in the stream to settle out before entering the sediment
trap,

(c) allow an ice sheet to form, giving some protection against water freezing in the
pipeline, and

(d) provide pondage (water storage) to compensate for one or two-day water
shortages.

Water would flow over the weir most of the time.

While there are many ways to build a weir, concrete, rock-filled gabion and rockfilled
timber-crib structures are the most common for small hydro projects (see Figure 1.6).

If the weir is built across a narrow part of the stream and founded on bedrock, a
concrete structure would probably be the most economical. In other cases a concrete
structure would probably be the most expensive, but it would also last the longest
without maintenance.

A gabion is a wire-mesh box filled with rock. Assuming there is a good supply of rock
at the site, only the wire-mesh need be bought and transported to the site. Gabions are
not waterproof, so an impervious polyethylene membrane or asphalt sheeting would
be laid on the upstream side. Fill would be placed on the upstream side to protect the
membrane. A reinforced concrete cap should be placed on the top of the gabions to
protect them from the water and debris passing over the weir.

A rock-filled timber-crib dam is often the least costly weir to build, especially if rock
is,available at the site and timber can be cut nearby.- Timber or logs are placed in
alternate directions and spiked where they cross (see Figure 1.6). The bottom logs
should be anchored to the foundations, and the space between the logs should be filled
with rock. Wooden sheathing is attached to the upstream face and the crest, and often
sheathing is also placed on the downstream face. Low permeability fill should be
placed upstream to reduce seepage through the dam and foundations.

Water in the headpond must be kept at a certain height (called submergence) above
the top of the pipe, to prevent air entering the pipe. Values of submergence are given
below:

Pipe Diameter Submergence

less than 600 mm = 1.0 m

600 - 1200 mm = 1.5 m

(Pipe diameter is discussed in detail in the "Pipeline" section, which follows.)

The crest of the weir should be above the top of the pipe by an amount equal to 0.5 m
plus submergence.

Intake

The intake to the pipeline can be a separate structure, part of the intake weir, or part
of the storage dam. There are many types of intake. The sketch in Figure 1.6 shows the
components of a typical intake.
To prevent sediment from flowing into the turbine, a sediment trap can be built
upstream of the intake structure or within the structure; or immediately downstream,
as a separate self-flushing tank built into the pipe.

A trashrack prevents floating debris from entering the pipe. Trashracks must be
cleaned regularly.

Stop-logs or a valve should be provided to shut off the flow from the pipeline during
maintenance or repair of the pipe, or closure of the turbine during cold weather. An
air vent should be placed just downstream of the valve to prevent the pipeline
collapsing when it is emptied with the valve closed.

The top of the intake should be at least 0.5 m below the top of the weir.

Pipeline

To help you determine the preliminary arrangement and cost estimate of your project,
you also need to decide on pipe diameter, pipe material, above-ground or underground
pipe location, pipe support and anchore blocks.

You need to know the diameter of the pipeline to estimate its cost in Section 1.8.1. The
diameter can be read from the graph in Figure 1.7, by using your value of Qmin (from
Section 1.4.1, or from Table 1.3) on the horizontal axis, then reading the diameter on
the vertical axis.

Example: Your Values

pipe flow =Qmin.....................................200 L/s ...................................L/s

or 0.20 m3/s ....................................M3/s

Pipe Diameter D................................... 410 mm .........................mm

Write your value of pipe diameter in Table 1.3 for later reference.

Steel, cast iron, aluminum, polyethylene and PVC are materials used for small hydro
pipelines and penstocks. Generally, for the higher head sites in B.C. (above 20 m head)
polyethylene or PVC are used. When the head is greater than about 60 m, use of steel
at the lower end (higher head) of the pipeline is more economical.

PVC pipe should be buried for protection from the sun's ultraviolet rays and
polyethylene and cast iron pipes should be buried for potection against damage from
falling trees or rocks, or from logging machinery. If air temperatures normally stay
below -5C for more than five days at a time, the pipeline should be buried or insulated.

Supports must be provided for rigid pipes such as steel, cast iron, or aluminum, but
the more flexible polyethylene can be laid directly on the ground or on wooden
supports. Anchor blocks should be placed around the bends of all types of pipes. A
thrust block should be built at the lower end of the pipeline, just upstream of the
powerhouse.

Powerhouse

The size of the powerhouse is determined by the type and size of the turbine installed.
Figure 1.6 shows typical layouts for Pelton and Francis turbines. A low head plant
(less than 10 m head) looks quite different: See Chapter 5 for details.

The substructure -- which consists of the pedestal of the turbine and generator, the
draft-tube or discharge pit, and the floor slab - should be made of concrete. The
superstructure -which is above the floor and protects the machinery and electrical
controls from rain, heat, cold and vandalism -- can be made of wood frame, metal
frame, concrete block, log or self supporting metal panels. Make sure that the
superstructure allows the turbine and generator to be installed and removed for
repair.

Tailrace

The tailrace is a channel which leads the water from the turbine back into the stream,
a lake or the sea. It should prevent the water from damaging any structure or the
landscape.

1.5.4 Low, Medium and High Head

Low, medium and high head are terms used to indicate the most suitable type of
turbine for the project. The various types of turbines listed in the table below are
described in Section 4, "Turbines".

- Low Head up to 10 m Use: Cross-flow, axial-flow or propeller turbine

- Medium Head 10 m to 200 m Use: Cross-flow, Francis, Pelton or Turgo turbine

- High Head 200 m to 1000 m Use: Pelton, Turgo-impulse or Francis turbine

1.5.5 Existing Dams

If there is already a dam on a stream nearby, you should consider using it. First, find
out who owns it, then try to assess what repairs would have to be done if you were to
use it as an intake dam or a small storage dam. Could you incorporate in the dam an
intake for a pipeline? You should have an engineer check the dam before further
developing your plans for its use. You should also check with Water Management
Branch as a changed use could require the dam to be upgraded.

1.5.6 Transmission Line

If your load (i.e. house, bunkhouse, sawmill, etc.) is more than 100 m from your
powerhouse, you will need a transmission line, and probably step-up and step-down
transformers. Transmission lines are expensive ($17,000/km or more) so always plan
to put the powerhouse as close as possible to your load; however, they are less
expensive than pipelines so a trade off must be made.

1.6....... AVAILABLE POWER AND ENERGY (Back)

Now that you have measured, or estimated, the lowest expected flow (Qmin) and gross
head (Hg), you can calculate the power and energy available from the stream. To
calculate power, use the nomograph in Figure 1.3, or the power Equation 1-3, as
explained in Section 1.6.1. The calculation of energy is explained in Section 1.6.4.

1.6.1 Firm Power

Firm Power is the power that is always available from the stream, even at times of
lowest flow and lowest head. To calculate firm power you use the lowest expected flow
in the stream (Qmin) and the gross head (Hg). In the case of a low head plant (less
than about 10 m) in which the forebay level varies, the gross head should be measured
to the minimum forebay level.

Using these new symbols for Q and H, the power equation (1-2)

becomes: FIRM POWER (Pfirm) = Qmin x Hg x 5.9 kW (1-3)

Remember, in this equation, the overall plant efficiency is assumed to be 60 percent
because of head loss in the pipeline, and turbine and generator efficiencies. The
nomograph in Figure 1.3 was drawn from this equation.

With the values of Qmin and Hg that you have written into Table 1.3, use the
nomograph in Figure 1.3 to calculate the firm power Pfirm.

Example:

Example Your Values

On the nomograph enter:

Qmin 200 1/s 1/8

Hg 30 m m

From the nomograph:

Pfirm 35 kW kW

Write your Pfirm value - the firm power available from the stream into Table 1.3.

1.6.2 Design Capacity of Hydro Plant
The design capacity (or installed capacity) of your hydro plant is the maximum power
it can produce. For this stage in the planning process, assume that the design capacity
is made equal to the maximum load, using some load management, as discussed in
section 1.2.2. Also, assume that the plant can produce maximum output -equal to the
maximum controlled load -- when the flow in the stream is at its lowest. This means
that the plant will be able to produce all the power you need, even during dry periods.

These assumptions are summarized:

Design capacity of plant (kW) = Maximum load (kW) = Firm power (kW)

This is a simplifying assumption that is satisfactory for the calculations in Chapter 1, a
more detailed analysis is made in later chapters.

1.6.3 Storage Reservoir

If your hydro plant cannot produce enough power to meet your peak load when the
streamflow is low, you can:

(a) build a dam and create a storage reservoir, or

(b) Use a diesel generator or other source of power during low flow periods.

The stream might dry up completely in the summer or in the winter after several
weeks of very cold weather. Even with a storage reservoir or an alternative source of
power for these short no-flow periods, a hydro project might still be economic.

Decide if you want to build a storage dam or use an alternative source of power. If you
already have a diesel generator, you might choose to use that. If there is a lake
upstream of your planned pipeline intake, you might choose to build a small dam at
the outlet of the lake to control storage.

You do not have enough information yet to calculate the volume of storage you
require, or the height of the dam. How to calculate these is described in Chapter 3.
Until then, if you plan to build a dam, follow the guidelines in Section 1.8.1 for
including an allowance for the cost of the dam.

1.6.4 Energy

Next, estimate the average annual energy that you will use from your hydro plant. You
will need this in Section 1.8.2 to estimate your hydro energy cost (cents/kW.h). By
comparing this cost with the cost of alternative sources of energy, such as a diesel
generator or energy from a B.C. Hydro power line, you can decide if you wish to build
the hydro project.

The amount of energy that you will use from your hydro plant will depend on:
(a) the design capacity of the plant, compared to the flow and head available in the
stream, and

(b) the variations in your load (discussed in Section 1.2.1).

For each plant and stream, there is a specific set of conditions which has to be known
before you can calculate accurately the average annual energy output.

At this stage you do not have enough data, and simplifications must be made.

If you wanted to generate constant power equal to your maximum load (assuming
some degree of load management), the annual energy output would be:

B (annual) = Pdesign x 8760 kW.h (1-4)

Where:

E (annual) = Annual energy output (kW.h).

Pdesign = Firm power (kW) calculated in Section 1.6.1. 8760 = Number of hours in a
year.

However, your load will not be constant (as discussed in Section 1.2.1) and the design
capacity of the plant (Pdesign) would probably be larger than your maximum load, to
include the possibility of increased loads in the future. You will also have to shut down
the plant for maintenance. For these reasons, your actual annual energy output will be
less than indicated by Equation (1-4). To account for this, a Plant Factor (or Capacity
Factor) is used:

Plant Factor (PF) Average power generated during year Plant design capacity
(Pdesign)

The average annual energy output would then be:

E (annual) = Pdesign x PF x 8760 kWh (1-5)

Plant factors describe the way in which a plant operates over a period of time, say, for
several years.

For these preliminary estimates of average annual energy, use a plant factor of 80
percent. (A plant factor of 80 percent applies to a system with automatic load
management. If you do not intend to use automatic load management, use a plant
factor of 50 percent.)

Average annual energy is:

E (annual) = Pdesign x 0.8 x 8760 (1-6)
= Pdesign x 7000 kw.h

Example:

In the previous examples in Section 1.6.1 we calculated the Firm Power output of a
stream to be 35 kW. Assume that the plant is designed to produce maximum power
equal to this Firm Power from the stream.

Using Equation (1-6), the average annual energy used is:

E (annual) = 35 x 7000 kW.h

= 245,000 kW.h

1.7....... ADVISORS (Back)

Turbine manufacturers, pipe suppliers, contractors and electricians will give you free
advice. owners of small hydro plants, particularly those who have built their own, will
usually be pleased to tell you about their experiences and offer advice.

1.7.1 Engineers

You can hire an engineer to do part or all of the design of the project. An engineer can

(a) advise on specific problems such as, safety of the existing dam you might want to
use; foundations for a dam, pipeline supports or powerhouse; type of electrical or
mechanical equipment;

(b) design certain structures such as a dam, pipeline supports, an electrical load
control panel, or a turbine;

(c) make a preliminary study to confirm the feasibility of the project;

(d) prepare a feasibility report for a bank or investor from whom you want to borrow
money; or

(e) design and supervise the construction of the project.

Guidelines on the cost of these services are given in Section 1.8.1, "Engineering Costs".

Before you hire an engineer, contractor or any other professional person, ask for an
estimate of the cost of services and expenses to be paid. Ask him to write down exactly
what he will do and how long it will take. Make sure you understand what he said he
would do, and that this is what you want. When he's finished the job and you want
him to do more, or he suggests doing more, again, ask for an estimate on the additional
work. In that way you are in control of your expenses and you will avoid unpleasant
surprises when you receive his bill.
The decision to hire an engineer is yours, but there are typical situations under which
you are advised to hire an engineer:

(a) Dam Design: If you need to build a storage dam, or if your intake dam is more than
1.5 metres high, an engineer should check the design and the foundations.

(b) Existing Dam: If you plan to use an existing dam to store water, an engineer should
check the safety of the dam.

(c) Pipeline: If the head is greater than 30 m; if the length is longer than 300 m; or if
the diameter is larger than 0.5 m an engineer should review your design for
waterhammer, pipe strength, pipe supports and anchors. These limits are abribtrary
and may not apply to all sites.

(d) Excavations: If you have to excavate into a steep or unstable looking side slope for
an access road, pipeline or the powerhouse, an engineer should first check the stability
of the slope.

(e) Safety If there are residences downstream of any part of the project and you will be
changing the natural stream channel or leading water out of the natural channel in a
canal or pipeline), an engineer should check the safety of the project.

1.8.......PROJECT COSTS (Back)

1.8.1 Capital Costs

Your project cost estimates will be very preliminary at this stage. You can use the cost
curves in Figure 1-7 to 1-12 to find the cost of most of the components of your project.

You might want to buy used equipment or materials, such as:

- turbine
- pump - to be operated in reverse as a turbine
- generator
- other electrical equipment and wiring
- steel or plastic pipe

You can save 50 percent or more on the cost of new items. Ask turbine manufacturers
if they have a used turbine or generator that would suit your project. Scrapyards and
used equipment dealers are places to look for pumps, valves, electrical equipment,
wire and pipe. Used equipment and materials are advertised in newspapers and trade
journals and magazines.

No costs for used equipment are given in this manual -- you will have to estimate costs
based on your own enquiries. Beware, there are no guarantees on used equipment or
materials, so make sure you know what to look for to check that the equipment or
materials are in good condition.
When you have estimated the cost of each component, write it into the Summary of
Project Costs, near the end of this section.

Site Preparation

Timber and brush will probably have to be cleared at the site of the intake, along the
pipeline, at the powerhouse and along the transmission line. The storage reservoir, if
you need one will have to be cleared before you flood the area. A cat track or access
road might have to be built to get construction materials and equipment to the intake,
pipeline or powerhouse.

The cost of the work depends on the conditions at the site, therefore no cost curves are
given to help you make an estimate. You could ask a local contractor, logger or cat
owner for an approximate price.

Remember to include a cost -- even if it is only a guess -- for site preparation in your
project cost estimate.

Storage Dam

You decided in Section 1.6.3 whether or not you needed a storage dam. At this stage
you cannot make a reliable estimate of the cost of the dam. However, if you need to
build a dam, include a cost for it in the Summary of Project Costs to remind yourselt
that a dam could be a major part of the project cost. use the larger of the following
alternative costs:

(a) twice the cost of the intake weir (to be estimated next), or

(b) ten percent of the total civil, mechanical and electrical costs (to be calculated in the
Summary of Project Costs at the end of this section).

Intake weir

The intake weir could be built of concrete, rock gabions or rock-filled timber crib. A
concrete dam would probably be the most expensive, a rock-filled dam the least
expensive. Cost curves for concrete and gabion weirs only have been given in Figure
1.8. If you plan to build a timber-crib dam, you can make your own cost estimate or
use the cost curve for the gabion weir, knowing that you are probably over estimating
the cost of a timber-crib weir.

The curves in Figure 1.8 are for work done by a building contractor who pays union
wages. Costs can be as low as 60 percent of the costs shown in Figure 1.8 if you do not
hire a contractor and if the following conditions apply:

(a) you do most of the work yourself or pay wages at $12 per hour. and

(b) for the concrete dam you mix concrete at the site, or
(c) for the gabion dam you do not have to pay for delivery of rocks for the gabions
because there are rocks close to the site.

To find the cost of the weir using Figure 1.8:

(a) decide on the type of weir you will build,

(b) decide on the height of the weir

(c) select the height on the vertical axis, then read off the cost per metre of weir on the
horizontal axis,

(d) estimate the length of weir, and

(e) calculate the cost using the formula cost of weir = cost/m x length (m).

Example:

Concrete weir 1.5 m high, 6 m long, built by contractor.

Using Figure 1-8:

Example Your Values

Weir height ..................................... 1.5m .....................................................m

Weir Length .....................................6.0m ......................................................m

Cost per length of weir (b) .. 210 $/m ..................................................$/M

Cost of weir (a x b)...........................1260 $ .......................................................$

Pipeline Intake

In Figure 1.9 cost curves are shown for a free-standing intake for a gabion or rock-
filled timber weir, and for an intake for a concrete weir where the backwall of the
intake would be part of the concrete dam.

To find the cost of the intake using Figure 1.9

(a) select the pipeline diameter,

(b) find the submergence required for this pipe diameter, using the bottom graph,

(c) estimate the actual height of the intake (the headpond behind the intake weir might
be deeper than the minimum height required in Item 2 above),

(d) find the cost of the intake for the correct pipeline diameter, using the top graph,
and

(e) add the cost of the trashrack from the middle graph.

Example:

Pipe diameter (Section 1.5.3. "Pipeline") D = 410 mm

Submergence required (bottom graph Figure 1.9) = 1.0 m

Height of intake = height of weir (1.5 m) + 0.5 m = 2.0 m

Cost of intake (using 500 mm pipe diameter on Figure 1.9) = $670

Cost of trashrack for 400 mm pipe (middle graph figure 1.9) $180

Total Cost of Intake $850

Pipeline

Before you can calculate the cost of the pipeline, you must first make a sketch of the
pipeline route (as shown in Sketch (A) in Figure 1.10) and mark a few ground
elevations and lengths along the pipeline to define the profile. For example, EL. 10 m,
EL. 20 m, EL. 30 m; and Ll, L2, L3' This will enable you to estimate the head on
various sections of the pipeline, (as shown in Sketch (B)) and to choose the correct cost
for each section: this applies to polyethylene plastic pipes only.

In the table on Figure 1.10, Column #1 shows a Pipe Classification which corres nds to
a range of Gross Heads (or pressure heads) in Column #2. Each classification of pipe
can withstand a pressure head equal to the maximum in the range in Column #2, for
example, "A" pipe can withstand a gross head up to 31.6 m, and "B" pipe a gross head
of 42.2 m. This classification is for polyethylene pipe only; steel pipe is strong enough
to withstand a gross head in excess of 150 m.

For costing polyethylene pipe, mark off the maximum gross head in each classification
on your sketch of the pipeline starting from the intake, as in Sketch (B), Figure 1.10.
Then measure the length of each classification of pipe, for example LA, LB, LC in
Sketch (B).

For each classification, read from the table on Figure 1.10 the cost per metre of pipe
under the appropriate pipe diameter; multiply that unit cost by the length for that
classification to give the cost of that section of pipe.

Example:

Pipe diameter - 410 mm inside diameter. Assume a nominal outside diameter of 45U
mm.
Draw a table as shown below. The lengths LA, LB etc. are taken from your sketch,
similar to Figure 1.10, Sketch (B). The unit costs of pipe per metre are taken from the
table on Figure 1.10. We will assume a 500 mm pipe in this example, but you could
interpolate the cost for a 450 mm diameter pipe between the costs for pipes of 315 mm
and 500 im-n.

Pipe Length Unit Cost Cost of Section

Classification m $/m $

A LA = 50 155 7750

B LB = 10 205 2050

C LC = 20 265 5300

D LD = 13 324 4212

E LE = 13 518 6734

F LF = 10 518 5180

Total Cost of Pipeline $31,226

Note that the unit costs of 500 mm diameter pipe in Classes E and F are below the
heavy line in the table, indicating that they are steel pipe. A polyethylene pipe of that
diameter cannot withstand a gross head greater than 70.3 m (classification D).

Add the cost of a valve, from the table on Figure 1.10, to get the total cost of the
pipeline.

Powerhouse

Figure 1.11 shows cost curves for the powerhouse sub-structure (concrete foundations
and floor) and superstructure (wood or prefabricated metal).

For the sub-structure cost you need the rated output of your hydro plant in kW, which
you should already have estimated. Use the top graph on Figure 1.11 to find the sub-
structure cost.

The superstructure floor area depends on the physical dimensions of the turbine and
generator. The size is related to the penstock diameter. Use the bottom graph on
Figure 1.11 to find the cost of the superstructure for the penstock size and type of
turbine you have selected.

Add the costs of the sub-structure and superstructure to get the total powerhouse cost.
Turbine, Generator and Electrical Equipment

Use Figure 1.12 to estimate the cost of the turbine, generator and electrical equipment
in the powerhouse. You need to know the gross head (from Section 1.4.2) and the
energy output hydro plant in kW. To find the cost of the equipment, find the head on
the vertical axis, draw a line horizontally to intersect the diagonal line with the correct
range of plant output (you can interpolate between these lines), then draw a vertical
line down to the horizontal axis. Read the cost (in $/kW) of the equipment and
multiply by the plant output in kW.

The cost lines on Figure 1.12 were derived from manufacturers prices and show
average costs. They should be used only for initial estimates, since the prices you
actually pay for the turbine, generator and other electrical equipment could be as
much as 40 percent less than the costs given on Figure 1.12. You will generally get the
quality you pay for: low-priced turbines will probably be made of cheaper materials
and will probably require more repair than higher-priced turbines.

A very small turbine-generator unit (1.0 - 1.5 kw) with batteries and a battery-charger
might be suitable for lighting and a few appliances in a small, well-insulated house or
summer cabin. The cost of turbine, generator, batteries, and inverter would be about

1.0 kW $ 9000

1.5 kW $13000

Remember, if you will be converting from existing oil or propane heating to electric
heating, there will be additional costs for electric heaters and wiring at your house,
lodge, camp, or mill. These additional costs are not covered in this manual.

Transmission Lines and Cables

Use the table below to estimate the cost of transmission lines or cables running from
the hydro plant to the load. Refer to Chapter 4 for a discussion of voltages and
different types and sizes of cable you should use.

Wood Pole Transmission Line

3-phase, 2.4 kV, up to 250 kW: $17000/km

High Voltage Buried Cable

single-phase, up to 85 kW: $15000/km

Tailrace Channel

The tailrace channel is usually a minor cost item, however, a cost figure should be
included in the estimate. A cost curve cannot be prepared for the tailrace channel
because the channel dimensions depend entirely on the site. Make your own estimate
for this item or ask for an estimate from the person who advised you on the clearing
and access costs.

Contingencies

Contingencies are unexpected costs.

The cost curves in Figure 1.8 to 1.12 were drawn using cost estimates from
manufacturers, suppliers and contractors, and using costs of projects recently built.
However, the cost of your project will probably be more than you have estimated so
far: that's the way things usually turn out. Some reasons for this:

1. The project you build might be more complicated than the one you have planned.

2. The dimensions of the project you build might be larger than you have estimated.

3. The cost curves do not include every possible expense.

4. Unexpected problems will probably arise during construction.

5. Add more if the project has accessability problems.

To avoid surprises, be conservative. Add a contingency item to your cost estimate, as
follows:

1. Add 15 percent if you think your project will be easy to build, and you think you
have included everything.

2. Add 25 percent if you think your project might be more complicated than most, or if
you think you might have underestimated some of the dimensions such as, length of
penstock or transmission line.

Engineering Costs

You have probably decided whether or not you will hire an engineer. This section
suggests costs to expect for engineering services.

Even if you want to do all the planning yourself, you should still provide for the cost of
expert advice you might need unexpectedly.

If you do hire an engineer, here are some guidelines to help you estimate the costs. For
advice on specific problems, or the design of certain structures, engineers normally
charge hourly or daily rates for their services:

$30 to $70 per hour; $200 to $500 per day.

For a visit to the site, an engineer would expect to be paid, probably at a reduced rate,
while he was travelling, and he would want to be paid for reasonable expenses.
Generally, a self-employed engineer will charge less than a firm of engineers which has
to cover higher overheads.

If you have to borrow money to build the project, the banks, or other investor, may
ask for a feasibility study report to show:

(a) the availability of a site for your project,

(b) the availability of sufficient flow and head to produce the power and energy you
need,

(c) an estimate of the costs of the project, and

(d) a simple financial analysis showing loan repayments and other facts the bank or
investor might require.

For a feasibility study and report, expect to pay between a minimum of $2000 (that
would be a nominal fee) and, $7000 to $15000 for a project of 50 kW to 250 kW.

For a feasibility study report, and the complete design and construction supervision of
a project, expect to pay 5 to 15 percent of the project cost, or a minimum of $8000.

Remember, before you hire an engineer or other expert, ask for an estimate of the cost
and a letter detailing exactly what the engineer will do for the money.

Summary of Project Costs

Make a list of all the costs that apply to your project.

Example Costs Your Project Costs

Clearing and Access $1000 ......................$

Storage Dam $0 ......................$

Intake $1300 .....................$

Pipeline $31900 .....................$

Turbine, Generator, Electrical Equipment $45500 .....................$

Powerhouse $10700 .....................$

Transmission Line $8000 ....................$

TOTAL COST OF STRUCTURES AND EQUIPMENT (a) $98400 ....................$
Engineering $7000 ....................$

Contingencies (15% of (a)) $15000 ....................$

TOTAL PROJECT COST $120,400 ....................$

Cost per kW

To check the cost of your project, compare its "Cost per kW" with other plants. To get
the cost in $/kW, divide the total project cost by the design capacity of the plant (from
Section 1.6.2).

Example Your Figures

Total Project Cost (from Summary of Project Costs) $120,400 ..................................$

Design Capacity (from Section 1.6.2) 35 kW ..............................kW

Cost per kW...............................3,440 $/kW ...........................$/kW

The cost per kW should be within the range of $2000 to $5000 per kW.

If your figure is around $2000 per kW you have a good project. If the figure is around
$5000 per kW, you still might have a project that is cheaper than an alternative power
source, such as diesel. You will know this when you have calculated the annual cost of
your plant in Section 1.8.2.

Degree of Confidence in Project Cost Estimate

Only an approximation of the actual project cost can be expected at this stage in the
planning process, when the structures have yet to be designed and the sites have yet to
be carefully examined. Nevertheless, the actual project cost will probably be within 25
percent of your estimate.

1.8.2 Annual Costs

You should be aware of the annual cost of energy, including loan payments and
maintenance and repair costs, of your hydro project. You might want to compare that
cost with the cost of energy from a diesel generator or from a nearby transmission line.

Loan Payments

Decide how much you will have to borrow to cover the total project cost, then calculate
your annual payments (capital and interest) using a Capital Cost Recovery Factor
(CRF) from Table 1.2.

Example:
Assume you want to repay a loan in 10 years, and the interest rate is 10 percent.

Example Your Values

- Total Project Cost $120400 $..............................

- Equity Available for Project $ 30400 $..............................

- Loan Required (a) $ 90000 $..............................

From Table 1.2:

For: n 10 years ........................years

I =10% ...............................%

Find: CRF 0.163 .................................

Annual Loan Payment:

(CRF) x (a) 0.163 x 90000 ........................X......................

=....... $14,670 $...............................................

Maintenance and Repair Costs

Maintenance and repair costs include maintaining the intake, dam, pipeline,
powerhouse and the mechanical and electrical equipment. The maintenance work that
should be done is discussed in Chapter 3. However, for this initial estimate of annual
costs, use 2% of the Total Project Cost, or $2000 minimum annual maintenance cost.

Total Annual Costs

Add the annual loan payments and the annual maintenance and repair costs to get the
total annual cost. Divide this by the estimated annual energy output (from Section
1.6.4) to get the cost per kW.h.

Example:

Example Your Values

- Annual Loan Payment $14,670 ...........$

- Annual Maintenance & Repair Costs $ 2400 ...........$

-Total Annual Costs (a) $17,070 ...........$Annual Energy Output (from section 1.6.4) (b)
245000 kW.h kW.h
- Cost per kW.h = (a) x 100/(b) = 7.0cents/kW.h cents/kW.h

1.9 ..........Project Worth (Back)

1.10 ..........Continued Planning (Back)

1.11 ..........Project Data Summary (Back)

SUPPLEMENT / MEASURING HEAD AND STREAMFLOW / PRELIMINARY

CHAPTER #2 - SITE EXPLORATION AND STREAMFLOW DATA

2.1 ..........Introduction

2.2 ..........Topographic Maps

2.3 ..........Streamflow Data

2.4 ..........Streamflow Measurement

2.5 ..........Water Quality

2.6 ..........Site Selection for Project Structure

2.7 ..........Head Measurement

2.8 ..........Pipeline Length

2.9 ..........Project Site Topography

2.10 ..........Environmental Aspects

SUPPLEMENT 2.1:

Maps, Air Photos, Streamflow and Climate Data

SUPPLEMENT 2.2:

Installing a Staff Gauge and Weir to Measure Streamflow

CHAPTER #3 - ASSESSMENT OF THE FEASIBILITY OF YOUR HYDRO
MANUAL

3.1 ..........Introduction

3.2 ..........Power and Energy Requirements
3.3 ..........Load Planning and Management

3.4 ..........Power and Energy Availability

3.5 ..........Small Hydro Plant Sizing

3.6 ..........Preliminary Arrangement of Structures and Selection of Equipment

3.7 ..........Project Costs

3.8 ..........Preliminary Assessment of Feasibility

3.9 ..........Continued Planning

SUPPLEMENT 3.1:

Flow Duration Curves

SUPPLEMENT 3.2

Calculating Reservoir Storage

SUPPLEMENT 3.3

Information from Turbine-Generator Manufacturers and Suppliers

CHAPTER #4 - CIVIL WORKS AND EQUIPMENT

Introduction

4.1 ..........Dams

4.2 ..........Intake Structures

4.3 ..........Diversions

4.4 ..........Maintenance of Dams and Intakes

4.5 ..........Factors affecting costs and construction

4.6 ..........Penstock Design

4.7 ..........Characteristics of Pipes

4.8 ..........Plastic Penstocks

4.9 ..........Steel Penstocks
4.10 ..........Forces and Trust Blocking

4.11 ..........Installation of Penstocks

4.12 ..........Water Hammer

4.13 ..........Valves

4.14 ..........Canals, Flumes and Lines Channels

4.15 ..........Turbines

4.16 ..........Water Control to Turbine

4.17 ..........Mechanical Governors

4.18 ..........Electronic Load Control Governors

4.19 ..........Tailwater

4.20 ..........Draft Tubes

4.21 ..........Pumps as Turbines

4.22 ..........Generators

4.23 ..........Mechanical Power Transmission

4.24 ..........Induction Generators

4.25 ..........Synchronizing

4.26 ..........Power Factor

4.27 ..........Electrical Transmission

4.28 ..........Transformers

4.29 ..........Single and Three Phase Systems

4.30 ..........Automatic Emergency Shutdown

4.31 ..........Remote Alarms

4.32 ..........D.C. Systems

4.33 ..........Electrical Inspection and Codes
4.34 ..........Powerhouse Design

4.35 ..........Technical Requirements for Grid Connected Plants

4.36 ..........Consultants, Suppliers and Contractors

CHAPTER #5 - PERMITS, LICENSES AND LEGAL ASPECTS FOR SMALL
HYDRO

5.1 ..........Introduction

5.2 ..........Local Involvement

5.3 ..........Provincial Involvement

5.4 ..........Federal Government

5.5 ..........Recommendations APPENDIX

CHAPTER #6 - ECONOMICS AND FINANCING

6.1 ..........Introduction

6.2 ..........Valuation of Energy

6.3 ..........Alternative Energy Costs

6.4 ..........Detailed Economic Assessment

6.5 ..........Financing Alternatives

CHAPTER #7 - GETTING STARTED

7.1 ..........General

7.2 ..........Project Scheduling

7.3 ..........Project Construction

7.4 ..........Practical Notes on Building a Small Hydro Plant

7.5 ..........Practical Notes on Dealing With a Contractor

7.6 ..........Conclusions

CHAPTER #8 - LOW HEAD CONSIDERATIONS
8.1 ..........Introduction

8.2 ..........Water Wheels

8.3 ..........Modern Turbine Types

8.4 ..........Package Visits

8.5 ..........Variable Heads

CHAPTER #9 - COLD WEATHER CONSIDERATIONS

9.1 .......... Cause and Effect

9.2 ..........Climate

9.3 ..........Frost

9.4 ..........Cold Weather

9.5 ..........Ice

9.7 ..........The Dam or Diversion Structure

9.8 ..........Intake Structure

9.9 ..........Canal

9.10 ..........Penstocks

9.11 ..........Powerhouse

9.12 ..........Transmission Lines

9.13 ..........Access

9.14 ..........Conclusion

CHAPTER #10 - ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF A PUBLIC UTILITY

10.1 ..........Introduction

10.2 ..........Rationale for Utility Regulation

10.3 ..........Relevant Registration

10.4 ..........Regulatory Alternatives
10.5 ..........Application Procedure

10.6 ..........Organizational Structure and Accounting Procedures

10.7 ..........Implications to Organizing and Operating as a Public Utility

*GLOSSARY*

A ..........Case Study Examples

B ..........Permit Applications and Agency Addresses

C ..........Small Hydro Suppliers and Contractors

D ..........Small Hydro Consultants

E ..........Small Hydro Computer Programs

F ..........Definitions

G ..........Sources of Financing

H ..........References

Ron Williams
rwilliam@wlake.com
usion

CHAPTER #10 - ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF A PUBLIC UTILITY

10.1 ..........Introduction

10.2 ..........Rationale for Utility Regulation

10.3 ..........Relevant Registration

10.4 ..........Regulatory Alternatives

10.5 ..........Application Procedure

10.6 ..........Organizational Structure and Accounting Procedures

10.7 ..........Implications to Organizing and Operating as a Public Utility

*GLOSSARY*

A ..........Case Study Examples
B ..........Permit Applications and Agency Addresses

C ..........Small Hydro Suppliers and Contractors

D ..........Small Hydro Consultants

E ..........Small Hydro Computer Programs

F ..........Definitions

G ..........Sources of Financing

H ..........References

Ron Williams
rwilliam@wlake.com