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MODEL QDR -2000 and

QDR -2000plus

SUPINE LATERAL X-RAY BONE DENSITOMETER

TECHNICAL MANUAL

Hologic Inc.
590 Lincoln Street
Waltham, MA 02154

080-0271

RECORD OF REVISIONS
Document # 080- 0271
Date:

Revision:

Description:

9/9/91

Release document.

2/18/92

Replaces Cover page, Table of Contents, Appendix G and Appendix H.


Adds Record of Revisions page and pages 2-8 and 2-9.

9/1/92

Replace Cover page, Appendix G, Appendix H, Index 4, and pages vi, 42 - 4-3, 5-11 - 5-20, and 6-41.

11/2/92

Replace Cover page, pages H-3 - H-4.

7/6/93

Replaces Cover page, Table of Contents, Index, Section 3, pages 2-1, 42, 5-13, and 5-15

8/25/94

Add QDR-2000plus information. Replaces Cover page, Table of


Contents, Index, Section 2 through Section 6, and various changes in
Appendix A, Appendix C and Appendix G.

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 PREFACE .................................................................................................................1-1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

DISCLAIMER ............................................................................................................................ 1-1


PROPRIETARY INFORMATION NOTICE ............................................................................ 1-1
WARRANTY NOTICE .............................................................................................................. 1-1
CONTACTING HOLOGIC FOR SUPPORT........................................................................... 1-1
LICENSE REQUIREMENTS.................................................................................................... 1-2
QUALIFICATIONS.................................................................................................................... 1-2
SAFETY ...................................................................................................................................... 1-3
ELECTRICAL HAZARDS................................................................................................. 1-3
X-RADIATION HAZARDS............................................................................................... 1-3
MECHANICAL HAZARDS............................................................................................... 1-4
LASER RADIATION HAZARDS...................................................................................... 1-4
PROTECTION OF SERVICE PERSONNEL ................................................................... 1-4
PROTECTION OF OPERATOR AND PATIENT............................................................ 1-4
1.8 REFERENCE MATERIAL ........................................................................................................ 1-5
QDR-2000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL .............................................................................. 1-5
COMPUTER OPERATOR'S MANUAL........................................................................... 1-5
DOS OPERATING SYSTEM MANUAL.......................................................................... 1-5
PRINTER MANUAL.......................................................................................................... 1-5
OPTICAL DISK DRIVE MANUAL .................................................................................. 1-5

2.0 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................2-1
2.1 SPECIFICATIONS..................................................................................................................... 2-1
MACHINE AND ROOM DIMENSIONS......................................................................... 2-2
MINIMUM ENTRANCE CLEARANCE.......................................................................... 2-3
2.2 SYSTEM OVERVIEW............................................................................................................... 2-4
2.3 THEORY OF OPERATION....................................................................................................... 2-6
FAN-BEAM AND PENCIL-BEAM GEOMETRIES....................................................... 2-8

3.0 INITIAL INSTALLATION........................................................................................3-1


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

RECOMMENDED TOOLS & SUPPLIES............................................................................... 3-1


ROOM SIZE ............................................................................................................................... 3-2
ARRANGE FOR HELP ............................................................................................................. 3-2
INSPECT FOR VISIBLE SHIPPING DAMAGE..................................................................... 3-2
UNCRATE UNIT........................................................................................................................ 3-2
UNCRATING MAIN QDR ASSEMBLY.......................................................................... 3-2
UNCRATING C-ARM ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLING CASTERS............................ 3-3
3.6 INSPECT FOR HIDDEN SHIPPING DAMAGE .................................................................... 3-3
3.7 TAKE INVENTORY.................................................................................................................. 3-3
3.8 WALK AND MEASURE PATH FROM DOCK TO DESTINATION.................................... 3-4
3.9 MOVE TO DESTINATION ....................................................................................................... 3-4
TIPPING THE UNIT........................................................................................................... 3-4
SET UP ................................................................................................................................ 3-5
3.10 CHECK POWER LINE VOLTAGE....................................................................................... 3-8
MEASURE LINE VOLTAGE............................................................................................ 3-8
MEASURE ISOLATION TRANSFORMER SECONDARY VOLTAGE ....................... 3-8
3.11 CHECK FILTER WHEEL PHASING.................................................................................... 3-9
3.12 CHECK TUBE KV PEAK POTENTIAL................................................................................ 3-9
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Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17
3.17
3.18
3.19

3.20
3.21
3.22
3.23

CHECK TUBE CURRENT......................................................................................................3-10


CHECK ALIGNMENT OF X-RAY BEAM............................................................................3-10
CHECK HVPS/S (TANK) FOR RADIATION LEAKAGE ...................................................3-10
CHECK LASER POSITIONING OFFSET & COPPER FOIL..............................................3-11
FINISH REASSEMBLING UNIT............................................................................................3-11
RUN PMT DETECTOR BIAS VOLTAGE .............................................................................3-12
RUN BACKLASH UTILITY PROGRAM ..............................................................................3-13
PERFORM BEAM FLATTENING PROCEDURE................................................................3-14
STEP 1 - NORMAL ARRAY BEAM FLATTENING.......................................................3-14
STEP 2 - FIVE SECOND ARRAY BEAM FLATTENING ..............................................3-16
STEP 3 - LATERAL ARRAY BEAM FLATTENING.......................................................3-17
MEASURE X-RAY DOSE TO PATIENT...............................................................................3-18
MEASURE X-RAY SCATTER FROM PHANTOM..............................................................3-18
CALIBRATE MACHINE.........................................................................................................3-19
TEST ALL FUNCTIONS OF THE MACHINE.......................................................................3-21

4.0 MAINTENANCE & SERVICE .................................................................................4-1


4.1 GENERAL...................................................................................................................................4-1
SERVICE PHILOSOPHY...................................................................................................4-1
RETURNED MATERIAL AUTHORIZATIONS...............................................................4-1
COMPONENT SUBSTITUTIONS.....................................................................................4-1
SOFTWARE MODIFICATION OR SUBSTITUTIONS ...................................................4-1
4.2 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ..............................................................................................4-2
CUSTOMER PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE................................................................4-2
FIELD SERVICE PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE.........................................................4-2
4.3 PROBLEM LOCALIZATION ...................................................................................................4-4
IMAGING/X-RAY GENERATION PROBLEMS............................................................4-4
PRECISION PROBLEMS..................................................................................................4-5
MOTION PROBLEMS.......................................................................................................4-6
NOISE PROBLEMS ...........................................................................................................4-7
DATA STORAGE & RETRIEVAL PROBLEMS..............................................................4-7
MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS.....................................................................................4-8
DETECTING ARCING IN THE HVPS\SOURCE............................................................4-8
4.4 ORDERING SPARE PARTS .....................................................................................................4-9
QDR-2000 RECOMMENDED SPARE PARTS LIST.....................................................4-9

5.0 SOFTWARE..............................................................................................................5-1
5.1 SOFTWARE INSTALLATION AND UPGRADES..................................................................5-1
PROTECTION OF CUSTOMER'S DATABASE ..............................................................5-1
RESTORING THE QDR DATABASE...............................................................................5-1
MANUALLY RESTORING THE QC DATABASE..........................................................5-5
MOVING A QDR-1000 DATABASE TO A QDR-2000.................................................5-5
INSTALLING SOFTWARE OPTIONS .............................................................................5-5
INSTALLING SOFTWARE UPGRADES.........................................................................5-6
COMPLETE SOFTWARE INSTALLATION....................................................................5-6
5.2 FILE ORGANIZATION..............................................................................................................5-7
5.3 MAINTENANCE, SERVICE AND DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE ...........................................5-11
5.4 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE ......................................................................................................5-20
THE SURVEY PROGRAM................................................................................................5-20
Statistical Information.........................................................................................5-22
Dark Current Adjustment ....................................................................................5-25

6.0 COMPONENT OVERVIEW.....................................................................................6-1


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Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

COMPUTER...................................................................................................................................... 6-1
INTEL COMPUTER........................................................................................................... 6-1
HYUNDAI COMPUTER ................................................................................................... 6-3
HARD DRIVE..................................................................................................................... 6-4
FLOPPY DRIVE................................................................................................................. 6-4
OPTICAL DRIVE OPTION ............................................................................................... 6-4
DISPLAY ADAPTER........................................................................................................................ 6-4
SCSI INTERFACE BOARD.............................................................................................................. 6-6
MONITOR.......................................................................................................................................... 6-6
PRINTER OPTIONS ......................................................................................................................... 6-7
MITSUBISHI VIDEO PRINTER....................................................................................... 6-7
HP DESKJET...................................................................................................................... 6-7
HP LASERJET.................................................................................................................... 6-7
DETECTORS ..................................................................................................................................... 6-7
DETECTOR PCB CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENTS....................................... 6-9
PMT HV POWER SUPPLY PROGRAMMER............................................................................... 6-11
ARRAY ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER PCB ................................................................... 6-13
A/D BOARD CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENTS............................................... 6-14
A/D THEORY OF OPERATION:...................................................................................... 6-15
MOTOR & DRIVE PC BOARD....................................................................................................... 6-19
PC BOARD LAYOUT........................................................................................................ 6-20
MOTOR & DRIVE CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENTS..................................... 6-21
M&D THEORY OF OPERATION:................................................................................... 6-23
TIMING AND CONTROL INTERFACE PCB................................................................................ 6-29
T&C INTERFACE DIP SWITCH SETTINGS .................................................................. 6-29
T&C INTERFACE CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENTS...................................... 6-29
AT BUS INTERFACE BOARD ........................................................................................................ 6-30
X-RAY CONTROLLER.................................................................................................................... 6-31
THEORY OF OPERATION............................................................................................... 6-31
X-RAY CONTROLLER CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENTS ............................ 6-34
TESTING THE X-RAY CONTROLLER BOARD ........................................................... 6-35
HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY AND X-RAY SOURCE...................................................... 6-37
MOTION CONTROL PANELS........................................................................................................ 6-37
TOP MOTION CONTROL PANEL.................................................................................. 6-37
FRONT MOTION CONTROL PANEL............................................................................. 6-38
GENEVA POSITION ENCODER BOARDS................................................................................... 6-40
OPTICAL ENCODERS..................................................................................................................... 6-41
MOTION COUNTER PC BOARD................................................................................................... 6-42
MOTION COUNTER PCB CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENT.......................... 6-43
MOTORS............................................................................................................................................ 6-44
X AND Y-AXIS STEPPER MOTORS.............................................................................. 6-44
TABLE STEPPER MOTOR............................................................................................... 6-45
ARRAY (Detector) STEPPER MOTOR........................................................................... 6-46
FILTER WHEEL MOTOR................................................................................................. 6-47
GENEVA WHEEL MOTOR.............................................................................................. 6-48
POWER SUPPLIES .......................................................................................................................... 6-49
LOW VOLTAGE (+5V, +/-15V DC) POWER SUPPLY ............................................... 6-49
5V DC POWER SUPPLY.................................................................................................. 6-50
24V DC POWER SUPPLY ............................................................................................... 6-51
28V DC POWER SUPPLY ............................................................................................... 6-52
PMT HV POWER SUPPLY.............................................................................................. 6-53
POWER DISTRIBUTION PANEL................................................................................................... 6-54
POWER DISTRIBUTION PANEL BLOCK DIAGRAM ................................................ 6-54
P.D.P. CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENT............................................................ 6-58
Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

iii

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

TRANSITION CONNECTOR PANEL CONNECTIONS ...............................................................6-59


TRANSITION CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENT................................................6-59

7.0 MECHANICAL SUBASSEMBLIES.........................................................................7-1


COLLIMATOR & GENEVA WHEEL .............................................................................................7-1
DETECTOR ARRAY .........................................................................................................................7-4
BASE...................................................................................................................................................7-8
LOWER CARRIAGE.........................................................................................................................7-12
Y-AXIS LEADSCREW......................................................................................................................7-14
X-AXIS LEADSCREW .....................................................................................................................7-15
TABLE BELT PATH..........................................................................................................................7-16

APPENDICES
APPENDIX A- PICKOFF ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURE
APPENDIX B - X-RAY KV PEAK POTENTIAL CHECK
APPENDIX C - X-RAY TUBE CURRENT PEAK POTENTIAL CHECK
APPENDIX D - X-RAY BEAM ALIGNMENT CHECK
APPENDIX E - CHECKING THE HVPS/SOURCE FOR RADIATION LEAKAGE
APPENDIX F - SURVEYING THE SYSTEM FOR SCATTER RADIATION & PATIENT DOSE
APPENDIX G - FIELD CALIBRATION\VERIFICATION PROCEDURE
APPENDIX H - CROSS-CALIBRATING A QDR-2000 TO A QDR-1000
APPENDIX I - ADJUSTING X-RAY PULSE ENERGIES
APPENDIX J - ERROR MESSAGES

GLOSSARY
INDEX

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Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 2-1 QDR-2000 and QDR-2000plus Overall Dimensions .............................................................. 2-3
Figure 2-2 Room Layout ............................................................................................................................... 2-3
Figure 2-3 QDR-2000 and QDR-2000plus System Block Diagram ......................................................... 2-5
Figure 2-4 Q Image Plot ................................................................................................................................ 2-7
Figure 2-5 QDR-2000 and QDR-2000plus Fan-Beam and Pencil-Beam Geometry................................. 2-9
Figure 3-1 Transition Connector Panel (side of C-arm) ............................................................................ 3-6
Figure 3-2 Isolation Transformer ................................................................................................................. 3-8
Figure 3-3 Laser Offset Dimension ............................................................................................................. 3-11
Figure 3-4 Sample PMTVOLTS.TXT File................................................................................................... 3-12
Figure 3-5 "Backlash" Phenomenon.............................................................................................................. 3-13
Figure 3-6 X-ray Beam Propagation............................................................................................................. 3-14
Figure 5-2 Motor and Laser Control Pad..................................................................................................... 5-17
Figure 5-2 SURVEY2 Program..................................................................................................................... 5-20
Figure 6-1 Intel Classic E Computer Assembly.......................................................................................... 6-2
Figure 6-2 Hyundai Computer Assembly..................................................................................................... 6-3
Figure 6-3 Paradise VGA Display Adapter (PVGA) ................................................................................... 6-5
Figure 6-4 Supercom VGA Display Adapter (ZPVGA) .............................................................................. 6-5
Figure 6-5 Unique VGA Display Adapter (MVGA-P1C) ........................................................................... 6-6
Figure 6-6 16-Channel PMT Amp PCB ....................................................................................................... 6-8
Figure 6-7 PMT Programmer Schematic..................................................................................................... 6-12
Figure 6-8 PMT Programmer Assembly...................................................................................................... 6-12
Figure 6-9 Multi-Channel A/D PC Board .................................................................................................... 6-13
Figure 6-10 A/D Block Diagram (1 of 2) .................................................................................................... 6-15
Figure 6-11 A/D Block Diagram (2 of 2) .................................................................................................... 6-17
Figure 6-12 Motor & Drive PC Board Assembly ....................................................................................... 6-20
Figure 6-13 Motor & Drive 50Hz & 60Hz Timing Diagrams.................................................................... 6-25
Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Figure 6-14 Timing & Control Interface PCB Assembly ...........................................................................6-29


Figure 6-15 AT Bus Interface ........................................................................................................................6-30
Figure 6-16 X-ray Controller Block Diagram .............................................................................................6-32
Figure 6-17 X-ray Controller Timing Diagram............................................................................................6-32
Figure 6-18 150-0001 X-ray Controller.....................................................................................................6-33
Figure 6-19 150-0002 X-ray Controller.....................................................................................................6-33
Figure 6-20 150-0002 X-ray Controller with Booster Board...................................................................6-34
Figure 6-21 X-ray Controller Waveforms ...................................................................................................6-35
Figure 6-22 Power Limiter Waveforms .........................................................................................................6-36
Figure 6-23 Top Motion Control Panel........................................................................................................6-37
Figure 6-24 Front Motion Control Panel .....................................................................................................6-38
Figure 6-25 Motion Control Panel Schematic.............................................................................................6-39
Figure 6-26 Geneva Wheel Position Encoder Schematic...........................................................................6-40
Figure 6-27 Optical Encoder Output Circuit & Connections .....................................................................6-41
Figure 6-28 Motion Counter Schematic.......................................................................................................6-42
Figure 6-29 Motion Counter PC Board Assembly......................................................................................6-43
Figure 6-30 X and Y-axis Stepper Motor Assembly ...................................................................................6-44
Figure 6-31 Table Stepper Motor Assembly................................................................................................6-45
Figure 6-32 Array Stepper Motor Assembly................................................................................................6-46
Figure 6-33 Filter Wheel Motor Assembly .................................................................................................6-47
Figure 6-34 Geneva (Collimator) Wheel Motor Assembly........................................................................6-48
Figure 6-35 Low Voltage Power Supply Assembly.....................................................................................6-49
Figure 6-36 5V DC Power Supply Assembly...............................................................................................6-50
Figure 6-37 24V DC Power Supply Assembly.............................................................................................6-51
Figure 6-38 28V DC Power Supply Assembly.............................................................................................6-52
Figure 6-39 High Voltage Power Supply......................................................................................................6-53
Figure 6-40 Power Distribution Panel Block Diagram...............................................................................6-54
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Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Figure 6-41 Power Distribution Panel Assembly (1 of 2) ......................................................................... 6-55


Figure 6-42 Power Distribution Panel Assembly (2 of 2) ......................................................................... 6-56
Figure 6-43 Power Distribution Panel Assembly Parts List...................................................................... 6-57
Figure 7-1 Collimator & Geneva Wheel Assembly (1 of 2)...................................................................... 7-1
Figure 7-2 Collimator & Geneva Wheel Assembly (2 of 2)...................................................................... 7-2
Figure 7-3 Collimator & Geneva Wheel Assembly Parts List................................................................... 7-3
Figure 7-4 Detector Array Assembly (1 of 3)............................................................................................. 7-4
Figure 7-5 Detector Array Assembly (2 of 3)............................................................................................. 7-5
Figure 7-6 Detector Array Assembly (3 of 3)............................................................................................. 7-6
Figure 7-7 Detector Array Assembly Parts List.......................................................................................... 7-7
Figure 7-8 Base Assembly (1 of 3) .............................................................................................................. 7-8
Figure 7-9 Base Assembly (2 of 3) .............................................................................................................. 7-9
Figure 7-10 Base Assembly (3 of 3) ............................................................................................................ 7-10
Figure 7-11 Base Assembly Parts List......................................................................................................... 7-11
Figure 7-12 Lower Carriage Assembly........................................................................................................ 7-12
Figure 7-13 Lower Carriage Assembly Parts List....................................................................................... 7-13
Figure 7-14 Y-axis Leadscrew Assembly .................................................................................................... 7-14
Figure 7-15 X-axis Leadscrew Assembly.................................................................................................... 7-15
Figure 7-16 Table Belt Path (viewed from the front) ................................................................................. 7-16
Figure 7-17 Table Belt Path (viewed from the rear) ................................................................................... 7-16

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

vii

Section 1 - Preface

1.0 PREFACE
1.1 DISCLAIMER
Hologic, Inc. has made all reasonable effort to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate
and complete. Hologic, Inc. shall not, however, be liable for any technical or editorial errors or
omissions contained herein, or for incidental, special or consequential damages in connection with
the furnishing or use of this material. The information contained in this manual is subject to change
without notice.

1.2 PROPRIETARY INFORMATION NOTICE


This manual contains proprietary information which is protected by copyright, and all rights are
reserved. No portion of this document may be copied, photocopied, reproduced or translated into
another language without the prior written consent of Hologic, Inc.
Hologic QDR-2000 and the Hologic logo are registered trade marks of Hologic, Inc. All other
products and company names, used in this manual, are trademarks and registered trademarks of other
manufactures.

1.3 WARRANTY NOTICE


Many of the procedures described in this document are for reference only, and are intended solely
for use by direct employees of Hologic, Inc. or authorized Hologic Equipment Resellers and their
trained technicians. Any unauthorized or untrained persons performing these procedures may affect
the warranty of the Hologic Model QDR-2000.

1.4 CONTACTING HOLOGIC FOR SUPPORT


The Hologic factory technical support staff can be reached for software, application or general
information Monday through Friday from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM EST/EDST by telephoning:
Phone: (617) 890-2300
or, from locations in the US only: (800) 343-XRAY (800-343-9729)
the Hologic factory FAX number is: (617) 890-8031

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

1-1

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

1.5 LICENSE REQUIREMENTS


Local regulations regarding the registration and licensing of X-ray equipment vary from state to state,
and among countries. Many states and countries also require that X-ray equipment be operated only
by licensed personnel, and some even require that service technicians who install X-ray equipment be
licensed as well. Please check your local regulations.

In the United States, Federal law restricts this device for use by or under the order of a physician.

1.6 QUALIFICATIONS
This manual assumes that the reader:

1-2

has been trained by Hologic in the installation, maintenance and repair of the QDR-2000
Supine Lateral X-ray Bone Densitometer.

has reasonable mechanical abilities and a working knowledge of analog and digital
electronics.

is thoroughly familiar with the use of test equipment (oscilloscope and DVMs) , and has at
least some experience with high-voltage equipment and X-radiation monitoring devices.

has a good working knowledge of PC AT-type computers and the DOS operating system, and
is familiar with the DOS FORMAT, COPY, DEL (Delete), CD (Change Directory), MD
(Make Directory), EDLIN and CHKDSK (Check Disk) commands, and with the use of * and
? wild cards in DOS file names.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 1 - Preface

1.7 SAFETY

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
Exercise proper caution when servicing the system. There are dangerous -- and
potentially lethal -- voltages accessible within the QDR-2000 Supine Lateral X-ray
Bone Densitometer cabinet. Circuit breaker CB-1 is normally left on at all times to
keep the detector powered up and thereby to avoid drift. Unless breaker CB-1 is off
or the power cord has been removed, line voltage (100V, 120V, 220V or 240V) is
present at all times on the primary of the isolation transformer, and 120V is present
on the secondary.
DC voltages between 500V and 1000V are present at all times (unless CB-1 is off)
at the Main Detector Array Assembly and the output of its power supply.
The High Voltage Power Supply/Source (HVPS/S) assembly is a sealed
subassembly. It contains voltages of 70kVp and 140kVp internally, and while these
voltages are not normally accessible outside the case, multiple failures can make
them appear on the barrier strip. Caution should be exercised, and no attempt
should ever be made to open or internally service a HVPS/Source assembly in the
field.

X-RADIATION HAZARDS
The QDR-2000 Supine Lateral X-ray Bone Densitometer produces ionizing
radiation in the form of X-rays. It may be dangerous to the patient, operator or
service technician unless safe exposure factors and operating instructions are
observed. To avoid unsafe exposure, do not attempt to service this equipment
unless you are a Hologic, Inc. certified service technician. Exercise proper caution
when servicing the system. A dosimeter (film badge) should always be worn while
on site.
Never place hands, head or other body parts in the X-ray beam path unnecessarily.
This is especially important if the beam is turned on using the SURVEY2 utility
program, which causes the beam to come on without scanning motion. High spot
doses are a consequence of such failure to scan.

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Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

MECHANICAL HAZARDS
The QDR-2000 Supine Lateral X-ray Bone Densitometer incorporates a computercontrolled motion system that operates automatically upon scan initiation. The
system audibly alerts the operator before starting a scan and before granting a
manual motion request. Exercise caution when working inside the system.
The large power resistor on the X-ray controller board gets hot in normal operation.
Exercise caution when removing a board that has been running for any length of
time.

LASER RADIATION HAZARDS


The QDR-2000 contains a Class II (<0.5 mW) laser. The patient, operator and
service technician should avoid looking directly into the beam or placing reflective
objects in the beam path. An audible alert sounds continuously when the laser is on.

PROTECTION OF SERVICE PERSONNEL


To avoid exposure to shock hazards, breaker CB1 should be switched off, and the
power cord removed, before working inside the QDR-2000.
If work must be done inside the machine while power is applied, the control panel
STOP button should always be pressed in to avoid the possibility of carriage
motion.

PROTECTION OF OPERATOR AND PATIENT


Dose and scatter radiation measurements must be taken after each service call to
ensure that these parameters are still within specifications.

1-4

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 1 - Preface

1.8 REFERENCE MATERIAL


QDR-2000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL
This document is supplied with each QDR-2000 Supine Lateral X-ray Bone Densitometer.
Please refer to it for specific instructions on how to operate a QDR-2000.

COMPUTER OPERATOR'S MANUAL


There is a separate Operator's Manual for the computer used in the QDR-2000 Supine
Lateral X-ray Bone Densitometer. Please refer to this manual for specifics regarding the
QDR-2000's computer.

DOS OPERATING SYSTEM MANUAL


There is a separate DOS Manual for the computer's operating system. Please refer to this
guide for any questions you may have regarding the DOS Operating System, (e.g., proper
syntax for DOS commands).

PRINTER MANUAL
Two black-and-white and two color printers are available for the QDR-2000. For specific
information on any of these printers, please see the appropriate manual itself.

OPTICAL DISK DRIVE MANUAL


The optical disk drive comes with its own manual, which should be referenced for details
regarding operation and troubleshooting of this optional peripheral.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

1-5

Section 2 - Introduction

2.0 INTRODUCTION
2.1 SPECIFICATIONS
Specifications of QDR-2000s Shipped Prior to March 1994:
Scanning method: A-P: Rectilinear scan and indexing table for whole body.
Lateral: Indexed scan using dual-position C-arm.
X-ray system: Switching Pulse Dual-Energy source (70kVp/140kVp).
Scanning sites: A-P lumbar spine, lateral lumbar spine, proximal femur,
general region-of-interest, total skeleton, radius, and
research/small animal.
Scatter dose: Less than 0.5mR/hr (.005mSv/hr) at 2 meters from
patient.
Leakage: Less than 0.2mR/hour (.002mSv/hr) at 1 meter.
Accuracy: Measurements of Bone Mineral Content (BMC)
calibrated to HOLOGIC DPA/QDR-1 anthropomorphic
spine phantom of known material content by weight
accurate to 0.5%.
Linearity: using a phantom containing three, 5x5 cm blocks of
CaHA with nominal BMDs of 0.6, 1.0 and 1.6 g/cm2.
Measured BMC values for all three blocks will be within
+1% of their specified values.
Calibration: self-calibrating using Hologic Automatic Internal
Reference System. Operator calibration not required.
External shielding required: None
Safety and Regulatory: Conforms to applicable portions of 21 CFR 1020.30
(Diagnostic X-ray Systems) and 21 CFR 1040.10 (Laser
Products). Designed to comply with applicable portions
of IEC 601.1
X-ray voltages: 70kVp +5% and 140kVp +5%
X-ray current: 3mA peak +5% at 70kVp
Target material: Tungsten
Half-value layer: 0.172" (4,37 mm) minimum of Al 1100 at 70kVp
0.539" (13,7 mm) minimum of Al 1100 at 140kVp
System Weight: 1,250 lbs. (568 Kg) installed weight
1,500 lbs. (682 Kg) shipping weight
@60 Hz @50 Hz
Power Requirements: 100 VAC +10% 13.2A 17.5A
115 VAC +10% 11.5A 15.2A
230 VAC +10% 5.7A
7.6A
Temperature: 60 - 90F (15 - 32C) operating
50 - 110F (10 - 43C) storage
Humidity: 20%-80% relative humidity, non-condensing
BTU Output: 3700 BTUs on 60 Hz system, 4300 BTUs on 50 Hz

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Specifications of QDR-2000plus & QDR-2000s Shipped After March 1994:


Scanning method: Same as above.
Lateral: Same as above.
X-ray system: Same as above.
Scanning sites: Same as above.
Scatter dose: Same as above.
Leakage: Less than 0.5mR/hour (.005mSv/hr) at 1 meter.
Accuracy: Same as above.
Linearity: Same as above.
Calibration: Same as above.
External shielding required: None
Safety and Regulatory: Same as above.
X-ray voltages: Same as above.
X-ray current: 5mA peak +10% at 70kVp
Target material: Tungsten
Half-value layer: 0.196" (5.0 mm) minimum of Al 1100 at 70kVp
0.591" (15.0 mm) minimum of Al 1100 at 140kVp
System Weight: Same as above.
@60 Hz @50 Hz
Power Requirements: 100 VAC +10% 14.2A 18.5A
115 VAC +10% 12.4A 16.1A
230 VAC +10% 6.1A
8.0A
Temperature: Same as above.
Humidity: Same as above.
BTU Output: 4100 BTUs on 60 Hz system, 4700 BTUs on 50 Hz

Hardware Configuration:

Examination table/motor drive/translating table.


Multi Channel Detector Array.
Dual-position A-P/lateral C-arm.
Workstation (monitor & printer) table.
80486 PC/AT computer including 4MBytes of RAM, 100MByte hard disk drive, 5.25"
floppy drive and 101 key enhanced keyboard (Maxtor 1/2 height 800MByte high
capacity optical disk storage optional).
VGA display adapter board.
13" high resolution VGA color display monitor.
Mitsubishi P71U video copy processor (color hard copy optional).
HOLOGIC Model DPA/QDR-1 anthropomorphic lumbar spine QC phantom. (Phantom
for femur QC test optional)
Positioning aids - spine and femur.
Table pad
Accessory kit.

MACHINE AND ROOM DIMENSIONS


2-2

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 2 - Introduction

Figure 2-1 QDR-2000 and QDR-2000plus Overall Dimensions

Figure 2-2 Room Layout

MINIMUM ENTRANCE CLEARANCE

Revision F

36" (92 cm)

Without tipping or disassembling the unit.

26" (66 cm)

Once the table top has been removed and the base unit tipped on its side.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

2-3

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

2.2 SYSTEM OVERVIEW


The Hologic QDR-2000 X-ray Bone Densitometer images and measures the bone mineral content
(BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of selected areas of the body, or of the entire skeleton. It
does so using X-rays of two different energy levels; this dual-energy scheme allows soft tissue within
the selected area to be subtracted out, leaving only bone to be imaged and measured.
The patient lies face up on the table and, with the aid of a pointing laser, the operator positions the
scanning arm over one corner of the region of interest. After entering patient data and selecting the
type and size of scan desired, the operator initiates the scan with a single keystroke. Scanning,
analysis, and presentation of the scan image and analysis results are automatic, as is the printing of a
hard-copy record. The operator needs only to accept or reject the regions of interest suggested by
the computer.
The operator is not required to select technique factors, as tube current and voltage are pre-selected
and fixed. Since imaging is performed by raster-scanning a small spot, rather than by flooding the
area as in conventional radiography, the imaging time is a function of the dimensions of the area to be
measured, the desired resolution and the desired precision.
BMC results are expressed in grams of calcium hydroxyapatite, and BMD is reported in grams/cm2
of the same compound.
The patient entrance dose is less than 5 mR, approximately one tenth the exposure of a standard chest
X-ray. Leakage radiation at one meter is less than 0.5 mR/hour, or approximately one two-hundredth
of the limit specified in 21 CFR 1020.30 (k). No additional shielding is necessary for patient,
operator or room, and the QDR-2000 can be placed in any convenient non-shielded examination
room.
The QDR-2000 employs a patented Automatic Internal Reference System, which continuously
calibrates the machine to eliminate the effects of variations in temperature, tube flux, etc. No daily
calibration is required, though Hologic does recommend the daily scanning of a quality control
phantom to provide assurance that the system is functioning correctly, and to aid in the detection of
any long-term drift.
The X-ray images produced by the QDR-2000 and displayed on the monitor are intended only to
locate anatomical sites for measurement, and to assure the operator that the machine is operating
properly. They are not intended as a substitute for conventional film-based diagnostic images

2-4

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 2 - Introduction

Figure 2-3 QDR-2000 and QDR-2000plus System Block Diagram

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

2-5

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

2.3 THEORY OF OPERATION


An X-ray source, consisting of a generator and tube in a common, shielded enclosure, is mounted
beneath the patient. It generates a narrow, tightly collimated beam of X-rays which alternates, at
power line frequency, between 70kVp and 140kVp. The source is at one end of a C-arm; at the other
end, above the patient, is a crystal/PMT detector. During a scan, the C-arm oscillates rapidly in the
transverse direction while slowly moving longitudinally. Both transverse and longitudinal motion are
under computer control.
Before passing through the patient, the beam is filtered through a rapidly rotating wheel, in which
alternating segments have radio opacities equivalent to tissue, bone and air. When finally intercepted
by the detector, the beam contains information about the X-ray absorbing characteristics of both the
patient and the calibration materials in the filter wheel. An A/D converter, fed by the detector,
supplies a complex digital signal to the computer, which uses that signal both to construct the screen
image and as the basis for its computations of BMC and BMD.
The QDR-2000's computer algorithm is based on the principle that bone selectively attenuates lowenergy X-ray photons, and that the bone mineral content of any sample point can be computed from:
Q = L - kH
where H and L are the logarithms of the sample attenuation at high (140kVp) and low (70 kVp)
energies, respectively, and the constant k depends on the tissue attenuation characteristics of the
beam. In the QDR-2000, k is continuously measured using the "tissue" segment in the filter wheel.
The program works in the following manner:
1)

Loads preliminary image and obtain regions of interest from operator.

2)

Estimates k as an average value of:


k = [Ltissue - Lair] / [Htissue - Hair]
where Ltissue indicates a low-energy measurement with tissue-equivalent material interposed
by the filter wheel, and Lair, Htissue and Hair are similarly defined.
Note: the subscript "air" designates the filter wheel segment that is empty (i.e., contains
neither bone- nor tissue-equivalent material).

2-6

3)

Using this value of k, calculates Q for each point scanned using the formula given above (Q =
kH - L). This array of Q values constitutes a "Q image". Displays the Q image.

4)

Compiles a histogram of the Q values. Because a large portion of the image contains soft
tissue only, this histogram will have a large peak. Chooses a threshold value just above this
peak, and applies that value to discriminate, point by point in the Q image, between "bone"
points (whose Q is above the threshold) and "non-bone" points (whose Q is below the
threshold).

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 2 - Introduction

Figure 2-4 Q Image Plot


5)

Uses the "non-bone" points to calculate a baseline value for each transverse scan line. Using
these points, forms a new histogram and repeats steps 4 and 5 until the results converge.

6)

Smoothes the segment boundaries to eliminate isolated noise-generated "bone" points.

7)

Displays the "bone" and "non-bone" points for operator approval.

8)

Determine the constant of proportionality (d0) that relates the Q values to actual BMC
(grams). That constant is determined by measuring how much Q shifts when bone-equivalent
material is interposed by the filter wheel.

9)

Calculate the total bone mineral values by adding up the Q values for all "bone" points in each
region of interest (e.g., each vertebra), and multiplying by d0.

10)

Determines the bone areas by counting the number of "bone" points in each region of
interest.

11)

Calculates bone mineral density as:


BMD = BMC / area

12)

Revision F

Displays the calculated results and print the report.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

2-7

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

FAN-BEAM AND PENCIL-BEAM GEOMETRIES


The following table and figure show the specifications of the Fan-beam and Pencil-beam geometries
employed by the QDR-2000. The geometry shown in the figure is for Lateral Spine scan mode.

Measured

Scan Mode

Anatomical Sites

Slit
Slit
Det.
Det.
Beam Beam
Width Length Width Length Width Length
(C)
(D)
(E)
(F)
(G)
(H)

Fan-beam modes:
Fan-beam I

PA Spine/Hip

0.020

2.559

0.787

17.19

0.12

14.8

Fan-beam II

Lateral Spine

0.039

1.976

0.787

17.19

0.22

11.5

Pencil-beam

Spine/Hip/Forearm

0.089

0.089

0.886

1.654

0.5

0.5

Whole Body I

Std. Whole Body

0.300

0.178

1.654

0.886

1.65

0.88

Whole Body II

Alt. Whole Body

0.300

0.079

1.654

0.886

1.65

0.35

Pencil-beam modes:

Notes:

2-8

1)

All Dimensions are in inches.

2)

A = 47.75", B = 8.38".

3)

Beam sizes were measured using high-contrast x-ray films.

4)

The pencil-beam "slit" is a circular hole of 0.089" diameter.

5)

The x-ray focal spot diameter is approximately 1 mm.

6)

The detector used for the pencil-beam and Whole Body modes is a single CdWO4
scintillator, 1.654" long x 0.886" wide x 0.197" thick.

7)

The detector array used for fan-beam scan modes is comprised of 27 CdWO4 scintillators,
each 0.787" long x 0.394" wide x 0.197" thick. The center to center distance of the
detectors is 0.560", to accommodate light reflectors surrounding each scintillator.

8)

All scintillation crystals are 0.197" thick and >99% efficient.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 2 - Introduction

Figure 2-5 QDR-2000 and QDR-2000plus Fan-Beam and Pencil-Beam Geometry

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

2-9

Section 3- Initial Installation

3.0 INITIAL INSTALLATION


3.1 RECOMMENDED TOOLS & SUPPLIES
Hologic recommends that the following items be handy when working on the QDR-2000:
Cable ties in assorted sizes and lengths.
Assortment of both flat-blade and Phillips screwdrivers.
Assortment of needle-nose and diagonal cutting pliers.
Socket drivers (1/4", 3/8", 7/16", 1/2" and 3/4").
Open-end wrenches (3/8", 7/16", 1/2", 9/16", 5/8" and 3/4").
Hex driver (Allen wrench) set. Recommended sizes are 1/16", 5/64",
3/32", 7/64", 1/8", 9/64", 5/32" 3/16", 7/32" and 1/4".
Level, 9-inches or longer in length.
Adjustable wrench.
Soldering iron
Digital multimeter.
Oscilloscope.

MS-DOS Utilities (V. 5.0)


Blank 2HD floppy disks.
QDR-2000 Operator's manual
DOS Operating System manual
Computer manual
Printer manual
Optical Disk Drive manual (when installed)

Spare mechanical and hall effect limit switches (3 each), in case any are
damaged during transport or installation of the unit.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

3-1

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

3.2 ROOM SIZE


As shown in Figure 2-2, the QDR-2000, or QDR-2000plus can be installed in a room as small as 10'
(305 cm) x 11'6" (351 cm), with a doorway as narrow as 33" (84 cm). A larger room, however,
simplifies both use and service, and if the doorway is 36" (92 cm) or wider, installation is greatly
simplified.
The operator's console is provided with 25' (762 cm) cables to facilitate remote location, but since
leakage and scatter radiation levels are extremely low, it can be safely located in the same room with
the QDR-2000 itself.

3.3 ARRANGE FOR HELP


In moving the unit to its final location, you will require the assistance of at least two able-bodied
persons to help you direct the machine, hold doors and lift heavy parts. The amount of help required
will depend on how difficult the installation site is, and therefore how much of the machine has to be
disassembled. If the hallways and doorways are wide enough for the unit to be wheeled into the room
on its casters, you will need only two persons to help you. If the machine has to be disassembled and
tipped on its side to pass through tight openings, then you will require three or more able-bodied
helpers.

3.4 INSPECT FOR VISIBLE SHIPPING DAMAGE


Inspect the exteriors of all crates and boxes for shipping damage, and bring any damage discovered to
the attention of the customer's Shipping/Receiving department before proceeding.

3.5 UNCRATE UNIT


If the unit has been crated, remove it from the crate as described below. Otherwise, skip to INSPECT
FOR HIDDEN SHIPPING DAMAGE.

UNCRATING MAIN QDR ASSEMBLY

Remove the cardboard box by lifting it straight up and off. Be careful not to scratch the
unit. Remove the boxes from on top, and under the unit.

Remove 9/16" lag screw, pull out the two ramps from the bottom of the crate, and set
them in place.

Remove the wing nuts from bolts on the brace in front of the unit. Drive down the bolts
and remove the brace.

Note: Make sure the bolts are down far enough, after the brace is removed, so as not to scratch
the unit when rolling it off the platform.

3-2

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 3- Initial Installation

Remove four 3/4" bolts from the rear of the unit (through the back brace).

Carefully roll the machine down the ramps.

UNCRATING C-ARM ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLING CASTERS

Remove the cardboard box from the C-arm assembly by lifting it straight up and off. Be
careful not to scratch the assembly.

Remove the metal Cross Brace from each end of the pallet.

Using a 9/16" socket or wrench, remove the two wood top braces.

Insert one Leveling Block (with Jack Screw screwed into it) into each of the four
openings of the tubular frame of the C-arm assembly.

Place a Jack Screw Pad under each Jack Screw and screw down each Jack Screw until
they are snug to the floor.

Using a 15/16" socket, screw the two Jack Screws, on one end, down a few turns. Then
do the same at the other end. Repeat this process so that the arm comes up evenly on all
four Jack Screws.

Note: Be careful to leave the tank centered on the base so its weight is evenly distributed.

When C-arm is high enough, slide the pallet out from the side.

Attach the casters directly to the tubular frame using the hardware and holes used to
attach the frame to the base.

Important: There are 3 holes on each side of the C-arm frame. Use the holes closest to each
end (i.e. do not use the middle holes). One screw is used for each caster mount.
Ensure that the caster mounts are placed in such a way that the wheels, on each
side, are as far apart as possible.

Lower the Jack Screws until the C-arm is supported by the casters.

3.6 INSPECT FOR HIDDEN SHIPPING DAMAGE


Open all crates and boxes, and check for signs of hidden damage. Bring any damage discovered to the
attention of the customer's Shipping/Receiving department.

3.7 TAKE INVENTORY


Using the following check list, take inventory of the contents of all crates and boxes, and confirm that
all of the expected items have been received. Report any discrepancies to Hologic.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

3-3

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Installation Inventory Check List


(Quantities are one (1) each unless otherwise specified)
Main QDR-2000 Assembly

Black & White or Color Printer

C-Arm (Source/Detector) Assembly

Printer Paper (B & W or Color)

Color Display Monitor

Printer Manual

Knee (Block) Elevation Pad

QDR-2000 Operator's Manual

Foot Restraint

Computer

Tabletop Pad

Computer Manual

QDR Spine Phantom

System Power Cable

QDR Tissue Block Phantom (BCA-1)

5.25" Floppy Disks (2 boxes)

Monitor Power Cord

Console Signal Cable

Monitor Signal Cable

Outlet strip with IEC-320 outlets

Printer Power Cord

Back panel slide enclosures

Printer Signal Cable

Outriggers (2) for back of machine

Computer Keyboard

Key (for enabling X-rays)

Computer/Printer Stand

Miscellaneous Hardware Bag

3.8 WALK AND MEASURE PATH FROM DOCK TO DESTINATION


Contact the department receiving the unit, and request that a representative show you the room where
the unit is to be installed. As you make your way from the loading dock to the room, measure all
doorways and openings including any elevator on which you must travel. Look for other obstacles
(thresholds, steps, sharp corners, etc.) which could cause a problem during transport. If any hall or
doorway is less than 36" (92 cm) wide, the table top must be removed and the base unit tipped on its
back side; once tipped, it will fit through openings as small as 26" (66 cm) wide.

3.9 MOVE TO DESTINATION


At some installation sites, the doorways and openings along the way to the room are not wide enough
to allow the unit to be rolled directly there. Instead, the machine must be partly disassembled, have its
caster wheels transferred to the rear, and be tipped on edge for transport to its destination. If this is
the case, proceed with the instructions for tipping the unit. Otherwise, skip ahead to SET UP.

TIPPING THE UNIT

3-4

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 3- Initial Installation

Remove and discard all packing material.

Disconnect the table belt from both sides of the table top. Then, with your helper,
carefully slide the table top off the frame, taking care not to damage the table top.
NOTE: Slide the table top off to the right (facing the unit) to avoid damaging the limit
switches.

Remove the front dress panel, being careful not to scratch the paint.

Using a 3/4" socket wrench, remove the two bolts holding each caster bar in place. Have
a helper remove each caster bar while one or two other able-bodied helpers and you lift
the end of the machine. Keep your knees bent and your back straight!

Remove the top and bottom rails for the sliding back enclosure panels.

Reinstall the caster bars, pointing upwards, on the rear edge of the black base. Use the
hardware removed in the previous step.

With your helpers, slowly and carefully lift the front end of the unit until the machine
tips backwards onto the casters.

GO SLOWLY! THE UNIT MAY HAVE A TENDENCY TO ROLL!

SET UP

Roll the machine to its destination. Bring the C-arm (Source/Detector) assembly as
well.

Warning: While transporting the C-arm, be careful to ensure that the arm stays in the middle
of the rails.

If the unit had been previously tipped, slowly and carefully tilt the machine back to its
upright position with the assistance of your helpers. Remember the machine's tendency
to roll as it tips.
NOTE: Leave at least 60 inches (152 cm) behind the machine to allow for the C-arm
(Source/Detector) assembly to be moved into place for final assembly.

Revision F

Remove and set aside the caster bars and 1/2" hardware. These will be returned to
Hologic in the "miscellaneous supplies" box when the installation has been completed.

Remove and set aside the monitor, knee block, "miscellaneous supplies" box, operator's
console, tabletop pad, foot restraint and any other boxes containing phantoms or other
special-order items.

Locate the two outriggers in one of the supply boxes and fasten them to the rear of the
machine's frame with 1/2" hardware.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

3-5

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Remove the six screws securing the plastic tank (source) shroud in place, then carefully
remove it and put it aside.
BE SURE THE TWO OUTRIGGERS HAVE BEEN INSTALLED ON THE REAR
OF THE MACHINE'S FRAME BEFORE CONTINUING.

Note: Before installing the C-arm ensure that the base unit leveling feet are screwed in fully.

Wheel the C-arm to the rear of the base unit. Start the front of the C-arm into the base
unit. Slide it in until it is partially supported, then remove the front casters.

With the front casters off, slide the arm in place up to the back casters.

Note: Make sure the tank is all the way forward so that its weight is off the back casters.

Remove the back casters. Slide the C-arm assembly in until the six bolt holes line up
with the clearance holes in the trough.

Secure the C-arm assembly in place with the six 1/4-20 by 2-1/2" machine bolts.

Remove the Control Panel Holder and install the Control Panel (use the screws
removed from the holder and lock nuts packaged with the arm).

Set aside the casters, jack screws and other hardware used to install the C-arm. These
will be returned to Hologic in the "miscellaneous supplies" box.

Connect the cable-carrier and cables to the C-arm assembly.

#1
#2
#3
#5

Connector
TCS1
TCS2
TCS3
TCS5

Cable No.
181-0016
181-0009
181-0024
181-0036

#6
#A
#B
#C

Connector
TCS6
TCSA
TCSB
TCSC

Cable No.
181-0058
181-0008
181-0085
181-0015

See Section 6 for the pin-out assignment

Figure 3-1 Transition Connector Panel (side of C-arm)

3-6

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 3- Initial Installation

Bring the wires for the X-axis motor, limit switch and power up through the access hole
provided on the bottom of the trough. Connect the cable connectors with their
appropriate mates, then dress and secure them tightly to prevent them from becoming
entangled in the ballnut and leadscrew mechanisms.

With your helpers, move the machine to the exact final position.
NOTE: Be sure to leave at least 50 inches (127 cm) behind the machine to allow the Carm to rotate to the lateral scan position.

Place a level on the X & Y-axis rails, and adjust the leveling feet until the unit is level
front-to-back and side-to-side. Use two open-end wrenches -- one 9/16", the other 5/8"
-- to adjust the leveling feet.

If the table top had been removed to tip the unit, carefully replace it with the help of an
assistant. Then replace and reconnect the table top belt. Refer to the "Table Belt Path
Diagram" in section 7 for details on how to route the table belt.

Remove the top cover on the C-arm assembly and remove any foam blocks which may
be securing the detector array in place for shipment.

Locate the monitor/printer stand and follow the instructions provided to assemble it.

Place the computer, printer, keyboard and monitor on the assembled stand. Load the
printer with paper.

Attach all the computer cables (monitor, keyboard, printer, power, etc) and the cable
from the computer to the distribution panel.

Replace the plastic tank shroud (cover) and secure with six screws.

Locate the back cover slide assembly parts and install on the rear of the unit.

Take the six black hole plugs from the "miscellaneous hardware" bag, and install them in
the six bolt holes on the front edge of the black base.

Remove any remaining contents from the "miscellaneous supplies" box, and place the
caster bars and 1/2" hardware inside. Seal the box, apply the Return-To-Hologic label,
and arrange with the hospital's Shipping/Receiving department to have it picked up for
return (collect) to Hologic.

CAUTION

Revision F

CAUTION: Verify that all packing material has been removed from the detector array
before applying power to the machine. Failure to do so could cause damage to the
detector array mechanisms.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

3-7

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

3.10 CHECK POWER LINE VOLTAGE


Hologic strongly recommends that the QDR-2000 be powered from a dedicated power line. See the
product specifications in Section 2.1 for power requirements.

MEASURE LINE VOLTAGE


With an AC voltmeter, measure the voltage at the outlet the unit will be plugged into. The
measured voltage must be within + 10% of the voltage shown on the power label (located
where the power cord attaches to the unit). The QDR-2000 has a built-in step up/down
isolation transformer which can be re-strapped to accommodate other voltages if necessary.
See Figure 3-2 for the most common configurations of the isolation transformer.

BLACK

120

110

100

120

110

100

WHITE

BLACK

120

110

100

SECONDARY

100

110

120

BLUE

110

120

BROWN

BLACK

BLUE

110

100

100

110

120

110

100

120

110

WHITE

100

110

100

100

110

120

110

120

BROWN

110 VAC SERVICE

BLACK

120

110

100

120

120

110

110

100

100

110

120

100

WHITE

BLACK

120

110

WHITE

100

120

110

SECONDARY

PRIMARY

PRIMARY

110

120

BROWN

200 VAC SERVICE

BLUE

100

110

120

100

110

120

BROWN

220 VAC SERVICE

120

120 VAC SERVICE

SECONDARY

100

BROWN

PRIMARY
0

110

BLUE

SECONDARY

120

100

PRIMARY
100

BLUE

WHITE

SECONDARY

PRIMARY
100

100 VAC SERVICE

120

120

BLACK

SECONDARY

PRIMARY
0

WHITE

100

110

120

BLUE

100

100

110

120

BROWN

240 VAC SERVICE

Figure 3-2 Isolation Transformer

NOTE: There are two standards for conductor color coding. The North American
standard specifies the BLACK conductor as LINE and the WHITE as NEUTRAL,
while the International standard defines the BROWN conductor as LINE and the BLUE
as NEUTRAL.

MEASURE ISOLATION TRANSFORMER SECONDARY VOLTAGE

3-8

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 3- Initial Installation

With an AC voltmeter, measure the voltage at one of the accessory outlets located on the side of the
unit. NOTE: Do not try to measure the voltage at the "AUXILIARY X-RAY ON" outlet, as this outlet
is only energized when X-rays are on. The voltage should be between 110 VAC and 130 VAC. If the
voltage is out of this range, recheck the voltage at the wall outlet, and the strapping of the isolation
transformer as shown in Figure 3-1.

3.11 CHECK FILTER WHEEL PHASING


The angular position (phasing) of the filter wheel, relative to the X-ray pulses, is crucial to proper
operation of the QDR-2000, because all computations are predicated on the assumption that a known
filter wheel segment (bone, tissue or air) is in the X-ray beam path during any given measurement.
To determine the position of the filter wheel relative to the AC line, a Hall effect sensor (pickoff) is
used. A synchronous motor keeps the filter wheel rotating in sync with the AC line. Knowing that
the X-ray controller generates X-ray pulses synchronous to the AC line, one can time the filter wheel
relative to the X-ray pulses by monitoring the filter wheel pickoff and the AC line.
On the QDR-2000 there are two methods for checking and/or adjusting the filter wheel pickoff
timing. One utilizes an oscilloscope; the other relies on visually monitoring an LED on the Motor &
Drive (M & D) PC board.
CAUTION: Be very careful to keep hands, hair, jewelry and loose clothing away from moving parts
of the filter wheel and belt.
For complete details on checking the filter wheel phasing, please refer to Appendix A.

3.12 CHECK TUBE KV PEAK POTENTIAL


Proper operation of the QDR-2000 requires that the X-ray tube generate alternating X-ray pulses of
70kVp and 140kVp, both +5%. The peak potential check must be performed at installation time and
whenever the X-ray source or X-ray controller is repaired or replaced. Because it would be very
dangerous to directly monitor the kVp potentials, a 10,000 to 1 voltage divider circuit is utilized
inside the High Voltage Power Supply/Source (HVPS/S). By monitoring this divided voltage, one can
determine the peak potentials being impressed on the X-ray tube. The monitoring can either be done
on the barrier strip on top of the X-ray source (pins 7 and 8) or on the X-ray controller (TP1 and
TP2).
CAUTION: Even though the test voltage is low, there are elevated voltages near and around the test
points.
For complete details on checking the tube kVp potential, please refer to Appendix B

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

3-9

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

3.13 CHECK TUBE CURRENT


For both safety and operational reliability reasons, the tube current must be checked at installation
time or whenever the X-ray source or X-ray controller is repaired or replaced. The current is
monitored by measuring the voltage drop across a resistor inside the High Voltage Power
Supply/Source (HVPS/S). Because of the design of the HVPS/S, the current signal is only a
representation of the current during the low (70kVp) X-ray pulse. This signal is also used by the Xray controller as feedback to control the filament on the X-ray tube.
CAUTION: Even though the test voltage is low, there are elevated voltages near and around the test
points.
For complete details on checking the tube current amplitude, please refer to Appendix C.

3.14 CHECK ALIGNMENT OF X-RAY BEAM


It is crucial that the X-ray beam be precisely aligned with the detector array, as improper alignment
will directly affect the repeatability (coefficient of variability, or CV) of the QDR-2000. It is
therefore imperative that this check be performed at installation time or whenever any work is
performed which may affect the alignment.
WARNING: X-rays are being generated during this procedure. Keep hands, head and other body
parts out of beam.
For complete details on performing this test, please refer to Appendix D.

3.15 CHECK HVPS/S (TANK) FOR RADIATION LEAKAGE


For regulatory and safety reasons, the High Voltage Power Supply/Source (HVPS/S) must be checked
for radiation leakage at installation time or whenever the HVPS/S is replaced. Performing this
procedure requires checking the entire surface (excluding the X-ray aperture) of the HVPS/S with a
radiation survey meter.

NOTE: This reading must be < 0.5mR/h. Record the highest reading in the service report
For complete details on checking the HVPS/S for radiation leakage, please refer to Appendix E.

3-10

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 3- Initial Installation

3.16 CHECK LASER POSITIONING OFFSET & COPPER FOIL


Using SURVEY2, index the Geneva wheel to collimator #1, then verify that the laser shines 7/8"
(2.22 cm) perpendicular to the collimator hole #1.

Figure 3-3 Laser Offset Dimension


Adjustment to the Laser offset may be made by loosening or tightening the four mounting screws
which secure and align the final mirror located in the center of the C-arm, directly above the Geneva
wheel collimator. The mirror is mounted on a rubber pad to allow for complete freedom of
adjustment.
NOTE: Verify that the #4, #7, and #9 collimator holes have a small peace of copper foil over
their respective openings. Report any omissions to the Hologic Field Service department.

3.17 FINISH REASSEMBLING UNIT


At this point, take the time to replace any covers or enclosures that may not have been reassembled
previously. Check that all of the machine's safety features (ground wires, limit switches, emergency
stop, etc.) are in place and working properly. Finally, clean up the machine and remove any unwanted
packing materials from the room.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

3-11

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

3.17 RUN PMT DETECTOR BIAS VOLTAGE


There are a total of 16 possible collimator positions available on the QDR-2000, each with a
different size and shape. (NOTE: The current release of the QDR-2000 only utilizes 11 positions.)
Because the amount of X-ray flux coming through each collimator will vary with the collimator size,
the detector bias voltage (which controls the detector gain) must be adjusted for each position. The
QDR-2000 has the capability to change this bias voltage through the use of a Digital to Analog (D/A)
converter in the PMT High Voltage Programmer. Each digital number (in the range of 0-255) sent to
the D/A converter corresponds to approximately -3.5 Volts to the detectors. A digital number of 100
sent to the D/A, therefore, would correspond to -350 Volts at the detectors.
A file called PMTVOLTS.TXT, located in the root directory on drive C, keeps track of the digital
voltage levels required for each collimator position. This file can be updated by running a utility
program called PMTVOLTS.EXE from the DOS command line. This program should be run at
installation time and whenever the X-ray source, X-ray controller or detector array is repaired or
replaced.
VERSION 1.00
collimator first last high air voltage (X 4)
1
1 1 0 120 ; pencil beam AP - normal spine/hip
2
2 32 0
95 ; 2mm lateral slit
3
2 32 0 105 ; 1mm lateral slit
4
1 1 0 105 ; narrow whole body
5
1 1 0 145 ; small pencil beam AP - small animal
6
2 32 0
95 ; long 2mm slit
7
2 32 0
95 ; short 2mm slit
8
2 32 0 105 ; long 1mm slit
9
1 1 0
95 ; normal whole body
10
2 32 0 115 ; long 1/2mm slit
11
1 1 0 105 ; large pencil beam AP - performance
12
0 0 0 100 ;
13
0 0 0 100 ;
14
0 0 0 100 ;
15
0 0 0 100 ;
16
0 0 0 100 ;

Figure 3-4

Sample PMTVOLTS.TXT File

To run PMTVOLTS, simply exit from the QDR software (press <Alt> <F1>) and type:
PMTVOLTS <Enter>
The program will respond with the message "Please make sure the table is clear except for the
mat". Press the <Enter> key to start the automatic PMT voltage determination program. The program
will sequence through all the collimator positions and adjust the PMT High Voltage Programmer
until the voltage output from the detector(s) is approximately 7.5 Volts.
The PMTVOLTS program should be run with the plastic tank shroud (cover), table top and table mat
in place.
To determine the actual DC voltage supplied to the PMT's by the PMT HV power supply, multiply
the numbers in the voltage column by 3.5.

3-12

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 3- Initial Installation

3.18 RUN BACKLASH UTILITY PROGRAM


The phenomenon known as "backlash", which manifests itself as frayed or ragged edges in the bone
image, results from a loose coupling between the scan motors and the mechanical parts of the
carriages. Simply put, the carriages don't move instantly when commanded to do so. This causes the
acquisition of data on adjacent scan lines to be slightly misaligned in respect to one another. The
resulting registration error causes the edge of the bone image to appear frayed. The degree of
backlash, or hysteresis, will vary from machine to machine.

Figure 3-5 "Backlash" Phenomenon


To correct for backlash, the utility program BACK2 must be run. The BACK2 program calculates the
amount of backlash and stores a backlash compensation value for each scan axis (X, Y and Array) in
the file SCONFIG.TXT. To perform backlash compensation, proceed as follows:

Exit from the QDR software by simultaneously pressing <Alt> <F1>.

Place a penny (or some other small round metal item) on the table top and move the arm
until the laser spot is centered on it.

At the DOS prompt type:


BACK2 <Enter>
then follow the instructions on the monitor screen.

At the conclusion of the test scan, remove the penny from the table and type:
BACK2 /A <Enter>
to calculate the backlash compensation for the detector array. Again follow the instructions
on the monitor screen.

At the conclusion of these tests, new X-axis, Y-axis and Array compensation values will be written to
the SCONFIG.TXT file.
These values are stored in the form of "x_compensation:nn",
"y_compensation:nn" and "a_compensation:nn". The "nn" variable will contain the number of motor
steps required to compensate for the backlash.
Typically these backlash compensation values should be below 50 motor steps. If any of them exceed
50, there is a possibility of something being loose or broken in the appropriate scan mechanism.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

3-13

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

3.19 PERFORM BEAM FLATTENING PROCEDURE


Fan beams require compensation, called beam flattening, for non-uniformities resulting from two
geometric considerations.
First, the X-ray source is essentially a point source, with flux radiating uniformly in all directions
(before collimation). After collimation, the flux is still uniform over any given (small) solid angle
near the axis of the beam. If the detector is considered to be a flat plane of finite size, simple
geometry shows that an element (e.g., a detector crystal) located on the beam axis (a) will receive
more flux than an off-axis crystal (b) of equal size.
Second, as the beam penetrates the patient, off-axis rays (c) must travel farther through the patient's
tissue or bone than on-axis rays (d). A slab of material of uniform thickness would therefore
attenuate the off-axis rays more than the central ones, making it appear that the slab was thicker at the
edges than at the center.

Figure 3-6 X-ray Beam Propagation


To correct for this problem a beam flattening procedure must be performed. The procedure is as
follows:

STEP 1 - NORMAL ARRAY BEAM FLATTENING


NOTE: When performing this procedure, nothing should be in the X-ray beam path
except the table pad.

3-14

1a.

Verify that the table top pad is in place. This is important because the table pad has an
impact on the results.

1b.

Move the scan arm to its left limit, then back off the limit and the center of the table.
Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 3- Initial Installation

1c.

Exit to DOS by simultaneously pressing the <Alt> <F1> keys, then type:
FLATAP <Enter>
to run the AP flattening batch file.
The batch file will begin by displaying the message:
*
*
To perform AP Flattening, the table must be clear.
*
*
Press any key to continue

The batch file will then automatically delete any previous AP flattening calibration files,
set the environment variable DELA=0 so that the A-files do not get erased by POST, and
continue by running a normal speed scan.
At the conclusion of the scan, the batch file will generate flattening data by posting the
scan data to the \XCDATA\FLAT10AF.CAL file.
Next a high resolution scan will automatically be run and its data posted to the
\XCDATA\FLAT10AS.CAL.
Finally, the environment variable DELA will be cleared, two scans (one normal and one
high resolution) will be run, and the batch file terminates with the message:
*
*
This QDR2000 is now calibrated for flatness. The two most
recent scans should appear flat in PLOT. Please check.
The two scans before them should not appear flat.
*
*

1d.

At the conclusion of the batch file, type MAINSTUB to return to the QDR software,
then select each scan and view it through the plot utility to verify that the last two
images have been corrected for flattening.
Press U for Utility;
Press P for Plot;
Press <Left Arrow> key to display HIAIR and LOAIR plot values.

Revision F

1e.

Move up the scan using the <Up Arrow> key. The dotted lines should be flat all the way
across the image.

1f.

Press the <Enter> key, then use the arrow keys to change the contrast of the image.
(<Up Arrow> and <Down Arrow> for level and <Left Arrow> and <Right Arrow> for
width.) The image should be uniform and without variations across the entire scan.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

3-15

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

STEP 2 - FIVE SECOND ARRAY BEAM FLATTENING


2a.

Exit to DOS by simultaneously pressing the <Alt> <F1> keys, then type:
FLAT5 <Enter>
to run the five second flattening batch file.
The batch file will begin by displaying the message:
*
*
To perform 5sec Flattening, the table must be clear.
*
*
Press any key to continue

The batch file will then automatically run a normal array scan to generate the crossdetector calibration factors with the target collimator, delete any previous five second
flattening calibration files, and continue by running a five second scan that is not
flattened.
Next, two more five second scans are run (one without and one with flattening
correction factors).
Finally the batch file will terminate with the message:
*
*
This QDR2000 5second scan mode is now calibrated for flatness.
The most recent scan should appear flat in PLOT.
The previous scan will be inaccessible but the one before it
should NOT appear flat. Please check.
*
*

2b.

At the conclusion of the batch file, type MAINSTUB to return to the QDR software,
then select the last scan and view it through the plot utility to verify that the image has
been corrected for flattening.
Press U for Utility;
Press P for Plot;
Press <Left Arrow> key to display HIAIR and LOAIR plot values.

3-16

2c.

Move up the scan using the <Up Arrow> key. The dotted lines should be flat all the way
across the image.

2d.

Press the <Enter> key, then use the arrow keys to change the contrast of the image.
(<Up Arrow> and <Down Arrow> for level and <Left Arrow> and <Right Arrow> for
width.) The image should be uniform and without variations across the entire scan.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 3- Initial Installation

STEP 3 - LATERAL ARRAY BEAM FLATTENING


3a.

Exit to DOS by simultaneously pressing the <Alt> <F1> keys, then type:
FLATLAT <Enter>
to run the lateral flattening batch file.
The batch file will begin by displaying the message:
*
*
Before striking a key, be sure the scan arm is in the AP
position. The arm will move to the back of the machine and
you can press ENTER immediately. Then the arm will be moved
to the standard AP centerline position and the laser will be
turned on. Position the phantom on its end so that the upper
surface of the phantom is facing left and the laser is about
1 inch in from the left edge (the top). Strike any key once
this is done.
After you strike a key, the arm will move to the back so
it can be rotated. Rotate the scan arm and strike any key.
The rest is automatic.
*
*
Press any key to continue

The batch file will then automatically delete any previous lateral flattening calibration
file, move the scan arm to the back of the machine and wait for you to press the <Enter>
key when the message "Position patient on the table, press enter when ready" appears.
The scan arm will then move to the standard AP centerline position and the laser will
come on.
Do not manually move the table or arm during the AP/SETUP; doing so will later cause
the scan to be aborted.
3b.

Position the phantom as instructed above, and strike any key to continue.

3c.

Once the arm has moved to the back of the machine and the message "ROTATE SCAN
ARM" appears on the screen, rotate the scan arm to the lateral position, and press any
key.
The batch file will continue by turning off motion detection, and then run a special
protocol file.
At the conclusion of the scan, the batch file will generate flattening data by posting the
scan data to the \XCDATA\FLAT03LS.CAL file.
Finally, one more lateral scan will be run with the flattening calibration data, motion
detection will be turned back on, and the batch file will terminate with the message:

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

3-17

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

*
*
This QDR2000 is now calibrated for flatness. The most recent
scan should appear flat in PLOT. Please check.
The scan just before it should not appear flat.
*
*

3d.

At the conclusion of the batch file, type MAINSTUB to return to the QDR software,
then select the last scan and view it through the plot utility to verify that it has been
corrected for flattening.
Press U for Utility;
Press P for Plot;
Press <Left Arrow> key to display HIAIR and LOAIR plot values.

3e.

Move up the scan using the <Up Arrow> key. The dotted lines should be flat all the way
across the image.

3f.

Press the <Enter> key, then use the arrow keys to change the contrast of the image.
(<Up Arrow> and <Down Arrow> for level and <Left Arrow> and <Right Arrow> for
width.) The image should be uniform and without variations across the entire scan.

3.20 MEASURE X-RAY DOSE TO PATIENT


A radiation dose measurement must be performed at installation time, and should be done routinely
whenever the machine is worked on. This test requires the use of a dosimetry radiation meter with an
ion chamber that can be scanned using the machine's scan protocols.
The dose measurements must be done with the machine fully assembled and the table mat in place.
The typical dose measurements are as follows for listed scan modes:

Whole body scan dose should be approximately 1 mR + 0.5 mR

Pencil beam spine scan dose should be approximately 5 mR + 2 mR

Fast array spine scan dose should be approximately 9 mR + 3 mR

Normal array spine scan dose should be approximately 18 mR + 5 mR

Hi-res array spine scan dose should be approximately 35 mR + 10 mR

Record the highest reading in the service report.


For complete details on performing the dose measurement tests, please refer to Appendix F.

3.21 MEASURE X-RAY SCATTER FROM PHANTOM


3-18

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 3- Initial Installation

A radiation scatter measurement must be performed at installation time. The test requires the use of
a survey type radiation meter with a Geiger tube.
This reading must be < 0.5mR/h at 2 meters. Record the highest reading in the service report.
For complete details on performing this test, please refer to Appendix F.

3.22 CALIBRATE MACHINE


At this point the machine should be fully functional and have been checked for full safety compliance.
The machine's calibration must now be verified utilizing the spine phantom. The pencil beam and
array calibration factors in ENVIRON.BAT and ARRC.TXT will be modified if re-calibration of the
unit is required.
Proceed to the "Field Calibration\Verification Procedure" in Appendix G, if the QDR-2000 is the
only QDR at the site, and it will not be replacing an existing QDR-1000 or QDR-1000/W.
Proceed to the "Cross-Calibration Procedure" in Appendix H, if the QDR-2000 is going to replace an
existing QDR at the same site, or if an older spine phantom (one shipped with a QDR model 1000 or
1000/W) is to be used for pencil beam calibration and verification.

Sample ENVIRON.BAT (Environment/Calibration) File


ENVIRON.BAT Variables

Set by;

SET MODEL=QDR-2000 S/N


2104
SET INSTITUTION=Hologic
SET ACF=1.0109
SET BCF=1.0450
SET Q1=0.618,0.641
SET Q2=1.029,1.010
SET Q3=1.623,1.480

Factory

Descriptions
QDR model and serial number.

Fact. or F.S.

Name of institution where unit is to be installed.

Fact. or F.S.

Area Correction Factor for pencil beam scans.

Fact. or F.S.

Bone Correction Factor for pencil beam scans.

Factory

Thin,

Factory

Medium, and

Factory

Thick pencil beam calibration constants used to compensate for nonlinear X-ray hardening effects of bone.
The first set of numbers are the true densities of three (thin, medium,
and thick) bone equivalent blocks, while the second set of numbers are
the measured densities.

QDRPARM

Allocates 1K of memory to be used as a holding place for information


which all Hologic programs can share.
Initializes the memory set aside by QDRPARM with the appropriate

\FLANGENG\SETQPRM

language values specified by the directory name \FLANG???\. The


current options are "ENG" for English, "FRN" for French, and "DEU"
for German.

COMMAND /C PATINIT /E:512

Checks for the presence of a patient database and asks if one should
be initialized if none is found.

COMMAND /C QCINIT /E:512

Checks for the presence of a QC database and asks if one should be


initialized if none is found.

MAINSTUB

Executes the QDR main software menu program.

Sample ARRC.TXT (Array Calibration) File

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

3-19

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

ARRC.TXT Variables

Set by;

Descriptions
A variable used by the software to determine what parameters to use

USE = 0

Factory

for scatter correction. It can be set to one of four possible values (0, 1,
2, or 3) but should always be set to 0.
These numbers are similar to the Q1, Q2, and Q3 numbers in

Q4 = 0.630 1.026 1.500

Factory

ENVIRON.BAT, except these are used for all array modes. The
numbers are determined by measuring a three-step (thin, medium, and
thick) block phantom at the factory.

Q4_HAT = 0.600 1.030 1.500

Factory

T4 = 2.628

Factory

Thickness (height in inches) of the block phantom.

T4_HAT = 7.00

Factory

Thickness (height in inches) of the block phantom with extra absorber.

DELTA0 = 0.501

Factory

Thickness of tissue segment in the filter wheel.

T0_N = 6.78

Fact. or F.S.

Overall height of the phantom (in inches) shipped with the QDR-2000.

Similar to Q4, only the measurements are taken on the block phantom
with extra absorber material placed on top of it.

(Varies with each phantom.)

HIA_N = 1502.55
LOA_N = 1699.69
HIT_N = 1587.90
LOT_N = 1820.06

Automatic

Hi Air,

Automatic

Low Air,

Automatic

Hi Tissue, and

Automatic

Low Tissue attenuations values in "raw A/D" numbers.


These values are used to determine the thickness of a patient being
scanned in an AP array scan mode. They are updated whenever a
spine array scan is added to the QC database (i.e. the daily array QC
scan).

ACF = 0.975496
BCF = 0.984274
SFF = 1.098000 1.087000
LFF = 1.072000 1.116000
HFF = 1.150000 1.150000
1.150000 1.150000
1.150000 1.150000
1.150000 1.150000
T0_NL = 6.00

Fact. or F.S.

Area Correction Factor for AP array scans.

Fact. or F.S.

Bone Correction Factor for AP array scans.

Factory

Spine Fan Factors

Factory

Lateral Fan Factors

Factory

Hip Fan Factors

HIA_NL = 918.47
LOA_NL = 1072.16
HIT_NL = 1005.19
LOT_NL = 1193.11

Automatic

Hi Air,

Automatic

Low Air,

Automatic

Hi Tissue, and

Automatic

Low Tissue attenuations values in "raw A/D" numbers.

Multiplication factors for BCF & ACF array scans. These values are
the same on all QDR-2000s.
Factory

Width of the phantom shipped with the QDR-2000. This value is the
same for all phantoms.

These values are used to determine the thickness of a patient being


scanned in the lateral scan mode. They are updated whenever a
lateral scan is added to the QC database. (i.e. the daily lateral QC
scan).

ACFL = 0.975496
BCFL = 0.984274

3-20

Fact. or F.S.

Area Correction Factor for Lateral scans.

Fact. or F.S.

Bone Correction Factor for Lateral scans.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 3- Initial Installation

Sample ARRC.TXT File (Continued)


ARRC.TXT Variables
HIA_NF = 1510.52
LOA_NF = 1702.43
HIT_NF = 1595.95
LOT_NF = 1822.62

Set by;

Descriptions

Factory

Hi Air,

Factory

Low Air,

Factory

Hi Tissue, and

Factory

Low Tissue attenuations values in "raw A/D" numbers.


Factory values for AP array scans. Used as reference for the software
to determine if the Hi/Low values are out of factory range.

HIA_NLF = 924.26
LOA_NLF = 1072.46
HIT_NLF = 1010.92
LOT_NLF = 1193.29

Factory

Hi Air,

Factory

Low Air,

Factory

Hi Tissue, and

Factory

Low Tissue attenuations values in "raw A/D" numbers.


Factory values for lateral scans. Used as reference for the software to
determine if the Hi/Low values are out of factory range.

QC_HILO_MIN = 50.0
QC_HILO_MAX = 100.0
QC_HILO_FACT_MAX = 200.0
QC_HILO_FACT_MIN = 100.0
UPDATED = 08/20/91
09:30:28
UPDATED_N = 08/20/91 QC
Version 7.01
UPDATED_NL = 08/20/91 QC
Version 7.01
QDR_SERIAL_NB = 2104
ARRAY_PHANTOM_NM = 891
ARRC_SEQUENCE_NB = 001
ACFT = 0.975496
BCFT = 0.984274
SFFT = 1.000000 1.000000
LFFT = 1.000000 1.000000
HFFT = 1.000000 1.000000
1.000000 1.000000
1.000000 1.000000
1.000000 1.000000
HWVERSION = 7

Factory

Day-to-day drift check warning message limit.

Factory

Day-to-day drift check error message limit.

Factory

Long-term drift check warning message limit.

Factory

Long-term drift check error message limit.

Automatic

Date and time the ARRC.TXT file was last updated.

Automatic

Date and version of QC program which updated the Hi/Low values for
a daily QC AP array scan.

Automatic

Date and version of QC program which updated the Hi/Low values for
a daily QC .lateral scan.

Factory

Serial number of the QDR-2000.

Fact. or F.S.

Serial number of the array (or shipped) phantom.

Automatic

Sequential number of the last ARRC.TXT file.

Fact. or F.S.

Area Correction Factor for Turbo scans.

Fact. or F.S.

Bone Correction Factor for Turbo scans.

Factory

Spine Fan Factors Turbo mode.

Factory

Lateral Fan Factors Turbo mode.

Factory

Hip Fan Factors Turbo mode.


Multiplication factors for BCF & ACF in turbo scan modes. These
values are the same on all QDR-2000s.

Factory

Hardware version (new QDR-2000 and QDR-2000plus only)

3.23 TEST ALL FUNCTIONS OF THE MACHINE


Once the machine has been fully assembled and calibrated, you should perform at least one scan in
each of the scan modes to verify that machine is fully functional in all modes of operation. Verify
that there are no electrical or mechanical problems during each scan mode.
SPINE SCANS: Perform an array spine scan, and a turbo array spine scan.
HIP SCANS: Perform an array left hip scan, and single beam right hip scan.
LATERAL SCANS: Perform one AP array scan, followed by a fast array lateral.
WHOLE BODY SCANS: Perform at least one complete whole body scan.
Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

3-21

Section 4 - Maintenance & Service

4.0 MAINTENANCE & SERVICE


4.1 GENERAL
SERVICE PHILOSOPHY
For economic reasons, the QDR-2000 was designed to be serviced down to the board or
subassembly level but not to the component level.

RETURNED MATERIAL AUTHORIZATIONS


All defective and suspected boards and subassemblies should be returned to Hologic, Inc. for
replacement or repair. A Returned Material Authorization (RMA) number (issued by
Hologic Field Service) must be marked on the outside of any carton containing returned
defective or suspect boards or subassemblies. Goods arriving at Hologic without an RMA
number will not be accepted, and will be returned unopened to the sender.

COMPONENT SUBSTITUTIONS
The QDR-2000 is a certified diagnostic X-ray system, and because the use of substitute
components could adversely affect measurement accuracy, system performance or system
safety, no component substitutions of any kind are permitted without the express written
consent of Hologic, Inc. Such substitutions, if made, may void the product warranty and
cause Hologic to refuse to support the equipment. They may also constitute a violation of
law.

SOFTWARE MODIFICATION OR SUBSTITUTIONS


The QDR-2000 is a certified diagnostic X-ray system. Therefore, no additions or
modifications to the disk operating system or any part of its system, option or utility
software may be made without the express written consent of Hologic Inc. Such additions or
modifications may constitute a violation of law, and could adversely affect measurement
accuracy, system performance or system safety. If made, they may void the product
warranty and cause Hologic to refuse to support the equipment.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

4-1

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

4.2 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE


CUSTOMER PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
In the QDR-2000 Operator's manual, Hologic advises the customer to run a daily scan of the
spine phantom supplied with the QDR-2000, add that scan to the QC database, and to apprise
Hologic Field Service if the CV of the database exceeds 0.5%.
The customer is further advised to perform a weekly backup of the patient database
(dbArchive) and a monthly backup of the QC database (QC archive).
No other regular maintenance activity by the customer is recommended or required.

FIELD SERVICE PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE


Hologic strongly recommends that the following procedures be performed by trained
service personnel at least once per year, and preferably at six-month intervals:

4-2

Perform dbArchive.

Check the QC database for any problems (e.g. drift, etc.).

Check filter wheel timing as described in Appendix A.

Check X-ray tube voltage and current as described in Appendix B and C.

Check X-ray beam alignment as described in Appendix D.

Measure scatter, leakage and patient dose as described in Appendices E and F.

Perform the backlash procedure. Print the results for X-axis and Y-axis steps of
compensation. Compare to the printout from the last PM for possible problems,
and keep this printout with the service records for this system.

Run 10 spine scans and check calibration.

Print copies of the baseline phantom scan, recent phantom scan, and the results of
AVERSCAN for the 10 spine scans run above. Compare to the printouts from the
last PM for possible problems, and keep these printouts with the service records
for this system.

Check output voltages of all low-voltage power supplies.

Check all X and Y coupling set screws.

Check filter wheel bearings and belt tension.

Verify that laser spot shines 7/8" (2.2 cm) perpendicular to the collimator #1 hole.

Verify, during a scan, that pressing in the red emergency STOP switch or turning the
X-RAY ENABLE key-switch to OFF immediately stops all carriage motion and
causes X-ray production (as monitored by a Geiger counter) to cease immediately.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 4 - Maintenance & Service

Revision F

Run SCANDISK (SCANDISK is a DOS command on DOS Version 5.0, and later,
systems) to test the computer's hard disk.

If necessary, run DEFRAG (DEFRAG is a DOS command on DOS Version 5.0, and
later, systems) to un-fragment and condense the files on the computer's hard disk. It
is not necessary to run DEFRAG if the program indicates that the disk is 95% (or
more) unfragmented.

Clean leadscrews, wipe with cloth moistened with machine oil.

Inject BEACON 325 grease into grease fittings on rail sliders.

Clean fan filters, paying special attention to computer fan filter.

Clean cabinet interior.

Clean all exterior metal and Lexan surfaces.

Clean monitor screen, keyboard and printer.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

4-3

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

4.3 PROBLEM LOCALIZATION


Tabulated below are the symptoms and possible causes of the problems most commonly
encountered with the QDR-2000, along with recommended actions if those problems are found
to be present. They are divided into six broad categories (Imaging/X-ray Generation, Precision,
Motion, Noise, Data Storage & Retrieval and Miscellaneous. Possible causes are listed in order
of decreasing probability, so for any given symptom, potential causes should be investigated in
the order listed.

IMAGING/X-RAY GENERATION PROBLEMS


Symptoms
Scan images are
noisy or grainy

Possible Causes
Misaligned source/detector
Oil in pre-collimator cup
Bad A/D-to-M&D cable
Bad M&D-to-X-ray Controller cable
Low PMT supply voltage
Bad A/D board
Bad X-ray controller board
Filter wheel phase error
Loose filter wheel segment
Bad detector
Bad HVPS/Source

4-4

Recommended Action
Realign source/detector
Replace C-arm
Repair/replace cable
Repair/replace cable
Run PMT_VOLTS, if PMT
supply defective - replace
Replace board
Replace board
Adjust filter wheel phasing
Replace filter wheel assembly
Replace array
Replace HVPS/Source

Scan images have


wavy edges or
lines

Loose X or Y-axis ballnut hardware


Filter wheel phase error
Loose or defective filter wheel belt
Wrong filter wheel belt tension
Bad Motor & Drive board
Bad M&D Interface board

Tighten, then run backlash


utility program
Adjust filter wheel phasing
Tighten or replace belt
Adjust belt tension
Replace board
Replace board

Scan images have


spots or streaks

Bad A/D-to-M&D cable


Bad M&D-to-X-ray Controller cable
Bad cable to HVPS/Source
Bad A/D board
Bad X-ray controller board

Repair/replace cable
Repair/replace cable
Repair/replace cable
Replace board
Replace board

No scan image
(white screen), no
X-rays, no "X-rays
On" light.

Bad M&D-to-X-ray Controller cable


Blown X-ray Controller fuse
Blown Controller board transistor
Bad Controller-to-HVPS/S cable
Bad HVPS/Source

Repair/replace cable
Replace fuse
Replace transistor or board
Repair/replace cable
Replace HVPS/Source

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 4 - Maintenance & Service

Symptoms

Possible Causes

Recommended Action

No image of any
kind on monitor

Loose or defective monitor cable


Defective monitor
Defective display board

Tighten/repair/replace cable
Replace monitor
Replace board

Image jumps on
monitor

Defective monitor
Defective display board

Replace monitor
Replace board

Dim monitor
image

Failing CRT or monitor power supply

Increase brightness or replace


monitor

Desired area not


fully scanned

Operator error
Laser misaligned

Retry
Adjust laser mirror/prism

Small image on
P71U printer

Number-of-Lines switch at 625

Set to 525

P71U prints
hieroglyphics

Input selector set to Serial


Printer was powered up after pressing
<Print Scrn>

Set to Parallel
Power down printer, wait a
minute, then power up again.

PRECISION PROBLEMS
Symptoms

Revision F

Possible Causes

Recommended Action

High C.V.

Misaligned source/detector
Low PMT supply voltage
Bad detector
Bad A/D board
Bad X-ray controller board

Align source/detector
Adjust or replace supply
Replace detector
Replace board
Replace board

Phantom BMD
drift or shift

Misaligned source/detector
Oil in pre-collimator cup
Bad detector

Align source/detector
Replace C-arm
Replace array

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

4-5

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

MOTION PROBLEMS
First differentiate between mechanical and electrical carriage motion/leadscrew problems
by turning the leadscrew by hand (during Main Menu display, not while in Utility Local). If it
turns freely, the problem may be electrical. If it turns very stiffly or not at all, the problem
is mechanical. At the same time, check for axial play in leadscrew -- there should be none.

Symptoms

Possible Causes

Recommended Action

No axis motion
occurs when
commanded by
motion switches
or computer

Emergency STOP switch pressed in


Key switch is in OFF position
Bad Motor & Drive (M&D) board
Bad stepper translator

Pull STOP switch out


Turn key to ON
Replace board
Replace translator

Intermittent axis
motion or
machine stalls

Loose motor/leadscrew coupler


Bad board-to-translator cable
Bad translator-to-motor cable
Disconnected ballnut bracket
Bad stepper motor
Bad leadscrew bearings
Bad Timing & Control board

Tighten setscrews
Repair/replace cable
Repair/replace cable
Reconnect bracket
Replace motor
Replace bearings
Replace board

"No Motion
Detected While
Xrays ON" error
message is
displayed

Loose leadscrew encoder coupling


Bad X or Y-axis motion encoder
Bad X or Y-axis motion counter PCB
Defective motion counter-to-M&D cable

Tighten setscrews
Replace encoder
Replace board
Repair/replace cable
Also see "No Motion
Detected While Xrays ON"
in Error Message section

NOTE: Differentiate between mechanical and electrical causes of the "No Motion Detected
While Xrays ON" message by going to DOS, typing MOTION OFF <Enter>, rebooting and
running a scan. If the scan runs successfully, the error message source is electrical. If the
machine seizes up, the problem is mechanical.

IMPORTANT: After making this determination, return to DOS, type MOTION ON <Enter>
and reboot to restore normal operation. In the MOTION OFF state, the machine will ignore
motion failure, thus putting the patient at risk if motion failure occurs during a scan!

4-6

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 4 - Maintenance & Service

NOISE PROBLEMS
Symptoms

Possible Causes

Recommended Action

Noisy X- or Yaxis motion

Misaligned ballnut bracket


Bad leadscrew bearings
Dry rails
Dry leadscrews
Bad leadscrew or ballnut

Realign bracket
Replace bearings
Lubricate rails
Lubricate leadscrews
Replace leadscrew/ballnut
assembly

Noisy Y-axis
motion

Rear closure panels scraping

Adjust panels

Noisy filter wheel

Worn filter wheel bearings


Wrong belt tension
Belt rubbing on pulley sheaves

Replace filter wheel bearings


Adjust belt tension
Raise/lower pulley on shaft

Noisy fan

Foreign matter in fan


Bad fan

Clean fan
Replace fan

DATA STORAGE & RETRIEVAL PROBLEMS


Symptoms

Possible Causes

Intermittent
problems

Loose boards in computer

Reseat boards

can't format

Missing DOS FORMAT command

Copy FORMAT.COM from


DOS diskette to hard disk
Use only 1.2MB 2HD floppy
diskettes

Bad floppy disk (media)

Revision F

Recommended Action

Can't archive to
floppy disk

Bad floppy disk (media)


Bad floppy disk Drive

Insert new 1.2MB 2HD floppy


Replace drive

Can't mount
optical disk
cartridge

Cartridge not fully inserted


Bad cartridge
Bad optical disk controller board
Bad optical disk drive

Reinsert cartridge
Replace cartridge
Replace board
Replace drive

Can't archive to
optical disk

Cartridge is write protected


Cartridge is full
Bad cartridge

Write-enable cartridge
Insert a new cartridge
Send to Hologic for data
recovery

Can't locate files


on optical disk

Bad optical disk controller board


Bad optical disk drive

Replace board
Replace drive

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

4-7

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Symptoms

Possible Causes

Recommended Action

Erratic date and


time

Weak computer clock battery

Replace battery

Unable to view
scan

Bad sector on hard drive

Repair with Norton Disk Doctor


(NDD)

Unable to view
scan graphics
(text OK)

Bad display board

Replace board

MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS
Symptoms

Possible Causes

Recommended Action

No laser spot
visible

Closed shutter
Bad laser
Misadjusted table-centered sensor
Bad table-centered sensor
Bad laser cable
Bad laser power supply

Open shutter
Replace laser
Adjust switch or cam
Replace switch
Repair/replace cable
Replace supply

Can't boot

Corrupted hard drive boot sector

Boot from floppy, restore hard


drive
Reseat board
Replace drive
Replace computer

Loose hard disk controller board


Bad hard disk drive
Bad computer

DETECTING ARCING IN THE HVPS\SOURCE


NOTE: If arcing is detected, or the tube current is out of specifications, the entire tank must
be replaced. It is not field repairable.

Use SURVEY2, to turn on the X-ray beam via the <F1> function key.

WARNING: Keep hands, head and other body parts out of X-ray beam.

4-8

Tune a portable AM radio between stations and hold the radio near the
HVPS/Source. If there is internal arcing, a loud crackling noise will be heard. If
arcing is detected, replace the HVPS/Source.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 4 - Maintenance & Service

4.4 ORDERING SPARE PARTS


To order a spare or replacement part, always include the description, as well as the complete Hologic
part number.

QDR-2000 RECOMMENDED SPARE PARTS LIST


PC Boards
130-0019
131-0027
131-0028
131-0047
140-0037
150-0001

VGA Display Adapter


Collimator Position PCB Top Assy
Collimator Position PCB Bottom Assy
AT-Bus Interface PCB Assy
SCSI Interface PCB Assy
X-ray Controller PCB Assy

Electric\Electronic Parts
010-0158
010-0380
010-0401
310-0006
465-0005
465-0018

Stepper Translator Assy


Filter Wheel Pickoff Sensor Assy
Laser Diode Assy
7.5 Amp Circuit Breaker
Microswitch, Table Limit Switch
Mercury Tilt Switch

Belts
255-0009
255-0011
255-0019

Array Belt
Filter Wheel Belt
Lead Screw Belt

Cables
181-0013
181-0025
181-0091

X-Ray Tank Cable


A/D (Array) Signal Cable
CPU In Cable

Bearings
250-0007

Filter Wheel/Idler Pulley

Kits
010-0201
010-0201
010-0201

Revision F

Switch Spares Kit


Fuse/Circuit Breaker Spares Kit
Relay Spares Kit

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

4-9

Section 5 - Software

5.0 SOFTWARE
5.1 SOFTWARE INSTALLATION AND UPGRADES
PROTECTION OF CUSTOMER'S DATABASE
Always archive the customer's patient database and QC files before performing any work on
the system's hard disk. Use a separate set of new 2HD floppy disks, not the customer's
regular database archive diskettes.
NEVER FORMAT OR PARTITION THE HARD DISK WITHOUT FIRST ARCHIVING THE
PATIENT DATABASE, THE QC FILES, AND ALL OF THE SCANS ON THE HARD DISK.

NEVER POWER DOWN OR REBOOT DURING A SCAN, OR WHILE THE COMPUTER


IS ACCESSING THE HARD DISK. POWERING DOWN AND REBOOTING MAY BE
SAFELY ACCOMPLISHED ONLY AT THE DOS PROMPT OR WHEN THE MAIN MENU
IS DISPLAYED.

RESTORING THE QDR DATABASE


There will be times when you may have to restore the QDR database, either because the hard
disk has become corrupted or you want to transfer the database to another machine.
Performing the following steps will allow you to either restore the QDR database or transfer
it to another machine. Note that any scans which are on the hard disk can remain there
without harm. To restore the QDR database run DBRECOVR from either the QDR Menus or
DOS.
To run DBRECOVR from the QDR Main Selections Menu:

Insert the floppy with the most recent archived database information into the floppy
drive. If the archived database resides on two or more diskettes, insert the last
diskette first.
Press U for Utility;
then, Press S for Service;
then, Press D for Dbmngmnt;
finally, Press R for dbRecovr.

You will then see the Database Archive Recover Menu (shown below). Continue by
following the procedure that starts under the menu pictured below.

To run DBRECOVR from DOS:

Revision F

Exit to DOS by simultaneously pressing the <Alt> and <F1> keys.

Insert the floppy with the most recent archived database information into the floppy
drive. If the archived database resides on two or more diskettes, insert the last
diskette first.
Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

5-1

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

At the DOS prompt type:


DBRECOVR <Enter>

You will then see the Database Archive Recover Menu:


Note that if you do not have the correct diskette mounted, or if the QDR operating
software is not correctly installed, you will receive an appropriate error message.
Correct the situation and begin again.

The menu presented gives you the choice of recovering individual types of files or all the
archived files from the archive diskette(s). The normal procedure is to selectively restore
only the files that are necessary to bring the system back on line, as restoring all the files
can sometimes be detrimental e.g., overwriting new calibration files with older ones from
the archive diskette.
The following describes each step with their associated guidelines and precautions.
1.

The patient database comprises the lists of the "Patient" and "Locate" screens from
the QDR software. If you restore this data, you will then be given an opportunity, to
(a) check the validity of the recovered database, and (b) merge new scans (already
on the hard disk) with the newly recovered patient database.
Note that any patient scan(s) which were performed, archived and then deleted from
the hard disk between the last dbarchive and the restoration of the database will have
to be manually restored to the hard disk.

2.

The SCONFIG.TXT, calibration and QC database files should NOT be moved from
one machine to another. These files contain machine dependent information and
should only be restored to the machine from which they were archived from.
SCONFIG.TXT

3.
5-2

is a text file which holds the system's configuration.

The calibration files include, but are not limited to:


Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 5 - Software

ENVIRON.BAT

a batch file which sets up the system's DOS environment.

STANDARD.TBL

a text file which lists the system's standard configuration


of installed software options.

ARRC.TXT

a text file which holds the calibration constants for the


detector array.

*.CAL

all X-ray "flattening" calibration files.

Use caution when restoring these files. Recalibration of the unit may be necessary
if newer calibration files are overwritten by older archived files.
4.

The QC database comprises the daily QC scans and their analyzed results which are
used to plot the performance of the machine.
Note that any QC scan(s) which were performed, archived and then deleted from the
hard disk between the last dbarchive and the restoration of the database will have to
be manually restored to the hard disk.

5.

The Normals (reference) curves need only be restored if the customer has set up
his own curves in the reference database.

6.

The RATE.DAT files (one each for 50Hz and 60Hz) should NOT be moved from
one machine to another, and as standard practice, should not be restored at all.
These files provide stepping motor parameters. Software upgrades will frequently
contain improved versions of the RATE.DAT files to better deal with the problem
of "backlash" (image skewing on alternate scan lines). Some customers, who are
doing longitudinal studies, may want to maintain a constant set of parameters
throughout the study. They may therefore want to overwrite the improved version
that comes with a new software release, and it is for these customers that this menu
option is provided.

7.

The tissue bar descriptor is unique to each tissue bar. Each tissue bar is supplied by
Hologic with a diskette containing the tissue bar descriptor file (TBAR.TXT). You
may safely restore this file from the database archive diskette(s) only if you have
not changed tissue bars since the last dbarchive.

As you restore each file(s), the following message will appear:


Old files will be lost. Press <RETURN> to continue, or <SPACE> to skip.
Press <ESC> to quit

This warning will appear regardless of whether such files in fact exist or not on the hard disk.
To proceed normally press <Enter> (not <Space> to skip or <Esc> to quit).
If you have restored the patient database, DBRECOVR will invoke DBCHECK to check the
integrity of the database and you see the following message:
Checking PATSCAN3. <ENTER> = continue, <SPACE> = skip
Press <ESC> to quit

You should press <Enter> to proceed. If all has gone well, DBCHECK will report 0 errors
found and terminate with the message "Press any key to continue".

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

5-3

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

DBRECOVR will then update the patient database with scans that are already on the hard disk
and you will get the message:
Updating PATSCAN3. <ENTER> = continue, <SPACE> = skip
Press <ESC> to quit

Press <Enter> to proceed and when it has finished updating the database the messages
"Database updated. Press any key to continue" and "ONDISK file updated. Press any key to
continue" will appear.
When the update is completed, you will be returned to the DOS prompt. You can then restart
the system software by typing:
MAINSTUB <Enter>
The database should now be back in the state it was in when the last dbarchive was performed.
Note that any scan(s) which were performed, archived and then deleted from the hard disk
between the last dbarchive and the restoration of the database will have to be manually
restored to the hard disk.

Manually updating the database:


If you suspect that DBRECOVR did not correctly update the database, or you pressed
<Space> or <Esc> during the update step, you can manually update the database by
proceeding as follows:
1.

At the DOS prompt type:


SCANTODB \XCDATA\p*.p* <Enter>
This will search for scans in the XCDATA directory of the hard disk and match or
add them to the newly restored database as required.

2.

Update the QDR SELECT SCAN listing to reflect the scans which are currently on
the hard disk by typing:
ONDISK <Enter>

3.

Return to the QDR software menu by typing:


MAINSTUB <Enter>

5-4

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 5 - Software

Using DBRECOVR with old-format archive diskettes:


Follow the same procedure as described above. You will be presented with a smaller menu,
that only allows you to restore the database archive. The QC archive will have to be restored
manually, as described below.

MANUALLY RESTORING THE QC DATABASE


This only applies to QC database files which have been generated from the QC (archive)
submenu.
1.

Exit to DOS and insert the floppy with the most recent archived QC database
information into the floppy drive.

Copy the QC archived database from the floppy to the hard drive's XCDATA
directory by typing:
COPY A:\XCDATA\*.* \XCDATA <Enter>

3.

Return to the QDR software menu by typing:


MAINSTUB <Enter>

The QC database should now be back in the state it was in when the last QC archive was
performed. Note that in some cases the QC SETUP will have to be performed again.

MOVING A QDR-1000 DATABASE TO A QDR-2000


Moving the patient database is required for sites which may be upgrading from a model
QDR-1000 to a model QDR-2000. e.g., sites which had been sent a QDR-1000/W until the
QDR-2000 was available.
WARNING: This procedure should only be performed on new QDR-2000's. Any patient
database that may exist on the destination QDR-2000 will be overwritten by this procedure.
However, any scans (such as sample scans shipped with new machines) can safely be left on the
QDR-2000's hard disk. These scans will be incorporated into the patient database once the
database transfer has been performed.
To move the patient database, you will need the upgrade kit P/N 0610-00219-00. The kit
contains a diskette (P/N 0610-00219-01) and complete instructions on how to perform the
database move/merge. The diskette contains all the necessary tools required to transfer and
merge the patient and QC databases.

INSTALLING SOFTWARE OPTIONS


Normally, all software options are factory-installed. In those instances where an option is to
be field-installed, the option kit will include a Release Note, which describes in detail how
to load the option software.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

5-5

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

INSTALLING SOFTWARE UPGRADES


From time to time, Hologic distributes software upgrades which incorporate improvements,
bug fixes and additional features. Each upgrade kit will include a Release Note, which
describes in detail how to load the new version of software.
Typical software upgrades to the QDR-2000 are performed via the Utility Upgrade Menu and
are performed as follows:

Begin by placing the first (or only) disk into the floppy disk drive, and then close the
disk door.

From the QDR Main Menu:


Press U for Utility;
Press U again for Upgrade.

Continue by following the instructions displayed on the monitor screen.

If you experience any difficulty, please contact Hologic Customer Support.

COMPLETE SOFTWARE INSTALLATION


On those rare occasions when a complete software installation must be performed (e.g., hard
disk failure), refer to the software installation instructions.
Never perform a complete software installation on an operational unit until all scans,
database, and in particular, the calibration files have been properly backed up and saved.
Failure to do so will make it necessary to recalculate the machine to factory standards.

Check List of Calibration and Database Files to be Backed Up:


Archive all Scans

Backup \STANDARD.TBL

Perform a dbArchive

Backup \MENU\ENVIRON.BAT

Perform a QC Archive

Backup \XCDATA\ARRC.*

Backup C:\SCONFIG.TXT

Backup \XCDATA\*.CAL

Backup C:\PMTVOLTS.TXT

5-6

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 5 - Software

5.2 FILE ORGANIZATION


This section gives an overview of file organization in the QDR-2000. It assumes that the reader has a
good working knowledge of MS-DOS file organization.
The QDR-2000 always contains two physical drives, and may contain a third. Remembering that DOS
drive designations always end with a colon;
1.

The 5.25" floppy diskette drive is always identified as drive A:.

2.

On Hologic systems on DOS Version 3.3 the hard drive is divided into two logical partitions
(C: and D:). The C: partition (with the boot tracks) is very small, containing only a root
directory, while the D: partition contains all the Hologic software.
On Hologic systems on DOS Version 5.0 there is only one logical partition (C:).

3.

On Hologic systems on DOS Version 3.3 the optional optical drive, when present, is
identified as logical drive E:
On Hologic systems on DOS Version 5.0 the optional optical drive, when present,
is identified as logical drive D:

The hard drive is further divided into several directories:


C:\ (Boot Directory)
This contains the COMMAND.COM, AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS - which are files
read by MS-DOS at boot-up.
Also contained here are two ASCII text files used by the QDR system software. The
SCONFIG.TXT file, which stores the system's configuration (e.g., the last archive label, scan
date and number used) and the PMTVOLTS.TXT file, which retains the PMT voltage setting
required for each collimator position.
On DOS 3.3 systems, C:\ also contains the hard disk device driver DMDRVR.BIN that
supports the large D: partition. DOS 3.3 does not support partitions larger than 32
megabytes, so a device driver is necessary.

C:\ (Root Directory for DOS 5.0 systems)


D:\ (Root Directory for DOS 3.3 systems)
This directory contains ASCII text files used for installation and maintenance purpose.
STANDARD.TBL lists all the options, with their version levels, installed on the system.
VALIDOPT.TXT lists options that are valid to install on this system, regardless of their
version-level requirements. While SYSTEM.PRX contains a parts list of the files on the
system along with their respective location, version, size and date.
\MENU
This directory contains most of the Hologic executable programs. It contains all the
programs that can be executed from the Hologic main selections menu. During standard
operation of the software, this is always the "current directory". File types stored here can
be identified by extension:

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

5-7

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

.EXE

Executable Programs

.MSG,.NDX

Help files. These come in pairs, with the .NDX being an


index into the .MSG file. These .MSG files are also stored in
the language directories FLANGENG, FLANGFRN, and
FLANGDEU for foreign language support.

.BAT

Batch programs. Examples are COUNTRY.BAT (which sets


the AC line frequency) and ENVIRON.BAT (which sets up the
DOS environment) and are invoked at boot up.

\DOS
This directory always contains the MS-DOS executable files.
\UTIL
This directory contains Hologic executable tools, some of which are listed below:
ARRC_UPD.EXE

used to update the ARRC.TXT (array calibration) file.

AUTOSCAN.EXE

used to automatically run any number of scans.

AVRSCAN.EXE

used to calculate the average and CV of selected scans.

CHEKPART.EXE

which when used with the SYSTEM.PRX file will check if all
the software is correctly installed on the system.
Example:

CHEKPART \SYSTEM

DBDR.EXE

used to check the integrity of the database.

DBRECOVR.EXE

used to update the database with scans that are already on the
hard disk.

FSCAL.BAT

used by Field Service to calibrate the system.

MOTION.EXE

used to temporarily disable the motion detection.

These Hologic programs are ordinarily invoked from the DOS prompt, by service personnel,
and are not used in day-to-day operations.
It also includes SM.SYS, the QDR device driver loaded from CONFIG.SYS at boot up, and
MITS.COM, the printer driver.
\SCAN\60HZ
This directory contains ASCII protocol files that control the scanning operation. There is
one of these files for each scan protocol available on the system. These files all end with
the extension .PRO. In addition, the ASCII file RATE.DAT describes various stepper motor
characteristics at 60Hz operation.
\SCAN\50HZ
This directory contains the same files as \SCAN\60HZ, except for 50Hz operation.
\FLANGENG
This directory contains text, help, menu, and message files that are specific to English
language operation. It also contains the executable file SETQPRM.EXE, which loads the
5-8

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 5 - Software

QDR Parameter area (displayed at the top of the screen in the Hologic Main Menu) with
English-language values.
\FLANGFRN
This directory contains text, help, menu, and message files that are specific to French
language operation. Other files are identifiable by extension:
.TGT

These contain text messages for specific Hologic programs

.MSG,.NDX

Help files (see \MENU, above).

.DAT

MENU files. These contain all the text that appears in menu
selections.

ANALYZE.PRO

This is the translated analysis protocol file.

LANG.NAM

This short ASCII file simply contains the language name.

ANALYZE.PRO and the .DAT files correspond to "master" copies kept in \XCDATA. Each
foreign language directory contains a translated copy of these files.
\FLANGDEU
This directory contains text, help, menu, and message files that are specific to German
language operation (see \FLANGFRN for file explanation).
\XCDATA
This directory contains data files, master menu files, and database-definition files. Data for
each scan is kept in two or three files, with names in the form:
P*.P*

Processed data which contains analysis results and the


presentation frame.

P*.R*

Raw scan data.

P*.A*

Array data which is seldom retained after the scan is


completed.

where the name portion of the filename is identical for the files of a single scan.
The patient-scan database contains the patient biographies and the results of all the scans that
the system has performed (or that have been restored to the hard disk of this system). They
are kept in files:
PATSCAN3.H
PATSCAN3.DBD
PATBIOG2.DAT
PATBIOG2.KEY
PATBIOG2.KE1

PATSCAN2.DAT
PATSCAN2.KEY
XPATSCN2.DAT
OPTICAL.DAT
OPTICAL.KEY

The normals curve database contains the reference curves provided in the original software
and added to the system by the user:
NCURV3.H
NCURV3.DBD
Revision F

NCURV2.DAT
NCURV2.KEY

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

The QC database contains stored scan results (generally of phantoms) and QC setup
information:
QCDB4.H
QCDB4.DBD
QCDB5.DAT

QCDB5.KEY
QCSCALE2.DAT
QCSCALE2.KEY

All the database files are identified by their extensions as follows:


.DBD and .H

are used by the dbVista program to create the structure of the


database.

.KEY

contains the pointers to the database.

.DAT

contains the actual database information.

The file XCSYSTEM.DAT contains the currently selected scan.


The file ONDISK contains the list of scans currently on the hard drive.
The file ANALYZE.PRO contains the protocol information for the analyze program.
Other .DAT files are menu files that contain all the text that the user sees during menu
selections. Not all menus are supported this way. Those that are include:
ANALYZE.DAT
MAINP.DAT
SCAN2.DAT
UTILITYP.DAT

Menu selection within ANALYZE.


Hologic Main Menu
Scan Selection Menu
Utility Menu

NOTE: AC-2000 workstations contain no scanning hardware. Therefore the directories


\SCAN\60HZ and \SCAN\50HZ do not appear. Neither does the Scan selection on the Hologic
Main Menu, nor the Local selection on the Utility Menu. The file ENVIRON.BAT is invoked at
boot up in place of COUNTRY.BAT, therefore no attempt is made to determine line frequency.
In addition, various executable files that control the hardware are not installed during software
installation.

5-10

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 5 - Software

5.3 MAINTENANCE, SERVICE AND DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE


This section describes software available for use by Field Service personnel. Unless otherwise
noted, all routines are accessed from the DOS prompt by typing the program name and pressing
<Enter>.
To get to the DOS prompt from the QDR-2000 system software Main Menu, hold down the <Alt>
key, then press the <F1> key. To return to the QDR-2000 system software from the DOS prompt,
type MAINSTUB <Enter>.
Many programs automatically return to DOS upon completion. Programs which do not return
automatically to the DOS prompt can be exited by pressing the <Esc> key.
ARRC_UPD

This field service utility allows one to edit the \XCDATA\ARRC.TXT (array
calibration) file through the screen rather then using a DOS editor such as EDIT
or EDLIN.
Example:

AUTOSCAN

ARRC_UPD <space> T
will bring up two editable screens, one at a time, allowing you
to edit any of the array calibration variables.

A QDR utility that allows multiple scans of a phantom to be made, one after
another, without operator intervention. The scan type and number of scans
must be specified. The other scan parameters are optional and may be
specified by appending one or more modifiers to AUTOSCAN.
Note that the scans performed under AUTOSCAN will be assigned to the
currently selected patient biography file. One must therefore always have
previously select the phantom to be scanned from the patient selection menu of
the QDR system software.
Typing AUTOSCAN without any modifiers defaults to selecting an Array Spine
Scan with the default dimensions for length and width.
Using AUTOSCAN on the QDR-2000 differs from the QDR-1000 and QDR1000/W. This is because not all of the scan protocol options are contained in
one file any longer but in seven separate files. The options in AUTOSCAN are
as follows:

Revision F

-Tt

where t is the character normally used to select this scan from


the menu

-Nnn

perform nn scans (default value=32,767)

-Sss

set scan line-to-line spacing to ss inches/cm (defaults to


0.0395"/0.1003 cm)

-Hn

type n <Home> keys to select resolution

-En

type n <End> keys to select resolution

-D

delete scans after acquisition

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

5-11

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

-O[file]

log acquired scan filenames (default file is AUTOSCAN.LOG)

-Lyy

set scan length to yy inches/cm

-Wxx

set scan width to xx inches/cm


The default length of 6 inches/cm and default width of 5
inches/cm are no longer written to the SCAN keyboard input if
nothing was specified. The default from the SCAN protocol
file is now used if no width or length parameters are specified.

-Pxxxx

use scan menu file xxxx


The default scan menu file is called SCAN, but this only
contains the spine protocols on the QDR-2000. This option is
therefore required on the QDR-2000 to allow SCAN to use
other scan menu files.
The -P parameter specifies one of seven menu files. They are
currently ScnSpine, ScnHip, ScnWrist, ScnHires, ScnWb,
Lateral and ApTrack.

-R

repositions motors between scans


The previous versions of AUTOSCAN attempted to reposition
unless you told it no to. The new version behaves that way only
on the QDR-1000 and QDR-1000/W. On the QDR-2000,
SCAN will reposition the motors at the end of each scan. This
option allows AUTOSCAN to make sure they are repositioned.
Note that this option cannot be used with tracking.

? or -?

displays a help screen

The following is a list of commonly used AUTOSCAN parameters for the


designated scan types. Those parameters with Classic notations indicate scan
types for the QDR-2000 Classic machine. Those parameters with Performance
notations indicate scan types for the QDR-2000 Performance machine.
SPINE SCANS:
AUTOSCAN -TN
AUTOSCAN
AUTOSCAN -TF
AUTOSCAN -TH
AUTOSCAN -TT

siNgle beam spine


array spine (default)
Fast array spine
Hi-res array spine
Turbo array spine

CLASSIC 2000 HIP SCANS


AUTOSCAN -Pscnhip -TE
AUTOSCAN -Pscnhip -TI

5-12

single beam lEft hip (Classic only)


single beam rIght hip (Classic only)

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 5 - Software

PERFORMANCE 2000 HIP SCANS


AUTOSCAN -Pscnhip -TL
AUTOSCAN -Pscnhip -TR
AUTOSCAN -Pscnhip -TF
AUTOSCAN -Pscnhip -TA

array lefT hip (P mode)


array Right hip (P mode)
Fast array left hip (Q mode)
fAst array right hip (Q mode)

WRIST SCANS:
AUTOSCAN -Pscnwrist -TL
AUTOSCAN -Pscnwrist -TR

Left wrist
Right wrist

LATERAL SPINE SCANS:


Follow these steps to perform multiple lateral scans:
1. Exit to DOS by press <Alt><F1> at the Main Menu.
2. Type "set TRACKING=1" and press <Enter> a the DOS prompt.
3. Type "MAINSTUB" and press <Enter> to return to the Main Menu.
4. Evoke the AP/Lateral menu. From the Main Menu press <s> (Scan) then
<a> (AP/Lateral).
5. Perform steps 1 (AP Setup), 2 (AP Scan), and 3 (Lateral Setup) from the
AP/Lateral menu.
6. Return to the Main Menu and exit to DOS by pressing <Alt><F1>.
7. Type one of these command lines:

For fast lateral scans type: "autoscan -plateral -tf"

For high-res lateral scans type: "autoscan -plateral -tl"


AUTOSCAN -Plateral -TF Fast lateral spine
AUTOSCAN -Plateral -TL
hi-res Lateral spine

AVRSCAN

A QDR utility program which finds the averages (means) and coefficients of
variation (CVs) of k, d0, area, BMC and BMD for a selected set of scans. Each
scan chosen to be part of the set is highlighted by typing a "+". After all the
scans to be averaged have been tagged, pressing <Enter> will display the
average and CV for each parameter.

BACK2

Measures the amount of mechanical backlash present in the scanning


mechanisms, and calculates corrections which make the scanned image appear
as if it had been acquired on a backlash-free system. Without correction,
straight lines may appear wavy, and image edges can have the appearance of
ripple-cut French fries.
The program has two modes of operation; one for calculating X-axis and Y-axis
backlash, the second for calculating backlash in the detector array.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

To use it to calculate the X-axis and Y-axis backlash, place a coin on the
tabletop, center the laser spot on the coin, and at the DOS prompt type BACK2
<Enter>.
To use it to calculate detector array backlash, first make sure the table top is
clear, and at the DOS prompt type BACK2 (or BACKLASH) /A <Enter>.
All further operations are fully automatic, and the program terminates with Xaxis and Y-axis or array backlash compensation values (measured in motor
steps) stored in the SCONFIG.TXT file.
CHKDSK

A DOS utility used to check for lost clusters and cross-links. Used with the /F
modifier switch (example: CHKDSK /F), it repairs any such errors found.
When errors are found and corrected, files in the form of FILEnnnn.CHK will
be created on the root of the drive checked. These files can then be erased to
free up disk space.
This utility also displays the creation date , time, disk volume name and the
number of bytes:
of total disk space
used in N hidden files
used in M directories
used in P user files
available on disk
of total memory
of memory free
Please refer to the DOS Operating System manual for a more detailed
explanation of this command.

CHEKPART

This executable file is used with the SYSTEM.PRX text file to check if all the
software files on the computers hard disk are correctly installed and have not
been modified or changed since they were installed.
Example:

5-14

CHEKPART \SYSTEM
will check the files on the hard disk against the list in the
SYSTEM.PRX file and display any errors found.

COUNTRY

A QDR system batch file which when run automatically configures the system
for 50 or 60 Hz operation. It is automatically run each time the system is
powered up or whenever the computer is rebooted.

DATE

A DOS function that displays the current date in the computer's internal clock,
and allows the date to be changed if desired.

DBCHECK

Checks a specified database (example: DBCHECK QCDB4) for errors, and


reports any found. Copyrighted by Raima Corporation.

DBDR

Verifies that all Patient/Scan database files are present. Runs DBCHECK which
checks internal structure of the Patient/Scan Database. Run by using the test
option (DBDR -t).
Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 5 - Software

DBMAN

Database management utility which moves, edits, and/or deletes scans and
patient information from the PATSCAN2 database. Hologic strongly
recommends running dbArchive before running DBMAN, so that the
original database can be restored in case of operator error.

ERRLOG

ERRLOG.DAT file contains Error Log history. Use DOS type, or print,
commands to access error log information.

FSCAL

A Field Service Calibration (batch) file used to recalculate some of the array
and pencil beam calibration parameters which are stored in the ARRC.TXT and
ENVIRON.BAT files. See Appendix G for complete details on its use.

INITDB

Initializes a specified database, clearing all previous entries. Copyrighted by


Raima Corporation.
Always run dbArchive before running INITDB. Failure to do so will
result in the permanent loss of data.
Example 1: INITDB PATSCAN3
will initialize the patient database, and in the process erase
any previously entered patient information.
Example 2: INITDB QCDB4
will initialize the QC database, and in the process erase any
previous entered QC data.

KEYBUILD

Rebuilds the specified database key files, and in the process, corrects some
common problems. Copyrighted by Raima Corporation.
Example:

MAINSTUB

Revision F

KEYBUILD PATSCAN3
will rebuild the patient

or
or

KEYBUILD QCDB4
QC database.

QDR executable program used to initiate the QDR system software's main
menu. Normally used when returning to the system software from the DOS
prompt.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

MOTION

QDR executable program used to turn motion detection on or off.


Example:

MOTORA,
MOTORT,
MOTORX,
MOTORY

MOTION ON

or

MOTION OFF

These four QDR program are used to control and monitor the Array, Table, Xaxis and Y-axis drive stepper motors. Written primarily for use by
Engineering, they serve in the field as means for isolating the cause of motor
stalling (by changing the stepping rate), and for monitoring the manual motion
request switches, limit switches and motion counter board outputs.
A typical MOTORX display is shown below.

Figure 5-1 Typical MotorX Display


To run the X-axis, Y-axis, table or array motor and thereby test the motor and
its associated limit switches and motion counter boards, use the cursor keys to
highlight the following lines in the -Motor Control box, entering the value
specified in the table below and pressing <ENTER>.
PARAMETER
Number Of Steps
Slope
Rate
First Rate
Slope Divisor

MOTORX
2000
180
127
003
001

MOTORY
2000
180
50
003
001

MOTORT
2000
180
010
003
001

MOTORA
2000
100
003
003
001

After all five parameters have been entered, highlight the Command line, press
<Del> to clear the line, then type + or - to determine desired direction of
motion (see table below) and press <Enter>.
5-16

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 5 - Software

COMMAND
+
-

MOTORX
arm to rear
arm to front

MOTORY
arm left
arm right

MOTORT
table left
table right

MOTORA
array forward
array to rear

Again press <Del> to clear the command line, then type G and press <Enter>
to initiate motion. Observe the Motion line at the bottom of the -Motor Status
box (except in MOTORT and MOTORA): it should change as the arm moves.
Repeatedly pressing <Enter> should cause the arm or table to reach a motion
limit and the CW Limit or CCW Limit status in the -Motor Status box to
change from 0 to 1, indicating proper limit switch operation.
Throwing the arm and table manual control switches should change 0s to 1s in
the -Motor Status box thusly:
SWITCH
arm FORW./BACK switch UP
arm FORW./BACK switch DOWN
arm LEFT/RIGHT switch LEFT
arm LEFT/RIGHT switch RIGHT
table LEFT/RIGHT switch LEFT
table LEFT/RIGHT switch RIGHT

MOTORX
CW SWITCH
CCW SWITCH

MOTORY
CCW SWITCH

MOTORT
-

CCW SWITCH

CW SWITCH

CW SWITCH

ONDISK

QDR utility which checks the hard disk for patient files not currently in the
database, and adds any that it finds. Safe to run anytime.

PAD

QDR executable program which allows table, arm and laser on/off control from
the keyboard. Pressing any key 0-4 or 6-9 on the numeric keypad initiates the
indicated action. Pressing <Del> or 5 stops it.

Figure 5-2 Motor and Laser Control Pad

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

5-17

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

SCANTODB

Used when scans are copied to the hard disk via the DOS copy command.
Running SCANTODB will then add them to the QDR database.
Example: SCANTODB \XCDATA\p*.p*

SET

DOS command which displays environment variables. Examples are: the


current DOS path, line frequency protocol, Q-numbers, calibration correction
factors, and machine model and serial number.
This command can also be used to enter variables into the DOS environment.
Example: SET DELA=0
will instruct the QDR software to save rather then deleting the
raw scan data file after "post processing".
Example: SET VONLY=1
will cause executable files to display their revision number,
when run from the DOS prompt, rather then executing as they
normally would.
To turn off a DOS environment variable, set the variable name to nothing. For
example: Set DELA=<Enter> or Set VONLY=<Enter>.

SURVEY2

QDR program which allows the monitoring of the A/D converter, the status of
the HVPS, the system line frequency and the instantaneous Hi/Low signal
values for bone, tissue and air. It also affords on/off control of the X-ray beam
and the filter wheel motor. Please refer to the diagnostic software section for
a complete description of the SURVEY2 program.

TIME

DOS command which displays the current time in the computer's clock, and
allows that time to be changed if desired.

WCHKDSK

Corel Systems program which allows the checking of the optical WORM drive
in place of the standard DOS CHKDSK command. The WCHKDSK program
performs two separate functions depending on the optional parameter selected.
Using the /F or no option will cause the program to operate as a DOS CHKDSK
replacement. If you use the /R option the program operates as a quick cartridge
check & repair utility. The format for the WCHKDSK program is as follows:
WCHKDSK d: [/F] [/R] [/RL]
where,
d:

5-18

is the drive to be tested, which must have an inserted cartridge,


and is typically drive E: on the QDR-2000.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 5 - Software

/F

is an optional parameter, required to tell the program to write


any corrections to the cartridge, as well as to inform DOS of
the actual space available on the cartridge.

/R

is an optional parameter, to tell the program to perform a quick


validity check of the cartridge rather than run the full
WCHKDSK program, which can take several minutes. You will
be prompted to confirm if you want to write any corrections to
the cartridge.

/RL

is an optional parameter that performs the same function as the


/R option, but does so in a slower more exhaustive manner and
should be used if the /R fails to fix the cartridge.

Note that the WCHKDSK locks the door of the optical disk drive when the
program starts up (if the drive supports locking), and unlocks it again when it is
finished running.
Please refer to the Corel Systems Corporation Optical Disk manual for a more
detailed explanation of this and other command. Copyrighted by Corel
Systems Corporation.
WDIAGS

Corel Systems program which performs diagnostic test of the Optical Disk
Drive and interface. It provides a method of determining whether or not
problems exist in the WORM system. The format for the WDIAGS program is
as follows:
WDIAGS d: [/W] [/Ln]
where,
d:

is the drive to be tested, which must have an inserted cartridge,


and is typically drive E: on the QDR-2000.

/W

is an optional parameter requesting that a single write test be


performed on the cartridge (regardless of the loop count). The
program will ensure the cartridge is mounted before performing
its tests.

/L

is an optional parameter specifying that the diagnostics are to


be run continuously until a key is hit on the keyboard (if n is not
specified) or n interactions if specified.

Please refer to the Corel Systems Corporation Optical Disk manual for a more
detailed explanation of this and other command. Copyrighted by Corel
Systems Corporation.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

5-19

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

5.4 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE


THE SURVEY PROGRAM
For safety reasons, the system software normally monitors X-axis and Y-axis carriage
motion during a scan, and shuts down the X-ray source if motion failure is detected on either
axis. For testing and troubleshooting, however, service personnel must occasionally
generate X-rays without carriage motion. The SURVEY2 program allows this to be done,
and also enables the service technician to monitor and set certain status registers.
The SURVEY2 program can only be initiated from the DOS prompt. One must therefore
exit from the QDR-2000 menu software by simultaneously pressing <Alt> <F1>. At the
DOS prompt, type SURVEY2 and press <Enter>.
NOTE: There are different versions of SURVEY for each QDR model. Even though there
are many similarities between them, the description that follows is relevant only to the
version for the QDR-2000.

Figure 5-7 SURVEY2 Program


CAUTION: The SURVEY2 program bypasses the X-ray source shutdown safety
feature. Be especially careful not to get hands, head or any other body parts in the Xray beam path when running the SURVEY2 program.
SURVEY2 has two functions: display and control. It can display registers which report the
status of the Motor & Drive (M&D) and Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter boards. It can
also let the service technician control the X-ray beam and filter motor, select PMT bias
voltages, and choose to display Hi/Low energy levels as either A/D numbers or voltages. The
graphics display presents a bar graph of the detector signals. The currently selected detector
is graphed in red and all other detectors in yellow. The bars are graphed from the top of the
display towards the bottom and are proportional to the signal.
5-20

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 5 - Software

SURVEY2 function keys:

Revision F

FUNCTION KEYS
<F1> X-rays ON

DESCRIPTION
Turns ON X-rays. Note that the X-rays will not come on if
either the Emergency status register is in fault (ON) or if any
of the three incrementing counters are non-zero.

<F2> X-rays OFF

Turns OFF X-rays. Pressing either the Emergency stop button


or the <Esc> key on the keyboard will also turn off the Xrays.

<F3> Gains Flat

Turns OFF the dynamic gain in the Analog to Digital (A/D) PC


board. The Low Bone, Tissue and Air values are true
representations of the low energy striking the selected
detector.

<F4> Gains Changing

Turns ON the dynamic gain in the Analog to Digital (A/D) PC


board. The Low Bone, Tissue and Air values are amplified by a
factor of 4.

<F5> Wheel ON

Turns ON the filter wheel motor.

<F6> Wheel OFF

Turns OFF the filter wheel motor.

<F7> Array to PMT 1

Moves the detector array towards the back of the unit until the
first PMT is in the center of the arm.

<F8> Array to PMT 17

Moves the detector array towards the front of the unit until the
17th PMT is in the center of the arm.

<F10> Raw/Volt/Log Data

Causes the Low Bone, Tissue and Air values to be displayed.


Toggles between displaying the data in the raw A/D numeric
format (in the range of 0-65535), voltage format (in the range
of 0-10 Volts), and in the log data format.

<Page Up> Array Back 20


steps

Moves the detector array towards the back of the unit by 20


stepper motor steps. This corresponds to a backward motion
of 0.01" each time the <Page Up> key is pressed

<Page Down> Array


Forward 20 steps

Moves the detector array towards the front of the unit by 20


stepper motor steps. This corresponds to a forward motion of
0.01" each time the <Page Down> key is pressed.

<Alt><D>

Toggle the dark current adjustment on and off. Normally, this


adjustment should only be used when log data is to be
displayed.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

5-21

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

SURVEY2 function keys continued:


FUNCTION KEYS
<Alt><S>

DESCRIPTION
This key cycles through the wheel segments. Data is graphed
only for the current segment.

<Alt><X>
<Atl><Z>

These keys double and halve the zoom factor. Increasing the
zoom factor causes the graphics scale to be less than the full
data range. The viewable range is centered around the current
value of the currently selected detector. In most situations,
this capability is not required.

<Ctrl><Page Up>
<Ctrl><Page Down>

Toggles between the first display screen and the graphical


display.

<+>
<->

These keys increment and decrement the currently active


detector.

<Home>

See Statistical Information discussion below.

Statistical Information
In addition to the usual detector readouts in the first display screen, the following
information is displayed for each wheel segment for the currently selected detector: number
of data points, mean detector reading for the indicated number of points, standard deviation
of the reading and coefficient of variation for the reading. The same information is
displayed on the graphics screen but only for the currently selected wheel segment.
Pressing Home reinitializes the statistical information by setting the number of points to 0.
The statistical data is displayed for all data collected since the last time Home was pressed.

5-22

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 5 - Software

The following registers display readback information from the Motor & Drive (M&D) board
and Analog to Digital (A/D) converter board.

REGISTER
Chopper

DISPLAY
0 or 1

DESCRIPTION
Filter Wheel Pickoff pulses are detected.
0=no pickoff pulse detected.
1=pickoff pulse detected.

Hi/Lo

0 or 1

Cycles at AC line frequency between 0 and 1 as positive and


negative line voltage half-cycles are detected.

Interlock

ON or OFF

Currently displays the same status that the Emergency


register does.

Emergency

ON or OFF

ON when either of the red EMERGENCY STOP buttons is


pushed in or the key switch is OFF (emergency status
enabled).
OFF when both red EMERGENCY STOP switches are
pulled out and the key switch is turned to the ON position
(normal operation).

HiVoltage

ON or OFF

ON when X-rays are on.


OFF when no X-rays are being generated.
(NOTE: This is the "readback" register, complement to the
"setting" register.)

A/D
Readback

16 Individual The binary output of the Array Analog to Digital (A/D)


Bits, each 0 Converter board. The bits are displayed in two colors:
or 1
RED = The bit has not changed state since SURVEY2 was
started (or reset by the <Home> key).
GREEN = The bit has changed state at least once since
SURVEY2 was started or was last reset by the <Home> key.
Pressing the <Home> key resets all the bits back to red.
This can be helpful in finding "stuck" bits.

The following six registers display the detected amplitude of the dual energy (Hi-140kVp
and Low-70kVp) X-ray pulses after passing through the three filter wheel segments. The
information can be displayed either as A/D "raw" numbers (0-65535) or voltage (0-10.0
Volts). Function key <F9> selects A/D numbers and <F10> selects voltages.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

5-23

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

REGISTER
Hi Bone

DISPLAY

Lo Bone

DESCRIPTION
Hi energy X-ray pulse through bone segment.
Low energy X-ray pulse through bone segment.

Number
Hi Tissue

Hi energy X-ray pulse through tissue segment.


or

Lo Tissue

Low energy X-ray pulse through tissue segment.


Voltage

Hi Air

Hi energy X-ray pulse through air segment.

Lo Air

Low energy X-ray pulse through air segment.

NOTE: The A/D "raw" number displayed by SURVEY2 is inverted relative to the voltage
level outputed by the detectors (65535=0 Volts and 00000=10.0 Volts). The higher the
"raw" number, the fewer X-rays that are hitting the detector. Readings that reach either
extreme (0 or 10 Volts, 65535 or 00000) indicate something wrong with the unit.

The following registers indicate the results of operator commands to the detector,
collimator and PMT voltage programmer. The selections are made using the function keys
or by entering numeric values through the keyboard.

REGISTER
WarmUp

DISPLAY
ON or OFF

DESCRIPTION
Normal state is OFF and should only be ON for
approximately 3-5 seconds while the X-rays are coming on
or going off.

HiVoltage

ON or OFF

The first of two registers used to enable the generation of


X-rays.
ON when X-rays are desired (press <F1>).
OFF when no X-rays are desired (press <F2>).

X-ray Enable

ON or OFF

The second of two registers required to enable the


generation of X-rays.
ON when X-rays are desired (press <F1>).
OFF when no X-rays are desired (press <F2>).

5-24

Calibration

ON or OFF

Fixed ON.

S/W Debug

ON or OFF

Defaults to OFF. A flag used by programmers. Not used by


Field Service.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 5 - Software

Register descriptions continued:


REGISTER
Filter Wheel

DISPLAY
ON or OFF

DESCRIPTION
Indicates the status of the filter wheel motor drive circuitry.
<F5> turns the filter wheel motor ON.
<F6> turns the filter wheel motor OFF.

Frequency

50 Hz or 60 Indicates the line frequency as determined by the Motor &


Hz
Drive (M&D) board.

Selected
Detector

1,3-29

Enter the detector number to be monitored.

Collimator
Setting

1-16

Enter a collimator position number.


NOTE: Even though there are 16 possible collimator
positions, only the first 11 are presently used.

Collimator
Readback

1-16

Reports the selected collimator position as decoded by the


Geneva/Collimator position encoder PC board.

PMT Voltage
Setting

0-255

Enter a voltage level to bias the PMT detectors.


NOTE: The number entered is converted by the PMT
Voltage programmer and corresponds to -3.5 Volts per
increment of this number (e.g., an entry of 100 would
produce -350 Volts at the PMT detectors).

PMT Voltage
Readback

0-255

Reports the corresponding selected voltage level set for the


PMT detectors.
As noted above, this number is not the voltage level on the
PMTs but a converted representation.

Dark Current
Setting

0-65535

See Dark Currnet Adjustment discussion below.

Dark Current Adjustment


Normally, the dark current adjustment should be off. However, it is required for correct use
of the log data mode. When <Alt><d> is pressed for the first time, the current mean
detector readings for all detectors and all wheel segments are set as dark current offsets.
From this point on all detector data will be adjusted by subtracting these offsets before the
data is displayed. The dark current offsets for all wheel segments of the current detector
are displayed at the bottom of the main display screen. If these numbers are different from
65535, then the dark current adjustment is active. In the graphics display, the state of the
dark current adjustment is indicated as either on or off. Pressing <Alt><d> a second time
turns off the dark current adjustment.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

5-25

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

For technical reasons, <Alt><d> is only active in raw data or volt modes. Survey2 will beep
if <Alt><d> is pressed while log data mode is active.
The normal procedure for setting the dark current adjustment is to use the <F10> key to
enter raw data or volt data mode and to insure x-rays are off. Then press <Home> to
initialize the statistical data collection. After 50 or 100 data points are obtained, the mean
readings should be relatively stable and unchanging. At this point pressing <Alt><d> will set
the current mean readings as the dark current offsets.

SURVEY2 also has three counters which increment when there is a filter wheel pickoff
error or a Hi/Low phasing fault.
All three of these counters must be at zero before X-rays can be produced. The counters
can be reset only by exiting SURVEY2 (pressing <Esc>), and then restarting the program.

REGISTER
Pickoff Out
Of Phase

DISPLAY
0 or a
decimal
number

DESCRIPTION
Increments if the filter wheel pickoff is out of phase with
the AC line. i.e., if the pickoff pulse occurs during the
negative half cycle of the AC line.
If the Pickoff Out of Phase counter is incrementing, the
filter wheel can be phased manually by alternately pressing
<F5> and <F6> until the wheel is in phase and the counter
stops incrementing. Long filter wheel motor off times
improve the chances of the wheel synchronizing with the
positive half-cycle of the AC line when restarted.

5-26

No Filter
Wheel
Pickoff

0 or a
decimal
number

Increments if the pickoff pulse is not detected. This can be


due to a fault in the pickoff circuitry or a stationary filter
wheel (e.g., the filter wheel has been turned off via the
<F6> function key).

Hi-Lo Out Of
Sequence

0 or a
decimal
number

Increments if the Hi-Low pulse sequence (as monitored by


the Motor & Drive board) disagrees with the computer's
expectations.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

6.0 COMPONENT OVERVIEW


COMPUTER

The QDR-2000 incorporates an AT clone type computer to control motion and Xray generation, perform all necessary calculations, and manage patient and QC database
information.

INTEL COMPUTER
The computer may be supplied by several vendors; currently, the computer used is a Intel Classic
E. The Classic E uses a Intel486DX processor running at 33MHz. It is supplied with 4
Megabytes of RAM. Also included are two integrated serial (RS232C) ports, one parallel
communications port and an integrated peripheral controller including real time clock and
CMOS RAM (with offboard battery backup).
The normal system configuration is a base unit with a single half-height 5.25-inch 1.2MB floppy
drive, a half-height 3.5-inch 120MB hard disk drive, a dual hard disk/floppy controller board and
an enhanced 101-key keyboard. To that is added a Video Graphics Array (VGA) display adapter
board and a Timing and Control Interface (T&CI) board. An optional 5.25-inch half-height
optical disk drive can also be installed in the second drive bay. The software provided with the
computer is the DOS operating system. The Intel Classic E has a 200 watt switchable power
supply. Refer to the technical manual supplied by the manufacturer, titled Classic E Desktop
Platform Product Guide, for specific technical information on this computer.
Practical diagnostics are limited to running the power on self test to test various sections of the
system such as the system board, memory, keyboard, and certain peripheral devices. The
replacement of defective components is limited to the replacement of either disk drive, the VGA
display, the VGA display adapter, the Timing & Control Interface board and the keyboard.
Problems related to the main system motherboard or the low voltage power supply would require
the replacement of the base unit itself.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-1

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

The figure below shows slot assignments for the Intel Classic E computer. Note also that a
CMOS Setup label is placed on the back of the computer to facilitate problem resolution.

Figure 6-1 Intel Classic E Computer Assembly

6-2

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

HYUNDAI COMPUTER
Prior to the Intel Classic E, the computer shipped with the QDR-2000 was a Hyundai (refer to
the technical manual supplied by the manufacturer for specific technical information on this
computer). The figure below shows slot assignments for the Hyundai Super-386T computer.

Figure 6-2 Hyundai Computer Assembly

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-3

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

HARD DRIVE
The computer's hard disk drive is a 3.5-inch high-capacity (120MB) mass storage device
with fast read/write operations. All system and option software is resident on the hard drive,
and there is room as well for storage of 500 hip/spine or 200 whole-body scans. Additional
scan must be archived to floppy diskettes or an optical cartridge.

CAUTION

CAUTION: To protect the hard disk drive, always wait at lest 45 seconds after powering
OFF the system before powering it back ON again.

FLOPPY DRIVE
The floppy disk drive is a 5.25-inch high capacity (1.2 MB) unit identified as drive A. The
drive can store up to six hip/spine or two whole-body scans on a 1.2MB, 5.25-inch high
density diskette (2HD).
Be sure to use only high density (2HD) floppy diskettes. Do not attempt to use low density
360KB (2D or 2DD) floppy diskettes, as these may produce system errors and possible loss
of archived data.

OPTICAL DRIVE OPTION


The second disk drive bay is available for the optional Optical Write-Once/Read-Many
(WORM) drive. It interfaces to the computer through a SCSI (small computer systems
interface) board, and uses a low-power laser to record 400Mb on each side of a removable
5.25-inch optical cartridge. The disk's capacity is over 4,000 hip/spine or 1,600 whole-body
scans. Data written on the cartridge cannot be erased, so the system is ideal for archiving
scans.
Optical drives are not field-repairable. If a WORM drive option is installed, a full set of
diagnostic routines will be present at the WORM directory of the root drive. Details of
their use are discussed in the optical disk drive manual.

DISPLAY ADAPTER
Currently, the (standard) display adapter board used in QDR-2000plus computers is the ATI
Graphics Ultra Pro. No jumper or switch settings are required. Refer to the technical manual
supplied by the manufacturer for specific technical information on this board.
Currently, the (standard) display adapter board used in QDR-2000 computers is the ATI VGA
Integra. No jumper or switch settings are required. Refer to the technical manual supplied by the
manufacturer for specific technical information on this board.
Earlier QDR-2000 systems employed Video Graphics Array (VGA) display adapters from two
vendors - Paradise and Supercom. Substitution of other brands may cause system display errors
and is not recommended.

6-4

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

Please refer to the following figures for jumper and dip switch settings for Paradise and
Supercom display adapter boards.

Figure 6-3 Paradise VGA Display Adapter (PVGA)

Figure 6-4 Supercom VGA Display Adapter (ZPVGA)

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-5

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Figure 6-5 Unique VGA Display Adapter (MVGA-P1C)

SCSI INTERFACE BOARD


This board is required only if a WORM (Write Once Read Many) optical disk drive option is
present.
To function properly, the board's EPROM (in position U4) must be removed, and all jumpers
(W1 through W5) must be removed as well.
The SCSI board is not field-repairable.

MONITOR

The QDR-2000 and QDR-2000plus comes with a Video Graphics Array (VGA)
color CRT display.
Currently, the (standard) monitor used on QDR-2000plus systems is the Viewsonic 6E. Refer to
the technical manual supplied by the manufacturer for specific technical information on this
monitor.
Currently, the (standard) monitor used on QDR-2000 systems is the Viewsonic 4E. Refer to the
technical manual supplied by the manufacturer for specific technical information on this
monitor.
Earlier QDR-2000 systems employed a Hyundai VGA monitor.

CAUTION

6-6

CAUTION: The color CRT monitor is designed to operate with 120 VAC power only. Never
connect it to any other power source other then the one specifically provided for it.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

PRINTER OPTIONS

Along with the standard Mitsubishi P71U black-and-white Video Copy Processor,
there are two other printer options available. They are the Hewlett Packard DeskJet and LaserJet
series printers. The DeskJet produces black and white images on plain pre-cut (8"x11") paper and
the LaserJet produces laser quality black and white images on plain pre-cut (8"x11") paper.
To acquire a hard copy print with any of these printers, first make sure power has been applied to
the printer (press the power button if necessary), then press the <Print Scrn> key on the
keyboard. In a few seconds (longer for the P71U), a printed copy of the current monitor screen
display will begin to feed out. For further details, please refer to the printer Users Guide shipped
with each unit.

CAUTION

CAUTION: All printers are designed to operate with 120 VAC power only. Never connect them
to any power source other then the one specifically provided for them.

MITSUBISHI VIDEO PRINTER


The standard hard copy device normally shipped with the QDR-2000 is the Mitsubishi P71U.
The P71U is a black & white thermal video copy processor. It has fine resolution and is
capable of printing at least 16 levels of gray. The printer can receive direct video input but it
is configured for the parallel port to eliminate any noise which might be present in the video
signal. For normal operation, the switches on the video printer should be set as follows:
Normal P71U Switch Settings:
CONTRAST................ Dark
DIRECTION............... Normal
INPUT......................... Parallel
FRAME/FIELD.......... Frame (button out)
POSI/NEGA............... Posi (button out)
PAPER (on rear)........ Supper

HP DESKJET
The HP DeskJet 520 is an inkjet printer that produces jet-black, laser-like output, and the
DeskJet 560C produces color output. These printers work well with most types of paper,
although variables in paper composition may affect print quality and paper handling. Bond
paper gives excellent quality. Paper should be tested to insure best performance.

HP LASERJET
The HP LaserJet 4 is a laser printer that produces 300/600 DPI output. For further details,
please refer to the printer Users Guide shipped with the unit.

DETECTORS
Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-7

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

The detector array in the QDR-2000 is made up of multiple individual detectors. Each detector
is made up of a scintillating crystal of cadmium tungstate (CdWo 4), a photomultiplier tube
(PMT), and an op-amp set up as a current-to-voltage converter. Each crystal is glued to the face
of a PMT, and all detectors are enclosed in a light-tight enclosure to keep outside light from
striking the PMTs. The PMTs plug into two 16-channel PMT PC boards mounted on either side
of the Array Analog to Digital (A/D) Converter Board (positions 2, 30, 31, and 32 are not used).
Voltage for the PMTs is provided by the PMT High Voltage Power Supply (HVPS) which can
provide a bias (gain controlling) voltage anywhere from 0 to -900V DC in -3.5V increments. The
computer controls the output of the HVPS via the Motor & Drive (M&D) and PMT HV
programmer PC boards. Power for the current-to-voltage op-amp is provided by the Low
Voltage Power Supply (LVPS) and comes through the Array A/D PC board on J9.

Figure 6-6 16-Channel PMT Amp PCB

CAUTION: A photomultiplier bias voltage of up to -1000 Volts can be present on the two PMT
PC boards. Exercise proper caution when working on this assembly.

6-8

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

DETECTOR PCB CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENTS


J1 Through J8
OUTPUT SIGNALS FROM
PMTs TO A/D
1 Odd Detector Signal
2 Odd Detector Return
3 Even Detector Signal
4 Even Detector Return

J9
POWER FROM LVPS - VIA
THE A/D PCB
1, 3 and 5
0V
2
+15V
4
-15V

The detector's scintillating crystals convert the X-ray photons to a visible blue-green light. The
light emitted by the crystals is then converted to an electric current and amplified by the
photomultiplier tubes. Finally the current is converted to a voltage by the current-to-voltage opamp and sent on to the integrators on the A/D board.
The software for array scans is so written that a failure of one or more detectors will not prohibit
the acquisition and analysis of an image. This is possible because an array scan is acquired in
such a way that any point on each scan line (except the very edges of the line) will have been
"seen" by two adjacent detectors. Normally the values seen by the two detectors are averaged to
improve the signal to noise ratio, but if one detector is determined to be defective during the
post processing of the image, then only the data from the adjacent "good" detectors will be used.
Determination of a defective detector is done during post processing and not during the actual
scan; the initial image, may therefore have vertical lines from the defective detector during the
scan, but these will be eliminated during post processing and will not appear in the final image.
There are some limitations to the software's ability to compensate for hardware failures. One
limitation is that two defective detectors cannot be adjacent to one another. (With the failure of
two adjacent detectors, there really will be a gap in the acquisition of the data.) A second
limitation for an array scan is that the software cannot tolerate the failure of detector #16, which
is considered to be the "master detector" for all array scans because of its location at the center
of the detector array. (All the other detector outputs are calibrated to it during the "BEAM
FLATTENING" procedure.) The third limitation is that detector #1 must be functioning for any
type of pencil beam scans (e.g., normal hip and spine) because detector #1 is the only one used
during these type of scans.
Repair of this assembly is limited to the replacement the entire array assembly.
NOTE: The collimator, and first and last detectors used for each scan type can be determined by
viewing the scan protocol files. To accommodate AC line frequencies of 50 and 60 Hz, the files
are located in two separate directories; \SCAN\50HZ\ and \SCAN\60HZ\.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-9

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

To view them, use the DOS TYPE command and the redirection pipeline symbol " | " to redirect
the output of the file to the DOS MORE command as in the following example:
TYPE \SCAN\60HZ\AFSPINE.PRO | MORE
This will display the AFSPINE.PRO file one page at a time on the monitor's screen. All the
variables are found at the beginning of the protocol files and the number of the first detector, last
and collimator numbers are typically found on the second display page as in the following
example.
%20 ramp interrupts=
; 30 - Table motor task
; 31 - Array motor task
* ODE=110
* options=0x7718
* laser=1
* max_samples=640
* reset_data_flag=
* First PMT=3
* Last PMT=27
* X Reduction=3
* Y Reduction=1
* perspective=3.3
* PMT Voltage=low
* collimator=6
* Analyze_key=A160.2
* Execute Post=
* copy to pfile1=349,\xcdata\arrc.txt
* copy to rfile1=97,\xcdata\flat10af.cal
;
; The flags are assigned as follows:
: 0 - A line of data is ready. Cleared by SCAN if reset_data_flag
is requested above.
-- More --

6-10

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

PMT HV POWER SUPPLY PROGRAMMER


The PMT HV Power Supply Programmer is a small PC board mounted near the PMT HV Power
Supply on the base of the machine. Its function is to allow the computer to directly control the
output of the High Voltage Power Supply (HVPS). Adjustment of the PMT bias voltage is
necessary because the amount of X-ray photons coming from each of the 16 different
collimators (11 on the current release) will vary according to its size. Therefore, to keep the
output of the detectors approximately the same no matter which collimator is selected, the bias
voltage on the detectors (and therefore their gains) will have to be adjusted independently for
each collimator position.
The PMT HVPS programmer is made up of a 8-bit buffer, a 8-bit Digital to Analog (D/A)
converter, an analog buffer and some diodes and resistors. The 8-bit buffer accepts a word from
the computer via the Motor & Drive (M&D) board and applies it to the input of the D/A. Each
binary increment on the input of the D/A will cause the output to change by approximately 11.7
millivolts (3 Volt reference divided by 256). The converted output is then applied to the control
input of the PMT HVPS. Because the PMT HVPS has an input-to-output relation of 300 to 1,
each step of the D/A's output (11.7 mV) will cause the output to change by -3.5 Volts
(300x11.7mV). Therefore, a binary input of 64 Hex (100 decimal) will cause a -351 Volt bias
voltage to be applied to the PMTs.
A 5.1 Volt zener diode (D1) and two 220 ohm resistors (R1 & R2) connected to the -15 Volt
supply provide the -5 Volt supply for the D/A, while another zener diode (D2) on the output of
the D/A insures that the output will never go above 3.3 volts which in turn keeps the output of the
PMT HVPS from ever going above -990 volts. The +5 Volt reference from the PMT HVPS is
divided down to approximately 3 Volts by a 2.15K ohm resistor (R5) and a 3.32K ohm resistor
(R6). This divided voltage is another safety to insure that the output of the D/A never goes above
3 Volts. The 3 Volt reference is then feed to the D/A via analog buffer (U3A) to provide a lowimpedance input to the D/A reference input.
Note that jumper JP1 connects the digital ground to the analog ground and should always be
installed.
A file called PMTVOLTS.TXT (located in the root directory of drive C) keeps track of the digital
voltage levels required for each of the collimators. This file can be updated by running the
PMTVOLTS utility program from the DOS command line, and should be run at installation time
and whenever the X-ray source, X-ray controller or detector array is repaired or replaced. This
utility program should also be run if either the HVPS/Source or the PMT HVPS Programmer
board is repaired or replaced.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-11

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

-15V

U3A
2

1
3
LF412
U2
J2
15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1

U1
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

PMT0
PMT1
PMT2
PMT3
PMT4
PMT5
PMT6
PMT7

2
4
6
8
11
13
15
17
1
19

PMT PRGM
GND

1A1
1A2
1A3
1A4
2A1
2A2
2A3
2A4

1Y1
1Y2
1Y3
1Y4
2Y1
2Y2
2Y3
2Y4

18
16
14
12
9
7
5
3

BUFDAT0
BUFDAT1
BUFDAT2
BUFDAT3
BUFDAT4
BUFDAT5
BUFDAT6
BUFDAT7

1G
2G
74LS244

GND

13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
14
15
16
17

DATA0
DATA1
DATA2
DATA3
DATA4
DATA5
DATA6
DATA7
CS
WR
LDAC
RESET

VREF

R4
2

VOUT

18

+15V

VOUT
VDD

+15V

VREFIN

AGND
DGND
VSS

WP4
WP

1K

PROG IN
D2
1N4684
3.3 VOLTS

AGND

WP5

WP

C1
1

-5V

+5V REF
R5
2.15K

0.1(SA10)

AD7224
D1
GND

VCC

GND

R3
2.15K

C2

TP6
WP

JP1
JUMPER

1N4625
R2
5.1 VOLTS
220 OHM

R6
3.32K

WP6
WP

kV MON

kV MON

TP3

TP7

WP7

WP

WP

0.1(SA10)
J1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

GND
VCC

R1
220 OHM

GND

-15V
AGND
+15V

mA MON

WP
mA MON

WP3
WP
GND

PWR

U3B
C3
0.1(SA10)

C5
0.1(SA10)

C4
0.1(SA10)

C6
0.1(SA10)

6
7
5
LF412

Figure 6-7 PMT Programmer Schematic

Figure 6-8 PMT Programmer Assembly

6-12

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

ARRAY ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER PCB


CAUTION: The photomultiplier bias voltage of up to -990 Volts can be present on the two PMT
PC boards mounted on either side of this assembly. Exercise proper caution when working on
or around this assembly.
The Array A/D Converter board is designed to accept, integrate and A/D convert signals from the
discrete detectors. It has 32 separate integrators, 16 each in BANK0 and BANK1, that are cleared
between X-ray pulses and then enabled simultaneously for 4 milliseconds during every line half-cycle
(channels 2, 30, 31, and 32 are not used). At the end of the 4 milliseconds INTEGRATE interval, all
integrators are switched into HOLD mode. They are then connected, one at a time, for a period of 24
microseconds each, by means of a 32-channel multiplexer to the A/D's sample-and-hold input.
Conversion of each channel takes place in 24 microseconds; after each 16-bit conversion is
complete, the resulting data is stored in two bytes of temporary on-board memory to await burstmode transmission to the computer after all conversions have been completed.
Power for the A/D board of +/-15V DC and +5V DC is provided by the Low Voltage Power Supply
(LVPS) on JP18 and then passed on to the two 16-channel detector PC boards via JP17 and JP21.

Figure 6-9 Multi-Channel A/D PC Board

Note that JP20 should always be installed. This is where the analog and digital grounds are tied
together.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-13

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

A/D BOARD CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENTS

1
2
3
4

JP1
DETECTORS
1 & 3 INPUT
1 Signal
1 Return
3 Signal
3 Return

JP2
DETECTORS
2 & 4 INPUT
1 4 Signal
2 4 Return
3 2 Signal
4 2 Return

JP3
DETECTORS
5 & 7 INPUT
1 5 Signal
2 5 Return
3 7 Signal
4 7 Return

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

JP5
DETECTORS
9 & 11 INPUT
9 Signal
9 Return
11 Signal
11 Return

JP6
DETECTORS
10 & 12 INPUT
1 12 Signal
2 12 Return
3 10 Signal
4 10 Return

JP7
DETECTORS
13 & 15 INPUT
1 13 Signal
2 13 Return
3 15 Signal
4 15 Return

JP8
DETECTORS
14 & 16 INPUT
1 16 Signal
2 16 Return
3 14 Signal
4 14 Return

JP9
DETECTORS
17 & 19 INPUT
1 17 Signal
2 17 Return
3 19 Signal
4 19 Return

JP10
DETECTORS
18 & 20 INPUT
1 20 Signal
2 20 Return
3 18 Signal
4 18 Return

JP11
DETECTORS
21 & 23 INPUT
1 21 Signal
2 21 Return
3 23 Signal
4 23 Return

JP12
DETECTORS
22 & 24 INPUT
1 24 Signal
2 24 Return
3 22 Signal
4 22 Return

JP13
DETECTORS
25 & 27 INPUT
1 25 Signal
2 25 Return
3 27 Signal
4 27 Return

JP14
DETECTORS
26 & 28 INPUT
1 28 Signal
2 28 Return
3 26 Signal
4 26 Return

JP15
DETECTORS
29 & 31 INPUT
1 29 Signal
2 29 Return
3 31 Signal
4 31 Return

JP16
DETECTORS
30 & 32 INPUT
1 32 Signal
2 32 Return
3 30 Signal
4 30 Return

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

6-14

JP18
POWER FROM
L.V.P.S.
GND
+5V DC (Vcc)
no connection
no connection
-15V DC
0V
+15V DC

JP17
POWER TO ODD
DETECTORS PCB
1 0V
2 +15V DC
3 0V
4 -15V DC
5 0V

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

JP4
DETECTORS
6 & 8 INPUT
8 Signal
8 Return
6 Signal
6 Return

JP21
POWER TO EVEN
DETECTORS PCB
1 0V
2 +15V DC
3 0V
4 -15V DC
5 0V

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

JP19
INPUT/OUTPUT SIGNAL CONNECTOR FOR THE ARRAY A/D PC BOARD
COMPLM.
SIGNAL NAME
TRUE COMPLM.
SIGNAL NAME
TRUE
1
Spare1
2
21
Read/Write Address 1
22
3
Spare2
4
23
Read/Write Address 0
24
5
500K Hz Clock
6
25
Data Bit 7
26
7
INTG* Signal
8
27
Data Bit 6
28
9
Detector I/O Write
10
29
Data Bit 5
30
11
Detector I/O Read
12
31
Data Bit 4
32
13
Read/Write Address 5
14
33
Data Bit 3
34
15
Read/Write Address 4
16
35
Data Bit 2
36
17
Read/Write Address 3
18
37
Data Bit 1
38
19
Read/Write Address 2
20
39
Data Bit 0
40

A/D THEORY OF OPERATION:


The Array Analog to Digital (A/D) converter board is designed to accept signals from the
photomultiplier tube (PMT) channels. The multiple PMT channels are made up by two 16channel PMT boards, mounted on either side of the A/D board, with the odd channel
detectors on one board and the even ones on the other. Channel one is located at the front
right side of the A/D board when viewed from the top while standing in front of the machine.

Figure 6-10 A/D Block Diagram (1 of 2)

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-15

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

NOTE: The gain potentiometer for channel #1 is always set for minimum gain (full
counter-clockwise position).
The A/D receives all of the PMT signals in parallel, integrates and multiplexes them into a
serial string then, amplifies, digitizes and stores the results until the computer request the
data. The 32 PMT signals are divided into two 16 channel busses, referred to as BANK0 &
BANK1.
Each signal goes through a gain control, integrator, and multiplexer. The potentiometer in
series with each PMT signal functions as a gain control and permits a gain adjustment of
about a factor of 10. Signals entering the A/D board have a positive potential with a
maximum range of 0-10 Volts but typically in the 0-7.5 Volts range.
Signals go thru the gain adjustment potentiometer and enter the input (integrate) switch.
When X-rays are on, all 32 input switches are closed, causing all 32 channels to integrate at
the same time. This is known as the integrating period and it lasts for 4 milliseconds. The
integrating period occurs every 8.33 milliseconds when the QDR-2000 is running on 60
Hertz power and every 10 milliseconds with 50 Hertz power. An op-amp and capacitor form
an integrator for each channel and current entering thru the integrate switch will charge up
the capacitor for 4 milliseconds. With the gain potentiometer turned fully CCW (max
resistance) the cap will still have ample time to charge to the peak value of the input signal.
During the integrating period and following it during the digitizing period the switches
across the integrators remain open. Because of the inversion in the integrator's op-amp, the
signal will have a negative polarity.
At the end of the integrating period the signals will be multiplexed and sent to the A/D
convertor via the analog busses BANK0 and BANK1. The process of multiplexing is the
sharing of one signal line for more than one signal. The type of multiplexing used here is
known as time division which is where each signal is permitted to use the line for a specific
period of time. In our case, this time slice is 24 microseconds long. Signals are switched
one at a time on to the line in sequential order (i.e. channel one, two, three, etc.) until all 32
channels have been sent to the A/D converter.
Each integrator output signal is either selected to go onto the analog busses
(BANK0/BANK1) or held at the Analog Ground potential by a Single Pole Double Throw
(SPDT) switch. Grounding the unselected signals reduces the amount of crosstalk between
channels. Each buss handles 16 channels and the two busses are further buffered and
multiplexed by two inverters and two SPDT switches. The signal BANKSEL determines
which bank of 16 is directed to the A/D. The signal polarity is now positive.
The combined output signal from the multiplexers (MUXOUT) then goes to a programmable
gain amplifier which can be programmed in 16 increments of gain from 1 (unity) to 32. It is
normally set to unity gain for the 140kVp X-ray pulse and set to a gain of 4 for the 70 kVp
X-ray pulse. Because the signal goes into the non-inverting input of the op-amp, the signal
polarity remains positive.

6-16

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

Figure 6-11 A/D Block Diagram (2 of 2)

The serial string of analog signals then enters a combined sample and hold, analog to digital
(A/D) converter. The converter is set up for unipolar, positive input with a range of 0 to 10
volts. It is further set up with a 0.2 Volt offset in order to prevent losing any signals with
small negative offsets. The A/D converter provides its own clocks and requires only a
START signal to begin converting. A parallel 16 bit value is available every 24
microseconds on its output. The entire 32 channels are digitized in 768 microseconds. As
soon as a channel is digitized the digital value is stored in temporary holding memories.
These values are now available to the computer and will remain there until they are written
over after the next X-ray pulse. The bits coming out of the A/D converter are active low. i.e.
a 10 Volt input is outputed as all zeroes (0000 hex or 0 decimal), whereas a 0 Volt input will
be outputed as all ones (FFFF hex or 65536 decimal).
The timing generator for the A/D board is formed up by a 12 bit binary counter and two
Programmable Read Only Memories (PROMs). The counter is held in the reset state (zero)
during the X-ray integration period by the signal INTG* which comes from the Motor &
Driver (M&D) PC board. When integration is finished, INTG* goes high and the counter
begins incrementing. The clock (CLK) steps the counter every 2 microseconds and the 12bit parallel time slice (WA0 thru WA11) is applied to the address inputs of the two PROMs.
The data outputs are deglitched by two registers and become the actual timing signals used
throughout the board. Examples are as follows:

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

START

Start convert pulse for A/D converter. One pulse for each channel.

WE*

Write Enable pulse. Writes the digitized data into the holding memory. One
pulse for each channel.

MWADDR0
thru
MWADDR4

Multiplexer addresses 0 thru 4 which are decoded by four three to eight (3


to 8) decoders to form the 32 multiplexer control lines, MA0-MA7, MB0MB7, MC0-MC7 and MD0-MD7:

BANKSEL

Selects between the first 16 channel buss (BANK0) and the second 16
channel buss (BANK1).

WMODE*

Tells the memory address selectors whether the address is a board generated
write address or a computer generated read address.

STORE

Enables the analog input to the integrators during the X-ray pulse.

DIS

Discharges the integrating capacitors between X-ray pulses.

WADDR0
thru
WADDR4

Temporary memory addresses where the data is stored. Four ICs form the
temporary holding memories. They accept 16 bit parallel words on write
command directly from the A/D converter. However, the read output to the
computer is an 8-bit parallel byte.

Data communications and control passes between the A/D board and the M&D board via a
parallel bidirectional differential link separated into data receivers, data transmitters and
address and control receivers. To accommodate the gain control of the programmable opamp, an address decoder and gain change register is utilized.
All the data and control buss signals sent through JP19 are sent via balanced line method
using differential receivers and transmitters. This method requires the use of two lines for
each signal, a true line and a complement line.

6-18

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

MOTOR & DRIVE PC BOARD


The Motor and Drive (M&D) board serves as an interface for data and control signals between the
computer and the Array A/D board, the X-ray Controller and HV Programmer boards, the stepper
motors, the Power Distribution panel's relays and LED indicators, the filter wheel pickoff, motion
counter boards, limit switches, the collimator position detector and all manual controls. In QDR2000plus, and QDR-2000 systems manufactured after March 1994, the M&D board contains a
hardware feature that can be queried by the computer to identify the model of the instrument.
The M&D board generates all system timing signals, locking them synchronously to the 50Hz or
60Hz AC line. Such synchronization is required because the X-rays pulses occur on the positive and
negative half-cycles of the line, so all related filtration introductions, A/D conversion, and interrupts
must be line-synchronous as well. The transitions of all M&D board timing signals are also
synchronous with the board's 500K Hz clock, which is derived from an on-board 11MHz oscillator.
The M&D board provides, under proper conditions, the for control signals (HV ON, Zero-X, TRIM
and WARM) to the X-ray Controller board allowing X-rays to be generated.
There is a pulse train (one 1msec pulse every 8.33 or 10.00 msec, depending on line frequency)
generated by the filter wheel pickoff. If the wheel is rotating synchronously and with the proper
position/line phase relationship, the pickoff pulse train will cause LED D3 to light; if not, the motor
mounts must be loosened and the motor physically rotated until D3 does light.
The stepper motor controller chips (U79-U82) are microprocessors programmed to control, through
off-board stepper translators, the stepper motors which provide X-axis, Y-axis, table and array
motion. These are the only field-replaceable chips on the board; in all other respects, the board is not
field-repairable.
Some of the QDR-2000's switches (motion direction and table limits) are mechanical, and are
debounced before detection. The X-axis, Y-axis and array limit switches are Hall effect types, and
are sensed directly.
The M&D board communicates to the computer through the Timing and Control Interface board's
differential line drivers and receivers, which buffer signals travelling to and from the computer's
internal data, address and control busses.
The Motor and Drive PC board base address is 3340 hex.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

PC BOARD LAYOUT

Figure 6-12 Motor & Drive PC Board Assembly


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Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

MOTOR & DRIVE CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENTS

JP1
INPUT/OUTPUT SIGNALS TO AND FROM COMPUTER VIA T&C INTERFACE
TRUE SIGNAL NAME COMPLM. TRUE
SIGNAL NAME
COMPLM.
1
Data Bit 0
2
21
Address Bit 2
22
3
Data Bit 1
4
23
Address Bit 3
24
5
Data Bit 2
6
25
Address Bit 4
26
7
Data Bit 3
8
27
Address Bit 5
28
9
Data Bit 4
10
29
Input/Output Read
30
11
Data Bit 5
12
31
Input/Output Write
32
13
Data Bit 6
14
33
Reset
34
15
Data Bit 7
16
35
Detector Valid Signal
36
17
Address Bit 0
18
37
External Valid Signal
38
19
Address Bit 1
20
39
Spare1
40

JP2
INPUT/OUTPUT SIGNALS TO AND FROM ARRAY A/D CONVERTER BOARD
COMPLM.
SIGNAL NAME
TRUE COMPLM.
SIGNAL NAME
TRUE
Spare1 (Vcc)
Detector Address 1
1
2
21
22
Spare2 (Vcc)
Detector Address 0
3
4
23
24
500K
Hz
Clock
Data
Bit
7
5
6
25
26
INTG* (Time0)
Data Bit 6
7
8
27
28
Detector I/O Write
Data Bit 5
9
10
29
30
Detector I/O Read
Data Bit 4
11
12
31
32
Detector Address 5
Data Bit 3
13
14
33
34
Detector Address 4
Data Bit 2
15
16
35
36
Detector Address 3
Data Bit 1
17
18
37
38
Detector Address 2
Data Bit 0
19
20
39
40

JP3
X-RAY CONTROLLER OUTPUTS
1,3,4,5,
6,11,15
2
7
8
9
10
12
13
14
16

Revision F

X-ray Enable (+5)


+5V
Zero Cross (low true)
+5V
Warmup (low true)
X-ray Spare
+5V
Trim (low true)
HV ON (low true)

JP4
HIGH VOLTAGE (PMT)
PROGRAMMER DATA OUTPUT
1,3,5,7,9,
GND
11,13,15
2
PMT Prog. Data Bit 7
4
PMT Prog. Data Bit 6
6
PMT Prog. Data Bit 5
8
PMT Prog. Data Bit 4
10
PMT Prog. Data Bit 3
12
PMT Prog. Data Bit 2
14
PMT Prog. Data Bit 1
16
PMT Prog. Data Bit 0

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

JP5
POST COLLIMATOR, MOTION AND
LASER INDICATOR OUTPUTS
1 Post-collimator Power (not used)
2
+5V
3 Post-collimator Step (not used)
4
+5V
5 Post-collimator Direction (not used)
6
+5V
7 Laser Enable Indicator (low true)
8
+5V
9 Motion Enable Indicator (low true)

JP8
DC POWER
INPUT
1
GND
2
+5V (Vcc)
3
GND
4
5
6
7
-

JP10
50/60 Hz
SENSE INPUT
1 16V AC
2
3 16V AC

JP13
TILT & POST
COLLIMAT. LIMITS
1
GND
2
3 Post-collimat. N.C.
4 Tilt C-Arm N.C.
5
6 Post-collimat. N.O.
7 Tilt C-Arm N.O.
8
9
GND

6-22

JP6
X-RAY ON OUTLET, COLLIMATOR
(Geneva Wheel) AND LASER OUTPUTS
1
X-ray Outlet ON (low true)
2
3
Filter Motor Enable (low true)
4
Collimator Direction (low true)
5
Filter Motor Slow (low true)
6
Filter Motor Brake (low true)
7
Filter Motor Reverse (not used)
8
Filter Wheel Pin (not used)
9
10 Collimator Power (low true)
11
12 Laser Enable (low true)

JP11
FILTER PICKOFF INPUT
1
2
3
+5V
4 Pick Signal
5
GND
6
GND

JP14
X-AXIS LIMITS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

+5V
GND
Back
+5V
Middle
GND
Front
-

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

JP15
Y-AXIS
LIMITS
GND
Right
+5V
+5V
Left
GND

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

JP12
EMERGENCY
STOP INPUT
GND
GND
E-Stop (24V DC)
Interlock (not used)
-

1
2
3
4
5
6

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

JP16
TABLE
LIMITS
GND
GND
GND
T. Left N.C.
T. Right N.C.
T. Center N.C.
T. Left N.O.
T. Right N.O.
T. Center N.O.

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

JP18
POST COLLIMATOR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

+5V
GND
Temperature (not used)
+5V
GND
Post Collimator (not used)
GND
Hi-Current QDR-2000
Identify

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

JP19
COLLIMATOR INPUT
(Geneva Wheel Position)
Geneva Pos. LED 1
Geneva Pos. LED 0
Sprocket Pos. 1 (not used)
+5V
GND
Sprocket Pos. 0
+5V
GND
Geneva Pos. LED 3

JP20
DETECTOR
ARRAY LIMITS
1
+5V
2
GND
3 Front Limit
4
+5V
5
GND
6 Back Limit

+5V
GND
Geneva Pos. LED 2

JP21
X-AXIS STEPPER
MOTOR OUTPUT
1 Pulse
3 Direction
5 Windings Off
2,4,6
GND
7,8,9
-

JP22
Y-AXIS STEPPER
MOTOR OUTPUT
1 Pulse
3 Direction
5 Windings Off
2,4,6
GND
7,8,9
-

JP23
TABLE STEPPER
MOTOR OUTPUT
1 Pulse
3 Direction
5 Windings Off
2,4,6
GND
7,8,9
-

JP24
ARRAY STEPPER
MOTOR OUTPUT
4 Pulse
6 Direction
8 Windings Off
5,7,9
GND
1,2,3
-

JP25
X-AXIS MOTION
COUNTER INPUT
1,3,5,
7,9,11
GND
13,15
2
Data Bit 0
4
Data Bit 1
6
Data Bit 2
8
Data Bit 3
10
Data Bit 4
12
Data Bit 5
14
Data Bit 6
16
Data Bit 7

JP26
Y-AXIS MOTION
COUNTER INPUT
1,3,5,
7,9,11
GND
13,15
2
Data Bit 0
4
Data Bit 1
6
Data Bit 2
8
Data Bit 3
10
Data Bit 4
12
Data Bit 5
14
Data Bit 6
16
Data Bit 7

JP27
SPARE INPUT
(Future Use)
1,3,5,
7,9,11
GND
13,15
2
Data Bit 0
4
Data Bit 1
6
Data Bit 2
8
Data Bit 3
10
Data Bit 4
12
Data Bit 5
14
Data Bit 6
16
Data Bit 7

JP28
SPARE INPUT
(Future Use)
1,3,5,
7,9,11
GND
13,15
2
Data Bit 0
4
Data Bit 1
6
Data Bit 2
8
Data Bit 3
10
Data Bit 4
12
Data Bit 5
14
Data Bit 6
16
Data Bit 7

JP29
X, Y & T MOTION CONTROLS INPUTS
1 X-axis Forward
7 Table Left
2 X-axis Back
8 Table Right
4 Y-axis Right
3,6,9
GND
5 Y-axis Left
10,11,12
-

M&D THEORY OF OPERATION:


Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-23

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

The following operational description of the Motor & Drive board requires a set of schematics
to follow along.
The Motor and Driver board performs most of the electronic functions in the QDR-2000.
Its functions can be separated into two major parts.
1.

Transmit control signals, from the computer, to the X-ray controller, stepper
motors, HV programmer, LED indicators, and relays (in power distribution panel).

2.

Receive inputs from the A/D converter, filter pick-off, 50/60 Hz sensing, limit
switches, motion switches, collimator position, and emergency stop detection.

In QDR-2000 systems where the computer is in the instrument, the M&D board
communicates to the computer via the Timing and Control Interface board in the computer,
and to the rest of the machine via differential line and relay drivers. In QDR-2000plus and
QDR-2000 systems where the computer is out of the instrument, the M&D board
communicates to the computer via the AT Bus Interface board in the computer.

SHEET #1:
Sheet one is the cover sheet and shows all the interconnections between sheets. Single lines
are single signals and bold lines are signal busses.

SHEET #2:
Sheet two is the power and ground page. It shows incoming power and ground, all the power
filter and bypass capacitors, the unused IC gates, and names the PCB connectors.

SHEET #3:
Sheet three shows the system timing generation. All timing signals are locked to the AC
line. This is necessary because, our X-ray generator is basically a "two pulse" full wave
generator which makes one X-ray pulse for each half cycle of the AC line.
A 50 or 60 Hertz signal (depending on AC line frequency) is brought in on JP10. It is
approximately 16 VAC RMS (24 Volt peak). A filter clipper network is formed by R5, C35,
and diodes D1 and D2 to reduce the pulse to 0.6 Volts peak. The comparator (U35) is biased
at 2.5 Volts by R6 and R7 and hysteresis is provided by R8 and R9. On each zero crossing
transition of the AC line, the comparator will change state, thus creating a digital square
wave whose frequency is equal to the AC line. This AC line referenced square wave is
reclocked with flip flop U37A to synchronize it with the system clock (SCLK1) and passed
on to flip flops U32A and U32B. These flip flops in combination with gates U30C and
U30A form digital one shots or pulse generators. A 2 microsecond negative going pulse is
created for each zero crossing of the AC line. The two outputs are combined in U31B to
form the signal CNTRESET, which is used to reset the main timing counter and clock the
filter wheel LED flip flop.
The main timing counter is made up by U40, U36, U38, and U41. The clock SCLK1 (from
sheet 5) increments the counters every 2 microseconds and CNTRESET resets them every
zero crossing of the AC line, which corresponds to every 8.333 msec. for 60 Hz or 10.000
msec. for 50Hz. The output count from the counter without the LSB (Least Significant Bit)
makes up the address that is applied to the PROM U34. As the count changes different

6-24

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

timing signals are generated and sent to register U33 for reclocking to remove any possible
glitches. The signal 0INHIBIT* is used to prevent false triggering of U32A and U32B.

Figure 6-13 Motor & Drive 50Hz & 60Hz Timing Diagrams

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-25

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

The filter wheel synchronization signal (PICK), from sheet 8, is clocked into flip flop U37B
by CNTRESET*. The PICK signal is a low going pulse, approximately 1 msec. wide,
occurring once every rotation of the filter wheel, or every 50 msec. on 60Hz machines, and
every 60 msec. on 50Hz machines. If the PICK and CNTRESET* signals are in synch, then
the LED D3 will light. If the signal are not in synch (LED is off), the filter wheel motor
must be rotated to bring the PICK signal in synch until the LED lights.

SHEET #4:
Sheet four contains most of the computer bus and A/D communications. Eight bits of data
WDATA[0..7], 6 bits of address AD[0..5], I/O Read, I/O Write, and previously decoded
major addresses (from the T&C Interface PCB) Detector Valid (3300 Hex) and External
Valid (3340 Hex). Reset is also received by U2 and interrupt requests are transferred via
U1.
All the computer bus signals are sent through JP1. The 8 bit data bus is bidirectional while
the other signals are unidirectional. All signals are sent via parallel full differential mode
and each signal requires 2 wires. To send a "1" the true wire must be set and the untrue wire
not set, and the inverse to send a "0". This enables bus signals to be sent over relatively long
distances in a noisy environment.
Data signals come in from the computer in receivers U46 and U45 and are then sent around
the Motor and Drive board via the bus WDATA[0..7]. They are also buffered in U49 and sent
to the drivers U47 and U48 for transmission to the A/D PCB via JP2. Transmission is
inhibited to the A/D board during signal integration and digitization by timing signal
ADACT*. Data signals are received back from the A/D PCB on receivers U8 and U9,
combined with the signals from the board on the bus RBUFDAT[0..7] and sent back to the
computer via drivers U6 and U5.
Addresses AD[0..5], I/O Read, I/O Write and address decodes DETVAL* & EXTVAL* come
in from the computer via receivers U4, U3, and U2. They are also sent around the board and
over to the A/D PCB via the drivers U10 & U11. The 500K Hz clock (SCLK2) and the
integration signal (TIME0) are sent via driver U12. The interrupt request signal (INTREQ*)
is sent back to the computer via driver U1. The address valid signals (DETVAL* &
EXTVAL*) are combined with I/O Read (IOR*) and I/O Write (IOW*) to make local control
signals and strobes. Signals to and from the A/D travel through JP2.

SHEET #5:
Sheet five contains the master oscillator from which all the timing signals on this board, the
A/D board, and the X-ray controller board are generated.
Y1 is an 11.000 MHz oscillator which is buffered in U88B and sent to the four stepper
motor controllers and the CLK input of counter chip U57. The counter U57 and gate U58D
form a divide by eleven circuit which divides the 11.000 MHz (MOTCLK) signal down to 1
MHz. The 1 MHz output is sent to sheet 7 to be used in the interrupt generation. The flipflop U76A further divides the 1 MHz signal by two to get a 500K Hz signal which is
buffered by U59E & U59F to form SCLK1 and SCLK2.
Sheet five also contains the stepper motor controllers U79 and U80. They control the
motion of the X-axis and the Y-axis stepper motors. These chips have a control input, a data
input, a status output and a data output. Pulses (status 0) and direction (status 3) are taken
6-26

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

off the status port for additional processing and then sent off board to the stepper
translators. The computer may transmit to and read back from these ports. It is also
possible to read back the data register directly if bit-6 of the control word is set low. All the
stepper motor write and read addresses are decoded in U69 and U97. Address information
follows on sheet six.

SHEET #6:
Sheet six is very similar to sheet five, but U81 and U82 control the "T" (table) and "A" (array)
axis. In addition, there are the pulse stretchers U83A, U83B, U84A, and U84B. The purpose
of these "one shots" is to lengthen the pulse width from a narrow 2 or 3 microseconds to
approximately 65 microseconds, which is necessary to drive the stepper translator.
Stretched pulses and motor directions are then buffered in U101 and sent out to the stepper
translators.
Motor port addresses are as follows:

Motor "X"
Motor "Y"
Motor "T"
Motor "A"

Control & Status Ports


3348 Hex
334A Hex
334C Hex
334E Hex

Data Ports
3349 Hex
334B Hex
334D Hex
334F Hex

SHEET #7:
Sheet seven is the output control page and interrupt generator. The WDATA[0..7] bus comes
in at the upper left of the sheet and is buffered in U52. The addresses are decoded in U51.
Register U18 latches the voltage programming byte for the PMT power supply. Full scale
(FF Hex or 255 Dec.) equals -900 Volts DC at the detector. Register U53 latches control
bytes for the X-ray controller and timing PROM. Bit-0 (WATCHDOG) must be constantly
toggled to keep the watchdog circuit U17B awake. The output of the watchdog circuit
(DOGAWAKE) is anded with X-ray enable signal (XRAYON). This is done to insure the Xrays will go off in the event of a computer failure even if the XRAYON signal is left set.
The small reed relay (K1) supplies +5 Volts to the solid state relay on the X-ray controller
board. This relay is also necessary to be set in order to turn on X-rays. This safety measure
prevents accidental activation of X-rays in case of a grounded cable or shorted
semiconductor junction.
U55 is the filter wheel and post collimator register. It latches motor commands to the filter
wheel and post collimator. (The post collimator is currently not implemented). U54
controls power to the four stepper motors. It also controls the motion and laser indicators
on the arm as well as power to the laser itself. U56 controls the power and direction for the
X-ray beam collimator (Geneva wheel). Most of the register outputs are buffered by higher
voltage and current drivers U13, U15, U16, U19, U21, U23, U24, U25, U26, and U27.
These drivers will handle up to 30 Volts and 300 mA. Control addresses appear above each
register on the schematic.
Interrupts are generated by the timing signal (TIME4) which is generated in the timing
PROM on sheet 3 and occurs synchronously with the AC line either 100 or 120 times per
second depending wether the machine is operating on 50 or 60 Hertz. TIME4 is reclocked
with the 1 MHz clock in U75A, to give it a pulse width of 1 microsecond, then inverted and
gated in U74B and sent to the computer. Interrupts may be enabled or disabled by writing a
Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-27

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

"1" or a "0" to U73A (Address 3346 Hex, bit-6). If interrupts are enabled U73B will be set
each time an interrupt is generated. This may be verified by reading back bit-7. The
interrupt may now be cleared by writing a "0" to bit-7.

SHEET #8:
Sheet eight is primarily an input page. Starting at the upper left, the emergency stop and
interlock signals are brought in on JP12. These are both 24 Volt true signals. They are
reduced to 3.6 Volts by voltage dividers and applied to the inputs of comparators U77 and
U86. The comparators are biased to 2.5 Volts and their outputs are sent to buffer U105.
The next signal is the filter pickup (PICK) brought in on JP11. It is pulled up, filtered and
latched in U28B. The state of U28B is transferred to U28A by TIME2 (read pickup) and
U28B is then immediately cleared by TIME3 (clear pickup). This gives the computer a
longer window of opportunity to read the state of the filter wheel. The filter pickup signal
PKSTAT is then sent to buffer U105. Other signals at the buffer U105 are, the HILOW
signal, which reflects the state of the AC line, the HVON, which determines whether or not
X-rays are enabled. The PICTURE, POSTCOL, and TEMP signals are not currently used.
All these may be read at address 3343.
U108 receives its inputs from the X-axis (back and front) limit switches from JP14, the Yaxis (left and right) limit switches from JP15, and the table left, right, and center limit
switches from JP16. The X-axis and Y-axis switches are Hall Effect switches, while the
table switches are mechanical and are debounced by U78. These limit switches may be read
at address 3344.
The motion input switches mounted on the arm of the machine, the X-axis carriage midway
limit switch, and the array limit switches are presented to buffer U111. These switches may
be read at address 3345.
Interrupt status is fed to U85A and may be read at address 3346 Hex. Signals indicating
whether the detector has been rotated into the lateral scanning position are debounced in
U60. Currently the post-collimator signals are not used. Collimator position signals along
with the tilt information are passed to buffer U110. The four bits of collimator position
information provide 16 possible locations for the collimator (Geneva wheel) to be in. A
sprocket bit indicates that the collimator is locked in a valid position. Only SPROCK0 is
used. Tilt and collimator positions may be read at address 3347 Hex. All sheet eight
addresses are decoded in U102.

SHEET #9:
Sheet nine contains both inputs and outputs. On the left are 4 input port connectors. JP25
(X POS) is the input from the encoder counter on the X-axis lead screw and is sent to buffer
U104. It may be read at address 3352 Hex. JP26 (Y POS) is the input from the encoder
counter on the Y-axis lead screw and is sent to buffer U106. It may be read at address 3353
Hex. JP27 (AUX A) is a spare input port going to buffer U107. It may be read at address
3354 Hex. JP28 (AUX B) is another spare input going to buffer U109. It may be read at
address 3355 Hex. All input addresses on sheet nine are decoded in U103.
U100 is the output buffer for the stepper motor power enables. These enables along with
stepper pulses and direction are sent out to the stepper motor translators via JP21 thru JP24.

6-28

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

TIMING AND CONTROL INTERFACE PCB


The Timing and Control Interface board is used in systems where the computer is internal to
the instrument. The function of the Timing and Control Interface (T&CI) is to provide an interface
between the Motor & Drive board and the computer bus. It also provides the A/D system with postfacto log conversion, which is accomplished using two Read Only Memories (ROMs) U25 & U26.
The Timing and Control PC board base address is 3300 hex.

T&C INTERFACE DIP SWITCH SETTINGS

Figure 6-14 Timing & Control Interface PCB Assembly

T&C INTERFACE CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENTS


J6
INPUT/OUTPUT SIGNALS TO AND FROM MOTOR AND DRIVE PC BOARD
TRUE SIGNAL NAME COMPLM. TRUE
SIGNAL NAME
COMPLM.
1
Data Bit 0
2
21
Address Bit 2
22
3
Data Bit 1
4
23
Address Bit 3
24
5
Data Bit 2
6
25
Address Bit 4
26
7
Data Bit 3
8
27
Address Bit 5
28
9
Data Bit 4
10
29
Input/Output Read
30
11
Data Bit 5
12
31
Input/Output Write
32
13
Data Bit 6
14
33
Reset
34
15
Data Bit 7
16
35
Detector Valid Signal
36
17
Address Bit 0
18
37
External Valid Signal
38
19
Address Bit 1
20
39
Spare1
40

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-29

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

AT BUS INTERFACE BOARD


The AT Bus Interface board is used in systems where the computer is external to the
instrument and connects the system computer to the electronics of the QDR-2000 instrument.
All control and data signals between the computer, an AT bus device, and the Motor & Drive
board are converted to RS485 differential signals by the AT Bus Interface board to allow the use
of up to 100 feet of cable between the instrument and the computer console. The AT Bus
Interface board also adds a slight delay to the access by the computer to allow for signals to
propagate across the long cables reliably. Additional circuitry is provided on the board to
provide a fast lookup table that is used by software to convert the raw data from the PMTs into a
scaled logarithm format.

J3

ASSY NO. 131-0047 REV


U5

U4

U3

U2

U1

C5

C3

C4

C22

+
U9

C10

C2

C1

U8

C9

U7

C8

U6

C7

C6

U15

U14

U13

405-0017

405-0016
C15
U21

U12

U11

39

405-0018

C14
U19

40

C11
C12

C13

U20

J2
EXTERNAL
CONNECTOR

RP2

R1

LOG PROM HI
405-0019

J2

J3
INTERNAL
CONNECTOR

U10

LOG PROM LOW


405-0020

RP1

U18

U17
C17

U16

25
C21

C20

C19
R2

C1

C18

C16
JP1
J1

AT BUS INTERFACE 131-0047

Figure 6-15 AT Bus Interface


There are no jumpers or switches on the board to be set, the addressing is controlled by a
programmable logic IC that is pre-configured at Hologic to hex 3340. The two connectors on
the board are provided for use with either internal or external computer systems. When used in
QDR-1500, QDR-2000plus, or QDR-2000s manufactured after August 1992, the computer is
external to the instrument and is located at the operator console. The external 50 pin D style
connector is used to connect the AT Bus board to the Bulkhead Connector board located at the
Power Panel of the instrument via a shielded 50 conductor cable. The Bulkhead Connector board
converts the 50 conductor cable back to a 20 pair ribbon cable that plugs into the Motor & Drive
board.
The internal connector is only used when the AT Bus Interface board is used in a QDR-2000
system with an internal computer. If the AT Bus Interface board is used as a replacement for a
Timing and Control Interface board, the computer is internal to the instrument and the 40 pin
internal connector mates with the 40 conductor ribbon cable from the Motor & Drive board.

6-30

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

X-RAY CONTROLLER
CAUTION: AC Line voltage of 110-130VAC is present on this assembly when power is on.
Power can be temporarily disconnected by pressing the Emergency Stop button.

THEORY OF OPERATION
The X-ray controller board, located inside the back of the C-arm, takes unregulated 120
VAC and produces two regulated outputs which feed the High Voltage Power Supply/Source
(HVPS/Source) and control its generation of X-rays. One output feeds the primary of the
high voltage transformer and controls the energies of the X-rays produced; the seconds
feeds the primary of the X-ray tube's filament transformer, thereby controlling tube current
and X-ray flux.
The HV transformer primary voltage is regulated by two banks of power transistors, one for
each line half-cycle in a linear pass configuration. Each bank consists of four paralleled
Darlington pairs. Using support circuitry and control signals from the Motor & Drive board,
these transistors clip the line into +100Vp pulses with durations of 4msec.
The filament transformer primary voltage controls the filament temperature, which in turn
controls tube current and the tube's X-ray flux output. Tube current is monitored during the
low (70kVp) X-ray pulse, and the monitored current is used to determine the on-time of a
phase-controlled triac in series with the filament transformer primary.
In addition, protective circuitry is provided in the (150-0002) X-ray controller to prevent
the power transistors from an overload in the X-ray source. The protective circuit measures
the energy (voltage time current times time) dissipated in the controller for each pulse and
terminates the pulse prematurely if the energy exceeds a predetermined maximum. This
maximum is based on the power dissipation rating of the controller.
If a X-ray controller board is replaced, the X-ray tube voltage pulse energies and current,
along with the patient dose must be measured and checked as described in Appendix B, C
and F.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-31

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Figure 6-16 X-ray Controller Block Diagram

Figure 6-17 X-ray Controller Timing Diagram

6-32

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

Figure 6-18 150-0001 X-ray Controller

Figure 6-19 150-0002 X-ray Controller

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-33

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Figure 6-20 150-0002 X-ray Controller with Booster Board

X-RAY CONTROLLER CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENTS


J1
INPUT/OUTPUT POWER
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

6-34

J2
POWER & SIGNAL TO X-RAY
SOURCE
1 +100Vp to HV Transformer
2 Neutral (Return)
3
GND
4 115VAC to Filmt. Transf.
5 Reg. Filmt. Transf. Voltage
6 Tube Current Feed Back
7 kVp Test Point 1
8 kVp Test Point 2

J3
SIGNALS FROM
M&D PCB
115VAC Input (Hot)
1
HV ON*
Fan Return
2
+5V In
115VAC to Fan
3
Zero-X*
115VAC Return (Neutral)
4
+5V In
X-ray ON Light Return
5
WARM*
115VAC to X-ray ON Light
6
+5V In
Chassis GND
7
8
9
10
11 TRIM*
12 +5V In
13
14
15
16
Note: A "*" after the name of a control signal indicates a low true signal.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

TESTING THE X-RAY CONTROLLER BOARD


This procedure describes how to test an X-ray controller board for correct outputs to the
primaries of the HV and filament transformers. In addition to an oscilloscope, the test
requires a 100W incandescent bulb, with appropriate socket and leads, and a 5K ohm
potentiometer.
NOTE: Hologic strongly recommends the use of the X-Ray System Test Adapter (P/N 0990047), and Load Test Fixture (P/N 099-0048), when troubleshooting the X-Ray system. These
testers can be purchased from Hologic.
Checking the board for correct HV transformer primary drive
1)

Press in either red STOP button to remove power from the X-ray controller board.

2)

Unplug the cable from J2.

3)

Set up the oscilloscope as follows:


Trigger
Sec/Div
Vertical Mode
Trigger Source
Channel 1 Volts/Div
Channel 2 Volts/Div

=
=
=
=
=
=

Auto
2 MS
Add, Both, Invert Channel 2
Line, Positive Slope
50V
50V

4)

Connect the light bulb to J2-1 and J2-2.

5)

Connect the channel 1 probe to J2-1, and the channel 2 probe to J2-2.

6)

Set both channel AC/GND/DC switches to GND, set the traces on the center line
of the screen, then switch both probes to DC.

7)

Pull the red STOP button out, restoring power to the X-ray controller board.

8)

Using SURVEY2, use <F1> to request X-rays.

9)

Observe the oscilloscope and adjust its trigger level control until the display is
stable and appears similar to one of the wave forms shown below. If a wave form
other than the correct one is observed, turn off the X-rays (press <F2>), power
down the board (press in the red STOP button) and check the indicated components.

Figure 6-21 X-ray Controller Waveforms


Checking the board for correct filament transformer primary drive
Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-35

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

10) With the board powered down (red STOP button pressed in), connect the light bulb
to J2-4 and J2-5.
11) Connect the ends of the 5K ohm pot across D30 (+12V and +12V return), and the
arm to J2-6
12) Pull the red STOP button out and run SURVEY2. Press <F1> to request X-rays.
The lamp should light if the voltage on the arm is below 10V, and dim as the voltage
is raised above the 10V threshold. If the lamp does not dim, check Q18 . If it fails
to light at all, check Q18 and U6.
Checking the Power Limiter
The Power Limiter is the long board installed upside-down near the 16-pin control header
(J3). Waveforms at the 11-pin terminal strip TSA provide information about performance of
the X-ray system. The ground reference for the power limiter is noisy with respect to earth
ground. Therefore, measurements at these test points should be made differentially. The
negative probe should be connected to TSA pin 1 or 11. Only the odd numbered pins on the
terminal strip are used.
The wave form at pin 9 represents the energy dissipated in the controller during each X-ray
pulse. It is reset to zero at the end of every pulse. The X-ray pulse is terminated prematurely
if the voltage at TSA-9 goes over 5 volts. This is recognizable if the peak of the wave form is
flat rather than pointed.

Figure 6-22 Power Limiter Waveforms


Note that power limiting during warm-up may occur under certain line voltage conditions
and is not a problem. If current limiting occurs after the warm-up cycle is concluded, this
does result in instability of the X-ray beam. It is usually caused by excessively high AC line
voltage. Check the AC voltage at the power input of the X-ray controller and change the
isolation transformer wiring as appropriate, if necessary.
The wave forms at pins 7, 5 and 3 represent the power, current and voltage respectively,
dissipated in the X-ray controller. The PLIM circuit multiplies the current through the
controller by the voltage across it to generate the power, and then integrate the power to
yield the energy. The high frequency response of the energy integrator is boosted so that a
sudden abnormal surge in power will terminate the x-ray pulse even if the energy limit
threshold has not yet been reached.

6-36

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY AND X-RAY SOURCE


The High Voltage Power Supply/Source (HVPS/S) is a sealed subassembly. It contains the High
Voltage Generator, the X-ray tube, primary tube shielding and collimation assemblies. Caution
should be exercised and no attempt should ever be made to open or internally service a HVPS/S
assembly in the filed. The assembly weighs approximately 200 pounds (90 Kg) and lifting it can
cause back injury unless proper lifting procedures (knees bent, back straight and at least two people
lifting) are observed.

MOTION CONTROL PANELS


The QDR-2000 has two motion control panels, one in the front of the arm for normal operation, and a
second on top of the back of the arm for lateral operation. They are identical, with the exception that
the top motion control panel only has motion buttons for moving the arm left and right.

TOP MOTION CONTROL PANEL

Figure 6-23 Top Motion Control Panel

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-37

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

FRONT MOTION CONTROL PANEL

Figure 6-24 Front Motion Control Panel


6-38

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

VCC
LD2 GREEN

R2

270 OHM

LED

R1

LD1 GREEN

270 OHM

LED

JP1
LASER
MOTION
CARBACK
CARFRONT
CARRIGHT
CARLEFT
TABRIGHT
TABLEFT

SW5

SW6

SW PUSHBUTTON

SW PUSHBUTTON

SW1

SW2

SW PUSHBUTTON

SW PUSHBUTTON

15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

HEADER 8X2

JP2

SW3

SW4

SW PUSHBUTTON

SW PUSHBUTTON

15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

HEADER 8X2

GND

NOTE:

JP1 NOT INSTALLED IN FRONT ARM MOUNTING


S3, S4, S5 & S6 NOT INSTALLED IN TOP ARM MOUNTING

Figure 6-25 Motion Control Panel Schematic

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-39

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

GENEVA POSITION ENCODER BOARDS


The Geneva encoder PC boards are used to determine the position of the Geneva collimator wheel,
and which of the 16 possible collimators is in the X-ray beam. The two boards are mounted on either
side of the Geneva wheel; one contains four LEDs, the other four photodetectors. The Geneva wheel
has holes placed around its edge which allow the infrared light of the LEDs to be detected by the
photodetectors. The holes in the Geneva wheel are placed so that each collimator position produces
an unique four-bit code, which the computer interprets as a particular collimator.

PD4

LD1
MLED71

MRD750
2

PD3

LD2
MLED71

1
JP2

R1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

100 OHM
R2

100 OHM

MRD750
2

LD3
MLED71

HEADER 8

PD2

R3

100 OHM

MRD750

R4

2
LD4
MLED71

100 OHM

PD1

R5
3

WP1
TO COM GENEVA POSITION SWITCH

WP
270 OHM
1

TOP BOARD

WP2
TO N.O. GENEVA POSITION SWITCH

WP

MRD750
2

JP1

5V

GENEVA
COLIM3
COLIM2
COLIM1
0V
COLIM0

12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Figure 6-26 Geneva Wheel Position Encoder Schematic

JP1
Pin No.
1 (C-0)
3 (C-1)
5 (C-2)
7 (C-3)
2, 4, 6,
8, 10
9
11, 12

1
L
L
L
L

2
H
L
L
L

3
H
H
L
L

4
L
H
H
L

5
H
L
H
H

COLLIMATOR POSITION NUMBER


6
7
8
9
10
11
L
L
H
L
H
H
H
L
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
L
H

12
H
H
H
L

13
H
H
H
H

14
L
H
H
H

15
L
L
H
H

16
L
L
L
H

0V From Motor & Drive PC Board


Geneva Valid
+5 Volts Input Power From Motor & Drive PC Board

NOTE: The output of the photodetectors are high when the LEDs are blocked and low when not blocked.

6-40

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

OPTICAL ENCODERS
Attached to each of the QDR-2000's X-axis and Y-axis leadscrews is a optical shaft encoder, which
produces a pair of square waves as the shaft is rotated. The two outputs (A & B) are in quadrature
(phased 90 degrees apart) as shown below, and are fed to an associated motion counter board which
communicates accumulative step counts and direction to the computer.

Figure 6-27 Optical Encoder Output Circuit & Connections

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-41

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

MOTION COUNTER PC BOARD


The motion counter PC board is used in conjunction with the optical encoders to detect motion on
the X and Y axes during a scan. The PC board is fed by a 200 pulse per revolution optical encoder.
Since a large count will be generated and only an 8-bit number is being sent to the computer, only the
8 most significant bits of a 12-bit counter are used. This effectively divides the count by a factor of
16.
The A & B optical encoder signals are brought in on E2 and E3 and through a Schmitt-trigger inverter
(U3) to sharpen and clean up the signals. These two signals 90 degrees out of phase with each other,
and the direction of encoder shaft rotation determines which signal will be leading the other. The two
signals are fed to a 12-stage up/down counter (U1, U2 & U4) and the 8 most significant bits are made
available in parallel through J1 to the computer via the Motor & Drive PC board.
NOTE: The motion counters can be tested using the MOTORX and MOTORY motor control
programs accessed from DOS.

U1
15
1
10
9

U3A
1

U3B
3

+5V

14
4
5
11

3
QA
2
QB
6
QC
7
QD
13
RCO
CLK
G
D/U
LOAD
12
MX/MN
A
B
C
D

B0
B1
B2
B3

74HCTLS191
U3C
5

6
U4

15
1
10
9

10

CLK

14
4
5
11

12

D/U

U3D
+5V
E1

U3E
E2

11

+5V

U3F
E3

13

3
QA
2
QB
6
QC
7
QD
13
RCO
CLK
G
D/U
LOAD
12
MX/MN

A
B
C
D

B4
B5
B6
B7

J1-1
J1-3
J1-5
J1-7

B8
B9
B10
B11

J1-9
J1-11
J1-13
J1-15

74HCTLS191

U2
15
1
10
9

74AHCTLS14
E4

JP1
E5

+5V

14
4
5
11

3
QA
2
QB
6
QC
7
QD
13
RCO
CLK
G
D/U
LOAD
12
MX/MN
A
B
C
D

74HCTLS191

E6

+5V
C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

10uF

.033

.033

.033

.033

J1-16
J1-14
J1-12
J1-10
J1-8
J1-6
J1-4
J1-2

E7

Figure 6-28 Motion Counter Schematic

6-42

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

Figure 6-29 Motion Counter PC Board Assembly

MOTION COUNTER PCB CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENT

E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7

E1-7
MOTION COUNTER INPUT CONNECTIONS
+5V DC to Optical Encoder
Red Wire
A Input from Optical Encoder
White Wire
B Input from Optical Encoder
Green Wire
Digital Ground to Optical Encoder
Black Wire
Analog Ground to Optical Encoder
Shield
+5V DC from Low Voltage Power Supply
Orange Wire
+5 Return from Low Voltage Power Supply
Black Wire

1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15

Revision F

J1
MOTION COUNTER OUTPUT
Data Bit 4
2
GND
Data Bit 5
4
GND
Data Bit 6
6
GND
Data Bit 7
8
GND
Data Bit 8
10
GND
Data Bit 9
12
GND
Data Bit 10
14
GND
Data Bit 11
16
GND

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-43

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

MOTORS

X AND Y-AXIS STEPPER MOTORS

Figure 6-30 X and Y-axis Stepper Motor Assembly

6-44

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

TABLE STEPPER MOTOR


11

TERMINATION CHART

FROM P1

TO VEXTA (8)

P1-1

BLK & WHT\ORN


-

P1-2

321-0022-00

P1-3

ORN & BLK\WHT

P1-4

YEL & RED\WHT

P1-5
P1-6

REV _

RED & WHT\YEL


4

6
7

3 PL

16

17
13

8
3 PL

15

9
3

5
14

P1
TSM

10.50.50

Item
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Description
SCREW, 10-32X2.25,SOC HD
WASHER, SL #10 REG DTY SS 4
PULLEY, REWORK TIMING
CABLE MARKER, MEDIUM
MARKER CABLE, SMALL
CONNECTOR, 6 POS. PLUG
CONTACT PIN
MOTOR STEPPER
GEARBOX

Quantity
1

BRACKET, VEXTA MOTOR

SCREW, SOC CAP HD#10-32X3.25SS


PLATE GUIDE
SPACER, GUIDE PLATE
NUT, LOCK 10-32
WASHER, FLAT #10 SS

3
1
3
3
3

1
1
1
1
4
1
1

Figure 6-31 Table Stepper Motor Assembly

Revision F

4 PL

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-45

3 PL

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

ARRAY (Detector) STEPPER MOTOR

Figure 6-32 Array Stepper Motor Assembly

6-46

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

FILTER WHEEL MOTOR

Figure 6-33 Filter Wheel Motor Assembly

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-47

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

GENEVA WHEEL MOTOR

Figure 6-34 Geneva (Collimator) Wheel Motor Assembly

6-48

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

POWER SUPPLIES
LOW VOLTAGE (+5V, +/-15V DC) POWER SUPPLY
The Low Voltage Power Supply (LVPS) assembly provides power to the following devices:
Con. - 515J1 Analog to Digital (A/D) converter board and the two 16 channel PMT
Detector Boards (via the A/D board).
Con. - 515J2 Motor & Drive (M&D) board and PMT High Voltage Programmer
board.
Con. - 5VP1 X and Y-axis motion counter boards.
Con. - 5VP2 Solid State Laser (when used in place of Helium-Neon).
The power supply is a triple output commercial model rated at +5V DC at 6 amps and +15V
DC at 1.5 amps. The supply's input voltage is 120V AC, fed from the Power Distribution
Panel (PDP) via circuit breaker CB6. The power supply is both current limited and short
circuit protected.

Figure 6-35 Low Voltage Power Supply Assembly


Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-49

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

5V DC POWER SUPPLY
The 5 Volt DC Power Supply assembly is wired in series with the two power supplies for the
X and Y-axis stepper motors. This has the effect of raising the voltage to the two stepper
motors from 28V DC to 33V DC. This is only done on the X and Y axes to eliminate the
possibility of stepper motor stalling during fast scan modes.
The supply's input voltage is 120V AC, fed from the Power Distribution Panel (PDP) via
circuit breaker CB2 and relay K1. The power supply is both current limited and short circuit
protected.

Figure 6-36 5V DC Power Supply Assembly


6-50

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

24V DC POWER SUPPLY


The 24V DC Power Supply assembly provides power to the following items:
Emergency Stop and Key Switches
Relays in the Power Distribution Panel
Helium-Neon Laser (if supplied in place of solid state laser)
The supply's input voltage is 120V AC, fed from the Power Distribution Panel (PDP) via
circuit breaker CB6. The power supply is both current limited and short circuit protected.

Figure 6-37 24V DC Power Supply Assembly


Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-51

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

28V DC POWER SUPPLY


The four 28V DC Power Supply assembly provide power to the QDR-2000's X-axis, Y-axis,
Table and Array stepper motors..
The supply's input voltage is 120V AC, fed from the Power Distribution Panel (PDP) via
circuit breaker CB2 and relay K1. The power supply is both current limited and short circuit
protected.

Figure 6-38 28V DC Power Supply Assembly

6-52

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

PMT HV POWER SUPPLY


WARNING: The PMT High Voltage Power Supply (HVPS) produces hazardous voltages.
Do not apply input power unless adequate grounding is provided to the power supply and the
high voltage output has been properly connected.
The High Voltage Power Supply (HVPS) provides the necessary bias (gain-control) voltage
to the photomultiplier tubes. It is a self-contained regulated linear switching DC high
voltage power supply with an output which is fully adjustable from 0 to 1.5kV (0-990V in the
QDR-2000). The output can either be controlled locally by a 15-turn potentiometer or
remotely by an analog voltage or resistance. In the QDR-2000, the computer adjusts the
output of the HVPS via the PMT HV Programmer PC whose output is used to adjust an
analog voltage input to the HVPS.
The supply's input voltage is 120 VAC, which comes from the Power Distribution Panel
(PDP) via circuit breaker CB6.

Figure 6-39 High Voltage Power Supply


Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-53

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

POWER DISTRIBUTION PANEL


As its name implies, this assembly serves as the entry point for AC power to the QDR-2000, and as
the means for distributing it (via circuit breakers and relays) to the various components of the system.
Exercise caution when working inside the power distribution panel. Line voltage (100 to 240
VAC) is present at all times unless the main power cord has been unplugged.

POWER DISTRIBUTION PANEL BLOCK DIAGRAM

Figure 6-40 Power Distribution Panel Block Diagram

6-54

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

Figure 6-41 Power Distribution Panel Assembly (1 of 2)


Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-55

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Figure 6-42 Power Distribution Panel Assembly (2 of 2)


6-56

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

Figure 6-43 Power Distribution Panel Assembly Parts List


Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-57

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

P.D.P. CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENT

Note: Circuit breakers are designated by CB prefixes, and relays by K.

Pin
No
1
2
3

J1
LV, 24V & PMT
Power Supplies
CB3
LINE
GND
NEWTR.

J5
Filter Wheel
Pin
Motor
No CB2, K9, 10 & 11
1
LINE
2
GND
3
NEWTR.
4
5

J2
Computer

J2A
Fan (on side)

CB4
LINE
GND
NEWTR.

CB4
LINE
GND
NEWTR.

J6
Collimator
Control
CB2, K6 & 7
LINE-CW
LINE-CCW
LINE-Brake
NEWTR.
GND

JP2
Laser Power
Out
K3
+5V DC
+5V Ret

Pin
MD P6
No
Signals from Motor & Drive
Relay
1 Auxiliary X-ray ON Outlet Enable
K2
2
3 Filter Wheel Power Enable
K11
4 Collimator Direction Enable
K7
5 Filter Wheel Slow - not currently used K9
6 Filter Wheel Brake - not currently used K10
7
8
9
10 Collimator Power Enable
K6
11
12 Laser Power Enable
K3
Note: All the signals from M&D are low true.

6-58

Pin
No
1
2
3

J3
X-ray
Controller
CB3 & K1
LINE
GND
NEWTR.

J4
Stepper
Motors PS
CB2 & K1
LINE
GND
NEWTR.

JP3
From 24V
PS

JP4
From 5V PS

+24V DC
+24V Ret

+5V DC
+5V Ret

MD P10
50/60 Hz Sense to Motor & Drive
16 V AC From T1
16 V AC From T1

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

TRANSITION CONNECTOR PANEL CONNECTIONS


The following tables show the pin out assignment of the connectors at the transition panel between
the base of the QDR-2000 and the C-arm assembly. The connectors are as follows:

Five 12 pin Mate & Lock connectors, identified as #1, #2, #3, #5, and #6.

Two 25 pin D-Sub connectors, identified as #A and #B.

One 37 pin D-Sub connector, identified as #C.

TRANSITION CONNECTOR PIN-OUT ASSIGNMENT


The tables are set up to be read from the center (the transition point) out to either edge (the
source or destination).

Base (Lower Carriage)


TCS1 181-0016
1
2
J5
AC power
3
from the
1
Power
2
J3
Distribution
3
Panel
1
2
3
J6
4
5

Base (Lower Carriage)


TCS2 181-0009
Revision F

No. 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

LINE
GND
NEW.
LINE
GND
NEW.
LINE-CW
LINE-CCW
LINE-Brake
NEW.
GND
Keying Plug

No. 2

C-Arm (Upper Carriage)


TCP1 181-0070
FW
1
AC power
M
2
to the Filter
P1
3
Wheel Motor
XR
1
AC power
P
2
to the X-ray
P1
3
Controller
1
AC power,
GM
2
direction, and
P1
3
brake to the
4
Collimator
5
Motor

C-Arm (Upper Carriage)


TCP2 181-0068

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

6-59

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

DC power
from the
Low Voltage
Power Supply
Power Supply

1
2
3
4
5

Stepper Motor
Power from
Array
Translator

2
3
5
6
-

515
J1

A-AXIS
Step.
Translt.

Base (Lower Carriage)


TCS3 181-0024
Switched (K3)
3
JP2
Laser Power
1
Key
Switch

6
7

Base (Lower Carriage)


TCS5 181--0036
5
Collimator
2
(Geneva wheel)
4
Position Input
1
JP19
to
12
Motor & Drive
9
PCB
6
11

6-60

Pick-Off Input
to

3
4

Motor & Drive

JP11

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

+15 VDC
0V
-15 VDC
+5 VDC
GND
Keying Plug
Phase A
Phase A
Phase B
Phase B
-

No. 3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Ret.
VDC
Keying Plug
+24 VDC
+24 VDC
Keying Plug
Keying Plug
Keying Plug
Keying Plug

No. 5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0V
Collm. Opto 0
+5 VDC
Collm. Opto 1
Collm. Opto 2
Collm. Opto 3
Geneva Set

8
9
10
11

0V
Keying Plug
+5 VDC
Pick-Off
Pulse
0V

12

JP
18

ASM
P1

7
6
5
2
1

DC power to
A/D Converter
and 16 Channel
Side Boards

1
2
3
4
6
5

Array
Stepper
Motor
Power
Signal

C-Arm (Upper Carriage)


TCP3 181-0069
LM
3
Power to Laser
S1
1
(+5 or +24 V)
1
3

Emergency Stop
Switches 1 & 2

C-Arm (Upper Carriage)


TCP5 181-0037
2
1
Collimator
11&12 (Geneva Wheel)
JP1
3
Position
5
Encoder
7
Output
9
(4 optoswitches)
10
F
PO

1
2

Filter Wheel
Pick-Off

P1

Sensor

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

Base (Lower Carriage)


TCS6 181--0058
Array Detector
1
Limit Inputs
2
to
5
JP20
Motor & Drive
6
PCB

Mercury Tilt
Switches to
Motor & Drive

1
2
3
4

+5 VDC
0V
GND
Back Limit

Front Limit

4
7
9

6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Keying Plug
Keying Plug
Tilt N.C.
Tilt N.O.
GND

JP13

Base (Lower Carriage)


TCSA 181--0008
Motion Control 7
(Top & Front)
8
Pad Inputs
5
JP29
to
4
Motor & Drive
1
PCB
2
LED Indicators
9
JP5
from M&D
7

Digital Ground
from the
Motor & Drive
Vcc from
Motor & Drive

Revision F

No. 6

9
6
3
6
8

JP29

JP5

No. A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

Table Left
Table Right
Y-axis Left
Y-axis Right
X-axis Fwrd.
X-axis Back
Motion LED
Laser LED
0V
0V
0V
+5 VDC
+5 VDC
-

C-Arm (Upper Carriage)


TCP6 181-0062
R&F
4
Detector
R&F
1
Array
Front & Back
Rear
2&
Hall Effect
3
Front
2&
Limit Switches
3

TS
P1

1
2
3

C-Arm
Mercury
Tilt Switches

C-Arm (Upper Carriage)


TCPA 181-0066
1
3
5
Motion
JP1
7
Control
9
(Top & Front)
11
Pads
13
15

JP1

2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Motion
Control
(Top & Front)
Pads

6-61

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Base (Lower Carriage)


TCSB 181--0085
X-ray
16
Controller
8
Outputs
10
JP3
from the
12
Motor & Drive
4
PCB
14

X-ray
Controller
Outputs
from
Motor & Drive
PCB

2
7
9
11
3
13

JP3

No. B
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

HV ON*
Zero Cross*
Warm*
Spare
Trim*
X-ray Enable
+5 VDC
+5 VDC
+5 VDC
-

C-Arm (Upper Carriage)


TCPB 181-0019
1
3
X-ray
5
Controller
J3
7
Input Signals
9
from the
11
Motor & Drive
13
PCB
15

J3

2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16

X-ray
Controller
Input Signals
from the
Motor & Drive
PCB

Note: A "*" after the name of a control signal indicates a LOW true signal.

6-62

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 6 - Component Overview

Base (Lower Carriage)


TCSB 181--0015
5

Complementary
Signals
to and from the
Motor & Drive
PCB

True
Signals
to and from the
Motor & Drive
PCB

Revision F

7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39

No. C
1

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

JP2

JP2

500KHz
Clock
INTG* Signal
Det. I/O Write
Det. I/O Read
R/W Add. 5
R/W Add. 4
R/W Add. 3
R/W Add. 2
R/W Add. 1
R/R Add. 0
Data Bit 7
Data Bit 6
Data Bit 5
Data Bit 4
Data Bit 3
Data Bit 2
Data Bit 1
Data Bit 0
500KHz
Clock
INTG* Signal
Det. I/O Write
Det. I/O Read
R/W Add. 5
R/W Add. 4
R/W Add. 3
R/W Add. 2
R/W Add. 1
R/R Add. 0
Data Bit 7
Data Bit 6
Data Bit 5
Data Bit 4
Data Bit 3
Data Bit 2
Data Bit 1
Data Bit 0

C-Arm (Upper Carriage)


TCPB 181-0025
5

JP19

7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39

Complementary
Signals
to and from
the
Analog
to
Digital
Converter
PCB

JP9

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

True
Signals
to and from
the
Analog
to
Digital
Converter
PCB

6-63

Section 7 - Mechanical Subassemblies

7.0 MECHANICAL SUBASSEMBLIES


COLLIMATOR & GENEVA WHEEL

Figure 7-1 Collimator & Geneva Wheel Assembly (1 of 2)

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

7-1

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Figure 7-2 Collimator & Geneva Wheel Assembly (2 of 2)

7-2

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 7 - Mechanical Subassemblies

Figure 7-3 Collimator & Geneva Wheel Assembly Parts List

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

7-3

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

DETECTOR ARRAY

Figure 7-4 Detector Array Assembly (1 of 3)


7-4

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 7 - Mechanical Subassemblies

Figure 7-5 Detector Array Assembly (2 of 3)


Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

7-5

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Figure 7-6 Detector Array Assembly (3 of 3)


7-6

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 7 - Mechanical Subassemblies

Figure 7-7 Detector Array Assembly Parts List

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

7-7

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

BASE

Figure 7-8 Base Assembly (1 of 3)

7-8

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 7 - Mechanical Subassemblies

Figure 7-9 Base Assembly (2 of 3)


Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

7-9

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Figure 7-10 Base Assembly (3 of 3)

7-10

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 7 - Mechanical Subassemblies

Figure 7-11 Base Assembly Parts List


Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

7-11

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

LOWER CARRIAGE

Figure 7-12 Lower Carriage Assembly

7-12

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 7 - Mechanical Subassemblies

Figure 7-13 Lower Carriage Assembly Parts List


Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

7-13

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Y-AXIS LEADSCREW

Figure 7-14 Y-axis Leadscrew Assembly

7-14

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Section 7 - Mechanical Subassemblies

X-AXIS LEADSCREW

Figure 7-15 X-axis Leadscrew Assembly

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

7-15

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

TABLE BELT PATH

Figure 7-16 Table Belt Path (viewed from the front)

Figure 7-17 Table Belt Path (viewed from the rear)

7-16

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix A - Pickoff Adjustment Procedure

Appendix A - Pickoff Adjustment Procedure


This appendix describes how to check and/or correct the timing of the filter wheel's angular position
with respect to the AC line. One of two methods can be used to accomplishing this. The first relies
on visually monitoring an LED on the M&D board, while the second utilizes an oscilloscope to
monitor test points on the M&D board.

Using The LED:

Begin by pressing the Emergency STOP button to stop the filter wheel motor.

Next remove the HVPS/S (tank) shroud to gain access to the filter wheel motor. Then
place a mark on the edge of the inner circle (unless there is one already there) to use as
a timing mark.

Figure A-1 Filter Motor, Timing Marks

Using a 7/16" socket driver, loosen the four outer bolts on the filter motor assembly to
allow it to spin in its mount. (NOTE: Loosen only the four outer bolts, not the inner
four.)

Figure A-2 Filter Motor, Side View

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

A-1

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Pull the Emergency STOP button to start the filter wheel motor.

While visually monitoring the green LED on the Motor & Drive (M&D) board, rotate
the filter wheel motor until the LED just begins to blink. Place a mark on the outer
circle opposite the one on the inner circle. This will be the first reference mark as
shown in Figure A-1.

Figure A-3 LED and Test Points on Motor & Drive PCB

Now continue turning the filter wheel motor until the LED stops blinking. Again place a
mark on the outer circle opposite the timing mark on the inner circle. This will be the
second reference mark.

Finally, rotate the filter wheel motor until the timing mark on the inner circle is exactly
centered between the two reference marks on the outer circle. At this point the filter
wheel is properly timed. Retighten the four outer bolts, check the belt tension and
replace the HVPS/S (tank) shroud.

Using The Oscilloscope:

Begin by moving the table top all the way to the right (as viewed from the front). Then
remove the top access panel to gain access to the Motor & Drive (M & D) board.

Set up the oscilloscope as follows:

Trigger
Sec/Div
Vertical Mode
Trigger Source
Channel 1 Volts/Div
Channel 2 Volts/Div

A-2

=
=
=
=
=
=

Auto
0.2 mS
Both and Chop
Internal, Channel 2, Negative Slope
2V
2V

Set both probe channel AC/GND/DC switches to GND. Set the channel 2 trace to the
screen center line, and the channel 1 trace to one major division below the screen center
line, then switch both probes to DC.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix A - Pickoff Adjustment Procedure

Locate the three test points near JP8 on the Motor & Drive (M & D) board and connect
the oscilloscope probes as shown in Figure A-3.

Channel 1 probe to TP1 (SYNC)


Channel 2 probe to TP2 (PICK)
Probe ground leads to TP3 (GND)

If the timing and phasing is correct, the oscilloscope should show the following:

Figure A-4 PICK and SYNC Pulses

Channel 1 should be displaying a positive-going pulse, 4-5 volts in amplitude, while


channel 2 should be displaying a negative-going pulse, 4-5 volts in amplitude and 0.5-1
mS in duration. Adjust the scope trigger level so that both signals appear stable.

Note where the channel 1 (SYNC) signal crosses the scope's horizontal center line. It
should cross at the middle of the channel 2 (pick) pulse.
NOTE: Channel 1 (SYNC) pulse can either be a positive (as shown in the above figure)
or negative-going pulse. The important thing is the time at which the transition of the
SYNC pulse occurs relative to the PICK pulse.

Revision F

If the transition pulse on channel 1 (SYNC) is off-center on the pickoff (PICK) pulse,
use a 7/16" socket drive to loosen the four outer bolts (not the inner four) on the filter
motor assembly, and rotate the motor until the transition appears centered within the
pulse as shown in Figure A- 4.

Finally, tighten all screws and check the belt tension. Stop and restart the motor
several times to verify that the phasing remains correct.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

A-3

Appendix B - X-ray Peak Potential Check

Appendix B - X-ray kV Peak Potential Check


This procedure describes how to test the HVPS/Source (Tank) for correct tube peak voltage potential.
This test can be performed on the terminal strip on top of the HVPS/Source or on the X-ray
controller.

If testing is to be done on the top of the HVPS/Source, begin by moving the C-arm all the
way to its back limit, then remove the HVPS/Source (Tank) shroud to gain access to the
terminal strip. If testing is to be done on the X-ray controller board, remove the plastic
cover from the rear of the C-arm and then remove the metal cover over the X-ray controller
board.

Press in the red Emergency STOP button to remove power from the X-ray controller board
and HVPS/Source.

Set up the oscilloscope as follows:

Trigger
Sec/Div
Vertical Mode
A Source Trigger
Channel 1 Volts/Div
Channel 2 Volts/Div

=
=
=
=
=
=

Auto
2 mS
Add, Both, Invert Channel 2
Line, Channel 1, Positive Slope
2V
2V

Locate either the terminal strip on top of the HVPS/Source or J2 on the X-ray controller and
connect the oscilloscope probes as follows:

Test points on top of HVPS/Source


Channel 1 probe to Terminal Point #8
Channel 2 probe to Terminal Point #7
Probe ground leads to Ground Stud by Terminal Strip

Figure B-1 kVp Test points on HVPS/Source


Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

B-1

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Test points on the X-ray Controller Board


Channel 1 probe to TP2 on X-ray Controller Board
Channel 2 probe to TP1 on X-ray Controller Board
Probe ground leads to Ground Stud

Figure B-2 kVp Test points on X-ray Controller Board

Set both channel AC/GND/DC switches to GND, set the traces on the bottom line of the
screen, then switch both probes to DC.

Pull the red Emergency STOP button out, restoring power to the X-ray controller board and
HVPS/Source.
CAUTION: Be very careful to keep hands, hair, jewelry and loose clothing away from
moving parts of the filter wheel and belts.

Using the SURVEY2 program, turn on X-rays via the <F1> function key. (NOTE: If the Xrays turn off after a few seconds, it may be because the filter wheel motor has not been
phased or the incrementing counters have not been reset to zero. See Section 5.4 for
instructions on using the SURVEY2 program.)

CAUTION: Keep hands, head and other body parts out of X-ray beam path.

B-2

Observe the oscilloscope and adjust the trigger level control for a stable display.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix B - X-ray Peak Potential Check

Figure B-3 Tube kV Peak Potential

Revision F

There should be two small positive pulses that appear and grow larger after about six
seconds. (This six second period is known as WARM-UP.)

Verify that the pulse amplitudes are 14V + 0.2V (6.9-7.1 divisions) and 7V + 0.2V (3.4-3.6
divisions). If either pulse is outside of these limits, adjust the appropriate X-ray controller
board resistor as described in Appendix I.

Momentarily press the TRIGGER VIEW button, and verify that the larger pulse is occurring
during the positive half cycle of the power line. (If it appears during the negative half cycle,
abort the test and power the machine down by switching CB1 off. Interchange the wires
connected to the HVPS/Source terminal strip pins #1 and #2. Throw CB1 back on, repeat
the above steps, then press TRIGGER VIEW to verify that the large pulse now occurs during
the positive line half cycle.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

B-3

Appendix C - X-ray Tube Current Peak Potential Check

Appendix C - X-ray Tube Current Peak Potential Check


This procedure describes how to test the HVPS/Source (Tank) for correct tube current. This test can
be performed on the terminal strip on top of the HVPS/Source or on the X-ray controller.

If testing is to be done on the top of the HVPS/Source, begin by moving the C-arm all the
way to its back limit, then remove the HVPS/Source (Tank) shroud to gain access to the
terminal strip. If testing is to be done on the X-ray controller board, you will have to remove
the plastic cover from the read of the C-arm and then remove the metal cover over the X-ray
controller board.

Press in the red Emergency STOP button to remove power from the X-ray controller board
and HVPS/Source.

Set up the oscilloscope as follows:

Trigger
Sec/Div
Vertical Mode
A Source Trigger
Channel 1 Volts/Div
Channel 2 Volts/Div

=
=
=
=
=
=

Auto
2 mS
Add, Both, Invert Channel 2
Line, Channel 1, Positive Slope
2V
2V

Locate either the terminal strip on top of the HVPS/Source or J2 on the X-ray controller and
connect the oscilloscope probes as follows:

Test points on top of HVPS/Source


Channel 1 probe to Terminal Point #6
Channel 2 probe to Terminal Point #3
Probe ground leads to Ground Stud by Terminal Strip

Figure C-1 Tube Current Test points on HVPS/Source

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Test points on the X-ray Controller Board


Channel 1 probe to J2 pin 6 on X-ray Controller Board
Channel 2 probe to J2 pin 3 on X-ray Controller Board
Probe ground leads to Ground Stud

Figure C-2 Current Test points on X-ray Controller Board

Set both channel AC/GND/DC switches to GND, set the traces on the bottom line of the
screen, then switch both probes to DC.

Pull the red Emergency STOP button out, restoring power to the X-ray controller board and
HVPS/Source.
CAUTION: Be very careful to keep hands, hair, jewelry and loose clothing away from
moving parts of the filter wheel and belts.

Using the SURVEY2 program, turn on X-rays via the <F1> function key. (NOTE: If the Xrays turn off after a few seconds, it may be because the filter wheel motor has not been
phased or the incrementing counters have not been reset to zero. See Section 5.4 for
instructions on using the SURVEY2 program.)

CAUTION: Keep hands, head and other body parts out of X-ray beam path.

C-2

Observe the oscilloscope and adjust the trigger level control for a stable display.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix C - X-ray Tube Current Peak Potential Check

Figure C-3 Tube Current Peak Potential

Revision F

There should be a single pulse, 6-8 mS (3-4 divisions) every 16.6 mS (8.3 divisions). The
pulse amplitude should be 9.0V - 10.5V. If the tube current is outside these limits, the X-ray
controller board or the HVPS/Source must be replaced.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

C-3

Appendix D - X-ray Beam Alignment Check

Appendix D - X-ray Beam Alignment Check


This procedure describes how to check the alignment of the X-ray beam from the tank into the
detectors.

Move the scan arm to the center of the table and clear the table of any items which may
obstruct the X-ray beam path.

Exit the QDR software by simultaneously depressing <Alt> <F1>.

From the MENU directory, type SURVEY2 and press <Enter>.


Verify that the three incrementing counters, displayed by SURVEY2 , are not incrementing
and are set to zero. If they are not set to zero, correct the problem and restart SURVEY2.

Set up the oscilloscope as follows:

Trigger
Sec/Div
Vertical Mode
A Source Trigger
Channel 1 Volts/Div
Channel 2 Volts/Div

=
=
=
=
=
=

Auto
0.1 mS
Channel 1
Internal, Channel 2, Positive Slope
1V
2V

Connect the channel 1 probe to U55 pin 1 on the A/D board (array analog output).

Connect the channel 2 probe to U40 pin 1 also on the A/D board (integrate signal).

Connect one of the probe's ground to the negative side of C92.

Set the channel 1 AC/GND/DC switch to GND, set the trace on the bottom line of the
screen, then switch the probe to DC.

Checking the Alignment Using Detector #1:

Using SURVEY2, select collimator #9, move the array to detector #1 (press <F7>), set
gains to flat (press <F3>), and set the PMT voltage to 100.

Turn on the X-ray beam by pressing <F1>. (Pressing <F2> will turn it off.) Adjust the
trigger level control until a stable display appears.
There should be two square pulses (on opposite ends of the trace) and equal in amplitude.
Slightly flex the arm (forwards, back, left, right) and observe the scope. If the collimator and
C-arm positions have been properly adjusted, the signal amplitude should only decrease,
regardless of the direction in which the arm is flexed. If this is not the case, realignment is
required.

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Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

If realignment is necessary, turn off the X-rays (press <F2>) and make the necessary
adjustments to either the C-arm or the collimator assembly.

Checking the Alignment Using the Detector Array:

Using SURVEY2, select collimator #6, set the gains to flat (press <F3>), move the detector
array to detector #17 (press <F8>), and set the PMT voltage to 100.

Turn on the X-ray beam by pressing <F1>. (Pressing <F2> will turn it off.) Adjust the
trigger level control until a stable display appears. There should be square pulses with an
amplitude range of approximately 1-5 Volts.

Slightly flex the arm and observe the scope. If the collimator and C-arm positions have been
properly adjusted, the signal amplitude should only decrease, regardless of the direction in
which the arm is flexed. If this is not the case, realignment is required.

NOTE: The following items must be checked or performed whenever any adjustment to the X-ray
beam alignment is made.
Recheck the laser positioning offset (section 3.16)
Perform the PMTVOLTS check (section 3.17)
Perform the beam flattening procedure (section 3.19)
The system's calibration must also be verified whenever the HVPS/Source assembly or detector
assembly is moved or replaced, or when any other certified component is repaired or replaced. See
the Field Calibration\Verification procedure in Appendix G for details.

D-2

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix E - Checking the HVPS/Source for Radiation Leakage

Appendix E - Checking the HVPS/Source for Radiation Leakage


This procedure describes how to check for scatter radiation around the HVPS/Source assembly.
1)

Move the arm as far back as possible.

2)

Escape to DOS by pressing <Alt> and <F1>, and at the DOS prompt type SURVEY2
<Enter>. Turn the X-ray beam on by pressing <F1>. (<F2> will turn it off.).
WARNING: Remove your hand before turning the beam on, and turn the beam off before
reaching in to move the detector.

Revision F

3)

Sweep the Geiger counter probe across all surfaces of the HVPS/Source, being careful not
to enter the direct beam above the collimator.

4)

Record the highest reading observed. It should be less than 0.5 mR/hour.

5)

Turn the X-ray beam off by pressing <F2>.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

E-1

Appendix F - Surveying the System for Scatter Radiation and Patient Dose

Appendix F - Surveying the System for Scatter Radiation and Patient Dose
This procedure describes how to check for scatter radiation around the completely assembled
machine, and how to measure the patient entrance dose.
Measuring Scatter
1)

Install all panels and closures. Put the tabletop pad in place.

2)

If monitor is displaying the Main Menu, proceed to step 3. If not, escape to the DOS
prompt, type MAINSTUB, and press <Enter>.

3)

Position a spine phantom in the center of the table and initiate a pencil beam spine scan.
WARNING: Remove your hand before turning the beam on, and turn the beam off before
reaching in to move the detector.

4)

Place the Geiger counter probe just above the front edge of the tabletop, and slowly sweep it
left and right of the phantom. Record the highest observed reading, which should not exceed
0.5 mR/hour.

Measuring the Patient Entrance Dose

Revision F

5)

Place an ion chamber radiation meter in the center of the tabletop, positioned so that the
entire chamber will be scanned by the beam. Turn the meter on, set it to INTEGRATE and
reset it to zero.

6)

Scan the meter using the pencil beam spine scan mode. Verify that the entire chamber has
been scanned (i.e., that the entire chamber is visible in the scan image). Record the meter
reading, which should be greater than 2.0 mR but should not exceed 5.0 mR.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

F-1

Appendix G - Field Calibration/Verification Procedure

Appendix G - Field Calibration/Verification Procedure


This procedure describes how to check the calibration of a QDR-2000 in the field, and how to adjust
its calibration if necessary. However, this procedure is only to be used on sites where there is only
one QDR-2000 or where the only spine phantom used to calibrate the machine is the one shipped
with the QDR-2000. For sites where there is more then one QDR machine or an older phantom (one
shipped with a QDR-1000 or QDR-1000/W machine) must be used, then a cross-calibration must be
performed as described in Appendix H. If you still have any questions, please contact the Scientific
department at Hologic.
If the QDR-2000 being installed is to replace an existing QDR (model 1000 or 1000/W) then a
cross-calibration must first be performed to ensure that any longitudinal studies begun on
the QDR being removed can safely be continued on the new QDR-2000. Please proceed to
Appendix H before de-installing the existing QDR.

NOTE: To ensure stability, the machine must be completely powered up for a minimum of 30
minutes prior to running any of the following test. Also, because the table top pad will have a slight
effect on the test results, all scans must be performed with it in place.

WARNING: X-rays are produced during most of these tests. Keep hands, head and other body parts
out of the X-ray beam path. The tester should also be wearing an approved radiation dosimetry badge.

STEP 1 - Enter New Phantom Number and Height if Necessary:


Perform STEP 1, only if you are using a phantom other then the one shipped with the system,
otherwise skip ahead to STEP 2.
1.1

Exit to DOS (simultaneously press <Alt> <F1>) and at the DOS prompt type,
FSCAL <Enter>
The following FSCAL opening menu will then appear:

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Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

1.2

Press "N" <Enter> to select the "n: update ARRAY PHANTOM No. and HEIGHT" option
from the menu.
The program will then query for the new array phantom's serial number, and height in
inches, as measured when placed in the normal AP scan orientation.
1.2a

Enter these values in their appropriate fields,


Press <F10>
(to accept them and proceed to the FSCAL opening menu)

1.2b

At the FSCAL opening menu, press "E" <Enter> to select the "e: write temporary
results" option causing the ARRC.TXT file too be updated with the new phantom
serial number and thickness measurement.

STEP 2 - Array Scan Thickness Measurement & Calibration:


2.1

From the QDR patient menu, select the spine phantom to be used for checking the array scan
modes. This should be the one shipped with the machine or one approved to be used in place
of it. If the phantom is currently not listed, enter it as a new patient.
NOTE: Be sure the spine phantom has been entered in the patient database in the form of
"Spine Phantom #nnn" (where nnn is the number of the phantom) so that the QC plot
program can identify it properly.

2.2

Place the phantom on the table and set it up using the ap/Lateral setup as follows:
Press S for Scan
Press L for ap/Lateral
Press 1 for (1) AP SETUP
After the arm moves away from the table, the message,
Position patient on the table, press enter when ready
will appear on the screen.
Press <Enter>
and the arm will begin to move all the way back over the table.

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Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix G - Field Calibration/Verification Procedure

NOTE: Do not move the arm or table, otherwise the test will have to be started over.

2.3

When the laser comes on, place the phantom so that the laser dot is on the centerline of the
phantom, 1/2" from the left end, shining on the phantom target. The sides of the phantom
should be aligned parallel to the table, using a ruler if necessary.
When you have finished positioning the phantom, exit to DOS by simultaneously pressing
<Alt> <F1>, and at the DOS prompt type:
SET TRACKING=1 <Enter>
(to allow multiple lateral scans to be performed from a single AP scan)
followed by
SET <Enter>
(to verify correct entry of the previous DOS environment variable)

2.4

Utilizing the program called AUTOSCAN, run 3 (medium) array scans on the phantom.
Type,
AUTOSCAN -N3 -L6 (or -L15.25 for metric units)

2.5

Once the scans have been completed, return to the QDR software menu by typing,
MAINSTUB <Enter>

2.6

Analyze the 3 scans using the default width and length (113 x 139) for the region of interest.

2.7

Utilizing the same phantom, still in the normal AP orientation, and beginning from the main
QDR software menu, prepare to run lateral scans by proceeding as follows:
Press S for Scan
Press L for ap/Lateral

2.8

The ap/Lateral menu should now appear on the screen.


Press 2 for (2) AP SCAN
Press S for array Spine
then change the scan length to 6 inches (15.25 cm for metric units), and
Press <F10>
(to begin the scan)

2.9
Revision F

When the scan has finished, analyze it followi ng the standard AP scan analysis routine (i.e.,
analyze L1 through L4).
Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

At the conclusion of the regular analysis, the scan will reappear on the screen along with two
red lines and a dashed centerline. The vertebrae must be centered and completely contained
between the two red lines. The angle (shown in degrees) directly below the scan image
indicates the misalignment of the spine phantom and it must be between +2 degrees. If the
angle is greater than this, the test must begin a new from step 2.6, using a ruler if necessary
to correctly align the phantom.
If the angle of the phantom is less than +2 degrees,
Press <End>
a blue arrow will now appear near the bottom of the screen, indicating where the lateral scan
is to begin.
Press <End>
the final AP analysis report will now appear on the screen,
Press <Esc>
the "ap/Lateral" menu will now appear on the screen, continue by,
Pressing 3 for (3) LAT SETUP
The arm will move backwards to its rear limit and the following message will be displayed,
Rotate Scan Arm
2.10 Rotate the scan arm to the lateral position, and continue by,
Pressing <Enter>
(to confirm the message on the screen)
Press <Esc>
(to exit to the QDR main menu)
Press <Alt> <F1>
(to exit to DOS)
and at the DOS prompt type,
AUTOSCAN -Plateral -TF -N3 -L6 <Enter>
(or -L15.25 for metric units)
to automatically perform 3 fast lateral array scans.

G-4

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix G - Field Calibration/Verification Procedure

2.11 At the conclusion of the scans, return to the main menu by typing MAINSTUB <Enter>,
then select the first (baseline) scan and analyze it as follows:

CAUTION

CAUTION: The up and down arrows should never be used in lateral analysis.
Note that only L2 through L4 will be analyzed in lateral scans.
2.11a

Set the Global Region of Interest (ROI):


The scan will appear with a global ROI determined by the ROI used in the AP scan
analysis. Press "T" (to select the top of the ROI) and using the
and
keys,
make the sides of the ROI box vertical.
Press <Insert> (to select entire ROI box) and use the
and
keys to position
the box so that the middle line (the "bisecting" line) is 2 lines to the left of the
edges of the vertebral bodies, separating them from the posterior elements of the
spine phantom.
Press <PgDn> (to select the bottom right side of the ROI box) and using the
and
keys, set the right edge of the ROI roughly 1/2 of a vertebral body width
away from the right hand edges of the vertebrae.
Press <PgUp> (to select the top left side of the ROI box) and using the
and
keys, set the left edge of the ROI, 5 lines to the right of the leftmost edges of the
posterior elements of the spine.
When completed,
Press <End>.

2.11b

Verifying the Intervertebral Markers:


These markers are set automatically and should not be adjusted,
Press <End>.

1.11c

Labelling the Vertebrae:


Also automatic,
Press <End>.

2.11d

Setting the Sub-Region:


Use the
and
keys to set the right edge of the (dashed) sub-region 4 lines to
the right of the right edges of the vertebral bodies, then
Press <End>
(to end Sub-Region positioning)

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

The program will then begin the analysis, and in about 30 seconds,
Press <End> again
(to finish the analysis)
The lateral analysis report will appear.
Press <Esc>
(to return to the main menu)
2.12 Analyzing the remaining 2 scans against the first (baseline) scan utilizing the compare
function under analyze.
Select the second (next) scan, then choose "Analyze" from the main menu, and then
"Compare" from the analyze menu.
NOTE: All succeeding lateral scans must be compared to the first (baseline) lateral
scan, rather then just comparing it to the preceding scan.
2.12a

Setting the Global Region of interest (ROI):


Since the phantom has not been moved between scans, no adjustment of the ROI
should be necessary,
Press <End>

2.12b

Verifying the Intervertebral Markers, Labelling the Vertebrae, and Setting the SubRegion:
Do not change,
Press <End> (three times)
The report will be displayed in about 30 seconds.
Press <Esc>
(to return to the main menu)
Select the third (next) scan, and repeat steps 2.12a and 2.12b. Remember to
compare all scans to the baseline scan.

2.13 Start the Field Service Calibration program by exiting to DOS (<Alt> <F1>) and typing at
the DOS [D:\MENU] prompt,
FSCAL <Enter>

G-6

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix G - Field Calibration/Verification Procedure

2.14 Press "S" <Enter> to select the "s: His\Los for ARRAY SPINE phantom" option and to
calculate the new thickness indicators for array spine mode (HIA_N, LOA_N, HIT_N, and
LOT_N).
2.14a

Select the 3 normal AP spine scans performed in step 2.3 using the (medium)
array scan mode. The program will then calculate new HIA_N, LOA_N, HIT_N, and
LOT_N values and present them on the screen.
DO NOT MODIFY ANY VALUES
Press <F10>
(to have the second screen displayed)
Press <F10>
(to accept the values)
The program will now verify that these values are within specification, display those
which are out of range, and return to the FSCAL opening menu.

2.15 Press "L" <Enter> to select the "l: His\Los for ARRAY LATERAL phantom" option and to
calculate the thickness indicators for fast lateral spine mode (HIA_NL, LOA_NL, HIT_NL,
and LOT_NL).
2.15a

Select the 3 lateral spine scans performed in step 2.10. The program will then
calculate new HIA_NL, LOA_NL, HIT_NL, and LOT_NL values and present them
on the screen.
DO NOT MODIFY ANY VALUES
Press <F10>
(to have the second screen displayed)
Press <F10>
(to accept the values)
The program will now verify that these values are within specification, display those
which are out of range and return to the FSCAL opening menu.

2.16 Press "E" <Enter> to select the "e: write temporary results" option, which will write the
calculated values into the ARRC.TXT file and then return to the FSCAL opening menu.
2.17 Press "X" <Enter> to EXIT the FSCAL program.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

STEP 3 - Calibration of Area and BMC, for Array and Single Beam Scan Modes:
After the machine has been calibrated for thickness measurement in the array mode, it must be
calibrated for the array AREA and BMC measurements.
3.1

Rotate the scan arm back to its normal position, then move it forward until the laser spot is
shinning on the phantom target.

3.2

Utilizing the AUTOSCAN program, run 20 (medium) array scans. Type,


AUTOSCAN -N20 -L6

(or -L15.25 for metric units)

(this will take approximately 80 minutes, slightly longer on 50Hz machines)


3.3

When the 20 (medium) array scans have finished, run 10 single beam scans by typing:
AUTOSCAN -N10 -TB -L6

(or -L15.25 for metric units)

(this will take approximately 1.5 hours, slightly longer on 50Hz machines)
3.4

When the scans have finished, return to the QDR software menu (type MAINSTUB <Enter>)
and analyze the first scan using the default ROI. Compare each succeeding scan to the first
scan, using compare.

3.5

Once all of the scans have been analyzed, return to DOS (simultaneously press <Alt> <F1>)
and at the DOS [D:\MENU] prompt type,
FSCAL <Enter>

3.6

Press "A" <Enter> to select the "a: for ARRAY SPINE ACF/BCF" option and to calculate
new ACF and BCF correction factors for the spine phantom used in the array scan mode.
The program will then display the Array spine phantom's serial number and its appropriate
Area and BMC values. Do not change these values unless directed to do so by an Hologic
representative .
Press <F10>
(to accept the values and continue)
3.6a

Select the 20 (medium) array spine scans from step 3.2.


The program will then calculate new Array ACF and BCF values, and display them
on the screen along with the averages from the 20 scans, their upper and lower
limits, and their CV's.
Answer [Y]es/[N]o <Enter> to the query if you want to proceed/not proceed to
update the existing ACF and BCF values in the ARRC.TXT file with the new
calculated values. A screen with all the values will then be presented.

3.6b

G-8

Make a note of the ACF and BCF values, then verify that ACFL is equal to ACF and
BCFL is equal to BCF. If they are not equal, edit the ACFL and BCFL fields to
make ACFL=ACF and BCFL=BCF.
Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix G - Field Calibration/Verification Procedure

Press <F10>
(to have the second screen displayed)
Verify that the ACFT is also equal to ACF and the BCFT is equal to BCF. Again, if
necessary, edit the ACFT and BCFT fields to make ACFT=ACF and BCFT=BCF.
Press <F10>
(to accept the values)
The program will now verify that these values are within specified limits and display
those that are out of range. You will then be returned to the FSCAL opening menu.
3.7

Press "W" <Enter> to select the "w: final write to ARRC.TXT file" option.
The program will then update the ARRC.TXT file and return to the FSCAL opening menu.

3.8

Press "B" <Enter> to select the "b: for PENCIL BEAM SPINE ACF/BCF" option and to
calculate new ACF and BCF values for the spine phantom used in the pencil beam scan mode.
The program will then display the Pencil Beam spine phantom's serial number and its
appropriate Area and BMC values. Do not change these values unless directed to do so by an
Hologic representative .
Press <F10>
(to accept the values and continue)
3.8a

Select the 10 single beam spine scans from 3.3.


The program will calculate the new pencil beam ACF and BCF values and display
them on a screen, as well as the average values for the 20 scans, their upper and
lower limits, and their CV's.

3.8b

Answer [Y]es/[N]o <Enter> to the query if you want to proceed/not proceed to


update the existing ACF and BCF values in the ENVIRON.BAT file with the new
values.
If you answer [Y]es to the query, the program will update the ENVIRON.BAT file
automatically, otherwise the new values will be discarded. If the ENVIRON.BAT
file is updated, you will be presented with a display screen reminding you to reboot
the computer, otherwise you will be returned to the FSCAL opening menu.

3.9

Revision F

Press "X" <Enter> to EXIT the FSCAL program.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

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Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

3.10 Print the ARRC.TXT file by typing:


COPY \XCDATA\ARRC.TXT LPT1:
Then verify that:
ACF = ACFL = ACFT
BCF = BCFL = BCFT
If a value needs to be edited, type:
ARRC_UPD T
A screen will be presented with values in the ARRC.TXT file. Use <Enter> or the <UpArrow> and <Down-Arrow> keys to move from field to field. Pressing <F10> while in the
first screen will cause the second screen to be displayed, while pressing <F10> in the
second screen will cause any edited value to be accepted and written to the ARRC.TXT file.
Before writing the new values to the ARRC.TXT file, the program will verify that they are
within the accepted ranges. Any which are not within range will be displayed, and you will
then be returned to the edit screen in order to correct them, otherwise you will be dropped
back to the DOS prompt.
Reprint the ARRC.TXT file again and keep the latest copy as a record.
As a precaution, reboot the computer (via <Ctl> <Alt> <Del>) to ensure that any changes
made to the ENVIRON.BAT file will be reflected in the DOS environment.

STEP 4 - Adding Array AP, Fast lateral and Pencil Beam scans to the QC database:
Once the unit has been calibrated, new scans must be performed to setup the QC baseline in the QC
database.
4.1

Set up the phantom for a normal spine scan, then at the DOS prompt type:
SET TRACKING=1 <Enter>
(to allow multiple lateral scans to be performed from a single AP scan)

4.2

G-10

Perform the following procedure on the AP Array scans acquired in Step 3.2.
4.2a

Exit to the DOS prompt, System disk, Menu directory [D:\MENU].

4.2b

Put the Re-calibration Analysis V7 L1 Rev A floppy disk (P/N 0610-00249-01) in


the floppy disk drive and type "a:\recalyze <Enter>". At the message type any key.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix G - Field Calibration/Verification Procedure

4.2c

4.3

At the scan selection menu, select the scans to be re-analyzed (i.e. scans acquired in
Step 3.2) and type <Enter>. The re-calibration analysis is complete when the
system returns the prompt.

Perform the following procedure on the AP Pencil scans acquired in Step 3.3.
4.3a

Exit to the DOS prompt, System disk, Menu directory [D:\MENU].

4.3b

Put the Re-calibration Analysis V7 L1 Rev A floppy disk (P/N 0610-00249-01) in


the floppy disk drive and type "a:\recalyze <Enter>". At the message type any key.

4.3c

At the scan selection menu, select the scans to be re-analyzed (i.e. scans acquired in
Step 3.3) and type <Enter>. The re-calibration analysis is complete when the
system returns the prompt.

4.4

Using the same phantom, perform 10 lateral scans as previously described in steps 2.6 to
2.10 except that you must perform 10 lateral scans rather then the 3 described in step 2.10
(enter -N10 instead of -N3 in the AUTOSCAN program line). Before performing the lateral
scans, verigy that the BMD of the AP centerline scan is within +0.5% of the mean. If the AP
BMD is not in this range, repeat AP scan.

4.5

Analyze the lateral scans as described in 2.11 to 2.12.

4.6

Once all the scans have been analyzed, add them to the QC database. Beginning from the
main QDR menu,
Press "Q" for QC
Press "A" for Add
and then select the 20 (medium) array AP scans, the 10 fast lateral scans, and the 10 pencil
beam scans to be added to the QC database.

4.7

Proceed to create new setups for each of these three modes by selecting the option SETUP
under the QC menu and then the right scan type and phantom number parameters.

4.8

Select the PLOT option (also under the QC menu) to plot a AREA, BMC and BMD plot for
each for the three types of scan modes (array, lateral, and pencil beam).
NOTE: For more details on performing the QC setup and producing QC plots, please refer
to the QDR-2000 operators manual..

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

G-11

Appendix H - Cross-Calibrating a QDR-2000 to a QDR-1000

Appendix H - Cross-Calibrating a QDR-2000 to a QDR-1000


This procedure describes how a new QDR-2000 can be cross-calibrated to give the same pencil-beam
results as obtained on an existing QDR-1000 or QDR-1000/W. The spine phantom originally used
on the QDR-1000 or QDR-1000/W for QC scanning will be used for the cross-calibration
procedure. If the QDR-2000 is replacing an existing QDR-1000 or QDR-1000/W, it is standard
procedure to use the "new" phantom shipped with the QDR-2000 for daily pencil-beam QC, and to
ship the old phantom back with the de-installed machine. If the QDR-2000 is to be installed
alongside an existing QDR-1000 or QDR-1000/W, then the option of using the "old" phantom for
pencil-beam QC on the QDR-2000 may be used. After performing the cross-calibration procedure,
the results for pencil-beam modes on the QDR-2000 will be completely identical to the pencil-beam
modes of the existing QDR-1000 or QDR-1000/W, and the average equivalence (in patients) of the
QDR-2000 fan-beam and pencil-beam modes has been retained. Thus it is not necessary to use the
old phantom for daily pencil-beam QC on the QDR-2000, and in most cases the new phantom shipped
with the QDR-2000 will be used for Pencil AP, array AP, and Lateral QC scanning.
Throughout this procedure the QDR-1000 and QDR-1000/W are both referred to as "QDR-1000."
The spine phantom shipped with the QDR-2000 is referred to as the "2000 phantom" and the original
phantom that belongs to the QDR-1000 at the site is referred to as the "old phantom."
NOTE: This procedure is only valid for newly installed QDR-2000's! Performing this procedure,
on a QDR-2000 with patient data on it, could cause the patient data to be lost! Any sample scans
shipped with the QDR-2000 will be archived prior to the database transfer to later be restored and
incorporated into the patient database. Any scans performed on the QDR-2000 that have been
deleted will be lost, unless they have been archived prior to starting this procedure.

The Cross-Calibration Update for the QDR-2000 V7 L1 disk (P/N 0610-00294) is required to
perform the re-calibration procedure.

Carefully follow the steps outlined below:


1 - Check the QDR-1000's Calibration and Save its Database
2 - Transfer the QDR-1000 Patient and QC Database to the QDR-2000
3 - Check the Calibration of the QDR-2000
4 - Cross-calibrate the QDR-2000 to the QDR-1000
5 - Update the QC Database on the QDR-2000
6 - Identify the "QC Baseline" Scans
7 - Archive the Database and QC Baseline Scans
8 - Delete all Unnecessary Phantom Scans
It is very important that all steps be performed exactly in the order given.

WARNING: X-rays are produced during most of these tests. Keep hands, head and other body parts
out of the X-ray beam path. The tester should also be wearing an approved radiation dosimetry badge.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

H-1

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

STEP 1 - Check the QDR-1000's Calibration and Save its Database:


Before de-installing the QDR-1000, verify its calibration and save the database so that it may
later be transferred the QDR-2000. Proceed as follows on the QDR-1000:
1.1

Obtain the QDR-1000's current calibration readings for Area and BMC on the old
phantom by performing one of the following two steps (1.1a or 1.1b).
NOTE: Because of situations such as an incorrectly calibration QDR-1000, the current Area and
BMC values (as measured by the QDR-1000) could be different from those found on the old
phantom's label. Because the history of the QDR-1000 is very important, the values obtained by
the QDR-1000 should be used, rather then the ones found on the phantom itself.

1.1a

If the QC plot shows that the QDR-1000 has been stable during at least the last four
weeks preceding the upgrade, use the "from" choice of the "Plot" function in QC to
get an average over at least one month of QC data. Use this option only if 1) the QC
data has been stable, 2) if there has been no recent re-calibration or field service, 3)
if they have been doing QC on a daily basis, and 4) the ROI width used is not less
than 110. Print out the results for Area and BMC as they will be used later. Write
the phantom's number and "QDR-1000 Pencil Area" (for example) on each printout
so that they do not get mixed up.
or

1.1b

If they have not done QC scans regularly, or if the QC data has not been stable for
more than a month, or if it has recently been serviced, then obtain the current QDR1000 calibration by performing 20 spine scans on the old phantom. Analyze the
scans by comparing them to the same QC scan which they always compare to. Add
the 20 scans to the QC database by choosing "Qc" from the main menu, then "Add"
from the QC menu, and selecting the scans from the scan selection screen. Then
use AVRSCAN or QC to obtain the current Area and BMC results from these 20
scans. Print out the results and write the phantom's number and "QDR-1000 Pencil
AP Area" (for example) on each printout so that they do not get mixed up.

1.2

Archive the "baseline QC" AP Pencil scan (the one that they compare all QC scans to)
from the QDR-1000 to a floppy. This scan will later be restored onto the QDR-2000.
Label your diskette "QC-1000 BASELINE".

1.3

Copy the QDR-1000's patient and QC databases onto a floppy diskette(s) by proceeding
as follows:

1.3a

Select "dBarchive" from the menu, then press <Enter> to begin the database archive.
You will require 1, or possibly 2, blank diskettes for this procedure.

1.3b

Insert disk 1 and press <Enter>. If required, you will be asked to insert disk 2.

1.3c

At the completion of the database archiving, remove the diskette from the drive and
label your diskette(s) "DB-ARCHIVE QDR-1000". Be sure to note whether the
QDR-1000 is a Performance Series machine or not.

1.3d The procedure to transfer databases is determined by the version of QDR software
running on the system. Use the following rules to select the right procedure:

H-2

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix H - Cross-Calibrating a QDR-2000 to a QDR-1000

QDR-1000 V5.11 or V6.00 to QDR-2000 V7.01: Use Release Notes 0610-0022400 or Appendix H of the Technical Manual.

QDR-1000 V6.10 to QDR-2000 V7.01 : Use Release Notes 0610-0262 and disregard
sections 2.4 to 2.18 and 2.24 described in the document 8001-00307-00 to CrossCalibrate or steps 2.4 to 2.14 and 2.19 from the Technical Manual Appendix H.

QDR-1000 V6.10 to QDR-2000 V7.10 : Follow this procedure to transfer patient and
QC databases from the QDR-1000 V6.10 to the QDR-2000 V7.10:
On the QDR-1000 system:

Exit to the DOS environment.

Export the QC database, type:


dbexp qcdb4

Copy the exported file date.txt to a floppy as date.asc, type:


copy date.txt a:\date.asc

Label the floppy as "QC DB DATE.ASC".

STEP 2 - Transfer the QDR-1000 Patient and QC Databases to the QDR-2000


On the QDR 2000 system:

Revision F

2.1

Choose "aRchive" from the main menu, then press "* <Enter>" to archive all the
scans on the QDR-2000 onto optical or floppy diskette(s). Label your diskette(s)
"QDR-2000 SCANS".

2.2

Choose "Delete" from the main menu and press "* <Enter>" to delete all the scans
from the hard disk.

2.3

Exit to DOS and use dbRecovr to recover the QDR-1000 patient database. Insert
the "DB-ARCHIVE QDR-1000" diskette(s) from step 1.3c into the floppy disk
drive. Insert diskette #2 if present first, otherwise insert diskette #1.

2.4

Press "1" to recover the Patient Data Base, then press <Enter> for the "old files will
be lost" message.

2.5

A message of recovering patient database will appear. When done, press <Esc> to
exit.

2.6

Press <Enter> to the message "checking Patscan". Press <Enter> to continue. Press
<Enter> to the message "Updating Patscan". Press <Enter> to continue.

2.7

Type "MAINSTUB <Enter>" to return to the main QDR software menu.

2.8

Insert the "QDR-2000 SCANS" archive diskette(s) from step 2.1 into drive A and
select "resTore". Press "* <Enter> <Enter> <Enter>" to restore all the scans
Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

H-3

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

previously archived in step 2.1. If you used an optical disk make sure you restore
with OPTICAL and not Locate!
2.9

To import the QC database, exit to DOS and insert the floppy labeled "QC DB
DATE.ASC" into drive A.

Copy date.asc to the \xcdata directory, type:


cd \xcdata
copy a:\date.asc

Import the QC database, type:


dbimp \util\nqcdb710.imp

2.10

Select "Patient" from the main menu and verify that the QDR-1000 and 2000 entries
are present. Press <Esc> to return to the main menu.

2.11

Select "QC" from the main menu and "Delete" from the QC menu, then verify that
both the old and new entries are present. Press <Esc><Esc> to return to the main
menu and <Alt> <F1> to exit to DOS.

STEP 3 - Check the Calibration of the QDR-2000:


Proceed as follows to verify, and if necessary, re-calibrate the QDR-2000 to factory standards:
3.1

Perform three AP Array scans using the 2000 phantom to calculate new HIs and LOs for
AP Array scans.

3.1a

Exit to DOS (press <Alt> <F1>) and type;


AUTOSCAN -N3 -L6 (or -L15.25 for metric units)

3.1b

3.2

Analyze the first scan using the default ROI, and "compare" the succeeding two
scans to the first scan.

Perform three fast lateral scans using the 2000 phantom to calculate new HIs and LOs
for lateral scans.

3.2a

Exit to DOS by pressing <Esc> twice and <Alt> <F1>, then at the DOS prompt
type;
SET TRACKING=1 <Enter>
(to allow multiple lateral scans to be performed from a single AP scan)
followed by "MAINSTUB <Enter>" to return to the main QDR software menu.

3.2b

H-4

Choose "Scan" from the main menu and then "ap/Lateral" from the scan menu.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix H - Cross-Calibrating a QDR-2000 to a QDR-1000

3.2c

Perform the "AP SETUP" step and place the 2000 phantom parallel to the length of
the table with the laser dot on the positioning star on the phantom. Do not move the
arm. Press <Enter> when finished.

3.2d

Choose "AP SCAN" and then "array Spine" and set the length of the scan to 6 inches
(15.25 cm). Start the AP scan by pressing <F10>, and verify that the spine image is
completely contained between the two red lines on the screen. If the spine is not
properly centered, do not use <F3>: Stop the scan by pressing <Enter> and repeat
the "AP SETUP" step to correctly center the phantom.

3.2e

At the conclusion of the scan choose "Analyze" from the menu, and analyze the scan
using the default ROI. Press <End> when the bone map is displayed and the scan
image will be re drawn with a dashed red center line drawn over L2-L4. Check that
the angle of the spine, displayed in blue below the scan image is between -2 and +2
degrees. If the angle is not in this range, return to step 3.2b and start over with "AP
SETUP". If the angle is OK, press <End> and a blue arrow will appear near the
bottom of the scan image indicating the starting position for the lateral scan. Press
<End> and the final report screen will appear.

3.2f

After the AP scan analysis is complete, press <Esc> to return to the ap/Lateral
menu. Choose "LAT SETUP" and follow the instructions on the screen.

3.2g

Exit to DOS by pressing <Esc> twice and <Alt> <F1>.

3.2h

Run three sequential fast lateral scans by typing;


AUTOSCAN -Plateral -TF -N3 -L6 (or -L15.25 for metric)
(the scans will take about 10 minutes to finish)

3.2i

When the scans are complete, type;


SET TRACKING= <Enter>
(to clear the tracking environment variable)

3.2j

Type "MAINSTUB <Enter>" to return to the main menu. Press <F2> and select the
first of the three fast lateral scans just performed. Choose "Analyze" from the
analyze menu, and analyze as usual. (Refer to the Operators Manual for details on
lateral scan analysis.)

3.2k

"Compare" the two remaining lateral scans to the first lateral scan.

3.3

Revision F

Exit to DOS (<Alt> <F1>) and start the FSCAL program by typing "FSCAL <Enter>".

3.3a

Choose option "s" from the FSCAL menu and select the three AP Array scans
(performed in step 3.1) from the scan select menu.

3.3b

Choose option "l" from the FSCAL menu and select the three fast Lateral scans
(performed in step 3.2) from the scan select menu.

3.3c

Choose option "e" from the FSCAL menu to write the new ARRC.TXT results.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

H-5

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

3.3d
3.4

Choose option "x" from the FSCAL menu to exit FSCAL.

Verify the current calibration of QDR-2000 in AP Pencil and AP Array modes using the
2000 phantom:

3.4a

Perform 20 AP Pencil scans "AUTOSCAN -TB -N20 -L6 (or -L15.25 for metric)"
and 20 AP Array scans "AUTOSCAN -N20 -L6 (or -L15.25)".
Note that FSCAL will not accept anything less than 20 scans.

3.4b

3.5

At the conclusions of the scans, type "MAINSTUB <Enter> and analyze the first
scan in each mode using the default ROI width; then compare succeeding scans to
the first scan.

Exit to DOS and type "FSCAL" to compare the current array results to the factory results
for the 2000 phantom.

3.5a

Choose option "a" from the FSCAL menu. The program will display the array
phantom number, the array Area, and the array BMC as obtained at the factory.
These values should not be modified: press <Y> to accept them. Select the 20 AP
Array scans from the scan select screen and press <Enter>. Do not include any
previous scans other then the 20 performed in step 3.4a. The results of each
scan will flash on the screen as it is read into the program.
NOTE: If any of the phantom calibration values (array phantom #, area, and BMC)
displayed in the previous step are 0, you must first obtain the correct values by
plotting the 20 AP Array scans performed at the factory, then use option "n" from
the FSCAL program to update the phantom information.

H-6

3.5b

After all of the scans have been read in, a green screen will appear, listing the
results for Area and BMC and the CV's for Area, BMC, and BMD. In addition, the
screen displays a separate message for both Area and BMC saying whether or not
the system is out of calibration. Press <PrintScrn> to obtain a copy of this screen.
If either the Area or BMC is out of calibration, the following message will appear:
"It is recommended that the recalculated ACF/BCF be used." Answer "Y" to the
query "do you want to re-calibrate?". Answer "N" only if Area and BMC are both
"WITHIN CALIBRATION".

3.5c

If the calibration is being changed, the ARRC.TXT parameters screen will appear
showing the new ACF and BCF values. Make a note of the ACF and BCF values, then
verify that ACFL is equal to ACF and BCFL is equal to BCF. If they are not equal,
edit the ACFL and BCFL fields to make ACFL=ACF and BCFL=BCF. Press <F10>
to display the second screen.

3.5d

Verify that the ACFT is also equal to ACF and the BCFT is equal to BCF. Again, if
necessary, edit the ACFT and BCFT fields to make ACFT=ACF and BCFT=BCF.
When done, press <F10> to return to the FSCAL menu.

3.5e

If any one of the ACF/BCF/ACFL/BCFL/ACFT/BCFT values have been changed,


choose option "w" from the FSCAL menu to write the new values to ARRC.TXT.

3.5f

Choose option "b" from the FSCAL menu. The AP Pencil factory results are
presented along with the phantom number. Do not modify any of these values, press
Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix H - Cross-Calibrating a QDR-2000 to a QDR-1000

<F10> to accept them. Select the 20 AP Pencil scans from the scan select screen
and press <Enter>.
NOTE: If any of the phantom calibration values presented for the pencil phantom
are 0, you must first obtain the correct values by plotting the 20 single beam scans
performed at the factory to update the phantom information.
3.5g

After all of the scans have been read in, a green screen will appear, listing the
results for Area and BMC and the CV's for Area, BMC, and BMD. In addition, the
screen displays a separate message for both Area and BMC saying whether or not
the system is out of calibration. Press <PrintScrn> to obtain a copy of this screen.
If either the Area or BMC is out of calibration, answer "y" to the query "do you want
to re-calibrate?". Answer "N" only if Area and BMC are both "WITHIN
CALIBRATION".

3.5h

If the pencil calibration (ENVIRON.BAT) was changed in step 3.5f above, a green
screen will appear instructing you to "Press <Ctrl><Alt><Del> to re-boot the
system". If the pencil calibration (ENVIRON.BAT) was not changed, the FSCAL
menu will appear: choose "x" to exit the program.

STEP 4 - Cross-calibrate the QDR-2000 to the QDR-1000:


Insert the Cross Calibration Update for the QDR-2000 (P/N 0610-00294) diskette into drive A.
Proceed to upgrade the calibration tools on the QDR-2000 by following the steps outlined in the
software installation procedure.
Proceed to re-calibrate the QDR-2000 to be consistent with the QDR-1000 pencil-beam scans:

Revision F

4.0

Select "Patient" from the main menu, then select the old phantom from the list of
patients.

4.1

Set the old phantom on the QDR-2000 table pad and perform 20 AP Pencil scans by
typing "AUTOSCAN -TB -N20 -L6 (or -L15.25 for metric)" and pressing <Enter> at
the DOS prompt.

4.2

When the scans are finished, type "MAINSTUB <Enter>" to return to the main menu.
Restore the "QC-1000 BASELINE" AP Pencil scan from the QDR-1000 onto the
QDR-2000. All QDR-2000 pencil beam AP scans of the old phantom will be
"compared" to this scan.

4.3

Press <F2> and select the first of the 20 pencil scans of the old phantom. Now choose
"Analyze" from the main menu, and then choose "Compare". Select the "baseline QC"
scan that was restored from the QDR-1000 to compare to. Follow the usual routine for
analysis under compare. Repeat for the remaining 19 scans.

4.4

When all 20 scans have been analyzed, press <Alt> <F1> to exit to DOS.

4.5

If the 2000 phantom is to be used for daily pencil-beam QC, then type "CROSSCAL
/N<Enter>" at the DOS prompt to start the cross-calibration program. If the old
phantom is to be used for daily pencil-beam QC, then type "CROSSCAL /O <ENTER>"
at the DOS prompt.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

H-7

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

4.5a

Enter the old phantom's number and its pencil Area and pencil BMC results from
the QDR-1000 (step 1.1a or 1.1b) and press <F10>.

4.5b

A green screen will appear with the AP Array factory and old Pencil values along
with the phantom numbers. Press "Y <Enter>" to accept them.

4.5c

Select the 20 AP Pencil scans of the old phantom (analyzed in step 4.3) from the
scan selection screen, and press <Enter> when finished.

4.5d

After all of the scans have been read in, a green screen will appear, listing the
results for Area and BMC and the CV's for Area, BMC, and BMD. In addition, the
screen displays a separate message for both Area and BMC indicating by how much
the QDR-2000 calibration must be changed to match the current calibration of the
QDR-1000. Press <PrintScrn> to obtain a copy of this screen. Answer "Y" to the
question "do you want to re-calibrate?".
Note: If the QDR-2000 needs to be re-calibrated by more than 5%, a warning
message appears telling you to check that the correct phantom was used and that the
scans were correctly selected. If everything has been done correctly, then proceed
to re-calibrate the system as above (answer "Y").

4.5e

The ACF/BCF/ACFL/BCFL/ACFT/BCFT values will automatically be updated in


ARRC.TXT. Press <F10> twice to accept the values. A green screen will appear to
remind you that the values have been updated.

4.5f

The array Area and array BMC values in "PHANTOM.CAL" will be automatically
updated, and the new values will be displayed on a green screen. Note that the
correct pencil-beam QC phantom number should appear on this screen. Press
<PrintScrn> to obtain a copy of these values. Press <Enter> to continue.

4.5g

The ACF/BCF values in the ENVIRON.BAT file will also automatically be updated,
and a green screen will remind you to re-boot the system.

STEP 5 - Update the QC database on the QDR-2000:


Using the following procedure, update the QC database for each of the three (AP Pencil, AP
Array, and Fast Lateral) modes:
5.1) Go to Patient and select the correct patient biography.
5.2) Perform the following procedure to re-analyze the AP Pencil scans using the new
ACF/BCF values.

H-8

5.2a

Exit to the DOS prompt, System disk, Menu directory [D:\MENU].

5.2b

Put the Re-calibration Analysis V7 L1 Rev A floppy disk (P/N 0610-00249-01) in


the floppy disk drive and type "a:\recalyze <Enter>". At the message type any key.

5.2c

At the scan selection menu, select the 20 pencil-beam scans to be re-analyzed. If


the 2000 phantom is to be used for pencil-beam QC, then select the 20 pencil scans
of the 2000 phantom from Step 3.4a,. If the old phantom is to be used for pencil
QC, then select the 20 pencil scans of the old phantom from Step 4.1. Press
Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix H - Cross-Calibrating a QDR-2000 to a QDR-1000

<Enter>. The re-calibration analysis is complete when the system returns the
prompt.
5.2d

Add these scans to the QC database by choosing "Qc" from the main menu, and then
by choosing "Add" and selecting the 20 AP Pencil scans. Choose "Delete" and
delete the factory QC scans from the QC database. Be careful not to delete the
scans just entered. Choose "Setup" from the Qc menu, select the 20 scans, and
check that the scans have been entered properly.

5.3) Perform the following procedure on the AP Array scans, of the 2000 phantom, acquired
in Step 3.4a.
5.3a

Exit to the DOS prompt, System disk, Menu directory [D:\MENU].

5.3b

Put the Re-calibration Analysis V7 L1 Rev A floppy disk (P/N 0610-00249-01) in


the floppy disk drive and type "a:\recalyze <Enter>". At the message type any key.

5.3c

At the scan selection menu, select the 20 scans to be re-analyzed (i.e. scans
acquired in Step 3.4a) and type <Enter>. The re-calibration analysis is complete
when the system returns the prompt.

5.3d

Add these scans to the QC database by choosing "Qc" from the main menu, and then
by choosing "Add" and selecting the 20 AP Array scans. Choose "Delete" and delete
the factory QC scans from the QC database. Be careful not to delete the scans just
entered. Choose "Setup" from the Qc menu, select the 20 scans, and check that the
scans have been entered properly.

5.4) Fast Lateral mode: perform an AP Array Centerline and 10 Fast Lateral scans of the 2000
phantom as in step 3.2; use "autoscan -plateral -tf -n10" instead of "autoscan -plateral tf -n3". Compare the AP centerline scan to the first of the 20 AP Array scans (of the
2000 phantom) that were re-analyzed in step 5.3. Before performing the fast lateral
scans, verify that the BMD of the AP centerline scan is within +/- 0.5% of the mean
value from the QC setup from Step 5.3. Repeat the AP scan, if necessary, until the
BMD is within this range. Choose "analyze" to analyze the first lateral scan: do not
use "Compare". Compare the succeeding 9 scans to the first. Add to the QC database
by choosing "Qc" from the main menu, and then by choosing "Add" and selecting the 10
fast lateral scans. Choose "Delete" and delete the factory QC scans from the QC
database. Be careful not to delete the scans just entered. Choose "Setup" from the Qc
menu, select the 10 scans, and check that the scans have been entered properly.

STEP 6 - Identify the "QC Baseline" Scans:


6.1

Revision F

On a piece of paper, write down the scan identification numbers for the "QC Baseline"
scans used on the QDR-2000:

6.1a

AP Pencil mode: either 1) the "baseline QC" scan restored from the QDR-1000 if
that phantom will be used for pencil-beam QC on the QDR-2000, or 2) the first of
the 20 pencil scans of the 2000 phantom re-analyzed in step 5.2c if the that
phantom willbe used for pencil-beam QC on the QDR-2000.

6.1b

AP Array mode: the AP Center line scan performed in step 5.4 that was followed
by the 10 fast lateral array scans. It is imperative that this unique scan (part of the
Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

H-9

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

AP/Lateral baseline pair) be used as the baseline AP Array scan and that it be kept
on the system at all times.
6.1c

Fast Lateral array mode: the first of the 10 fast lateral scans performed in step 5.4.
It is imperative that this unique scan (part of the AP/Lateral baseline pair) be used as
the baseline lateral array scan and that it be kept on the system at all times.

STEP 7 - Archive the Database and "Q.C. Baseline Scans:


Perform a database archive (dBarchive) on the QDR-2000's database and archive the "Q.C.
Baseline" scans to floppy. Leave these floppies at the site for future reference.

STEP 8 - Delete All Unnecessary Phantom Scans:


Delete all phantom scans that were used during re-calibration, with the exception of the "QC
Baseline" scans used to compare future scans.

H-10

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix I - Adjusting X-ray Pulse Energies

Appendix H - Adjusting X-ray Pulse Energies


This procedure describes how to adjust the X-ray pulse energies to 70 +2 and 140 +2kVp. For a
given applied input voltage, the unit-to-unit variation in pulse energies produced by different
HVPS/Source assemblies is extremely small. But differences between X-ray controller boards are
large, and two resistors on each board -- R52 and R53 -- must be hand-selected to produce the
desired X-ray pulse energies. Since this selection is normally done at the factory, the following
procedure will be needed only if an X-ray controller board is repaired in the field (rather than
replaced).
1)

Press in either red STOP button to remove power from the X-ray controller board.

2)

Remove the screws holding the X-ray controller board in place and pull it partially out.

3a) To adjust the 14kVp pulse, cut out R52, leaving most of the leads in the board. Measure the
value of the removed resistor, set a resistor decade box to the measured value, and check the
setting with the ohmmeter. Connect the decade box across the stubs of R52's leads on the
board.
3b) To adjust the 7kVp pulse, cut out R53, leaving most of the leads in the board. Measure the
value of the removed resistor, set a resistor decade box to the measured value, and check the
setting with the ohmmeter. Connect the decade box across the stubs of R53's leads on the
board.
CAUTION: A GROSSLY INCORRECT VALUE CAN CAUSE PERMANENT DAMAGE
TO HVPS/SOURCE ASSEMBLY!!!

CAUTION

4)

Set up the oscilloscope as follows:


Trigger
Sec/Div
Vertical Mode
A Source Trigger
Channel 1 Volts/Div
Channel 2 Volts/Div

=
=
=
=
=
=

Auto
2 mS
Add, Both, Invert Channel 2
Line, Channel 1, Positive Slope
2V (variable gain knob in CALIBRATED position)
2V (variable gain knob in CALIBRATED position)

5)

Connect the channel 1 probe to TP2 on the X-ray controller board.

6)

Connect the channel 2 probe to TP1 on the X-ray controller board.

7)

Set both channel AC/GND/DC switches to GND, set both traces precisely on the bottom
line of the screen, then switch both probes to DC.

8)

Pull the red STOP button back out to restore power to the X-ray controller board.

9)

Using SURVEY2, use <F1> to turn on the X-ray beam.

WARNING: Keep hands, head and other body parts out of X-ray beam.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

I-1

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

10) Adjust the oscilloscope's trigger level control until the display is stable.

CAUTION

CAUTION. DO NOT CHANGE THE DECADE BOX SETTING WHILE THE BEAM IS
ON. USE <F2> TO TURN THE X-RAY BEAM OFF BEFORE CHANGING THE
RESISTANCE, THEN USE <F1> TO TURN THE BEAM BACK ON.

11a) If the 14kVp pulse is being adjusted, increase/decrease the resistance of the decade box
substituting for R52 until the pulse amplitude is 14V + 0.2V (6.9-7.1 divisions).
11b) If the 7kVp pulse is being adjusted, increase/decrease the resistance of the decade box
substituting for R53 until the pulse amplitude is 7V + 0.2V (3.4-3.6 divisions).
12) When the proper value of R52 and/or R53 has been determined, press in either red STOP
button to remove power from the X-ray controller board.
13) Disconnect the decade box(es), remove the board completely from its slides, and unplug all
cables.
14) Solder in a fixed resistor of the correct value (as determined in step 11). Remove soldering
flux with alcohol before replacing the board.
15) Replace the cables, slide the board into place and power up by pulling out the red STOP
switch.
16) Verify that the pulse amplitude is correct before installing the screws which hold the board
in place.

I-2

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

Appendix I - Error Messages


The error messages covered in this section fall into the following categories:
Informational:

These messages are self-explanatory. Examples are instructions to


insert or remove diskettes, or notification that a diskette or the system
drive is full.

User Error:

The user made a mistake, such as entering invalid data, inserting the
wrong diskette or optical cartridge, or positioning a region of interest
incorrectly.

Hardware Error: Messages which may indicate a hardware malfunction (which may be as
simple as something not plugged in or turned on).
Software Error:

The QDR software contains numerous "sanity checks" that are used
during software development to indicate that something is wrong.
During normal operation, these messages should never appear. If they
do, Hologic should be notified.

The following list specifies, for each error message:

its category and meaning.


when and where it can happen
what action you should take.

The error messages are in alphabetical order, with one exception - those messages generated by
SCAN in the form:
device: Message Text
These messages are listed in order by "Message Text".

ERROR MESSAGE LIST


A matching lateral scan exists using previous center line calculations

Revision F

User Error:

An inappropriate analysis protocol has been selected. The center line


calculations cannot be changed after the lateral patient scan has been
acquired.

Action:

Press <Enter> to continue with normal analysis.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-1

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

A record exists with ID: __________


or
A record exists with name like: __________
Informational:

You have just entered a new patient, and either (a) assigned a name that is
"similar" to one for an existing patient, or (b) assigned an ID that is
identical to that for an existing patient. That patient is highlighted in the
list of patients.
Note: A "similar"-named patient is one with the same last name and first
initial.

Action:

You may press F10 to accept the new entry, or select the currently
highlighted patient to look at the biography.

Age Minimum is Greater than age Maximum


User Error:

Invalid data entry while entering a new reference curve.

Action:

Fix the data and proceed.

Age Unknown for This Patient


T and Z Scores Indeterminate
User Error:

You did not enter a birth date for the patient. Therefore the reference
curve display shows only the curve. No point is plotted for this data, nor
are T and Z scores computed.

Action:

Edit the patient biography to include the date of birth.

Analysis aborted. d0= ___ below acceptable limit.

Hardware or
Software Error:

d0 is found to be below zero, which is not possible if there are Xrays reaching the detector.

Action:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about the scan.

Are you sure you want to change the QC parameters?

J-2

Informational:

You have modified the QC plotting parameters for a phantom SETUP.

Action:

Press "Y" to proceed and save the values you just modified, "N" to
preserve the old values.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

Are you sure you want to delete this record?


Informational:

You have requested deletion of a non-Hologic reference curve.

Action:

Reply "Y" if you are really want to delete the reference curve.
WARNING: You will not be able to recover it later.

Are you sure you want to lose the data you have entered?
Informational:

You have entered or changed data in a patient biography and then pressed
ESC. Normally this causes the data you entered to be lost.

Action:

Press "Y" to proceed (data will be lost), or "N" (or ESC) to continue to
edit the patient biography.

Are you sure (Enter Y to modify file)


Informational:

You are being asked to verify a change to a patient file.

Action:

Press "Y" to change file, or any other key to abort the change.

At least two scans must be selected to calculate the standard deviation for the Q/C parameters. Press the <Enter> key to continue
or any other key to reselect the scan list.
User Error:

During Q/C setup, at least two scans must be selected to calculate the
SETUP information.

Action:

Press ESC to exit. Select more scans and try again.

Attempted To Compare A File To Itself


User Error:

You selected - in Analyze Compare - the same file for comparison that
you are analyzing.

Action:

Select another file. Be sure it is the same scan type as the file you are
analyzing.

BMD Minimum is greater than BMD Maximum

Revision F

User Error:

Invalid data entry while entering a new reference curve.

Action:

Fix the data and proceed.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-3

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

BoundaryLine Internal Software Error


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

CALIB: Timeout
Hardware Error:

Dark current offset calibration was not completed within a reasonable


amount of time.

Action:

Check A/D-to-M&D cable; repair or replace as required.


Check A/D board, replace if defective.
Check supply voltages to A/D board, adjust as required.
Check detector(s), replace if defective.

CALIB: Operator Abort


Informational:

The operator pressed a key to abort the scan during the calibration
sequence.

CALIB: Unknown Error


Software Error:

This message should not occur. Report it to Hologic if it does.

Cannot determine rate of change


Informational:

In order to calculate rate-of-change, you must have at least two scans for
the patient, and they must be at least 1/10 of a year separate from one
another.

Cannot Insert Point and keep ROI convex.


User Error:

You tried to add an illegal boundary point to a region of interest.

Action:

Press any key to resume Region-Of-Interest selection.

Cannot obtain results of scan ________ of __________


Software Error:

J-4

For some reason, the system was unable to obtain the results of a scan
that you selected for normals plotting. This message should be reported
to Hologic.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

Cannot open tracking file


User Error:

The previously selected file is not currently on the disk. This could
happen if you take an AP scan, do a center line analysis, remove the scan
from the system, and then attempt a lateral scan.
This could also indicate a hard disk problem.

Cannot place regions automatically on this scan


User Error:

The analysis program is unable to recognize features that are needed to


place regions automatically.

Action:

Check the editing of the bone map.

Can't open a window


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

device: Chopper Wheel Out of Phase with Xrays


Hardware Error:

After successful synchronization at the start of the scan, the filter wheel
got out of phase.

Action:

Check filter wheel phasing, adjust if necessary as described in Appendix


A. Check belt tension, adjust A/R.

Collimator Timeout - could not find position


Hardware Error:

There is a problem with the collimator mechanism.

Action:

Check the collimator assembly.


Test the collimator positioning with the SURVEY2 program.

Corrupted Scan Data Detected


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Could not find file extension in


Software Error:

Revision F

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.
Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-5

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Couldn't write the new record

Hardware or
Software Error:

The system was unable to write a reference curve that you entered
or edited.

Action:

Check that the hard drive is not full. That is, check the message "Room
for __ scans" in the status window and ensure that it does not say zero. If
it is full, then archive and delete one or more scans and try again.
If the hard drive is not full, then you have either a hard drive failure or a
corrupt reference curve database.

db_File error __ .....

or
db_VISTA error __ .....
Software Error:

Any message that begins this way should be reported to Hologic. Please
include as much information as possible about what you were doing at
the time.

device: Data Buffer Overflow

Hardware or
Software Error:

The device driver which performs the X-ray scan acquired data
faster than the scan program could write it to disk. This may
indicate a hard drive problem or a problem with one of the timing
and control boards.

device: Device Already In Use


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at he time.

device: DOSERRORNO ___


Software Error:

J-6

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at he time.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

Do you want to add the new entry?


Press 'Y' to add the newly entered patient record.
Press 'N' to return to patient selection.
Informational:

You have entered a new patient biography with either the same ID or
similar name to one already in the database, and you have been informed
and given a chance to look at the similar patient. Now you are being
asked if you really want to enter the new patient.

Action:

Press "Y" to enter the new patient, "N" to resume patient selection.

Do you wish to make this curve CURRENT? [ or NON-CURRENT?]


This is a Hologic-Supplied Curve
You are only allowed to change its currency.
(Only CURRENT curves are plotted)
Informational:

You are not allowed to change the data in a Hologic-Supplied curve. You
may, however, change its currency (by responding to this query). You
may also make a copy of the curve and edit that copy.

device: Emergency Stop/Interlock Inhibit


Informational:

You attempted to do a scan with the emergency-interlock (Red Button)


engaged OR you engaged the emergency interlock during a scan.

Error copying file _________

Revision F

Hardware Error:

There was an error copying the named file.

Action:

Verify that there was space on the target drive. Check the "Room for .. "
message in the status window. Run appropriate diagnostics.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-7

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Error creating file ______________ _________________

Hardware or
User Error:

There is a problem creating a new file (which may be on your hard


drive, your diskette, or your optical). Either the medium is full, or
there is a hardware error.

Action:

First determine which disk drive is involved. The filename should start
with a drive letter, followed by a colon. Drive A: is diskette, C: is hard
drive, E: is optical, and D: may be hard drive or optical, depending on
your system configuration. If, when you exit from the Hologic main
menu, your MENU directory is in drive D:, then D: is hard drive,
otherwise it is optical.
Check for disk full. For diskette, simply try a different diskette and see
if the problem goes away. For hard drive, check the "Room for ___"
message in the status window. For optical, go to the \WORM directory
and run the program WCHKDSK d:, where "d:" is the drive from the
message
If the disk is not full, run appropriate diagnostics.

Error Formatting diskette. Make sure drive door is closed


and diskette is not in backwards, then restart ARCHIVE
User Error:

The diskette in the drive could not be formatted. Either you have
inserted it incorrectly, the diskette is defective, or there is a hardware
problem with the diskette drive or its controller.

Action:

If the diskette is inserted correctly, try a different diskette. If this error


occurs repeatedly, there may be a hardware problem with the diskette
drive.

Error in region of interest structure


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Error reading Optical drive: _______________


Error reading file _______ : __________

J-8

Hardware Error:

There was a disk problem while reading a file.

Action:

Run appropriate diagnostics.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

Error closing optical file ________________________

or
Error flushing optical file _______________________

or
Error writing optical record ______________________
Hardware error:

There is a problem writing an optical file. Either the medium is full, or


there is a hardware malfunction.

Action:

Check for disk full. Get out of the Hologic menu (Press <Alt> <F1>),
go to the \WORM directory and run the program WCHKDSK d:, where
"d:" is the drive letter from the message.
If the disk is not full, then run the WDIAGS diagnostics.

Failure at file ________ line ____


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

file extension doesn't start with 'P' in ...


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

First Scan Line must be AIR

User or
Hardware Error:

Whole body scans require a line of air before the beam crosses the
head. The patient needs to be moved down the table. Or there may be an
object on the table above the patient's head.

This error can also occur if the machine is not adjusted correctly:
the beam is crossing the table edges. If you suspect this may be the
case, try a scan with no patient on the table. Be sure that there are
no objects on the table.

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-9

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Formatting Archive Diskette. It takes a minute. Please wait.


Informational:

You inserted an unformatted diskette (a diskette straight out of the box)


and responded "Y" to the query "Press Y to format this diskette." OR you
are performing a database archive (which formats each diskette before it
writes on it). The diskette must be formatted, one track at a time. This
message remains on the screen during the formatting.

Action:

If this message remains on the screen for more than two minutes or so,
you are probably attempting to format a defective diskette. Open the
drive door, remove the diskette, and wait for an error message. Then try
again with a different diskette. If you are unable to correct the situation,
you may have a hardware problem with the diskette drive.

Garbled Optical File


Software Error:

The optical file that you are attempting to restore scans from seems to
be clobbered.

Action:

Run diagnostics on the optical drive. If this error recurs, report it to


Hologic.

GetDKernel Internal Software Error

or
GetKernel Internal Software Error
Software Error:

These messages should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Global Region of Interest Has Acute Angles


Informational:

Acute angles (angles less then 90o) may not be desirable on lumbar spine
scans. If appropriate, press F4 as instructed to continue the analysis.

device: Hi/Lo Sequencing Error

J-10

Hardware Error:

The data points did not correctly alternate between high and low energy.

Action:

Check the Motor & Drive board, replace if defective. Check the A-C
input reference voltage to M&D board.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

Histogram Overflow in datahist

or
Histogram Smoothing Error

or
Illegal Context Record Type

or
Illegal high value in qgen

or
Inconsistent d0 limits in rsattencalc

or
Indeterminate or bad data for attenuation curves

or
Indeterminate Data For k Calculation

or
Insufficient Data To Determine k/delta0
Software Error:

These messages should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Incorrect Optical Media Type


Mount media of correct type and Press any key to continue
User Error:

Wrong type of media. (1 instead of 2 or 2 instead of 1).

Action:

Place the correct media in drive.

Incorrect version of x-ray device driver


Software Error:

Revision F

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-11

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Insufficient Disk Space to Update Scan File


User Error:

You attempted to analyze a scan when the disk was so full that there was
no room to add scan results.

Action:

Archive and delete one or more scans and try again.

Insufficient Space on Disk for any new Scans


Before you do any more scans, you must first delete enough
scans to make room for the new ones. If necessary, archive
the scans before you delete them.
User Error:

The hard drive is full and you are attempting to do another scan.

Action:

Archive and delete some scans.

Internal Buffer Size Exceeded


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Internal Error:.....

or
Internal Software Error: ......
Software Error:

Any message that begins this way should be reported to Hologic. Please
include as much information as possible about what you were doing at
the time.

Invalid ...
Software Error:

J-12

Any message that begins with the word "Invalid" should be reported to
Hologic. Please include as much information as possible about what you
were doing at the time.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

I/O Error ....


Hardware or
User error:

There was an error reading or writing a disk drive. The message should
identify the drive and say something about the nature of the error.

Action:

If this is an "out of space" error, verify that there is room on the target
drive. Check the "Room for ..." message in the status window.
Otherwise, run appropriate diagnostics on the disk and controller; if the
problem involves diskette (Drive A:), try a different diskette.

Lateral Tracking will not be able to function


Scan arm is too far from center
User Error:

After using AP positioning from the AP/Lateral scan menu, you have
moved the scan arm more than 1.25 inches to the front or the back.

Action:

Run AP positioning again and move the patient closer to the laser
positioning marker before moving the scan arm.

Less than 2 valid points in this curve


User Error:

Invalid data entry while entering a new reference curve.

Action:

Fix the data and proceed.

Limit Exceeded: ......


Software Error:

Any message that begins this way should be reported to Hologic. Please
include as much information as possible about what you were doing at
the time.

Local Motion while starting scan


User Error:

You engaged one of the local motion switches after you started the scan.

Action:

Start the scan over

Missing tissue bar initialization file


Software Error: The file that contains the calibration information for the tissue bar is
missing or has not been installed.
Action:

Revision F

Install the tissue bar initialization software that comes with the tissue
bar.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-13

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

device: Motor at Limit


User Error:

You started a scan with the arm in the wrong position and one of the
motors (designated in the message) ran into the limit of its travel.

device: Motor did not move as commanded


Hardware Error:

The QDR is equipped with motion detectors which detect actual motion
in the X and Y-axis motors. This message occurs when one of these
motors was commanded to move and no motion was detected.

Action:

Check for loose leadscrew couplers, tighten setscrews A/R.


Check for coupler hitting bearing block, move coupler A/R.
Check motion encoder, replace if defective.
Check Motion Counter board, replace if defective.
Check leadscrew lubrication, lubricate if dry.
Check Motion Counter to M&D cable, repair or replace A/R.
Check Motor & Drive board, replace if defective.
Check stepper translator, replace if defective.
Check Timing & Control Interface board, replace if defective.

MOTOR__ never went to status ___


Hardware Error:

This message can only occur during initial positioning prior to a whole
body scan. The CY525 stepper motor controller chip never went to the
named status.

Action:

Replace the CY525 IC or the Motor & Drive board.

Mounting Optical Disk. Please Wait


Informational:

This message flashes on the screen while the system is initially reading
the optical drive. Depending on the drive status, this can take several
seconds.

Action:

If this message remains on the screen for a couple of minutes or more,


then it indicates a hardware problem. Run the optical drive diagnostics
(WDIAGS).

Multiple Data Input Channels Not Implemented


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

No Curve Found
Informational:

J-14

No reference curve was found that applied to this patient's scan results.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

No data for attenuation curves


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

device: No Motion Detected While Xrays ON.


Hardware Error:

The QDR is equipped with motion detectors which detect actual motion
in the X and Y-axis coordinates. Whenever the X-rays are on, these
motion detectors must show constant motion in the X or Y-axis.
Otherwise it is assumed that the patient is receiving a concentrated dose
of X-rays in one body point; the scan is aborted and this message is
produced.

Action:

Check for loose leadscrew couplers, tighten setscrews A/R.


Check for coupler hitting bearing block, move coupler A/R.
Check motion encoder, replace if defective.
Check Motion Counter board, replace if defective.
Check leadscrew lubrication, lubricate if dry.
Check Motor & Drive board, replace if defective.
Check stepper translator, replace if defective.
Check Timing & Control Interface board, replace if defective.

device: Not Detecting Chopper Pickoff


Hardware Error:

The filter wheel may not be spinning, or the pickoff may be


malfunctioning.

Action:

Check filter pickoff, filter motor, and related cabling. Repair or replace
as required.

No scan selected
Informational:

A scan must be selected to perform the analysis. After patient selection,


no scan is selected.

Action:

Use sElect to select a scan.

Not enough air points


User Error:

Revision F

You performed a forearm scan and did not allow enough air around the
forearm. This scan cannot be analyzed. Refer to the QDR-2000
Operators Manual for a detailed description on how to perform forearm
scans.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-15

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Not enough memory


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Old Whole Body Context Type


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

out of memory
Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Patient File contains no tissue bar initialization record.


Press F4 to read tissue bar initialization file
Informational:

Patient file does not contain tissue bar information. This may happen the
first time the scan is analyzed.

Action:

Press F4 to read information from tissue bar file on the current machine.
Do NOT press F4 if the scan was not obtained on the current machine.

Patient File Record __ Too Small

or
Patient File Record __ Too Large
Hardware or
Software Error:

These messages indicate problems performing I/O operations (usually


to the hard drive, but possibly to diskette or optical).

Action:

Ensure that there is adequate space on the hard drive (Check the "Room
for ..." message in the status window. You should always leave room for
1 or 2 scans). There may be a disk problem; appropriate diagnostics
should be run. If you are unable to find a hardware problem, the message
should be reported to Hologic. Include as much information as possible
about what you were doing at the time.

PGLINE: ...
Software Error:

J-16

Any message that begins this way should be reported to Hologic. Please
include as much information as possible about what you were doing at
the time.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

Phase mismatch on odd lines, was __, now __

or
Phase mismatch on even lines, was __, now __
Hardware Error:

During a scan, the filter wheel phase at the start of every even line must
be the same. It must also be the same at the start of every odd line. This
condition was not met, indicating the line frequency may not be 50 or
60Hz. This error usually occurs when running with a motor-generator.
This may also indicate a software error involving the RATE.DAT file.

Action:

Check line frequency. If you can find no problems, report this message
to Hologic.

Points were discarded that


were less than 1 year apart OR
had blank BMD or STDEV
User Error:

Questionable data entry while entering a new reference curve.


One of the conditions (blank BMD, STDEV or points too close together)
occurred and caused data that you entered to be discarded. The curve has
not been written to disk. When you press <Enter>, you will see the
points that remain in the curve. You can accept the curve as is or
continue to add points or edit the points that were acceptable.

Action:

Fix the data and proceed.

Put an archive diskette in the drive and close the door


If the diskette is already in the drive,
make sure the door is closed
and the label is facing in the right direction.

Revision F

User Error:

You invoked the restore function with no diskette in the drive, or with
the diskette improperly inserted.

Action:

Correct the situation and continue.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-17

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Put archive diskette ________ in the drive and close the door.
If the diskette is already in the drive,
make sure the door is closed
and the label is facing in the right direction.
User Error:

You are attempting to archive to diskette. The diskette drive is either


empty or the diskette is not inserted correctly.

Action:

If the diskette mentioned (by volume label) exists, then insert it.
Otherwise insert a blank, unused, diskette.

device: Readback Fault on CY525


Hardware Error:

One of the stepper motor controller chips did not respond correctly to
an attempt to read it. The message identifies which controller it is.

Action:

To diagnose problems wi th stepper motors, try going into DOS and


invoking the appropriate motor control program (MOTORX, MOTORY,
MOTORT, MOTORA). These allow direct control over the CY525 chip.
Replace the CY525 chip or the Motor & Drive board if defective.

Region of Interest is too complex. Please simplify the ROI.


Informational:

There is a limit to the number of overlapping areas that the software can
handle in subregion analysis. The limit is 64.

Action:

Reduce the number of overlaps between subregions.

RePositioning: Unknown Power Line Frequency


Hardware Error:

When repositioning a scan (F3), the power line frequency appears to


have changed.

Action:

See the discussion of the error message "Unable to determine power line
frequency".

ROI Limit Error


Software Error:

J-18

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

Scan _________ is archived on __________________


Press Plus (+) to retain or Minus (-) to remove archive request.
Press Star (*) to write selected scans to archive without further
checking. Press any other key to reselect list.
Informational:

You are archiving a scan to diskette or optical (Not a Copy only). The
scan is already archived and there is no room in the database to store
both the new and old archive locations. (The database can store two
archive locations: optical 1 and either diskette or optical 2.) If you
proceed (+ or *), the old archive location will be lost.

Action:

Press the appropriate key, to proceed or terminate the archive. If you


proceed, the old archive information will be written over. You may want
to return to the main menu and re-invoke aRchive, in order to do a Copy
only, which will not cause the new archive location to be recorded, or the
old information to be lost.

Scan File Record __ Too Small (__)

or
Scan File Record __ Too Large (__)

or
Scan has 0 points or lines

Hardware or
Software Error:

These messages indicate problems performing I/O operations


(usually to the hard drive, but possibly to diskette or optical).

Action:

Ensure that there is adequate space on the hard drive (Check the "Room
for ..." message in the status window. You should always leave room for
1 or 2 scans). There may be a disk problem; appropriate diagnostics
should be run. If you are unable to find a hardware problem, the message
should be reported to Hologic. Include as much information as possible
about what you were doing at the time.

Scan Re-Positioning Aborted


Informational:

Revision F

Operator pressed ESC during repositioning after F3.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-19

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Scan speed in the protocol file is inconsistent with line frequency

Software or
Hardware Error:

If you are encountering problems with line frequency (see the


description of "Unable to determine Line Frequency" error
message), then you can get this message.
Otherwise, this message should be reported to Hologic.

Scan Types Must Be Identical TO Use Compare


User Error:

You selected - in Analyze Compare - a file for comparison that is of a


different scan type than the one you are analyzing.

Action:

Select another file. Be sure it is the same scan type as the file you are
analyzing.

Selected file has no center line data


User Error:

You have attempted a lateral scan, but the most recent scan or the most
recently selected scan does not contain a center line record. Lateral
scan will not proceed.

Selected file has not been analyzed for center line


User Error:

You have attempted a lateral scan, but the most recent scan or the most
recently selected scan has a center line record that has not been filled in.
Lateral scan will not proceed until the analysis is allowed to complete.

SOFTWARE ERROR .......


Software Error:

Any message that begins this way should be reported to Hologic. Please
include as much information as possible about what you were doing at
the time.

Special Analysis Not Possible Until After


This Scan Has Been Reanalyzed
Informational:

In whole body analysis the special analysis may only be performed


following a normal analysis.

Action:

Perform the normal reanalysis (F10) and then do special analysis

Start phase = __, must be EVEN

or
J-20

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

Start phase = __, must be in range 0 to 5


Hardware Error:

During a scan, the starting chopper wheel phase for each line must be
one of the values: 0, 2, 4. This condition was not met.
On the QDR-2000, the start phase must be 4.

Action:

Check the stepper motor controller. Ensure that you have the latest
chopper pickoff synchronization fix installed (Part number 061000195-01. This is included in all software releases 5.11.04 and later,
and 6.00.01 and later).

Starting phase Out of Range


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Subregion extends outside of the global region


Informational:

In subregion point mode, a corner may be moved outside of the global


region to facilitate movement. Outside the global region the point is
colored red.

Action:

Move all points inside the global region before leaving point mode.

the analyze data file either did not exist or did not
contain any valid entries
Software Error:

The software was not correctly installed (No ANALYZE.DAT file). This
might also be due to a hardware problem with the hard disk drive.

Action:

Notify Hologic field engineering.

The line frequency measured during startup has changed.

Revision F

Hardware Error:

See the discussion of error message "Unable to determine power line


frequency".

Action:

Check the Motor & Drive board, replace if defective.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-21

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

The location of the previous archive for scans in the


selected list may be overwritten.
Press Star (*) to confirm request to write
selected scans to archive without further checking.
Press any other key to cancel request.
Informational:

You are archiving one or more scans to diskette or optical (Not a Copy
only). At least one of these scans is already archived and there is no
room in the database to store both the new and old archive locations.
(The database can store two archive locations: optical 1 and either
diskette or optical 2.) If you proceed (by pressing *), the old archive
location will be lost.

Action:

Press the appropriate key, to proceed or terminate the archive. If you


proceed, the old archive information will be written over. You may want
to return to the main menu and re-invoke aRchive, in order to do a Copy
only, which will not cause the new archive location to be recorded, or the
old information to be lost.

The number of scans on the disk exceeds the system's limit


Before you do any more scans, you must first delete enough
scans to make room for the new ones. If necessary, archive
the scans before you delete them.
User Error:

The capacity has been reached and you are attempting to do another scan.

Action:

Archive and delete some scans.

There are no analyzed scans to select for this patient


Informational:

While selecting scans in Normals, you have selected a patient who has
no analyzed scans.

Action:

Select another patient.

There are no ARC files for this database on this optical disk

J-22

User Error:

You inserted an optical disk that contains no archived scans. It is,


however, a valid Hologic-Labelled optical disk.

Action:

Insert a valid optical disk and try again.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

There are no data that match the parameters you just gave.
Please try again with different database search parameters.
User Error:

You are attempting to plot QC data and have specified parameters that
exclude all the available data in the database.

Action:

Try again with different parameters. OR add new phantom scans to the
database.

There are no files available to restore (resTore from diskette)


User Error:

You are attempting to restore scans from a diskette which contains no


archived scans.

Action:

Try again with a different diskette. If you are sure that this diskette
contains scans, then you may have a hardware problem either with the
diskette (unreadable) or with the diskette drive. But this is unlikely such problems usually produce a different error message.

There are no files available to restore (Optical restore)

User or Software When restoring files from optical ("Optical" on main menu), you
Error:
selected an archive that contains no scans. This situation should not
occur in normal operation with current software (versions 5.20 and
later).
Action:

Select a different archive. If this message appears with Optical restore


with software versions greater than 5.11, report it to Hologic.

There are no records in the Normals Curve database.


Software Error:

The reference curve database appears to be totally empty. This condition


should never occur in normal operations.

Action:

The Hologic software may not have been installed correctly.

There are no records in the QC database

Revision F

User Error:

You have not entered any scans into the QC database. You need to enter
scans before you can plot the data.

Action:

Select the "Add" option in Qc and add scans to the database.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-23

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

There are no scans to restore for this patient


Informational:

When performing the Locate function, you selected a patient for whom
there are no archived scans.

Action:

Select a different patient, or look for this patient's scans on the hard
drive (Select function).

There are too few data points that match your


selection criteria for a plot to be made.
At least 2 points are required to complete a plot.
User Error:

You are attempting to plot QC data with parameters that exclude all but
one point.

Action:

Try again with different parameters. OR add new phantom scans to the
database.

There are too many data points that match your selection
criteria for a plot to be made. Try again with different
selection criteria, such as a narrower range of dates.
User Error:

You are attempting to plot QC data with parameters that allow too many
points for the program to handle.

Action:

Try again with different parameters.

There are too many scans on the disk to select from


Informational:

You are trying to add more than 192 scans into the QC database.

Action:

Press ESC to continue, and reselect scans.

There is no current scan selected.


You must select at least one scan to plot.
User Error:

You have entered Normals with no analyzed scan selected. Possibly you
have entered immediately after invoking Patient (which causes the
currently selected scan to be a dummy scan) or else the current scan has
not been analyzed.

Action:

Press <Enter> to proceed to select scans from within the NORMALS


menu, or press ESC and go and analyze the current scan or select
another.

device: Timeout (No 120 Hz Interrupts)

J-24

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

Hardware Error:

The Motor & Drive board generates an interrupt every 1/120 of a second
(60 HZ line) or every 1/100 of a second (50Hz line). The PC clock
generates 18 interrupts a second (regardless of line frequency). If two
clock ticks occur with NO Motor & Drive board interrupts between
them, then this message is produced.

Action:

Verify that the Chopper Pickoff Synchronization fix (Part no. 061000195-01) has been installed. This fix is included in software releases
5.11.04 and later and 6.00.01 and later).
Check filter wheel pickoff for residual noise, add shielded cable A/R.
Check Motor & Drive board, Timing & Control Interface board and the
M&D-to-T&C cable, reseat modify or replace as required.

device: Timeout writing to CY525


Hardware Error:

One of the stepper motor controller chips did not respond correctly to
an attempt to write to it. The message identifies which controller it is.

Action:

To diagnose problems with stepper motors, try going into DOS and
invoking the appropriate motor control program (MOTORX, MOTORY,
MOTORT, MOTORA). These allow direct control over the CY525 chip.
Replace the CY525 chip or the Motor & Drive board if defective.

To obtain a statistically significant sampling, Hologic recommends


that at least twenty scans (20) be selected to setup the reference
values for the Q/C parameters. Press the <Enter> key to continue
or any other key to reselect the scan list.
Informational:

This is a warning that you have not selected enough scans (in the opinion
of Hologic).

Action:

Select more scans or continue with what you have.

Too Many Overlapping Subregions: Please Simplify.


See message:

"Region of interest is too complex. Please simplify the ROI."

Total No. points = __, NOT a multiple of 6


Software Error:

This message indicates a problem with the scan protocol file (that
instructs the scan program how to perform a scan). If this happens on
one of the officially-released Hologic scan protocols, Hologic should
be notified.

Truncated Patient Record ...

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-25

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Hardware or
Software Error:

This messages indicate problems performing I/O operations (usually


to the hard drive, but possibly to diskette or optical).

Action:

Ensure that there is adequate space on the hard drive (Check the "Room
for ..." message in the status window. You should always leave room for
1 or 2 scans). There may be a disk problem; appropriate diagnostics
should be run. If you are unable to find a hardware problem, the message
should be reported to Hologic. Include as much information as possible
about what you were doing at the time.

Unable to access optical media.


Press ESC to exit ______ or place an optical disk
in the drive and press any key to continue
User Error:

This message can appear during Optical restore, Locate, or aRchive to


optical. It appears that there is no optical cartridge in the drive.

Action:

Place an optical cartridge in the drive and continue. If there is an optical


cartridge in the drive, then you may have a hardware error (bad cartridge
or drive). Run optical drive diagnostics (WDIAGS).

device: Unable To Allocate Resources


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Unable to Allocate Space for Environment

or
Unable to Restore Environment

or
Unable to Calculate Line-By-Line d0's
Software Error:

J-26

These messages should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

Unable to determine Available Disk Space


Before you do any more scans, you must first delete enough
scans to make room for the new ones. If necessary, archive
the scans before you delete them.
User Error:

The hard drive is full and you are attempting to do another scan.

Action:

Archive and delete some scans.

Unable to determine power line frequency


Hardware Error:

The line frequency is determined by counting the number of Motor &


Drive board interrupts that occur during PC clock tick intervals. The
Motor & Drive board interrupts occur 100 (50Hz) or 120 (60Hz) times
per second. The PC clock ticks approximately 18 times per second.
Several clock ticks are observed to ensure consistency. If reasonable
numbers of interrupts are not observed, this message appears.

Action:

Check the Motor and Drive board, Timing & Control Interface board and
the M&D-to-T&C cable.
Check the output voltages (+15 VDC and +5 VDC) at the low voltage
power supply.

Unable to format diskette

User or
Hardware Error:

This usually means that you attempted to format a diskette that was
defective.

Action:

Try a different diskette. If this message occurs repeatedly, and with


more than one diskette, it may mean a hardware problem with a diskette
drive or the controller board. (In some computers, the controller
circuitry is on the motherboard; if this circuitry is defective, the entire
computer must be replaced.)

Unable to normalize line sums


Software Error:

Revision F

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-27

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Unable to find file

or
Unable to Find Line by Line d0's

or
Unable to Find Previous Analysis Results

or
Unable to Open Tissue Calibration File ________

or
Unable to open temporary file ________

or
Unable to open temporary Q-File

or
Unable to Position File to HALO Record

or
Unable to Position Data File

or
Unable to Position File: ________

or
Unable to Position Patient File

or
Unable to Position Patient File Past Record __

or
Unable to Position Patient File To End

or
Unable to Position Scan File Past Record __ (__)
J-28

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

or
Unable to Position Q-Data File

or
Unable to Read Data File

or
Unable to Read File: ________

or
Unable to Read Line by Line d0's

or
Unable to Read Previous Analysis Results

or
Unable to Rewind Q-File

or
Unable to Rewind File: ________

or
Unable to Read BMD Image Frame

or
Unable to Read HALO Frame Header

or
Unable to Read Q-Data File

or

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-29

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

Unable to Write to Q-Image File

Hardware or
Software Error:

These messages indicate problems performing I/O operations


(usually to the hard drive, but possibly to diskette or optical).

Action:

Ensure that there is adequate space on the hard drive (Check the "Room
for ..." message in the status window. You should always leave room for
1 or 2 scans). There may be a disk problem; appropriate diagnostics
should be run. If you are unable to find a hardware problem, the message
should be reported to Hologic. Include as much information as possible
about what you were doing at the time.

Unable to open a window


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Unable to open x-ray device driver


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Unable to restore scan. If the System Disk is full


Delete Archived scans and try again.
User or Hardware The system was unable to restore one or more scans.
error:
Action:

This usually means that the hard drive is full. Check the "Room for ..."
message in the status window. If the disk is NOT full, then this indicates
a hard drive problem.

Unable to set PMT Voltage

or
Unknown ROI type in DrawROI
Software Error:

J-30

These messages should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

Unable to synchronize filter wheel


Hardware Error:

The filter wheel belt may be too tight. Check the tension, adjust as
required.

device: Unrecognized Command Code


Software Error:

This message should be reported to Hologic. Please include as much


information as possible about what you were doing at the time.

Unrecognized Scan Type


User Error:

This scan is of a type for which cannot be analyzed with your


configuration. This is probably because you have not acquired or
installed the necessary option.

Action:

Ensure that you have correctly installed all your options. Contact
Hologic sales office if you are missing an option that you need.

WARNING: ___ angle is greater than the recommended maximum (___)


User Error:

For AP-Lateral pair measurements the patient must be straight within the
given acceptable limits.

Action:

Reposition the patient and repeat the AP scan.

WARNING: Center line evaluation is not allowed on this scan


User Error:

The center line evaluation analysis protocol was selected on an


inappropriate scan that does not have the SFTRACKING record, such as
a scan that was not acquired on a QDR-2000.

Action:

Reanalyze with an appropriate protocol.

WARNING Invalid or Unformatted diskette


Press Y to format this diskette.

Revision F

Informational:

When archiving scans to diskette, you inserted a new diskette (out of the
box). This diskette must be formatted before it can be used.

Action:

Ensure that the diskette that is in the drive is inserted correctly and does
not contain valuable data. Then press "Y". NOTE that any data on the
diskette will be lost.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-31

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

WARNING Invalid or Unformatted optical media


Press ESC to exit
Press any other key to mount another disk
User Error:

This message can occur during any operation involving the optical drive.
It means that the optical cartridge has not been formatted. Only
Hologic-formatted and labelled optical media can be used with Hologic
software.

Action:

Replace the optical cartridge with one that has been formatted and
labelled by Hologic. If the current cartridge has in fact been so labelled,
then you may have a hardware problem. Run the optical diagnostics
(WDIAGS).

WARNING: The center line extends outside of range.


User Error:

The patient is not well centered on an AP-Lateral pair measurement.

Action:

Reposition the patient and repeat the AP scan.

WARNING This scan is already entered in the database and


a new patient biography cannot be specified. However, you may
use the PATIENT command to modify the existing biography.
User Error:

You specified the Enter patient ID option when restoring a scan that is
already in the patient-scan database.

Action:

You cannot change the patient at this time. If this scan is associated with
the wrong patient, then you should obtain the Hologic utility program
DBMAN which allows you to change patient-scan associations.
If you only want to change a few fields in the patient biography, you
should invoke PATIENT and select this patient.

WARNING: Unable to calculate the center line for L__ through L__.

J-32

User Error:

Most likely, the analysis regions L2, L3 and L4 have not been labeled
correctly during the region of interest placement.

Action:

Repeat the analysis. If the regions are placed correctly and the error
persists, contact HOLOGIC.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Appendix J - Error Messages

WARNING: Unlabeled optical media


Press ESC to exit ______
Press any other key to mount another optical disk
User Error:

This message can occur during any operation involving the optical drive.
It means that the optical cartridge has not been formatted. Only
Hologic-formatted and labelled optical media can be used with Hologic
software.

Action:

Replace the optical cartridge with one that has been formatted and
labelled by Hologic. If the current cartridge has in fact been so labelled,
then you may have a hardware problem. Run the optical diagnostics
(WDIAGS).

X Motor is not correctly positioned


User Error:

After positioning the scan arm to Lateral Position in the AP/Lateral


Menu, you are not allowed to move it either before or after it is rotated.
Moving it will produce this error message when the lateral scan is
attempted.

x-ray device driver not installed


Software Error:

The software was not properly installed. The device driver SM.SYS
(loaded by command in CONFIG.SYS at system startup) does not appear
to be there.

Xrays Timed Out


Hardware Error:

The X-ray ready internal indicator did not come on within a reasonable
amount of time.

Action:

Check hardware watchdog on Motor & Drive board, replace board if


defective.

You can't delete a Hologic-supplied curve.


User Error:

Revision F

You are trying to delete a reference curve supplied by Hologic. You are
not allowed to delete a curve supplied by Hologic. You may, however,
make it non-current (by selecting Edit and responding to the query that
you receive).

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

J-33

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

You have no valid data to plot


User Error

In Normals, you are trying to select "Plot", "rate-of-Change", or "Region


select" when you have no valid data - that is, the current scan is not
analyzed, and you have no selected valid analyzed scan(s) from within
Normals.

Action:

Select one or more analyzed scans and try again.

You have not selected any scans


or
The scans that you have selected contain different
bone regions or vertebrae.
You must select other scans to plot
User Error

In Normals, you have selected scan sElect and then attempted to exit
from that selection without choosing a consistent set of scans to plot.

Action

Select different scans and try again.

You have selected scans of more than one type (Spine/Hip..)


OR you have selected scans of a type that has no normal database
You must repeat the selection process
User Error:

Scans to be plotted together, or to be used to determine rate of change,


must be of the same scan type.

You tried to delete all regions

J-34

User Error:

while performing region selection for normals report, you attempted to


delete all the regions. The program has reset the regions to the default.

Action:

Try again.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

Glossary

GLOSSARY

Revision F

Backlash

The phenomenon which causes the bone image to appear frayed or raged at
the edges. This is due to the amount of hysteresis in the scan motors and
the mechanical parts of the carriages.

Beam Flattening

The process used to compensate for non uniformity in the propagation of


an X-ray fan beam from edge to edge.

Chopper

In the QDR-2000, this word is synonymous to filter wheel. i.e. the QDR
error message "Not Detecting Chopper Pickoff" refers to the filter wheel
pickoff.

Cross-detector
Calibration

The process by which the signal output of a detector is compared to an


adjacent one in the detector array. This process nulls out any small
detector to detector gain differences which may exist.

Hall effect

A phenomenon characterized by the generation of an electric potential


between the edges of a strip of metal through which an electric current is
flowing longitudinal, when a magnet field cuts the plane of the strip at right
angles.

Hysteresis

The effect of the previous history of a system on its response to an


external force or influence. In the case of the QDR, it refers to the
hysteresis experienced in the scan motors and mechanical parts of the scan
carriages.

Pickoff

Hall effect sensor used to detect a small magnet imbedded in the side of
the filter. It is used to signal to the computer as to when the "BONE"
segment of the wheel is about to spin into the X-ray beam path.

Post Processing

The reprocessing of a scanned image to reduce the amount of data and to


create a more "visually" accurate image then the one displayed while
scanning. Also performs cross-detector calibration and beam flattening
for fan beam scans.

X-rays

Electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength o 0.1 to 100 angstroms,


created by bombarding a metal target with high-velocity electrons.

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Glossary-1

INDEX

INDEX
restoring the QDR scan database, 5-1
DATE
defined, 5-14
DATES
defined, 5-14
DBCHECK
defined, 5-14
DBMAN
defined, 5-15
Detector Array Assembly, 7-4
DETECTORS, 6-8
connector pin-out, 6-9
first and last in array, 6-10
DIAGRAM
Q image plot, 2-7
system block, 2-5
DIMENSIONS
minimum entrance, 2-3
overall QDR-2000, 2-3
room layout, 2-3
room size, 3-2
DISPLAY ADAPTER, 6-4
Paradise VGA, 6-5
Supercom VGA, 6-5
Unique VGA, 6-6

A
A/D CONVERTER, 6-13
connector pin-out, 6-14
ALIGNMENT
X-ray beam, 3-10
ARRC, 5-3, 5-6, 5-8
file, 3-20, 3-21
ARRC_UPD
defined, 5-11
AUTOSCAN
defined, 5-11
using, 5-11
AVRSCAN
defined, 5-13

B
BACK2
defined, 5-13
using, 3-13
BACKLASH
correcting, 3-13
Base Assembly, 7-8
BMC
defined, 2-4
BMD
defined, 2-4

C
CALIBRATION, 3-19
CHECKPART
defined, 5-14
CHKDSK
defined, 5-14
Collimator & Geneva Wheel Assembly, 7-1
COMPUTER, 6-1
diagnostics, 6-1
CONNECTOR
Transition Panel, 3-6
CONTACTING HOLOGIC, 1-1
COUNTRY
defined, 5-14

ENVIRON.BAT
file, 3-19
Error Messages, 9-1

F
FILTER WHEEL
phasing, 3-9
FIXDB
defined, 5-15
FLOPPY DRIVE, 6-4
FSCAL
defined, 5-15

G
GENEVA POSITION ENCODER, 6-40
schematic, 6-40

d0

defined, 2-7
DATABASE
protection of customer's, 5-1
restoring the QC database, 5-5

HARD DRIVE, 6-4


HVPS/Source, 6-37

Revision F

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Index-1

Hologic, Inc., Model QDR-2000 Technical Manual

ONDISK
defined, 5-17
OPTICAL DRIVE, 6-4
OPTICAL ENCODERS, 6-41

I
INITDB
defined, 5-15
INVENTORY
installation, 3-4

K
k
defined, 2-6
KEYBUILD
defined, 5-15

L
LASER
offset, 3-11
Leadscrew Assembly
X-axis, 7-15
Y-axis, 7-14
Lower Carriage Assembly, 7-12

M
MAINSTUB
defined, 5-15
MAINTENANCE
customer preventive, 4-2
field service preventive, 4-2
general, 4-1
MONITOR, 6-6
MOTION
Defined, 5-16
MOTION CONTROL, 6-37
front panel, 6-38
panel schematic, 6-39
top panel, 6-37
MOTION COUNTER, 6-42
MOTOR
array (Detector) stepper, 6-46
filter wheel, 6-47
Geneva wheel, 6-48
table stepper, 6-45
X and Y-axis stepper, 6-44
MOTOR & DRIVE, 6-19
board layout, 6-20
connector pin-out, 6-21
MOTORA:, 5-16
MOTORT:, 5-16
MOTORX
display, 5-16
MOTORX:, 5-16
MOTORY, 5-16

O
Index-2

P.D.P. CONNECTOR PIN-OUT, 6-58


PAD
defined, 5-17
display, 5-17
PARTS
spare parts list, 4-9
Pickoff Adjustment Procedure, 1-1
PMTVOLTS
running, 3-12
POWER
distribution panel, 6-54
isolation transformer, 3-6, 3-8
Requirements, 2-1, 2-2
POWER SUPPLY
24V DC, 6-51
5V DC, 6-50
low voltage, 6-49
PMT high voltage, 6-53
PMT HV power supply programmer, 6-11
PRINTER, 6-7
HP DeskJet, 6-7
Mitsubishi video printer, 6-7
PROBLEM
arcing in the HVPS\Source, 4-8
data storage & retrieval, 4-7
imaging/X-ray generation, 4-4
localization, 4-4
miscellaneous, 4-8
motion, 4-6
noise, 4-7
precision, 4-5

Q
Q
defined, 2-6
image, 2-6

R
RADIATION
checking HVPS/Source, 3-10
dose to patient, 3-18
scatter from phantom, 3-19

S
Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Revision F

INDEX

SAFETY
ELECTRICAL, 1-3
LASER, 1-4
MECHANICAL, 1-4
OPERATOR AND PATIENT, 1-4
RADIATION, 1-3
SERVICE PERSONNEL, 1-4
SCANTODB
defined, 5-18
SET
defined, 5-18
SETUP
tipping the unit, 3-4
SOFTWARE
complete installation, 5-6
file organization, 5-7
installing options, 5-5
installing upgrades, 5-6
maintenance, service and diagnostic, 5-11
SPARE PARTS
recommended spare parts list, 4-9
SURVEY
counters, 5-26
function keys, 5-21, 5-22
readback display registers, 5-23
SURVEY2
defined, 5-18
SURVEY2 PROGRAM, 5-20

T
T&C INTERFACE
connector pin-out, 6-29
dip switch settings, 6-29
TABLE BELT
path diagram, 7-1, 7-16
TIME
defined, 5-18

Revision F

TOOLS
recommended, 3-1
TRANSITION
Connector Panel Pin-out, 6-59

U
UNCRATING
C-arm, 3-3
main QDR, 3-2

W
WCHKDSK
defined, 5-18
using, 5-18
WDIAGS
defined, 5-19
using, 5-19

X
X-ray
beam alignment check, 4-1
peak potential check, 2-1
tube current peak potential check, 3-1
X-RAY BEAM
flattening procedure, 3-14
propagation, 3-14
X-RAY CONTROLLER, 6-31
adjusting X-ray pulse energies, 8-1
block diagram, 6-32
board assembly, 6-34
connector pin-out, 6-34
testing, 6-35
timing diagram, 6-32
X-RAY TUBE
current check, 3-10
kVp potential, 3-9

Copyright 1994 by Hologic, Inc. All rights reserved

Index-3