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You are on page 1of 228

By

K.G. Ramanathan

1956

Lectures on the

Algebraic Theory of Fields

By

K.G. Ramanathan

1954

Introduction

There are notes of course of lectures on Field theory aimed at providing the beginner with an introduction to algebraic extensions, algebraic function fields, formally real fields and valuated fields. These lectures were preceded by an elementary course on group theory, vector

spaces and ideal theory of ringsespecially of Noetherian rings. A

knowledge of these is presupposed in these notes. In addition, we assume a familiarity with the elementary topology of topological groups

and of the real and complex number fields.

Most of the material of these notes is to be found in the notes of

Artin and the books of Artin, Bourbaki, Pickert and Van-der-Waerden.

My thanks are due to Mr. S. Raghavan for his help in the writing of

these notes.

K.G. Ramanathan

Contents

1 General extension fields

1

Extensions . . . . . . . . .

2

Adjunctions . . . . . . . .

3

Algebraic extensions . . .

4

Algebraic Closure . . . . .

5

Transcendental extensions

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1

. 1

. 3

. 5

. 9

. 12

1

Conjugate elements . .

2

Normal extensions . .

3

Isomorphisms of fields

4

Separability . . . . . .

5

Perfect fields . . . . .

6

Simple extensions . . .

7

Galois extensions . . .

8

Finite fields . . . . . .

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17

17

18

21

24

31

35

38

46

1

F.K. Schmidts theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

Derivations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

Rational function fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

49

54

67

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75

1

Norm and trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

2

Discriminant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

v

vi

Contents

Composite extensions

87

1

Kronecker product of Vector spaces . . . . . . . . . . . 87

2

Composite fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

3

Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

1

Roots of unity . . . . . . . . .

2

Cyclotomic extensions . . . .

3

Cohomology . . . . . . . . .

4

Cyclic extensions . . . . . . .

5

Artin-Schreier theorem . . . .

6

Kummer extensions . . . . . .

7

Abelian extensions of exponent

8

Solvable extensions . . . . . .

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103

103

105

113

119

126

128

133

134

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149

149

152

156

166

170

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175

175

177

180

184

194

201

205

Appendix

1

Decomposition theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

Characters and duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

Pairing of two groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

209

209

213

217

1

Ordered rings . . . . . . .

2

Extensions of orders . . .

3

Real closed fields . . . . .

4

Completion under an order

5

Archimedian ordered fields

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Valuated fields

1

Valuations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

Classification of valuations . . . . . . . . . .

3

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Complete fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

Extension of the valuation of a complete. . . .

6

Fields complete under archimedian valuations

7

Extension of valuation of an incomplete field

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Chapter 1

1 Extensions

A field has characteristic either zero or a prime number p.

1

Let K and k be two fields such that K k. We shall say that K

is an extension field of k and k a subfield of K. Any field T such that

K T k is called an intermediary field, intermediate between K and

k.

If K and K are two fields, then any homomorphism of K into K is

either trivial or it is an isomorphism. This stems from the fact that only

ideals in K are (o) and K. Let K have characteristic p , o. Then the

mapping a a p of K into itself is an isomorphism. For,

(a b) p = a p b p

(ab) p = a p b p

e

a a p is also an isomorphism of K into itself.

Let now Z be the ring of rational integers and K a field whose unit

element we denote by e. The mapping m me of Z into K obviously a

homomorphism of the ring Z into K. The kernel of the homomorphism

is the set of m is Z such that me = 0 in K. This is an ideal in Z and as Z is

a principal ideal domain, this ideal is generated by integer say p. Now p

is either zero or else is a prime. In the first case it means that K contains

1

contains a subfield isomorphic to the field of rational numbers. In the

second case K has characteristic p and since Z/(p) is a finite field of p

elements, K contains a subfield isomorphic to Z/(p). Hence the

Theorem 1. A field of characteristic zero has a subfield isomorphic to

the field of rational numbers and a field of characteristic p > o has a

subfield isomorphic to the finite of p residue classes of Z modulo p.

The rational number filed and the finite field of p elements are called

prime fields. We shall denote them by . When necessary we shall

denote the finite field of p elements by p.

Let K/k be an extension field of k. We shall identity the elements

of K and k and denote the common unit element by 1. Similarly for the

zero element. K has over k the structure of a vector space. For, , K,

k = + K, K. Therefore K has over k a base { } in

the sense that every K can be uniquely written in the form

X

=

a a k

number of elements we say that K has a finite base over k. The extension

K/k is called a finite or infinite extension of k according as K has over

k a finite or an infinite base. The number of basis elements we call the

degree of K over k and denote it by (K : k). If (K : k) = n then there

exist n elements , . . . n in K which are linearly independent over k

and every n + 1 elements of K linearly dependent over k.

Let K be a finite field of q elements. Obviously K has characteristic

p , o. Therefore K contains a subfield isomorphic to p . Call it also

p . K is a finite dimensional vector space over p . Let (K : p ) = n

Then obviously K has pn elements. Thus

Theorem 2. The number of elements q in a finite field is a power of the

characteristic.

Let K T k be a tower of fields. K/T has a base { } and T/K

has a base { }. This means that for K

X

=

t

2. Adjunctions

X

t =

a

=

a ( )

{ }. On the other hand let

X

( ) = 0

XX

0=

( a )

But

X

a = 0 for all .

thus proved that { } is a base of K/k. In particular if (K : k) is finite

then (K : T ) and (T : k) are finite and

(K : k) = (K : T )(T : k)

As special cases, (K : k) = (T : k) = K = T (T is an intermediary

field of K and k). (K : k) = (K : T ) = T = k.

2 Adjunctions

Let K/k be an extension filed and K a family of intermediary extension

T

S

fields. Then K is again an intermediary field but, in general, K 4

is not a field. We shall define for any subset S of K/k the field k(S ) is

called the field generated byS over k. It is trivial to see that

k(S ) =

T S

is said to be got from k by adjunction of S to k. If S contains a finite

number of elements, the adjunction is said to be finite otherwise infinite.

In the former case k(S ) is said to be finitely generated over k. If (K :

k) < then obviously K is finitely generated over k but the converse is

not true.

Obviously k(S US ) = k(S )(S ) because a rational function of S US

is a rational function of S over k(S ).

Let K/k be an extension field and K. Consider the ring k[x] of

polynomials in x over k. For any f (x) k[x], f (x) is an element of K.

Consider the set G of polynomials f (x) k[x] for which f () = o. G

is obviously a prime ideal. There are now two possibilities, G = (0),

G , (o). In the former case the infinite set of elements 1, , 2 , . . .

are all linearly independent over k. We call such an element of K,

transcendental over k. In the second case G , (o) and so G is a principal

ideal generated by an irreducible polynomial (x). Thus 1, , 2 , . . . are

linearly dependent. We call an element of this type algebraic over k.

We make therefore the

over k if is root of a non zero polynomial in k[x]. Otherwise it is said

to be transcendental.

5

over k and the irreducible polynomial (x) which is a generator of G

is called the irreducible polynomial of over k. (x) may be made by

multiplying by a suitable element of k. This monic polynomial we shall

call the minimum polynomial of .

3. Algebraic extensions

3 Algebraic extensions

Suppose K is algebraic over k and (x) its minimum polynomial

over k. Let f (x) k[x] and f () , o. f (x) and (x) are then coprime

and so there exist polynomials g(x), h(x) in k[x] such that

f (x)g(x) = 1 + (x)h(x)

which means that ( f ())1 = g() k[]. Thus k[] = k(). On the

other hand suppose K such that k[] = k() then there is a g() in

k[] such that g() = 1 or that satisfies xg(x) 1 in k[x] so that is

algebraic. Hence

1) K algebraic over k k[] is a field.

We now define an extension K/k to be algebraic over k if every of K

is algebraic over k. In the contrary case K is said to be transcendental

extension of k

We deduce immediately

2) K/k algebraic every ring R with k R K is a field

algebraic so that 1 k[] R so that R is a field. The converse

follows from (1).

For let (K : k) = n then for any for K, the n + 1 elements

1, , 2 , . . . n are linearly dependant over k so that is algebraic.

6

The converse is not true

Let K/k be an extension field and K algebraic over k. Let (x)

be the minimum polynomial of over k and let degree of (x) be n.

Then 1, , 2 , . . . , n1 are linearly independent over k so that

(k() : k) n.

On the other hand any in k() is a polynomial in over k. Let

= bo + b1 + + bm m . Put (x) = bo + b1 x + + bm xm .

6

Then

where R(x) = 0 or deg R(x) < n. Hence () = = R() and so

every cab be expressed linearly in terms of 1, , . . . , n1 .

Thus

We have hence

k() : k n.

degree equal to the degree of the minimum polynomial of over k.

We shall call k() : k the degree of over k

L.

contained in the ideal of in L[X] k[x].

Therefore

k() : k (L() : L)

over k

and consider the field k(z) of rational functions of z. k(z) : k is not

finite. But k(z) : k(z2 ) is finite as z is a root of x2 z2 over k(z2 ).

over k.

For, put Ko = k, Ki = k(1 , . . . , i ),

Kn = k(1 , . . . , n )

Then Ki /Ki1 is algebraic and is a finite extension. Now

(Kn : k) = i (Ki : Ki1 )

which is also finite. Hence Kn is algebraic over k.

We deduce immediately

3. Algebraic extensions

For if K, is a root of (x) = X n + a1 xn+1 + + an in T [x].

Thus is algebraic over k(a1 . . . , an ). Hence

k(a1 , a2 , . . . an , ) : k(a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) < .

k(a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) : k <

k(a1 , a2 , . . . , an , ) : k <

If follows that if K/k is any extension, then the set L of elements

of K algebraic over k is a field L which is algebraic over k. L is called

the algebraic closure of k in K

We shall now show how it is possible to construct algebraic extensions of a field.

If k is a field and (x) a polynomial in k[x], an element of an

extension field K is said to be root of (x) if () = o. It then follows

that (x), has in K at most n roots, n being degree of (x).

8

Let f (x) be an irreducible polynomial in k[x]

The ideal generated by f (x) in k[x] is a maximal ideal since f (x) is

irreducible. Therefore the residue class ring K of k[x]/( f (x)) is a field.

Let denote the natural homomorphism of k[x] onto K. then maps k

onto a subfield of K. We shall identify this subfield with k itself (note

that k[x] and ( f (x)) are vector spaces over k). Let in K be the element

into which x goes by

= x

Then K = k(). In the first place k() K. Any element in K is the

image, by , of an element say (x) in k[x]. But

(x) = h(x) f (x) + (x)

So () K and () = (). But (x) above has degree degree

of f . Thus

k() K k[] k()

This shows that K = k() and that (K : k) is equal to the degree

of f (x). Also in K satisfies f () = o. We have thus proved that for

in which f (x) has a root.

Let now g(x) be any polynomial in k[x] and f (x) an irreducible factor of g(x) in k[x]. Let K be an extension of k in which f (x) has a root

. Let in K

g(x) = (x ) (x).

construct K in which (x) has a root. After finite number of steps we

arrive at a field L which is an extension of k and in which g(x) splits

completely into linear factors. Let 1 , . . . , n be the distinct roots of

g(x) in L. We call k(1 , . . . , n ) the splitting field of g(x) in L.

Obviously (k(1 , . . . , n ) : k) n!

We have therefore the important

Theorem 3. If k is a field and f (x) k[x] then f (x) has a splitting field

K and (K : k) n!, n being degree of f (x).

It must be noted however that a polynomial might have several splitting fields. For instance if D is the quaternion algebra over the rational

number field , generated by 1, i, j, k then (i), ( j), ( f ), (k) are all

splitting fields of x2 + 1 in [x]. These splitting fields are all distinct.

Suppose k and k are two fields which are isomorphic by means of

an isomorphism . Then can be extended into an isomorphism

of

X

X

(

ai xi ) =

(ai )xi ai k ai k

by f (x), its image in k [x] by means of the isomorphism .

Then f (x)

is again irreducible in k [x]; for if not one can by means of

1 obtain a

nontrivial factorization of f (x) in k[x].

Let now be a root of f (x) over k and a root of f (x) over k .

Then

k() k[x]/( f (x)), k () k [x]/( f (x))

Let be the natural homomorphism of k [x] on k [x]/( f (x)). Consider the mapping on k[x]. Since is an isomorphism, it follows

4. Algebraic Closure

homomorphism is the set of (x) in k[x] such that

(x) f (x) .

This set is precisely ( f (x)). Thus

k[x]/( f (x)) k [x]/( f (x))

By our identification, the above fields contain k and k respectively

as subfields so that there is an isomorphism of k() on k () and the

restriction of to k is .

In particular if k = k , then k() and k() are k isomorphic i.e., they

are isomorphic by means of an isomorphism which is identity on k. We

have therefore

Theorem 4. If f (x) k[x] is irreducible and and are two roots of

it (either in the same extension field of k or in different extension fields),

k() and k() are k isomorphic.

Note that the above theorem is false if f (x) is not irreducible in k[x].

4 Algebraic Closure

We have proved that every polynomial over k has a splitting field. For a

given polynomial this field might very well coincide with k itself. Suppose k has the property that every polynomial in k has a root in k. Then

it follows that the only irreducible polynomials over k are linear polynomials. We make now the

Definition. A field is algebraically closed if the only irreducible polynomials in [x] are linear polynomials.

We had already defined the algebraic closure of a field k contained

in a field K. Let us now make the

Definition. A field /k is said to be an algebraic closure of k if

10

10

1) is algebraically closed

2) /k is algebraic.

11

Theorem 5. Every field k admits, upto k-isomorphism, one and only

one algebraic closure.

Proof. 1) Existence. Let M be the family of algebraic extensions K

of k. Partially order M by inclusion. Let {K } be a totally ordered

S

subfamily of M. Put K = K for K in this totally ordered family.

2 K for some . Therefore 1 , 2 in K or K whichever is larger

so that 1 + 2 K. Similarly 1 1

2 K. Now K/k is algebraic

since every K is in some K and so algebraic over k. Thus

K M and so we can apply Zorns lemma. This proves that M has a

maximal element . is algebraically closed; for if not let f (x) be an

irreducible polynomial in [x] and a root of f (x) in an extension

() of . Then since /k is algebraic. () is an element of M.

This contradicts maximality of . Thus is an algebraic closure of

k.

means of an isomorphism . Consider the family M of triplets

{(K, K , ) } with the property 1) K is an algebraic extension of

k, K of k , 2) is an isomorphism of K on K extending . By

theorem 4, M is not empty. We partially order M in the following

manner

(K, K , ) < (K, K , )

If 1) K K , K K , 2) is an extension of . Let {K, K , ) }

S

S

be a simply ordered subfamily. Put K = K , K = K ,

12

Define

on K by

4. Algebraic Closure

11

x

= x

ordered subfamily). It is easy to see that

is well - defined. Suppose

x K and K K then is an extension of and so x = x.

This proves that

is an isomorphism of K on K and extends . Thus

is in M and is an upper bound of the subfamily.

By Zorns lemma there exists a maximal triplet (, , ). We assert

that is algebraically closed; for if not let be a root of an irreducible

polynomial f (x) [x]. Then f (x) [x] is also irreducible. Let

be a root of f (x). Then can be extended to an isomorphism of ()

on (). Now ((), is in M and hence leads to a contradiction. Thus

is an algebraic closure of k, of k and an isomorphism of on

extending .

In particular if k = k and the identity isomorphism, then and

Out theorem is completely demonstrated.

Let f (X) be a polynomial in k[x] and K = k(1 , . . . , n , a splitting

field of f (x), so that 1 , . . . , n are the distinct roots of f (x) in K. Let K

be any other splitting field and 1 , . . . m the distinct roots of f (x) in K .

Let be an algebraic closure of K and of K . Then and are two

algebraic closures of k. There exists therefore an isomorphism of

on which is identity on k. Let K = K1 . Then K1 = k(1 , . . . , n ).

Since 1 , . . . n are distinct 1 . . . , n are distinct and are roots of

f (x). Thus K1 is a splitting field of f (x) in . This proves that

13

K = K1 .

1 , . . . , m are distinct and are roots of f (x) in . We have m = n

and i = 2 in some order. Therefore the restriction of to K is an

isomorphism of K on K . We have

Theorem 6. Any two splitting fields K, K of a polynomial f (x) in k[x]

are k isomorphic.

Let K be a finite field of q elements. Then q = Pn where n is an

integer 1 and p is the characteristic of K. Also n = (K : ), being

12

the prime field. Let K denote the abelian group of non-zero elements

of K. Then K being a finite group of order q 1,

q1 = 1

for all K . Thus K is the splitting field of the polynomial

xq x

in [x]. It therefore follows

Theorem 7. Any two finite fields with the same number of elements are

isomorphic.

A finite field cannot be algebraically closed; for if K is a finite field

of q elements and a K the polynomial

Y

f (x) = x

(X b) + a

bK

5 Transcendental extensions

14

We had already defined a transcendental extension as one which contains at least on transcendental element.

Let K/k be a transcendental extension and Z1 , . . . , Zn any n elements

of K. Consider the ring R = k[x1 , . . . xn ] of polynomials over k in n

variables. Let Y be the subset of R consisting of those polynomials

f (x1 , . . . xn ) for which

f (Z1 , . . . Zn ) = 0.

Y is obviously an ideal of R. If Y = (o) we say that Z1 , . . . Zn are

algebraically independent over k. If Y , (o), they are said to be

algebraically dependent. Any element of K which is algebraic over

k(Z1 , . . . , Zn ) is therefore algebraically dependent on Z1 , . . . Zn .

We now define a subset S of K to be algebraically independent over

k if every finite subset of S is algebraically independent over k. If K/k

is transcendental there is at least one such non empty set S .

5. Transcendental extensions

13

K with the properties

i) S algebraically independent over k

ii) S algebraically independent over k(s)

Then S and S are disjoint subsets of K and S US are algebraically

independent over k. That S and S are disjoint is trivially seen. Let now

Z1 , . . . Zm S and Z1 , . . . Zn S be algebraically dependent. This will

mean that there is a polynomial f ,

f = f (x1 , . . . , xm+n )

in m + n variables with coefficients in k, such that

f (Z1 , . . . , Zm , Z1 , . . . Zn ) = 0.

Now f can be regarded as a polynomial in xm+1 , . . . , xm+n with coefficients in k(x1 , . . . , xm ). If all these coefficients are zero then Z1 , . . . Zm ,

Z1 , . . . Zn are algebraically independent over k. If some coefficient is

, 0, then f (Z1 , . . . Zm , xm+1 , . . . , xm+n ) is a non zero polynomial over

k(S ) which vanishes for xm+1 = Z1 , . . . xm+n = Zn which contradicts the

fact that S is algebraically independent over k(S ). Thus f = o identically and our contention is proved.

15

The converse of the above statement is easily proved.

An extension field K/k is said to be generated by a subset M of K if

K/k(M) is algebraic. Obviously K itself is a set of generators. A subset

B of K is said to be a transcendence base of K if

1) B is a set of generators of K/k

2) B algebraically independent over k.

If K/k is transcendental, then, it contains algebraically independent

elements. We shall prove that K has a transcendence base. Actually

much more can be proved as in

14

A a set of algebraically independent elements contained in S . Then

there is a transcendence base B of K with

ABS

Proof. Since S is a set of generators of K, K/k(S ) is algebraic. Let M

be the family of subsets A of K with

1) A A S

2) A algebraically independent over k.

The set M is not empty since A is in M. Partially order M by inS

clusion. Let {A } be a totally ordered subfamily. Put B0 = A . Then

16

Bo satisfies 2) also. Thus using Zorns lemma there exists a maximal

element B in M. Every element x of S depends algebraically on B for

otherwise BU x will be in M and will be larger than B. Thus k(S )/k(B)

is algebraic. Since K/k(S ) is algebraic, it follows that B satisfies the

conditions of the theorem.

The importance of the theorem is two fold; firstly that every set of

elements algebraically independent can be completed into a transcendence base of K and further more every set of generators contains a

base.

We make the following simple observation. Let K/k be an extension,

Z1 , . . . Zm , m elements of K which have the property that K/k(Z1 , . . . Zm )

is algebraic, i.e., that Z1 , . . . , Zm is a set of generators. If Z K then Z

depends algebraically on Z1 , . . . , Zm i.e., k(Z, Z1 , . . . , Zm )/k(Z1 , . . . , Zm )

is algebraic. We may also remark that if in the algebraic relation connecting Z, Z1, . . . Zm , Z1 occurs then we can say that

k(Z, Z1 , . . . Zm )/k(Z, Z2 , . . . , Zm )

is algebraic which means that Z, Z2 , . . . Zm is again a set of generators.

We now prove the

5. Transcendental extensions

15

Theorem 9. If K/k has a transcendence base consisting of a finite number n of elements, every transcendence base has n elements.

Proof. Let Z1 , . . . , Zn and Z1 , . . . , Zm be two transcendence bases consisting of n and m elements respectively. If n , m let n < m. Now

K/k(Z1 , . . . , Zn ) is algebraic. Z1 is transcendental over k and depends algebraically on Z1 , . . . , Zn so that if Z1 appears in the algebraic relation,

by the remark above, Z1 , Z2 , . . . , Zn is again a set of generators, Z2 depends algebraically on Z1 , . . . , Zn . In this algebraic relation at least one

of Z2 , . . . , Zn has to appear since Z1 , Z2 , are algebraically independent.

If Z2 appears then Z2 , Z1 , Z3 , . . . , Zn is a set of generators. We repeat this

process n times, and find, that Z1 , Z2 , Z3 , . . . , Zn is a set of generators

, . . . , Z depend algebraically on Z , . . . , Z . This 17

which means that Zn+1

m

n

1

is a contradiction. So n m. We interchange n and m and repeat the

argument and get n m. This proves that n = m.

The unique integer n will be called the dimension of K/k.

n = dimk K

It is also called the transcendence degree.

A similar theorem is true even if K has infinite transcendence base

but we dont prove it.

Let k L K be a tower of extensions and let B1 be a transcendence base of L/k and B2 that over K/L. We assert that B1 U B2 is a

transcendence base of K/k. In the first place B1 U B2 is algebraically independent over k. Now k(B1 U B2 ) is a subfield of L(B2 ). Every element

in L(B2 ) is a ratio of two polynomials in B2 with coefficients in L. The

elements of L are algebraic over K(B1 ). Thus L(B2 ) is algebraic over

k(B1 U B2 ). But K/L(B2 ) is algebraic. Thus K/k(B1 U B2 ) is algebraic.

This proves our assertion. In particular it proves

Theorem 10. If k L K then

dimk K = dimk L + dim L K.

16

18

if there exists a base B with K = k(B). Note that this does not mean that

every base has this property. For instance if k(x) is the field of rational

functions of x then x2 is also transcendental over x but k(x2 ) is a proper

subfield of k(x).

Let K = k(x1 , . . . xn ) and K = k(x1 , . . . xn ) be two purely transcendental extensions of dimension n. Consider the homomorphism defined by

f (x1 , . . . xn ) = f (x1 , . . . , xn )

Where f (x1 , . . . , xn ) k[x1 , . . . , xn ]. It is then easy to see that this is

an isomorphism of K on K . This proves

Theorem 11. Two purely transcendental extensions of the same dimension n over k k-isomorphic.

This theorem is true even if the dimension is infinite.

Chapter 2

1 Conjugate elements

Let be an algebraic closure of k and K an intermediary field. Let 19

be an algebraic closure of K and so of k. Then there is an isomorphism

of on which is trivial on k. The restriction of this isomorphism to

K gives a field K in which is k-isomorphic to K. Conversely suppose

K and K are two subfields of which are k-isomorphic. Since is a

common algebraic closure of K and K , there exists an automorphism

of which extends the k-isomorphism of K and K . Thus

1) Two subfields K, K of /k are k-isomorphic if and only if there exists

a k-automorphism of such that K = K .

We call two such fields K and K conjugate fields over k.

We define two elements , of /k, to be conjugate over k if there

exists a k-automorphism of such that

=

The automorphisms of which are trivial on k form a group and so

the above relation of conjugacy is an equivalence relation. We can

therefore put elements of into classes of conjugate elements over

k. We then have

17

18

of elements.

20

be the minimum polynomial of in k[x]. Let be an automorphism

of /k. Then C. But is a root of f (x) = f (x). Also if

C then = for some automorphism of /k. In that case

= is again a root of f (x). Thus the elements in C are all roots of

the irreducible polynomial f (x). Our contention follows.

Notice that if , are any two roots, lying in , of the irreducible

polynomial f (x), then k() and k() are k-isomorphic. This isomorphism can be extended into an automorphism of . Thus

Theorem 1. To each class of conjugate elements of there is associated an irreducible polynomial in k[x] whose distinct roots are all the

elements of this class.

If we shall denote by C the class of . C is a finite set.

2 Normal extensions

Suppose K is a subfield of /k and an automorphism of /k. Let

K K. We assert that K = K. For let K and denote by C the

set

C K

Since K K we have K so C . Thus

C

C is a finite set and is an isomorphism of K into itself.

Thus

C = C

21

We shall now study a class of fields K /k which have the property

K K,

2. Normal extensions

19

for all automorphisms of /k. We shall call such fields, normal extensions of k in .

Let K/k be a normal extension of k and algebraic closure of k

containing K. Let K and C the class of . We assert that C K.

For if is an element of C , there is an automorphism of /k for

which = . Since K K, it follows that K. Now any element

in K is a root of an irreducible polynomial in k[x]. Since all the elements

of C are roots of this polynomial, it follows that if f (x) is an irreducible

polynomial with one root in K, then all roots of f (x) lie in K.

Conversely let K be a subfield of /k with this property. Let be

an automorphism of /k and /K. Let be an automorphism of /k

and K. Let C be the class of . Since C K, K. But is

arbitrary in K. Therefore

K K

and K is normal. Thus the

Theorem 2. Let k K . Then K = K for all automorphisms of

/k every irreducible polynomial f (x) k[x] which has one root

in K has all roots in K.

Let f (x) be a polynomial in k[x] and K its splitting field. Let be

an algebraic closure of K. Let 1 , . . . , n be the distinct roots of f (x) in 22

. Then

K = k(1 , . . . , n )

Let be an automorphism of /k. j = j for some j. Thus

takes the set 1 , . . . , n onto itself. Since every element of K is a rational

function of 1 , . . . , n , it follows that K K. Thus

i) The splitting field of a polynomial in k[x] is a normal extension of

k.

T

Let {K } be a family of normal subfields of /k. Then K is

S

trivially normal. Consider k( K ). This again is normal since for

[

[

[

k K k K k K

20

S

fields, then K( K ) is normal. Also it is easy to see that

[

L = k K

polynomials f (x) splits completely. Thus

ii) if { f (x)} is a set of polynomials in k[x], the subfield of generated

by all the roots of { f (x)} is normal.

We also have

iii) If K/k is normal and k L K then K/L is also normal.

23

The kautomorphisms of form a group G(/k). From what we

have seen above, it follows that a subfield K of /k is normal if and

only if K = K for every G(/k). Now a k automorphism

of K can be be extended into an automorphism of /k, because

every such automorphism is an isomorphism of K in . It therefore

follows

iv) K/k is normal if and only if every isomorphism of K in /k is an

automorphism of K over k.

As an example, let be the field of rationalnumbers and f (x) =

3

x3 2. Then f (x) is irreducible in [x]. Let = 2 be one of its roots.

() is of degree 3 over and is not normal since it does not contain

where = 1+2 3 . However the field (, ) of degree 6 over is

normal and is the splitting field of x3 2.

If K is the field of complex numbers, consider K(z) the field of rational function of 2 over K. Consider the polynomial x3 z in K(z)[x]. This

1

is irreducible. Let = z 3 be a root of this polynomial. Then K(z)() is

of degree 3 K(z) and is the splitting field of the polynomial x3 z.

3. Isomorphisms of fields

21

3 Isomorphisms of fields

Let K/k be an algebraic extension of k and W any extension of K and so

of k. A mapping of K into W is said to be k linear if for , K

24

( + ) = +

W and if k, () = . If is a klinear map of K into

W we define for in W by

() =

for K. This again is a klinear map and so the klinear maps of K

into W form a vector space V over W.

A kisomorphism of K into W is obviously a klinear map and

so V. We shall say, two isomorphisms , of K into W (trivial on

k) are distinct if there exists at least one K, , 0 such that

,

Let S be the set of mutually distinct isomorphisms of K into W. We

then have

Theorem 3. S is a set of linearly independent elements of V over W.

Proof. We have naturally to show that every finite subset of S is linearly

independent over W. Let on the contrary 1 , . . . , n be a finite subset of

S satisfying a non trivial linear relation

X

i i = 0

i

is linearly dependent. Then in the above expression all i are different

from zero. Let be any element of K. Then

X

i i = 0

i

22

X

i i .i = o

25

X

i i .i = o

i

K in such a way that

1 , n

We then get from the two linear relations, the expression

n1

X

i

i=1

i i

i = o.

n i

from zero. This leads to a contradiction and our theorem is proved.

Suppose dim V < then it would mean that S is a finite set. But

the converse is false. We have however the

Theorem 4. If (K : k) < , then dim V = (K : k)

Proof. Let (K : k) = n and 1 , . . . , n a basis of K/k.

i, j

i ( j ) = o

=1

i, j

P

For, let i i = o, i W. Then

i

X

i

26

i i i = o

3. Isomorphisms of fields

23

i = i and let be given by

X

=

i i

i

established.

From this we obtain the very important

Corollary . If (K : k) < then K has in /k at most (K : k) distinct

k-isomorphisms.

Let . Consider the field k()/k. Let (1) (= ), . . . , (n) be the

distinct conjugates of over k. An isomorphism of k()/k is determined completely by its effect on . Since every isomorphism comes

from an automorphism of /k, it follows that k((i) ) are all the distinct

isomorphic images of k(). Thus

1) Number of distinct k-isomorphisms of k() in is equal to the

number of distinct roots in of the minimum polynomial of .

Let K/k be an algebraic extension and an algebraic closure of k

containing K. Let K have the property that K/k has only finitely many

distinct k-isomorphisms in . Let K (1) (= K), K (2) , . . . , K (n) be the distinct isomorphic fields. Let and let have over K exactly m

distinct conjugates (1) (= ), . . . , (m) . This means that if f (x) is the

minimum polynomial of over K, then f (x) has in , m distinct roots.

We claim that K() has over k exactly mn distinct isomorphisms in . 27

For, let i (i = 1, . . . , n) be the k-isomorphisms defined by

i K (1) = K (i)

Let f i (x) be the image of the polynomial f (x) in K[x] by means

of the above isomorphism. Let the roots of f i (x) by (i1 ) , . . . , (in )

these being the distinct ones. There exists then an isomorphism i j ( j =

1, . . . , m) extending i of K (1) ((1) ) on K (i) ((i j) ). Since i has n values,

it follows that there are at least mn distinct isomorphisms of K() over

k.

24

28

takes (1) into a root (i j) of f (x) = f i (x) where i is the isomorphism which coincides with on K. Thus since every isomorphism

of K() over k comes from an automorphism of /k, our contention is

established.

Let now K = k(1 , . . . , n ) and Ki = k(1 , . . . , i ) so that Ko = k

and Kn = K. Let Ki have over Ki1 exactly Pi distinct Ki1 -isomorphisms. Then K/k has exactly p1 pn distinct k-isomorphisms in .

Hence

2) If K L k be a tower of finite extensions and K has ever L,

n distinct L-isomorphisms in and L has over k, m distinct k-isomorphisms then K has over k precisely mn distinct k-isomorphisms.

In particular let (K : k) < and let K have in exactly (K : k)

distinct isomorphisms. Let L be any intermediary field. Let a be the

number of distinct L-isomorphisms of K and b the number of distinct

k-isomorphisms of L.

Then

(K : k) = ab (K : L)(L : k) = (K : k)

But a (K : L), b (L : k). Thus a = (K : L) and b = (L : k).

4 Separability

Let be an algebraic closure of k and . Let (x) be the minimum

polynomial of in k. Suppose k()/k has exactly (k() : k) distinct

k-isomorphisms in . Then from the last article it follows that all the

roots of (x) are distinct. Conversely let the irreducible polynomial (x)

be of degree n and all its n roots distinct. Then k()/k has n distinct

k-isomorphisms being a root of (x). But it can have no more.

Let us therefore make the

Definition. An element is said to be separably algebraic or separable over k if its minimum polynomial has all roots distinct. Otherwise

it is said to be inseparable.

1) Let W/k be any extension field and W separable over k. Let L

be an intermediary field. Then is separable over L.

4. Separability

25

2) separable over k k()/k has in (k() : k) distinct k- 29

isomorphisms.

Let now K = k(1 , . . . , n ) and let 1 , . . . n be all separable over k.

Put Ki = k(1 , . . . , ) so that Ko = k and Kn = K. Now Ki1 (i ) and

i is separable over Ki1 so that Ki over Ki1 has exactly (Ki : Ki1 )

distinct Ki1 - isomorphisms. This proves that K has over k

(Kn : Kn1 ) . . . (K1 : Ko ) = (Kn : Ko ) = (K : k)

distinct k-isomorphisms. If therefore K, Then by previous article k() has exactly (k() : k) distinct isomorphisms and hence

is separable over k. Conversely if K/k is finite and every element

of K is separable over k, then K/k has exactly (K : k) distinct kisomorphisms. Hence

3) (K : k) < , K/k has (K : k) distinct k-isomorphisms every

element of K is separable over k.

Let us now make the

Definition. A subfield K of /k is said to be separable over k if every

element of K is separable over k.

From 3) and the definition, it follows that

4) K/k is separable for every subfield L of K with (L : K) < , L

has exactly (L : K) distinct isomorphisms over k.

5) K/L, L/k separably algebraic K/k separable.

For, let K. Then is separable over L. Let 1 , . . . , n be

the coefficients in the irreducible polynomial satisfied by over L. 30

Then has over K1 = k(1 , . . . , n ) exactly (K1 () : K1 ) distinct

K1 -isomorphisms. Also K1 /k is finite separable. Thus K1 () has

over k exactly (K1 () : k) distinct isomorphisms which proves that

is separable over k. The converse follows from 2).

26

S

T

2) K and b)k( K ) are separable.

S

b) follows since every element of k( K ) is a rational function of a

follows from 3).

elements of k separably algebraic over K is a field.

This is evident. We call L the separable closure of k in K.

We had already defined an algebraic element to be inseparable if

its minimum polynomial has repeated roots. Let us study the nature

of irreducible polynomials.

Let f (x) = ao + a1 x + + an xn be an irreducible polynomial in k[x].

If it has a root which is repeated, then is a root of

f 1 (x) = a1 + 2a2 x + + nan xn1 .

Thus f (x)| f 1 (x) which can happen only if

iai = o, i = 1, . . . , n.

31

a constant polynomial. Thus

8) Over a field of characteristic zero, every non constant irreducible

polynomial has all roots distinct.

Let now k have characteristic p , o. if pi then iai = o ai = o.

Thus for f 1 (x) to be identically zero we must have ai = o for pi. In

this case

f (x) = ao + a p x p +

or that f (x) k[x p ]. Let e be the largest integer such that f (x)

e

e+1

k[x p ] but not in k[x p ]. Consider the polynomial (y) with (x p ) =

4. Separability

27

f (x). Then (y) is irreducible in k[y] and (y) has no repeated roots.

Let 1 , . . . , t be the roots of (y) in . Then

e

f (x) = (x p 1 ) (x p t ).

e

to one of them say i . Then

e

pe

xP i = xP i = (x i ) p

Thus

e

f (x) = {(x 1 ) (x t )} p

Hence

9) Over a field of characteristic p , o, the roots of an irreducible polynomial are repeated equally often, the multiplicity of a root being pe ,

e o.

It is important to note that (x 1 ) . . . (x t ) is not a polynomial in 32

k[x] and t is not necessarily prime to p.

We call t the reduced degree of f (x) (or of any of its roots ) and pe ,

its degree of inseparability. Thus

Degree of: Reduced degree X-degree of inseparability

If then we had seen earlier that k()/k has as many distinct

isomorphisms in as there are distinct roots in of the minimum

k()

polynomial of over k. If we call the reduced degree of

as the

k

reduced degree of we have

10) Reduced degree of = Number of distinct roots of the minimum

polynomial of over k.

We may now call a polynomial separable if and only if every root of

it in is separable. In particular if f (x) k[x] is irreducible then

f (x) is separable if one root of it is separable.

28

reduced degree of , then

e

f (x) = {(x 1 ) . . . (x t )} p

e

e

f (x) = (x p 1 ) (x p t )

and 1 , . . . t are separable over k. Consider the field k(1 ) which is

a subfield of k(). being of degree t over k, (k(1 ) : k) = t. This

means that

(k() : k()) = pe .

33

But the interesting fact to note is that k() has over k() only the

identity isomorphism or that k() is fixed by every k()-automorphism of /k().

Also since every element of k() is a rational function of over k(),

it follows that

e

p k()

for every k(). Thus the integer e has the property that for every

e

k(), p k() and there is at least one (for instance ) for

e

which p < k(). e is called the exponent of , equivalently of k().

We define the exponent of an algebraic element over k to be the

e1

e

integer e o such that p is separable but not p . Hence

11) Exponent of is zero is separable over k.

We shall now extend this notion of exponent and reduced degree to

any finite extension.

Let K/k be finite so that K = k(1 , . . . , n ). Put as before Ko = k,

Ki = k(1 , . . . , i ) so that Kn = K. Let i have reduced degree di and

exponent ei over Ki1 . Then

(Ki : Ki1 ) = di pei

4. Separability

29

From the definition of di , it follows that the number of distinct kisomorphisms of K/k is d1 . . . dn . We put

d = d1 dn

and call it the reduced degree of K/k. Then

(K : k) = d. . . . p f

where f = e1 + + en . We call p f the degree of inseparability of K/k.

In order to be able to give another interpretation to the integer d we 34

make the following considerations.

Let K k and let K/k have the property that every k automorphism of /k acts like identity on K. Thus if G(/k) and K,

then

=

All elements of k have this property. Let K, < k. Then by

definition, has in only one conjugate. The irreducible polynomial

of has all roots equal. Thus the minimum polynomial of is

m

xp a

m

in with the property that for every K

m

p k

for some integer m o. Let be an automorphism of /k. Then

m

m

p = p . But

m

o = p p = ( ) p

element of G(/k) is identity on K.

Hence for the following three statements are equivalent

1) = for all G(/k)

30

m

m

We call an element which satisfies any one of the above 35

conditions, a purely inseparable algebraic element over k.

Let us make the

Definition . A subfield K/k of /k is said to be purely inseparable if

element of K is purely inseparable.

From what we have seen above, it follows that K/k is purely inseparable is equivalent to the fact that every k-automorphism of is identity

on K.

Let K/k be an algebraic extension and L the maximal separable sube

field of K/k. For every K, p is separable for some e o which

e

means that p L. Thus K/L is a purely inseparable extension field.

This means that every k-isomorphism of L/k can be extended uniquely

to a k-isomorphism of K/k.

Let, in particular, K/k be a finite extension and L the maximal separable subfield of K. Then K/L is purely inseparable and K/L has no

L-isomorphism other than the identity. Thus the number of distinct isomorphism other than the identity. Thus the number of distinct isomorphisms of K/k equals (L : k). But from what has gone before

(K : L) = p f , (L : k) = d.

For this reason we shall call d also the degree of separability of K/k

and denote it by [K : k]. We shall denote the degree of inseparability,

p f , by K : k . Then

(K : k) = [K : k] K : k .

separable.

36

If is the algebraic closure of k and L the maximal separable subfield of then /L is purely inseparable. coincides with L in case k

5. Perfect fields

31

.

Let K/k be an algebraic extension and L the maximal separable subfield. Consider the exponents of all elements in K. Let e be the maximum of these if it exists. we call e the exponent of the extension K/k. It

can happen that e is finite but K/L is infinite.

If K/k is a finite extension then K/L has degree p f so that the maximum e of the exponents of elements of K exists. If e is the exponent of

K/k then

e f

It can happen that e < f . For instance let k have characteristic p , 0

and let k be not a pth power in k. Then k(1/p ) is of degree p over

k. Let in k be not a pth power in k. Then k(1/p , 1/p ) is of degree p2

over k, < k(1/p ) and for every k(1/p , 1/p ), p k.

We may for instance take k(x, y) to be the field of rational functions

of two variables and K = k(x1/p , y1/p ). Then (K : k(x, y)) = p2 and

p k(x, y) for every K.

5 Perfect fields

Let k be a field of characteristic p > 0. Let be its algebraic closure.

Let k. Then there is only one element such that p = .

1

We can therefore write 1/p without any ambiguity. Let k p be the field

generated in /k by the pth roots of all elements of k. Similarly from 37

2

k p , . . . Let

[ n

K=

kp

n0

We denote K by k p

field of k.

purely inseparable. On the other hand let be purely inseparable.

n

Then p k for some n i.e., k p k p . Thus

32

1) k p

of elements of which are fixed under all the k automorphisms of

/k form a field called the fixed of G(/k). Since every such ele

ment , fixed under G(/k) is purely inseparable, k p . Hence

2) k p

t

p

+ an xnp . Since ai k p [X p ], it is in some k p and so ai = bi for

bi k p . Hence

f (x) = (bo + b1 x + + bn xn ) p

which is contradicts the fact that f (x) is irreducible. Hence

38

3) /k p

is a separable extension.

Definition. A field k is said to be perfect if every algebraic extension

of k is separable.

It follows from the definition that

1) An algebraically closed field is perfect

2) A field of characteristic zero is perfect.

We shall now prove

Let k have no inseparable extension. Then for a k, a1/p k

1

also; for, otherwise k(a1/p ) is inseparable over k. Thus k = k p =

We deduce immediately

4) A finite field is perfect.

For if k is a finite field of characteristic p > r then a a p is an

automorphism of k.

5. Perfect fields

33

For let K/k be algebraic and k be perfect. If is inseparable over

K, then it is already so over k.

An example of an imperfect field is the field of rational functions

of one variable x over a finite field k. For if k has characteristic

p, then x1/p < k(x) and k(x1/p ) is a purely inseparable extension

over k(x).

Note 1. If is inseparable over k, it is not true that it is inseparable

over every intermediary field, whereas this is true if is separable.

39

inseparable extension. But the converse of this is not true, that is, if K/k

is an inseparable extension, it can happen that there are no elements in

K which are purely inseparable over k. We give to this end the following

example due to Bourbaki.

Let k be a field of characteristic p > 2 and let f (x) by in irreducible

polynomial

f (x) = xn + a1 xn1 + + an

in k[x]. If 1 , . . . , t are the distinct roots of f (x) in then

n

o pe

f (x) = (x 1 ) . . . (x t ) e 1.

If i = 1/p

then

i

e

(x) = (x p 1 ) . . . (x p t )} p

e+1

(x) = (x 1 ) . . . (x t ) p

reducible in k[x] and let (x) be an irreducible factor of (x) in k[x].

Then

n

o p

(x) = (x 1 ) (x t )

34

for 0 and t. (This is because roots of (x) occur with the same

multiplicity). We can write

1

(x) = (x p 1 ) . . . (x p ) p

k[x]). Now this will mean that (x) = (x). W(x) in k[x p ] so that = t.

Hence

(x) = {(x 1 ) (x t )} p , 1.

40

1

(x) = {(x p 1 ) . . . (x p t )} p

we see that 1 = e or = e + 1. Thus

(x) = f (x p ) = {(x)} p

nomial. In this case ai = bi , bi k, i = 1, . . . n.

p

Conversely if ai = bi , bi k, i = 1, . . . n. then f (x p ) is reducible.

Hence f (x p ) is reducible f (x) k p [x].

Let k now be a field of characteristic p > 2 given by k = (x, y), the

field of rational functions in two variables x, y over the prime field if

p elements. Consider the polynomial

f (z) = z2p + xz p + y,

in k[z]. Since x1/p , y1/p do not lie in k, f (z) is irreducible in k. Let be

a root of f (z). Then (k() : k) = 2p. Let be in k() and not in k such

that p k. Then k() k() k. Also (k() : k) = p. In k()[x]

the polynomial f (z) cannot be irreducible, since k() : k() = 2. It is

reducible and so k() will contain x1/p and y1/p . But then k(x1/p , y1/p )

k().

Thus

p2 = k(x1/p , y1/p ) : k k() : k ) : k = 2p

All the same k() is inseparable.

6. Simple extensions

35

For, if k

is an infinite extension of k.

S pn

n

we have k p =

k

/k is finite then, since k p =

n

1

pn

Applying the mapping a aa we find k = k p . But this is false. 41

Thus

(n+1)

n

: kp > 1

kp

6 Simple extensions

An algebraic extension K/k is said to be simple if there is an K such

that K = k(). Obviously (K : k) is finite. We call a primitive element

of K. The primitive element is not unique for, + , k also is

primitive. We now wish to find conditions when an algebraic extension

would be simple. We first prove

Lemma. Let k be an infinite field and , elements in an algebraic closure of k such that is separable over k. Then k(, ) is a simple

extension of k.

Proof. Let f (x) and (x) be the irreducible polynomials of and respectively in k[x], so that

f (x) = (x 1 ) (x n )

(x) = (x 1 ) (x m ).

Since is separable, 1 , . . . n are all distinct. We shall put = 1 ,

and = 1 . Construct the linear polynomials

i + X j (i = 1, . . . , m; j = 1, . . . , n)

These mn polynomials are in , the algebraic closure of k and since

k is infinite, there exists an element k such that

i + j , i , + j , , J

36

Put

= 1 + 1 = +

42

Now k() k(, ). We shall will now show that k(). From

definition of , also will be in k() and that will mean

k() k(, ) k().

In order to do this consider the polynomial (.x)in k()[x]. Also

it vanishes for x = . Furthermore by our choice of , ( i ) , 0

for i > 1. In the algebraic closure , therefore, f (x) and ( x) have

just x as a factor. But f (x) and ( x) are both polynomials in

k()[x]. So x is the greatest common divisor of ( x) and f (x)

in k()[x]. Thus k(). Our lemma is demonstrated.

We have therefore

Corollary . If 1 , . . . , n are separably algebraic and then

k(, , . . . n ) is a simple extension.

We deduce immediately

Corollary. A finite separable extension is simple.

Let be the field of rational numbers and (, ) the splitting field

of the polynomial x3 2 in [x]. Then (, ) is simple. A primitive

element is given by + = . Then () is of degree 6 over . It is

easy to see that has over the minimum polynomial

(x3 3x 3)2 + 3x(x + 1)(x3 3x 3) + 9x2 (x + 1)2

Let now K/k be a finite extension and L the maximal separable

subfield of K/k. Then (K : L) = p f the degree of inseparability and

(L : k) = d the reduced degree. If we consider the exponents of elements of K, these have a maximum e and

e f.

43

6. Simple extensions

37

finite extension K of k, then e = f K/k is simple.

Proof. Let K = k(). Let Ko be the maximal separable subfield of K/k.

Now (K : Ko ) = p f . But p f is degree of . Thus e = f

Let now K/k be a finite extension and e = f . There exists then a

t

e

in K such that p is separable and in Ko but for no, t < e p is in Ko .

Thus K = Ko (). Ko being a finite separable extension by our lemma,

Ko = k() for separable. Thus

K = k(, ).

Using the lemma again, our contention follows.

We now investigate the number of intermediary fields between K

and k where K is an algebraic extension of k. Let us first consider a

simple extension K = k(). Let (x) be the minimum polynomial of

in k[x]. Let L be any intermediary field. Let f (x) be the minimum polynomial of over L. Then f (x) divides (x). Let f (x) have coefficients

a0 , . . . an in L. Put L f the field k(a0 , . . . , an ). Then f (x) is minimum

polynomial of over L f . Thus

(K : L) = (K : L f )

But L f L. This proves that L = L f , and so for every intermediary

field there is a unique divisor of (x). Since (x) has in only finitely

many factors, K/k has only a finite number of intermediary fields.

We will now prove that the converse is also true. We shall assume k 44

is infinite.

Let now K/k be an algebraic extension having only a finite number

of intermediary fields. Let , K. Consider the elements + for

k. Since k is infinite, the fields k( + ) are infinite in number and

cannot be all distinct. Let for = 1 , 2 1 , 2

k( + 1 ) = k( + 2 ) = k().

Then + 1 , + 2 are in k(). Thus (1 2 ) k(). Hence

k() because 1 2 k. This means that k().

38

Therefore

Hence every subfield of K, generated by 2 and hence by a finite number of elements is simple. Let K be a maximal subfield of K/k which

is simple. (This exists since K/k has only finitely many intermediary

fields). Let K0 = k(). Let K and < K0 . Then k() = k(, ) K

and K0 k() contradicting maximality of K0 . Thus () = K. We have

proved

Theorem 6. K/k is simple K/k has only finitely many intermediary

fields.

We deduce

Corollary. If K/k is simple, then every intermediary field is simple.

Note 1. We have the fact that if K/k is infinite there exist infinitely many

intermediary fields.

45

Note 2. Theorem 6 has been proved on the assumption that k is an infinite field. If k is finite the theorem is still true and we give a proof

later.

7 Galois extensions

Let K/k be an algebraic extension and G the group of automorphism of

K which are trivial on k. Let L be the subset of all elements of K which

are fixed by G. L is then a subfield of K and is called the fixed field of

G. We shall now consider the class of algebraic extensions K/k which

are such that the group G(K/k) of automorphisms of K which are trivial

on k, has k as the fixed field. We call such extensions galois extensions,

the group G(K/k) itself being called the galois group of K/k.

We now prove the

Theorem 7. k is the fixed field of the group of k automorphisms of

K K/k is a normal and separable extension.

7. Galois extensions

39

of K. Let K. Let 1 (= ), . . . n be all the distinct conjugates of

that lie in K. Consider the polynomial

f (x) = (x 1 ) (x n )

If is an element of G(K/k), permutes 1 , . . . , n so that leaves

the polynomial f (x) unaltered. The coefficients of this polynomial are

fixed under all elements of G and hence since k is the fixed field G, f (x)

k[x]. Hence the minimum polynomial roots of the minimum polynomial of , since 1 , . . . n are conjugates. Thus f (x)/(x). Therefore

K splitting field of (x), (x) has all roots distinct. Thus K/k is normal

and separable.

Suppose now K/k is normal and separable. Consider the group 46

G(K/k) of k-automorphisms of K. Let K. Since K/k is separable,

all conjugates of are distinct. Also since K/k is normal K contains all

the conjugates. If is fixed under all G(K/k), then is a purely

inseparable element of K and hence is in k.

Our theorem is thus proved.

We thus see that galois extensions are identical with extension fields

which are both normal and separable.

Examples of Galois extensions are the splitting fields of polynomials

over perfect fields.

2

n o

= ( )2 = ( ).( )

is either th identity or the automorphism

( ) =

Thus G(K/k) is a group of order 2. K/k is normal and separable.

We shall obtain some important properties of galois extensions.

40

extension also.

47

If we denote by G(K/L) the galois group of K over L, than G(K/L)

is a subgroup of G(K/k).

2) If k L1 L2 K then G(K/L2 ) is a subgroup of G(K/L1 ). This

is trivial.

T

3) If {K } is a family of galois extensions of k contained in then K

S

and k( K ) are galois.

This follows from the fact that this is already true for normal and

also for separable extensions.

which are conjugate over k, then G(G/L) and G(K/L ) are conjugate

subgroups of G(K/k) and conversely.

Proof. Since L and L are conjugate over k let be an automorphism of

K/k so that L = L . Let G(K/L). Then for every L

=

But = for L. Thus

1 =

Since this is true for every L, it follows that

1G(K/L) G(K/L)

In a similar manner one proves that G(K/L)1 G(K/L) which

proves our contention.

48

Conversely suppose that L and L are two subfields such that G(K/L)

and G(K/L ) are conjugate subgroups of G(K/k). Let G(K/L ) = 1

G(K/L). Let L and G(K/L). Then 1 G(K/L ) and so

7. Galois extensions

41

1 =

in L . Thus L L . We can similarly prove that 1 L L which

proves our statement.

In particular let L/k be a normal extension of k which is contained

in K. Then L = L for all G(K/k). This means that G(K/L) is a

normal subgroup of G(K/k). On the other hand if L is any subfield such

that G(K/L) is a normal subgroup of G(K/k) then by above L = L for

all G(K/k) which proves that L/k is normal. Thus

5) Let k L K. Then L/k is normal G(K/L) is a normal

subgroup of G(K/k)

6) If L/k is normal, then G(K/k) G(L/k)/G(K/L).

Let G(K/k) and

the restriction of to L. Then

is an automorphism of L/k so that

G(L/k). Now

is a homomorphism

fo G(K/k) into G(L/k). For

= = () =

for all L. Thus

=

The homomorphism is onto since every automorphism of L/k can be 49

extended into an automorphism of K/k. Now

is identity if and only if

=

for all L. Thus G(K/L). Also every G(K/L) has this

property so that the kernel of the homomorphism is G(K/L).

Let K/k be a finite galois extension. Every isomorphism of K/k in

is an an automorphism. Also K/k being separable, K/k has exactly

(K : k) district isomorphisms. This shows that

(K : k) = order of G.

We shall now prove the converse

7) If G is a finite group of automorphisms of K/k having k as the

fixed field then (K : k) = order of G.

42

elements of K. Denote by VK the vector space over K of n dimensions

formed by n- tuples (1 , . . . , n ). Define n + 1 vectors 1 , . . . , n+1 by

i = (i (i ), . . . , n (i ))i = 1, . . . , n + 1

Among these vectors there exists m n vectors linearly independent

over K. Let 1 , . . . , m be independent. Then

m+1 =

m

X

ai i

n=1

ai K

(m+1 ) =

m

X

ai (i ) = 1, . . . , n.

1=i

50

elements 1 , . . . , n in some order. Thus

h (m+1 ) =

m

X

i=1

h (ai |h (i )

which means

(m+1 ) =

m

X

h (ai ) (i )

i = 1, . . . , n

i=1

subtracting we have

m

X

(h (ai ) ai (i ) = 0

i=1

m

X

i=1

h (ai ) ai i = 0

7. Galois extensions

43

h is arbitrary. Thus ai k. We therefore have by taking 1 to be the

identity element of G

m

X

m+1 =

ai i

i=1

(K : k) n.

But every element of G is an isomorphism of K/k. Thus

(K : k) order of G = n.

Our assertion is established.

Suppose K/k is a galois extension. For every subfield L of K/k, the

extension K/L is galois. We denote its galois group by G(L) and this

is a subgroup of G(K/k). Suppose g is any subgroup of G(K/k) and let

F(g) be its fixed field. Then F(g) is a subfield of K. The galois group

G(F(g)) of K/F(g) contains g. In general one has only

51

g G(F(g))

Let now K/k be a finite galois extension. Let g be a subgroup of

G(K/k) = G and F(g), the fixed field of g. Then by above

K : F(g) = order of g.

and so

g = G K/F(g)

F(g2 ) are distinct. For if F(g1 ) and F(g2 ) are identical, then by above

g1 = G(K/F(g2 )) = g2 . We thus have the

Main Theorem(of finite galois theory). Let K/k be a finite galois extension with galois group G. Let M denote the class of all subgroups

of G and N the class all subfield of K/k. Let be the mapping which

44

is a mapping of M onto N which is biunivocal.

In order to restore this property even for infinite extensions, we develop a method due originally to Krull.

Let K/k be a galois extension with galois group G(K/k). For every

K, we denote by G the galois group G(K/k()). This then is

a subgroup of G(K/k). We make G(K/k) into a topological group by

prescribing the {G } as a fundamental system of neighbourhoods of the

T

T

identity element e G(K/k). Obviously G = (e). For G

52

the axioms for a fundamental system of open sets containing the identity

elements e.

Any open set in G is therefore a union of sets of type {G} or a

finite intersection of such. Also since G are open subgroups they are

closed; for, G is open for all and hence

[

G

,e

G makes it totally disconnected. We call the topology on G the Krull

topology.

If g is a subgroup of G, g the closure of g is also a subgroup. We

now prove the

Lemma. Let g be a subgroup of G a and L its fixed field. Then

G(K/L) = g

k. Consider f (x) as a polynomial over L and let L be its splitting field

over L. Then L /L is a galois extension. The restriction of elements of

g to L are automorphisms of L with L as fixed field (by definition of

L). By finite galois theory these are all the elements of the galois group

of L /L. This means that every automorphism of L /L comes from an

elements of g.

7. Galois extensions

45

G(K/k()). The restriction of to L is an automorphism of L with

L as fixed field. There is thus an element g, which has on L the

same effect as . Hence 1 is identity on L and since L we get

1 =

or G . But G is an open set containing . Therefore since

{G } for all G form a fundamental system of neighbourhoods of

we conclude that

g .

Thus G(K/L) g

Let now g . Then G is a neighbourhood of and so intersects

g in a non empty set. Let L. Let G g. Let in G such

that

=

By definition of , = . But = = . Therefore G .

But is already is in G . Therefore = . Also being arbitrary

L = L

which means that G(K/L). Thus

g G(K/L)

and our contention is established.

From the lemma, it follows that if L is an intermediary field, the

galois group G(K/L) is a closed subgroup of G(K/k). On the other hand

if g is a closed subgroup of G and F(g) its fixed field then

G K/F(g) = g = g.

Theorem 8. Let K/k be a galois extension and G(K/k) the galois group

with the Krull - topology. Let M denote the set of closed subgroups of

G and N the set of intermediary fields of K/k. Let be the mapping

which assigns to every g M, the fixed field F(g) of g in N. Then is a 54

biunivocal mapping of M on N.

46

55

field. Let G(K/k) and G(K/L) be the galois groups. On G(K/L) there

are two topologies, one that is induced by the topology on G(K/k) and

the other the topology that G(K/L) possesses as a galois extension. If

L is a subfield of K/L so that L /L is finite, then G(K/L ) is an open set

in the inherent topology on G(K/L). On the other hand L = L() since

L /L is a separable extension.

Thus

G(K/L ) G G(K/L)

which proves that the two topologies are equivalent. Here we have used

the fact that a finite separable extension of L is simple. We gave already

seen the truth of this statement if L is infinite. In case L is finite it is

proved in the next section. In a similar manner if K/k is galois and L is

a normal extension of k in K, then on G(L/k) there are two topologies,

one the inherent one and the other the topology of the quotient group

G(K/k)/G(K/L). One can prove that the two topologies are equivalent.

We call an extension K/k abelian or solvable according as G(K/k)

is abelian or a solvable group. If K/k is a galois extension and G(K/k)

its galois group with the Krull topology let H denote the closure of the

algebraic commutator subgroup of G(K/k). H is called the topological

commutator subgroup. If L is its fixed field, then since H is normal, L/k

is a galois extension. Its galois group is isomorphic to G/H which is

abelian. From the property of the commutator subgroup, it follows that

L is the maximal abelian subfield of K/k.

8 Finite fields

Let K be a finite field of q elements, q = pn where p is the characteristic

of K. Let be the prime field of p elements. Then

(K : ) = n

K the group of non-zero elements of K is an abelian group of order

q 1. For K we have

q1 = 1

8. Finite fields

47

xq1 1. Also

Y

xq1 1 =

(x ).

K

Then d = 1. Consider the polynomial xd 1. It has in K at most d

roots. Also d/q 1. But

xq1 1 = (xd 1)(xq1d + )

q 1 d roots in K and they together q 1 roots in K it follows that

for every divisor d of q 1, xd 1 has exactly d roots in K . These roots

from a group of order d. If it is cyclic then there is an element of order

d and there are exactly (d) elements of order d. Also

X

(d) = q 1

d/q1

which proves that for every divisor d of q1 there are (d) 1 elements 56

of order d. Thus

1) The multiplicative group of a finite field is cyclic.

Let k be a finite of q elements and K a finite extension of k of degree

n. Then K has qn elements. Since K is cyclic, let be a generator

of K . Then

K = k()

which proves

2) Every finite extension of a finite field is simple.

e

K. Since k has q elements we have

aq = a

for every a k.

48

Call this automorphism . is determined uniquely by its effect on

a generator of K . Consider the automorphisms

1, , 2 , . . . , n1

These are distinct. For,

i

i = i1 () = i1 (q ) = q

being of degree n cannot have more than n automorphisms. We have

3) The galois group of a finite extension of a finite field is cyclic.

The generator of this cyclic group, defined by

a = aq

57

Let L be an intermediary field of K/k. Then (L : k) is a divisor of

(K : k) = n. If d = (L : k) then L has qd elements. Also since K/k

has a cyclic galois group, there is one and only one subgroup of a

given order d. Hence

4) The number of intermediary fields of K/k is equal to the number of

divisors of n.

Chapter 3

1 F.K. Schmidts theorem

Let K/k be an extension field and x1 , . . . , xn+1 any n + 1 elements of 58

K. Let R = k[z1 , . . . , zn+1 ] be the ring of polynomials in n + 1 variables

over k. Let Y be the ideal in R of polynomials f (z1 , . . . , zn+1 ) with the

property

f (x1 , . . . , xn+1 ) = 0.

Then clearly Y is a prime ideal of R. Also since R is a Noetheeian

ring, Y is finitely generated. Note that Y = (o) if and only if x1 , . . . ,

xn+1 are algebraically independent over k. Y is called the ideal of the

set x1 , . . . , xn+1 .

We shall consider the case where the set x1 , . . . , xn+1 has dimension

n over k, that is that k(x1 , . . . , xn+1 ) is of transcendence degree n over k.

We prove

Theorem 1. Y is a principal ideal generated by an irreducible polynomial.

Proof. Without loss in generality we may assume that x1 , . . . , xn are algebraically independent over k and that xn+1 is algebraic over

k(x1 , . . . , xn ), so that Y , (o).

49

50

the variable zn+1 . These degrees have a minimum greater than zero since

Y , (o), and x1 , . . . , xn are algebraically independent over k. Let be

a polynomial in Y of smallest degree in zn+1 . Put

+ . . . + A

= Ao zn+1 + A1 z1

n

59

k. We may assume that A0 , A1 , . . . , A have no common factor in

k[z1 , . . . , zn ]. For if A(z1 , . . . , zn ) is a common factor of A0 , . . . , A then

(z1 , . . . , zn+1 ) = A(z1 , . . . , zn ) 1 (z1 , . . . , zn+1 )

and so, since x1 , . . . , xn are algebraically independent,

1 (x1 , . . . , xn+1 ) = o

and 1 will serve our purpose. So we can take to be a primitive polynomial in zn+1 over R = k[z1 , . . . , zn ].

Clearly is irreducible in R . For, if

= g1 (z1 , . . . , zn+1 ) g2 (z1 , . . . , zn+1 )

then gi (x1 , . . . , xn+1 ) = 0 for i = 1 or 2, so that either g1 or g2 is in Y .

Both cannot have a term in zn+1 with non zero coefficient. For then the

degrees in zn+1 of g1 of g2 will both be less that of in zn+1 contradicting

the definition of . So one g1 , g2 say g1 is independent of zn+1 . But this

means that is not a primitive polynomial.

Thus we have chosen in Y a polynomial which os irreducible, of

the smallest degree in zn+1 and primitive in R [zn+1 ].

Let (z1 , . . . , zn+1 ) be any other polynomial in Y .

Since F = k(z1 , . . . , zn ) is a field, F[zn+1 ] is a Euclidean ring so that

in F[zn+1 ] we have

(z1 , . . . , zn+1 ) = A(z1 , . . . , zn+1 ) (z1 , . . . , zn+1 ) + L(z1 , . . . , zn+1 )

60

degree of L in zn+1 is less than that of . If L , o, then we may multiply

51

over k so that

B(z1 , . . . , zn ) = C(z1 , . . . , zn+1 )(z1 , . . . , zn+1 ) + L1 (z1 , . . . , zn+1 )

L1 having in zn+1 the same degree as L. Since and are in Y , it

follows that L1 Y . Because of degree of L1 , it follows that

L1 = L = 0.

Thus

B(z1 , . . . , zn ) = A(z1 , . . . , zn+1 )(z1 , . . . , zn+1 )

Since is a primitive polynomial, it follows that divides and our

theorem is proved.

We call the irreducible polynomial of x1 , . . . xn+1 over k.

Note that since x1 , . . . xn are algebraically independent over k, the

polynomial

1 (zn+1 ) = (x1 , . . . , xn , zn+1 )

over k(x1 , . . . , xn ) is irreducible in zn+1 .

Let x1 , . . . , xn+1 be of dimension n over k and the irreducible polynomial of x1 , . . . , xn+1 over k. Let be a polynomial in z1 , . . . , zi+1 but

not in zi+2 , . . . , zn+1 , that is it does not involve zi+2 , . . . , zn+1 in its expression. Consider the field L = k(x1 , . . . , xi+1 ). because x1 , . . . , xi+1 are

algebraically dependent ((x1 , . . . , xi+1 ) = 0),

61

dimk L i.

But k(x1 , . . . , xn+1 ) = L(xi+2 , . . . , xn+1 ) so that

dim L k(x1 , . . . , xn+1 ) n i.

Since dimensions are additive, we have

n = dimk L + dimL k(x1 , . . . , xn+1 ) i + n i = n.

Thus L has over k the dimension i. Since is a polynomial in

z1 , . . . , zi+1 every one of these variables occurring, with non zero coefficients, we get the

52

n, there exist among them i + 1 elements, i n, say x1 , . . . , xi+1 (in some

order) such that k(x1 , . . . xi+1 ) has dimension i over k and every i of them

are algebraically independent.

Let K/k be a transcendental extension with a transcendence base B

over k. Then K/k(B) is algebraic. We call K/k an algebraic function

field if

(1) B is a finite set

(2) K/k(B) is finite algebraic.

62

Let dimk K = n. There exist x1 , . . . , xn in K which form a transcendence base of K/k. If K is an algebraic function field then K/k(x1 ,

. . . , xn ) is finite algebraic. Hence K = k(x1 , . . . , xm ), m n, is finitely

generated. This shows that algebraic function fields are identical with

finitely generated extensions.

An algebraic function field K/k is said to be separably generated

if there exists a transcendence base x1 , . . . , xn of K/k such that

K/k(x1 , . . . , xn ) is a separable algebraic extension of finite degree.

x1 , . . . , xn is then said to be a separating base. Clearly every purely transcendental extension is separably generated. Also, if k has characteristic

zero and K is an algebraic function field, it is separably generated. In

this case every transcendence base is a separating base. This is no longer

true if k has characteristic p , o.

For example, let K = k(x, y) be a function field of transcendence

degree one and let

x2 y p = o.

Let k have characteristic p , 2. Obviously x and y are both transcendental over k. But K/k(x) is a simple extension generated by y which is

a root of

z p x2

over k(x)[z] and since k has characteristic p, K/k(x) is purely inseparable. On the other hand K/k(y) is separable since x satisfies over k(y) the

polynomial

x2 y p .

53

An algebraic function field which is not separably generated is said

to be inseparably generated. This means that for every base B of K/k.

K/k(B) is inseparably algebraic.

In algebraic geometry and in algebraic function theory, it is of im- 63

portance to know when an algebraic function field is separably generated. An important theorem in this regard is theorem 2 due to F.K.

Schmidt. We shall first prove a

Lemma . Let k be a perfect field of characteristic p , o and K =

k(x1 , . . . , xn+1 ) an extension field of dimension n. Then K is separably

generated.

Proof. Let be the irreducible polynomial of x1 , . . . , xn+1 and let it be

a polynomial in z1 , . . . , zi+1 but in zi+2 , . . . , zn+1 . Then

(x1 , . . . , zt , . . . , xi+1 )

is irreducible over k(x1 , . . . , xt1 , xt+1 , . . . , xi+1 ) for every t, 1 t i + 1.

At least for one t, (z1 , . . . , zt , . . . , zi+1 ) is a separable polynomial in zt

over k(z1 , . . . , zt1 , . . . , zi+1 ). For, if it is inseparable in every zt , then

p

and since k is perfect, this will mean that (z1 , . . . , zi+1 ) is the pth power

of a polynomial in k[z1 , . . . , zi+1 ] which contradicts irreducibility of .

So, for some zt , say z1 , we have (z1 , x2 , . . . , xi+1 ) is a separable polynomial. Hence x1 is separable over k(x2 , . . . , xi+1 ) and so over k(x2 ,

. . . , xn+1 ). But x2 , . . . , xn+1 has dimension n and our lemma is proved.

Corollary . Under the conditions of the lemma, a separating base of n

elements may be chosen from among x1 , . . . , xn+1 .

We are now ready to prove the theorem of F.K.Schmidt.

Theorem 2. Every algebraic function field K over a perfect field k is

separably generated.

64

54

let k have characteristic p , o. Let K = k(x1 , . . . , xm ) and let n be the

dimension of K/k. Then m n. If m = n there is nothing to prove.

Let m = n + q. If q = 1 then lemma 1 proves the theorem. So let us

assume theorem proved for q 1 instead of q > 1. We may assume,

without loss in generality that x1 , . . . , xn is a transcendence base of K/k.

Consider the fields L = k(x1 , . . . , xn , xn+1 ). It satisfies the conditions

of the lemma. Hence there exist n elements among x1 , . . . , xn+1 say

x1 , . . . , xt1 , xt+1 , . . . xn+1 which from a separating base of L/k. Thus xt

is separable over k(x1 , . . . , xt1 , . . . , xn+1 ) and hence over

M = k(x1 , . . . , xt1 , xt+1 , xt+2 , . . . , xm )

M/k now satisfies the induction hypothesis and so is separably generated. Since K/M is separable, it follows that K is separably generated.

We could prove even more if we assume as induction hypothesis the

fact that among x1 , . . . , xm there exists a separating base.

2 Derivations

Let R be a commutative ring with unit element e. A mapping D of R

into itself is said to be a derivation of R if

65

(1) D(a + b) = Da + Db

(2) D(ab) = aDb + bDa

for a, b R. It is said to be a derivation over a subring R if for every

a R , Da = o. It then follows that for a R and x R

Dax = aDx

The set Ro of a R with Da = o is a subring of R and contains e.

For,

De = De2 = De. e + e. De = 2De ;

2. Derivations

55

so De = o. If Da = o, Db = o, then

D(a + b) =Da + Db = o

D(ab) = aDb + bDa = o

Thus Ro is a subring. We call Ro the ring of constants of the derivation D.

If R is a field, then Ro also is a field. For, if x Ro and x , o, then

o = De = Dx.x1 = Dx.x1 + x.Dx1

Thus

Dx1 = o

so that x1 Ro .

D is said to be a non-trivial derivation of R if there is an x R with

Dx , o. It follows from above that

Theorem 3. A prime field has no non-trivial derivations.

A Derivation D of R is said to be an extension of a derivation D of a

= Da for a R . We now prove the

subring R of R if Da

66

Theorem 4. If K is the quotient field of an integrity domain R, then a

derivation D of R can be uniquely extended to K.

a

Proof. Every element c in K can be expressed in the form c = , a,

b

b R. If an extension D of D exists, then

= Da

Da

But a = bc so that

= Dbc

= bDc

+ cDb

Da = Da

Therefore

Dc

b

b2

56

If c is expressed in the form

a

, a , b R then ab = ba and so

b

or that

Da cDb Da cDb

=

b

b

which proves that Dc

the ratio of two elements from R. We have therefore only to prove the

In order to prove this, put for c = a

existence of D.

b

= bDa aDb ;

Dc

b2

we should verify that it is a derivation, is independent of the way c is

expressed as ratio of elements in R and that it coincides with D on R.

These are very simple.

67

D1 a + D2 a for a R. Then it is easy to verify that D is a derivation of

R. Furthermore if a R define aD by

(aD)x = a.Dx

By this means, the derivations of R from an R module, Suppose

D1 , . . . , Dr from a basis of the module of derivations of R.

Then every derivation D of R is of the form

X

D=

ai Di , ai R.

i

of D1 , . . . , Dr respectively to K, the quotient, field of R. Then D 1 , . . . , D r

are linearly independent over K. For, if

X

1i D i = o,

1i K

i

2. Derivations

then write 1i =

57

ai

, ai , bi R. We get

bi

X ai

i

bi

D i = o.

P

P

( D i )t = o for every t R. Therefore i Di = o which implies

i

that i = o or ai = o.

Also, since every derivation D of K is an extension of a derivation

of R, it follows that the derivations of K from an r-dimensional vector

space over K.

Let us now consider the case where R = k[x1 , . . . , xn ] is the ring of

polynomials in n variables x1 , . . . , xn . The n mappings

Di :

a

, i = 1, . . . , n

xi

R which are trivial on k. For, if

X

ai Di = o,

ai R

i

X

o = ( ai Di )x j = a j , j = 1, . . . , n.

i

ai . Put

X

ai Di .

D = D

i

Then

X

j = Dx j ( ai Di )x j = o

Dx

i

58

i = ai . Let Do be another extension of D which has the property

Let Dx

Do xi = ai , i = 1, . . . , n.

Then D Do is a derivation of R which is trivial on k. But since

(D Do )xi = o,

i = 1, . . . , n

Theorem 5. The derivations of K = k(x1 , . . . , xn ), the field of rational

functions of n variables over k which are trivial on k from a vector space

of dimension n over K. A basis of this space of derivations is given by

the n partial derivations

Di =

69

,

xi

i = 1, . . . , n.

D of D to K for which

i = ai ,

Dx

i = 1, . . . , n

We now consider derivations of algebraic function fields.

Let K = k(x1 , . . . , xm ) be a finitely generated extension of k. Put

T = k[x1 , . . . , xm ]. In order to determine all the derivations of K, it is

enough to determine the derivations of T since K is the quotient field of

T . Let D be a derivation of k; we wish to find extensions D of D to K.

Let R denote the ring of polynomials k[z1 , . . . , zm ] in m independent

f

the

variables. For any polynomial f (x1 , . . . , xm ) in T , denote by

xi

f

polynomial obtained by substituting zi = xi , i = 1, . . . , m in

where

zi

f = f (z1 , . . . , zm ) is in R.

If

X

f =

a1 , . . . , m x11 xmm

2. Derivations

59

a1 , . . . , m k, put

fD =

X

(Da1 , . . . , m )x11 xmm .

derivation D, then clearly

D f = f D +

m

X

f

Dxi

xi

i=1

i cannot be arbitrary elements of T . For, let

which generate T . Now Dx

Y be the ideal in R of the set x1 , . . . , xm .

Then for f (z1 , . . . , zm ) in Y ,

f (x1 , . . . , xm ) = o.

= 0, the Dx

i would have to satisfy the infinity

Therefore, since Do

of equations

m

X

f

Dxi

0 = fD +

xi

i=1

for every f in Y .

Conversely, suppose u1 , . . . um are m elements in T satisfying

m

X

f

ui = 0

f +

xi

i=1

D

= D + f D +

D

m

X

Dxi

xi

i=1

where Dx

with D on k. Furthermore D does not depend on the way is expressed

60

then, since a b Y have

X a

b

aD bD +

ui

ui = o

xi

xi

i

which proves our contention. Hence

71

be ideal in k[z1 , . . . , zm ] of the set x1 , . . . , xm . Let u1 , . . . , um be any

elements of K. There exists a derivation D and only one satisfying

i = ui , i = 1, . . . , m

Dx

and extending the derivation D in k, if and only if, for every f Y

fD +

m

X

f

ui = o.

x

i

i=1

= D +

D

m

X

ui .

xi

i=1

number in the following manner. Since R = k[z1 , . . . , zm ] is a noetherian

ring, the ideal Y has a finite set f1 , . . . , fs of generators so that f Y

may be written

s

X

f =

Ai fi ,

Ai R

i=1

X

X

f D (x) =

AiD fi +

fiD Ai

i

f

=

xi

X

j

Aj

f j X A j

+

fj

,

xi

xi

j

2. Derivations

61

we get

f D (x) +

m

X

f

ui = o.

xi

i=1

fiD +

m

X

f

u j = o, i = 1, . . . , s.

x

j

j=1

72

Let K = k(x) be a simple extension of k. Let D be a derivation of k.

We will study extensions D of D into K.

(1) First let x be transcendental over k. The ideal of x in k[z] is zero.

arbitrarily. Thus for every

This means that we can prescribe Dx

u K there exists one and only extension D with

=u

Dx

(2) Let now x be algebraic over k. Suppose x is inseparable over

k. Let f (z) be the minimum polynomial of x in k[z]. Then f (z)

generates the ideal of x in k[z]. But x being inseparable, f (x) = o.

This means that D has to satisfy

f D = o.

This can be done arbitrarily as can be easily seen. Thus there exist

an infinity of extensions D.

(3) Finally, let X be separable. Then f (z), the irreducible polynomial

of x over k is such that

f (x) , o.

Since f (z) generates Y we must have

= o,

f D (x) + f (x)Dx

62

is uniquely fixed by D.

or that Dx

=

Dx

73

f D (x)

f (x)

(*)

In particular, K has no derivations, except the trivial one, over k.

We shall now prove

Theorem 7. In order that a finitely generated extension K = k(x1 ,

. . . , xn ) be separably algebraic over k, it is necessary and sufficient that

K have no non-trivial derivations over k.

Proof. If K/k is algebraically separable, then since K is finitely generated over k, it follows that K = k(x) for some x and the last of the considerations above shows that K has no nontrivial derivations over k.

Suppose now K/k has no-trivial derivations. In case n = 1, our

considerations above show that K/k is separable. Let now n > 1 and

assume that theorem is proved for n 1 instead of n.

Put

K = K1 (xn )

K1 = k(x1 , . . . , xn1 ).

74

Then xn is separably algebraic over K1 . For, if not, let x1 be inseparable over K1 or transcendental over K1 . In both cases the zero

derivation in K1 can be extended into a non-trivial deri-vation of K contradictions hypothesis over K.

Thus xn is separable over K1 . This implies, since K has no derivations over k that K1 and our theorem is proved.

Note that in the theorem above, the fact that K/k is finitely generated

K/k is infinite. Also if a k then a = b p for some b K. If D is a

derivation of K, then

Da = Db p = pb p1 Db = o

This proves, in particular, that a perfect field of characteristic p , o,

has only the trivial derivation.

2. Derivations

63

then K has only the trivial derivation.

Let K = k(x, y) be an algebraic function field of one variable. Let us

assume that x is a separating variable and (X, Y) the irreducible polynomial of x, y over k. Then if D is a derivation of K over k,

Dx +

Dy = o

x

y

so that if we assume that y is separable over k(x), then

Dy =

, o and hence

y

Dx

Also, for any rational function (x, y) of x, y

D =

Dx +

Dy

x

y

which gives,if Dx , o

D

=

Dx

x y

!

x

We shall now obtain a generalisation of theorem 7 to algebraic function fields.

Let K = k(x1 , . . . , xm ) be an algebraic function field of dimension

n, so that o n m. Let f1 , . . . , fs be a system of generators of the 75

ideal Y of polynomials f (z1 , . . . , zm ) in k[x1 , . . . , xm ] which vanish for

f

for f in k[z1 , . . . , zm ] have the same meaning as

x1 , . . . , xm . Let

xi

before.

Denote by M the matrix

!

f

i = 1, . . . , m

M=

xi

64

j = 1, . . . , s

where i is the row index and j the column index. We denote by t the

rank of the matrix M which is a matrix over K.

Let VK (D) denote the vector space of derivations of K which are

trivial on k. This is a vector space over K. Denote by l the dimension of

VK (D) over K. We then have

Theorem 8.

l+ t =m.

Proof. For any integer p, denote by W p the vector space over K of dimension p, generated by p-tuples (1 , . . . , p ), i K.

Let denote the mapping

D = (Dx1 , . . . , Dxm )

of Vk (D) into Wm . This is clearly a homomorphism of Vk (D) into Wm .

The kernel of the homomorphism is the set of D for which Dxi = o; i =

1, . . . , m. But since K is generated by x1 , . . . , xm , this implies that D = o.

Thus Vk (D) is isomorphic to the subspace of Wm formed the vectors

(Dx1 , . . . , Dxm ).

76

((1 , . . . , m ) = (1 , . . . , m )M of Wm into W s . Put

j =

m

X

j=1

fi

; i = 1, . . . , s

x j

so that

(1 , . . . , s ) = (1 , . . . , m )M.

The rank of the mapping is clearly y equal to the rank t of the

matrix M. It is the dimension of the image by of Wm into W s . The

kernel of the mapping is the set of (1 , . . . , m )with

i = o; i = 1, . . . , s.

2. Derivations

65

by vectors (Dx1 , . . . , Dxm ), D VK (D). This, by previous considerations, proves the theorem.

We shall now prove the

Theorem 9. With the same notations as before, there exist elements,

say x1 , . . . , x1 of dimension n over k such that K/k(x1 , . . . , x1 ) is a separably algebraic extension.

Proof. Since the matrix M has rank t, there exists a submatrix of M of

t rows and which is non-singular. Choose notation in such a way, that

this matrix is

!

i = m t + 1, . . . , m

fj

,

P=

xi

j = s t + 1, . . . , s

Note that t Min (s, m). Let L = k(x1 , . . . , x1 ). Then

K = L(x1+p , . . . , xm ). Let D be a derivation of K over L. Then since

f j (x1 , . . . , xm ) = o, we must have, by theorem 6

m

X

fj

i=1

xi

Dxi = o.

Dxi = o, i = 1, . . . , l.

Thus

m

X

fj

Dxi = o.

xi

i=l+1

Dxl+1 o

P ... = ...

Dxm

o

shows that D = o

77

66

But K = L(xl+1 , . . . , xm ) is finitely generated over L. Using theorem 7, it follows that K/L is algebraic and separable. We get incidentally

n 1.

We now prove the important

separably generated over k, if and only if dim VK (D) = n. In that case

there exists, among x1 , . . . , xm , a separating base of n elements.

Proof. If VK (D) has dimension n then theorem 9 shows that there exist n

elements x1 , . . . , xn among x1 , . . . , xm such K/k(x1 , . . . , xn ) is separably

algebraic.

78

a separating base so that K/k(y1 , . . . , yn ) is separably algebraic. k(y1 ,

. . . , yn ) has n linearly independent derivations D1 , . . . , Dn over k defined

by

o, if i , j

Di y j =

1, if i = j

that each of D1 , . . . , Dn has a unique extension D 1 , . . . , D n to K. Now

D 1 , . . . , D n are linearly independent over K. For, if

X

ai D i = o, ai K,

i

then

X

ai D i (y j ) = o for all j.

let Dyi = ai . Put

X

D = D

ai D i .

i

67

Then Dy

D = o.This proves that

dim VK (D) = n.

and our theorem is completely established.

Let K = k(x1 , . . . , xn , y) where k is of characteristic p , o and k is

an imperfect field. Let y be algebraic over k and be a root of

zp t

t k. Then K/k is an inseparably generated extension and

dim VK (D) = n + 1

where n is the dimension of K/k.

79

f (x)

variable. Let y be any element of K. Hence y =

where f and g are

g(x)

polynomials in x over k. Also K is the quotient field of the ring L = k[x]

of polynomials in x.

Assume that ( f (x), g(x)) = 1, that is that they have no factor in

common. Let n be defined by

n = max(deg f (x), deg g(x)).

If n = o, then clearly f k, g k and so y k. Let us assume that

n , o so that at least at least one of f and g is a non-constant polynomial.

n is called the degree of y.

Let F = k(y) be the field generated over k by y.

Then x satisfies over F the polynomial

(z) = f (z) yg(z).

68

1

X

f (z) =

ai z

i=o

ai , bi k.

g(z) =

bi z

i=o

a1

a1 yb1

ybm

if

if

if

1>m

1=m

1<m

polynomial. Since (z) has degree n in z, it follows that

(K : F) n.

80

F[z], then since F = k(y), it will be reducible over k[y, z]. So let (z) =

1 (y, z) 2 (y, z) in k[y, z]. Since (z) is linear in y it follows that one of

1 or 2 has to be independent of y. But then since ( f (z), g(z)) = 1, (z)

is a primitive polynomial in y over k[z]. Therefore (z) is irreducible.

This means that

(K : F) = n

It proves, in particular that y is transcendental over k. Hence

Theorem 11. k is algebraically closed in k(x).

We can extend it to the case where K = k(x1 , . . . , xn ) is a purely

transcendental extension of dimension n. We use induction on n. Theorem 11 proves that n = 1, k is algebraically closed in k(x). Let, for n 1

instead of n, instead of n, it be proved that k is algebraically closed in the

purely transcendental extension k(x1 , . . . , xn1 ). Let K = k(x1 , . . . , xn )

be of dimension n.

69

k(x1 , . . . , xn1 ). Therefore by theorem 11 since z is algebraic over K1 ,

z K1 . By induction hypothesis, z k.

Thus

Corollary. If K = k(x1 , . . . , xn ) has dimension n over k, then k is algebraically closed in K

It is easy to extend this to the case where K is a purely transcendental

extension of any transcendence degree.

Since K = k(x), we call x a generator of K over k. Let y also be a 81

generator so that K = k(y). Then

(k(x) : k(y)) = 1

which shows by our considerations leading to theorem 11 that

y=

a(x)

b(x)

where a(x) and b(x) are coprime and have at most the degree 1 in x.

Thus

x +

y=

x +

where , , , are in k and since y is transcendental over k,

, 0.

An automorphism of K which is identity on k, is uniquely fixed by

its effect on x. If it takes x into y then x and y are related as above. If

x and y are related as above, then the mapping which assigns to x the

element y is an automorphism.

If we consider the group of two rowed non-singular matrices, with

elements in k, then each matrix gives rise to an automorphism of K/k.

Obviously two matrices and give rise to the same automorphism if

and only if = for some , o in k. Hence

Theorem 12. The group of automorphisms of K = k(x) over k is isomorphic to the factor group of the group of two rowed matrices over k

modulo the group of matrices E, , 0 k and E is the unit matrix of

order 2.

70

82

From theorem 11, it follows that if L is an intermediary field between K and k then L is transcendental over k. But much more is true as

in shown by the following theorem of Luroth.

Theorem 13. If K = k(x) is a simple transcendental extension of k and

k L K, L = K() for some K.

Proof. We shall assume that L , k so that L is transcendental over k

and contains an element t, transcendental over k andy by considerations

leading to theorem 11, we have K/k(t) is finite algebraic. Since L k(t),

it follows that

(K : L) <

Let x satisfy over L the irreducible polynomial

f (z) = zn + a1 zn1 + + an

where a1 , . . . , an L and n = (K : L). At least one ai is not in k since x

is transcendental over k. The ai s are rational functions of x. So we may

write

b0 (x) f (z) = f (x, z) = b0 (x)zn + b1 (x)zn1 + + bn (x) where

b0 (x), . . . , bn (x) are polynomials in x and f (x, z) is a primitive polynomial in z over k[x]. Let m be the maximum of the degrees of b0 (x),

. . . bn (x). Let ai be not in k. Then

ai =

bi (x)

b0 (x)

nm

Let us write w instead of ai . Then w =

83

bi (x)

.

b0 (x)

Also x satisfies over k(w) the polynomial

h(z) wg(z)

71

so that since f (z) is irreducible, it follows that f (z) divides h(z) wg(z),

which is a polynomial of degree m in z. Let us therefore write

h(z) wg(z) =

bo (x)

co (x)

h(x)

,

on substituting the w =

g(x)

h(z)g(x) g(z)h(x) =

g(x)c1 (x)

. f (x, z)(x, z).

bo (x)co (x)

primitive polynomials in z over k[x], it follows that

h(z)g(x) g(z)h(x) = f (x, z)1 (x, z)

where 1 (x, z) k[x, z]. We now compare degrees in x and z on both

sides of the above identity. On the right hand side the degree in x is m

since one of bo (x), . . . , bn (x) has degree m. Therefore the left side has

degree in x m. But the degree in x equals degree of w m. Thus

degree of w = m. Since the left side is symmetrical in z and x,it follows

that it has degree m in z. Therefore 1 has to be independent of x.

Hence h(z) wg(z) = f (z)(z), (z) being independent of x. This

can happen only if (z) is a constant. This proves that

n = m.

Now (K : k(w)) = m = (K : L) and L k(w). Thus

L = k(w)

and our theorem is proved.

The analogue of Luroths theorem for K = k(x1 , . . . , xn ) is not known

for n > 1.

Let K = k(x) and let G be a finite granite group of automorphism of

K/k. If L is the fixed field of G, then K/L is a finite extension of degree

equal to order of G. By Luroths theorem L = k(y) for some y. Thus

degree y = order of G.

84

72

defined by

1

1

x

1

,x

x x, x 1 x, x , x 1 , x

x

x

1x

x1

This is a group of order 6 and the fixed field will be k(y) where k(y)

consists of all rational functions f (x) of x with

1

1

1

x

f (x) = f (1 x) = f ( ) = f (1 ) = f (

) = f(

).

x

x

1x

1x

We have only to find a rational function of degree 6 which satisfies

the above conditions. The function

f (x) =

(x2 x + 1)3

x2 (x 1)2

Theorem 14. If G is any finite subgroup of P2 of linear transformations

ax + b

cx + d

a, b, c, d k, ad bc , 0 then there exists a rational function f (x) such

that every function (x) which is invariant under G is a rational function

of f (x). f (x) is uniquely determined up to a linear transformation

x

85

f (x) +

V f (x) +

, , k, , 0.

We now consider the case of a rational function field K = k(x1 ,

. . . xn ) of n variables. Let G be a finite group of automorphisms of K

which are trivial on k and let L be the fixed field of G. Clearly L has

transcendence degree n over k. It is not known, except in simple cases,

whether L is a purely transcendental extension of k or not. We shall,

however, consider the the case where G is the symmetric group on n

73

is an element of S n , then is a permutation

!

1, 2, 3, . . . , n

=

.

1 , 2 , 3 , . . . , n

We define on K by

xi = xi ; 1, . . . , n.

We then obtain a faithful representation of S n on K and we denote

this group again by S n . An element of k which is fixed under S n and

which therefore is in L is called a symmetric function of x1 , . . . , xn . Obviously

(K : L) = n!

and the galois group of K/L is S n .

Consider the polynomial

86

f (z) = (z x1 ) . . . (z xn ).

Since every permutation in S n leaves f (z) fixed, it follows that f (z)

L[z]. Let us write

f (z) = zn s1 zn1 + s2 zn2 + (1)n sn

where

si =

xt1 xti .

The quantities s1 , . . . , sn are called the elementary symmetric functions of x1 , . . . xn . Put L1 = k(s1 , . . . , sn ). Then L1 L. Also f (z) is a

polynomial in L1 {z} and is irreducible over it. f (z) is separable and K is

the splitting field of f (z) over L1 . Thus K/L1 is galois. Since f (z) is of

degree n

(K : L1 ) n!

Since L L1 , it follows that L = L1 and

L = k(s1 , . . . , sn ).

We have therefore the

74

Theorem 15. Every rational symmetric function of x1 , . . . , xn is a rational function over k of the elementary symmetric functions s1 , . . . , sn .

Incidentally since L/k has dimension n, the elementary symmetric

functions s1 , . . . , sn are algebraically independent over k.

Chapter 4

1 Norm and trace

87

every K may be written

X

ai i

=

i

A

where A = (ai j ) is an n rowed square matrix with

X

i =

ai j j

i = 1, . . . , n

j

algebra mn (k) of n rowed matrices over k. We denote by NK/k , S K/K

the norm and trace respectively of K over k and they are defined by

NK/k = |A |

S K/k = trace A .

75

76

Defined as such, it follows that

NK/k = NK/k . NK/k

S K/k ( + ) = S K/k + S K/k

K and similarly S K/k is a homomorphism of K + , the additive

group, into k+ .

Let 1 , . . . , n be any other basis of K/k. Then

88

1

1

.

..

. = P ..

n

n

it follows that

1

1

.

.. = A ...

n

n

1

1

.

1

.. = PA P ...

n

n

which shows that by means of the new basis the matrix associated to

is B where

B = PA P 1

and then we have

| B | = |A |

Trace B = Trace A .

This shows that NK/k and S K/k are invariantly defined and do not

depend on a basis of K/k.

77

We write

fK/k (x) =| xE A |

and call it the characteristic polynomial of . Obviously fK/k (0) =

(1)n | A | so that

NK/k = (1)n fK/k (0) = (1)n an .

(1)

S K/k = a1

(2)

where

fK/k (x) = xn + a1 xn1 + + an

a1 , . . . , an k.

Let k L K be a tower of finite extensions. Let (K : L) = m

and let 1 , . . . , m be a basis of K/L. Similarly let (L : k) = n and let 89

1 , . . . , n be a base of L/k. Then (1 1 , . . . , n m ) is a base of K/k.

Let L and consider the matrix of by the regular representation of

K/k in terms of the base (1 1 , . . . , n m ). Call it A .

Then it is trivial to see that

A 0

A =

0 A

a matrix of mn rows and columns. Therefore

S K/k = (K : L)S K/k

respectively are fL/k (x) and fK/k (x) and they are related by

fK/k (x) = ( fL/k (x))(K:L) ,

(3)

of . We, therefore, have the

78

polynomial over k and f (x) its characteristic polynomial, then

f (x) = ((x))r

where r = (K : k()).

90

From our formulae above, it follows that we can compute the norm

and trace of in K from a knowledge of its minimum polynomial.

Let now K/k be a finite extension and an element of K. Let

[K : k()] = m , [k() : k] = n be the degrees of separability of

K over k() and k() over k respectively. Then K/kn haso m n distinct

i=1,...,n

k-isomorphisms in an algebraic closure of k. Let i j , j=1,...,m

, be

these isomorphisms and let notation be so chosen that i1 , . . . , im , have

the same the same effect on k(). Then we may take 11 , 12 , . . . , n 1

as a complete system of distinct isomorphisms of k()/k in .

By our considerations above fk()/k (x) is the polynomial of as

well as the characteristic polynomial of in k()/k. If fK/k (x) is the

characteristic polynomial of in k, then

fK/k (x) = ( fk()/k (x))(K:k())

(4)

m

n Y

n

Y

Y

(x i j ) =

(x i1 )m .

i=1 j=1

(5)

i=1

n

{k():k}

fk()/k (x) =

(x i1 )

i=1

over k. Using (5) we get

{k:k}

m {K:k}

Y

Y

(x

()

=

.

(x

i

j

i1

i, j

i=1

79

{K:k}

(x

)

= fk()/k (x) m {K:k()}

ij

i, j

fK/k (x) =

(

Q

){K:k}

((x )

91

(6)

(1) and (2) we get

{K:k}

NK/k =

(7)

is a conjugate of . Similarly

S K/k = {K : k}

(8)

S K/k = o.

On the other hand, suppose K/k is finite and separable. Let 1 ,

. . . , n be all the distinct isomorphisms of K/k in , an algebraic closure

of K. Then n = (K : k) and since 1 , . . . , n are independent k-linear

functions of K/k in , it follows that

= 1 + + n

is a non - trivial klinear function of K/k in . Therefore there exists a

K such that , 0. But by formula (8),

= 1 + . . . + n = S K/k

so that we have the

80

in K an element whose trace over k in not zero.

In case k has characteristic zero, or k has characteristic p n = (K : 92

k), the unit element 1 in k has trace , o. In order to obtain an element

in K with S K/k , 0, in every case we proceed thus:

Let K/k be separable and K = k() for an element . Let (x) be its

irreducible polynomial over k and

(x) = (x 1 ) (x n ).

It follows then that

1

xn1 X n1

i

=

.

( ) x

(x)

i

i

i

Comparing coefficients of xn1 on both sides we get

X n1

i

= 1.

( )

i

i

If we put =

n1

and observe that () K, we get

()

S K/K = 1.

extensions and K, then

NK/k = NL/k (NK/L )

S K/k = S L/k (S K/L )

Let k be a finite field of q = pa elements so that p is the characteristic

of k. Let K be a finite extension of k so that (K : k) = n. Then K has

2. Discriminant

81

Frobenius automorphism. Then for K,

= q .

93

The norm of is

2

n1

NK/k =

qn 1

= q1 .

Since K has qn 1 elements,

n 1

=1

with

qn 1

q1 =1

is precisely qn 1/q 1, since q 1 divides qn 1.

Now NK/k is a homomorphism of K into k and the kernel

of the homomorphism is the set of in K with

qn 1

1 = NK/k = q 1 .

By the first homomorphism theorem we have, since k has only q1

elements, the

Theorem 3. If K/k is finite and k is a finite field, then every non-zero

element of k is the norm of exactly (K : k ) elements of K.

It is clear that this theorem is not in general true if k is an infinite

field.

82

2 Discriminant

Let K/k be a finite extension and 1 , . . . , n a basis of K/k. Suppose 94

is a k-linear map of K into k, that is

() k

( + ) = +

() = ()

where , K, K. Let M denote the matrix

M = ((i j))

of n rows and columns. We denote by DK/k (1 , . . . , n ) its determinant and call it the - discriminant of the basis 1 , . . . , n of K/k. If

1 , . . . , n is another basis, then

1

1

.

.. = P ...

n

n

If P = (pi j ) then

X

pi j j

i =

j

so that

(a b ) =

pai pb j (i j )

i, j

DK/k (1 , . . . , n ) = |P|2 DK/k (1 , . . . , n ).

Therefore DK/k = 0 if it is zero for some basis.

We now prove

2. Discriminant

83

into k, then

DK/k (1 , . . . , n ) = 0

95

Proof. If is the zero linear map, that is, one that assigns to every

element in K, the zero element, then DK/K = 0. Now let DK/k = 0.

This means that the matrix M with elements in k has determinant zero.

Therefore there exist a1 , . . . , an in k, not all zero, such that

a1 0

M ... = ... .

0

an

This means that

n

X

(i j )a j = 0; 1 = 1, . . . , n.

j=1

If we put z =

a j j . then we have

(i z) = 0, i = 1, . . . , n.

and so put

= b1 1 + + bn n , bi k.

z

P

Then () =

z = bi (i z) = o. This proves that is the

z

i

trivial map.

The mapping S K/K is also a k-linear map of K into k. For a

basis 1 , . . . , n of K/k we call

DK/k (1 , . . . n ) = |(S k/K (i j ))|

the discriminant of the basis 1 , . . . n . Using theorem 2 and theorem 4,

we get

84

is separable.

96

Let K/k be finite separable. Let 1 , . . . , n be the distinct k-isomorphisms of K over k in . Then

X

S K/k =

i .

i

Therefore

2

1 1 , 1 2 , . . . , 1 n

..

DK/k (1 , . . . , n ) =

.

.

n

1

1 , . . . . . . , 1

(9)

. . . , n1 form a base of K/k and we have

...,

1

1,

1 ,

...,

1

n1

.

D(1, , . . . , ) =

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(n1 )1 , . . . , (n1 )n

Also, D(1, , . . . , n1 ) D(1 , . . . , n ) is the square of an element

of k. The determinant

...,

1

1,

1 ,

...,

n

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(n1 )n , . . . , (n1 )n

the discriminant of and denote it by DK/k ().

Let f (x) be the minimum polynomial of . Then f (x) = (x

1 ) . . . (x n ). Since f () , 0 , we have

f () = (1 2 )(1 3 ). . . . .(1 n )

and is an element of K. We call it the different of and denote it dK/k ().

Also the Vander - monde determinant shows that

2. Discriminant

85

DK/k () = (1)n(n1)2 NK/k (dK/k )

97

Suppose K/k is a finite galois extension. Let 1 , . . . , n be the distinct automorphisms of K/k. We shall now prove

Theorem 6. If k contains sufficiently many elements, then there exists

in K an element such that 1 , . . . , n form a basis of K over k.

Proof. It K such that

D(1 , . . . , n ) , o

then 1 , . . . , n form a base of K/k. For,if

X

ai i = o, a1 , . . . , an k

i

X

ai j i = o, j = 1, . . . , n.

i

that

a1 o

i j

S K/k ( ) ... = ...

o

an

to find an with this property. Put

i = x1 1 i + + xn n i ,

i = 1, 2, . . .

Then

S K/k (i j ) = 1 i 1 j , + + n i n j

X

=

S K/k (a i b j )xa xb .

a,b

86

(S K/k (i j )) is a polynomial in x1 , . . . , xn with coefficients in k.

In order to prove that DK/k (1 , . . . , n ) is non-zero polynomial,

notice that by definition,

1

1 , 1 , . . . , n 1 x1

1

2

.

..

. = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

n

1 n , 2 n , . . . , n n xn

zero and for this set of values of x1 , . . . , xn , the polynomial DK/k (1 ,

. . . , n ) has a value , o, as can be see from the fact that

2

1 , . . . , n

DK/k (1 , . . . , n ) = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

n i , . . . , n n

Therefore if k has sufficiently many elements, there exist values in k

of x1 , . . . , xn , not all zero, such that DK/k (1 , . . . , n ) , o.

This proves the theorem

In particular, if k is an infinite field, there exists a base of K/k consisting of an element and its conjugates. Such a base is said to be a

normal base.

The theorem is also true if k is a finite field.

Chapter 5

Composite extensions

1 Kronecker product of Vector spaces

99

cartesian product. If W is any vector space over k, a bilinear function

f (x, y) on V1 V2 is, by definition, a function on V1 V2 into W such

that for every x V1 the mapping x : y f (x, y) is a linear function

on V2 into W and for every y V2 the function y : x f (x, y) is a

linear function on V1 to W.

A Vector space T over k is said to be a Kronecker product or tensor

product of V1 and V2 over k, if there exists a bilinear function on V1 V2

into T such that

1) T is generated by (V1 V2 )

2) if V3 is any vector space over k, then for every bilinear function on

V1 V2 into V3 there exists a linear function on T into V3 such that

= .

This is shown by the commutative diagram

V1 V2M

MMM

MM

MM&&

87

// V

v;; 3

v

vv

vv

5. Composite extensions

88

Theorem 1. For any two vector spaces V1 and V2 over k there exists

one and upto k-isomorphism only one Kronecker product T of V1 and

V2 over k.

100

vector spaces satisfying the conditions 1) and 2). Let T 1 be generated

by 1 (V1 V2 ) and T 2 by 2 (V1 V2 ). Let be the linear map of T 1

into T 2 such that 1 = 2 and the linear map of T 2 into T 1 such that

2 = 1 . Since 1 (V1 V2 ) generates T 1 we see that is identity

on T 1 . Similarly is identity on T 2 . Thus and are isomorphisms

onto.

We now prove the existence of the space T .

Let V be the vector space formed by finite linear combinations

X

axy (x, y)

can be extended into a linear function f of V into V3 by the prescription

X

X

f

axy (x, y) =

ax,y f (x, y)

Let W be the subspace of V generated by elements of the type

(x + x1 , y) (x, y) (x1 , y)

(x, y + y1 ) (x, y) (x, y1 )

(ax, y) a(x, y)

101

Also if f is a bilinear function on V1 V2 , its extension f on V vanishes

on W. Furthermore if f is any linear function on V vanishing on W,

its restriction to V1 V2 is a bilinear function. It is then clear that the

space of bilinear functions on V1 V2 is isomorphic to the space of linear

functions on V which vanish on W. If is any linear function on V/W

into V3 and the natural homomorphism of V on V/W then is a

linear function on V vanishing on W. Also is an isomorphism

89

functions on V vanishing on W. is clearly a bilinear function on V1 V2

into T = V/W and furthermore, by definition of V, V/W is generated by

(V1 V2 ). Thus T is the required space.

By taking k itself as a vector space over k, we have

Theorem 2. The space of bilinear functions on V1 V2 into k is isomorphic to the dual of the Kronecker product T .

x k V2 the kronecker product space. When there is

We denote by V1

no doubt about the field over which the kronecker product is taken we

x 2.

will simply write V1 V

x 2 we denote by x y

x the element in T which correIf T = V1 V

sponds to (x, y) by the bilinear function on V1 V2 into T . Since

(V1 V2 ) generates T , every element of T is of the form

X

x

ax,y (x y)

axy k.

Clearly

x = o
y

x = o
o

x

x
o

x

x = x
y

x + x1
y

(x + x )
y

x + y1 ) = x
y

x + x
y

x 1

x (y

x = a(x
y)

x

ax
y

x

x by = b(x
y)

x

102

From our considerations it follows that in order to define a linear

x 2 it is enough to define it on elements of the type

function on V1 V

x

x y. Also for every such linear function, there is a bilinear function on

V1 V2 .

x y x

x of V1 V

x 2 to V2 V

x 1

It is easy to see that the mapping x y

is an isomorphism onto.

Suppose now that V1 and V2 are duals of V1 and V2 respectively over

k. If V1 and V2 and we define for (x, y) V1 V2 the function

.(x, y) = x.y,

then . is a bilinear function on V1 V2 into k. We shall now prove the

5. Composite extensions

90

x } is a base of V1 V

x 2 over k.

then {x y

x } are linearly independent over k. For

Proof. We first prove that {x y

P

x

all a (x y ) = o for a k, a = o for all but a finite number of

, . By the method of constructing the tensor product, it follows that

P

a (x , y ) is an element of W. Let and be elements of V1 and V2

defined respectively by

(x ) = 1

if =

= o otherwise

(y ) = 1

=o

if

otherwise

103

Then is a bilinear function on V1 V2 and hence vanishes on

W. Thus

X

x ) = o.

.

a (x
y

But the left side equals a . Thus all the coefficients a vanish.

x 2 is a linear combination of elements of

Next any element of V1
V

P

P

x x V1 , y V2 . But then x = a x and y = b y so

the type x
y,

that

X

X

x

x =

x
y

b y

a x

P

x ). Our theorem is proved.

which equals a b (x
y

We have incidentally the

Corollary. If V1 and V2 are finite dimensional over k then

x 2 = dim V1 dim V2 .

dim V1
V

Also since the dual of V1 is isomorphic in a natural manner with V1

when dim V1 is finite, we get

91

x k V2 is

Corollary . If V1 and V2 are finite dimensional over k then V1

isomorphic to the dual of the space of bilinear functions on V1 V2 into

k.

Let now A1 and A2 be two associative algebras over a field k. We

x k A2 of the vector spaces A1

can form the Kronecker product A = A1

and A2 over k. We shall now introduce a multiplication into A so as to

make it into an associative algebra.

In order to do this, observe that the multiplication defined has to be 104

a bilinear function on A A into A. Since A is generated by elements of

x it is enough to define this bilinear function on elements of

the type x
y,

x 1 . Put

x and z1 = x1
y

the type (z, z1 ) in A A where z = x
y

x y1 .

f (z, z1 ) = z z1 = x x1
y

x 1 is a bilinear function on A1 A2 into

Now since (x, y) xx1
yy

A, by our previous considerations z z z1 is a linear function on A into

A. Similarly z1 z z1 is a linear function on A. This proves that f is

bilinear and that the multiplication so defined distributes addition. That

the multiplication is associative is trivial to see.

A is called the Kronecker product algebra.

We obtain some very simple consequences from the definition.

) If e1 and e2 are respectively the unit elements of the algebras A1

x 2 is the unit element of A1
A

x 2.

and A2 then e1
e

x 2 is generated by elements x
y,

x it is enough

For, since A = A1
A

x

x 2 ) = (e1
e

x 2 )(x
y).

x

to verify (x
y)(e

But this is trivial.

1
e

) If A1 has x1 , . . . , xm as a base over k and A2 has y2 , . . . , yn as a

x j ) is a base of A1
A

x 2 over k. Furthermore if the

base over k then (xi
y

multiplication tables for the bases are

X

xi x j =

a(t)

i j xt

yi y j =

t

X

b(ti j ) yt

then

x q )(xr
y

x s) =

(x p
y

X

,

105

()

x )

a()

pr bqs (x
y

5. Composite extensions

92

mappings

x 2

x x e

x

y e1 y

are isomorphisms of A1 and A2 into A. Thus A contains subalgebras

isomorphic to A1 and A2 .

An important special case is the one where one of the algebras is a

field. Let A be an algebra over k and K an extension field of k. Let A have

unit element e1 and K the unit element e2 . Form the Kronecker product

x over k. Then A K

x contains subalgebras A1 and K1 isomorphic to

A K

x in A K

x we have

A and K respectively. For any x t

x = x e

x 2 .e1 t

x = e1 t.x

x e

x 2

x t

x is of the form

so that A1 and K1 commute. Also every element of A K

P

x ) where {x } is a base of A over k and {t } a base of K over

a (x t

k. But this expression can be written

XX

x ) (x e

x 2 ).

a (e1 t

106

x 2 }.

This shows that A K

x can be considered as

If we identify A1 with A and K1 with K then A K

x over

an algebra over K, a basis of A over k serving as a base of A K

x is then called the algebra got from A by extending the ground

K. A K

field k to K. We shall denote it by AK .

It is clear that AK is commutative if and only if A is a commutative

algebra.

Note. Even if A is a field over k, AK need not be afield over K.

Let be the rational number field and o = ( d) the quadratic

field over . Let be the real number field and consider the Kronecker

x over . Let e1 , e2 be a basis of o over with the

product A = o

multiplication table,

e21 = e1 ,

e1 e2 = e2 e1 = e2 ,

e22 = de1 .

2. Composite fields

93

x is not an integrity domain. For,

Let first d > o. Then o

( de1 + e2 )( de1 e2 ) = o.

It can however be seen that A is then the direct sum of the two fields

and where

e2

1

= (e1 + ),

2

d

e2

1

= (e1 ).

2

d

a

b

Put f = 2

,g= 2

. Then

2

a db

a db2

(ae1 + be2 )( f e1 + ge2 ) = e1 .

2 Composite fields

Let K1 and K2 be two extension fields of k. Suppose K1 and K2 are

both contained in an extension field of k. Then the composite of K1

and K2 is the field generated over k by K1 and K2 . In general, given 107

two fields K1 and K2 which are extensions of k, there does not exist an

extension field containing both. Suppose, however, there is a field

/k which contains k-isomorphic images K1 , K2 of K1 and K2 , then

a composite of K1 and K2 is defined to be the fields k(K1 K2 ). A

composite extension of K1 and K2 is therefore given by a triplet (, , )

consisting of 1) and extension field of k and 2) isomorphisms ,

of K1 and K2 respectively in which are identity on k. The composite

extension is then k(K1 K2 ). We wish to study these various composites

of K1 and K2 .

If is another extension of k and , two k-isomorphisms of

extension. We say that these two composite extensions are equivalent if

= , = .

5. Composite extensions

94

108

of composite extensions.

If k(K1 K2 ) is a composite extension we denote by R(K1 K2 )

the ring generated over k by K1 and K2 in . This ring is, in general,

different from k(K1 K2 ).

x 2 be the Kronecker product of K1 and K2 . K

Let now K = K1 K

contains subfields isomorphic to K1 and K2 . We shall identify these

subfields with K1 and K2 respectively. Let now k(K1 K2 ) be a composite extension and R(K1 K2 ) the ring of the composite extension.

Define the mapping of K into R(K1 K2 ) by

X

X

x

axy (x
y)

=

axy x y ,

Since and are isomorphisms, it follows that is a k-homomorphism

of K on R(K1 K2 ). Since is a field, it follows that kernel of the

Thus

homomorphism is a prime ideal Y of K.

K/G

R(K1 K2 ).

homomorphism defined above. Define on K by = . We have

X

X

X

x

=

(

axy x
y)

axy x y =

axy x y .

isomorphism, it follows that has G as the kernel. Thus the prime ideal

G is the same for a class of composite extensions.

Conversely, if two composite extensions correspond to the same

it can be seen that they are equivalent.

prime ideal of K,

We have, now, only to prove the existence of a composite extension

Let G be a prime ideal of K and

associated with a prime ideal of K.

Since K has a unit element, a prime ideal G , K always exists.

G , K.

Let A be the integrity domain

A = K/G

2. Composite fields

95

109

x

are subfields of A. Since K is generated by elements of the type x y,

K1 and K2 , are different from zero. Clearly A = R(K1 K2 ). Hence

the quotient field of A is a composite extension. Hence for every prime

there exists a composite extension. We have hence proved

ideal G , K,

the

Theorem 4. The classes of composite extensions of K1 and K2 stand

in (1,1) correspondence with the prime ideal G , K of the Kronecker

product K of K1 and K2 over k.

Consider now the special case where K2 /k is algebraic. Let k(K1

K2 ) be a composite extension. Then

k(K1 K2 ) R(K1 K2 ) K1 .

Since every element of K2 is algebraic over k, k(K1 K2 ) is algebraic

over K1 . This means that R(K1 K2 ) is a field and so coincides with

k(K1 K2 ). Thus

Theorem 5. If K/k is algebraic, then every prime ideal G , K of K is

a maximal ideal.

Let K/k be an algebraic extension and L/k any extension. The Krox k L is the extended algebra (K)L of K by extendnecker product K = K

ing k to L. K is thus an algebra (commutative) over L. If G is a prime

then by above, it is a maximal ideal and K/G

of K,

gives a compos

ite extension. Since K is an algebra over L we may regard K/G

as an

extension field of L.

none of them 110

Let now G1 , . . . , Gm be m distinct maximal ideals of K,

sum algebra

X

Li

i

5. Composite extensions

96

Theorem 6.

P

T Gi

i K/Gi K/

i

P

Proof. We shall construct a homomorphism of K on i Li and show

T

that the kernel is Gi .

i

then i x Li .

K on Li (this is identity on L), i = 1, . . . , m. If x K,

Define on K by

X

(x) =

i x.

i

X

X

X

(x + y) =

i (x + y) =

i x +

i y = x + y.

i

(xy) =

i (xy) =

X

i

Xi

X

(i x)(i y) = ( i x)(

i y) = xy.

i

i x = o so that x Gi for all i. Hence x i Gi . But every y i Gi has

T

the property y = o. Thus the kernel is precisely Gi .

i

111

To this end, notice that for each i, i = 1, . . . , m, there is a bi K with

G j , j , i

bi

< Gi

Q

not in Gi . Put bi = a j . Then bi satisfies above conditions since Gi is

i, j

maximal.

P

Let now ci be an element in the direct sum, ci Li . By definition

i

of bi

= o

j bi

, o

if j , i

if j = i

3. Applications

97

xi i bi = oi .

i being a homomorphism of K on Li , let yi K with i yi = xi . Put

X

c=

bi yi

i

Then

(c) =

XX

i

j (bi yi ) =

ci

Suppose in particular K/k is finite. Then KL has over L the degree

K/G

has over L at most the

degree (K : k), we get

i : L) (K : k) i = 1, . . . , m.

1 (K/G

This means that K has only finitely many maximal ideals and

X

TG

K/

K/G

G

112

Thus K and L have over k only finitely many inequivalent composite

extensions.

3 Applications

Throughout this section will denote an algebraically closed extension

of k and K and L will be two intermediary fields between and k. A

composite of K and L in will be the field generated over k by K and

L. It will be denoted by KL.

Let K be the Kronecker product over k of K and L. There is, then, a

homomorphism of K on R(K L) given by

X

X

x

axy (x
y)

=

axy x y.

5. Composite extensions

98

L). This means that

X

X

x = o

axy (x y)

axy x y = o

are also so over L. Incidentally, this gives

K L = k.

113

elements of K which are linearly independent over k are also so over

L. Then the mapping is an isomorphism of K on R(K L). For, if

P

axy xy = o we express x and y in terms of a base of L/k and a base of

K/k giving

X

b x y = o

It shows that every set of elements of L which are linearly independent over k are also so over K.

We call two such fields L and K linearly disjoint over k. Note that

L K = k. We deduce immediately

1) If L and K are are linearly disjoint over k then any intermediary

field of K/k and any intermediary field of L/k are also linearly disjoint.

Suppose now that K/k is algebraic. Then every prime ideals of K is

maximal. Let, in addition, K and L be linearly disjoint over k. Since K

is isomorphic to R(K L), it follows that (o) is a maximal ideal. Hence

K is a field. Thus

2) If K/k is algebraic and K and L are linearly disjoint over k, there

exists but one class of composite extensions of K and L over k.

Let K/k be a finite extension. Then, for some maximal ideal G , K/G

of L, we get (K/G

: L) (K : k), that is

(KL : L) (K : k)

Clearly if G = (o), equality exists, and then K and L are linearly

disjoint over k. The converse is true, by above considerations. Hence,

in particular,

3. Applications

99

3) If (K : k) = m and (L : k) = n, then

(KL : k) mn;

equality occurs if and only if K and L are linearly disjoint over k.

114

We now consider the important case, K/k galois. By the considerations above, it follows that KL/k is algebraic over L. Since is a

algebraically closed, it contains the algebraic closure of KL. Let be

an isomorphism of KL in , which is identity on L. Its restriction to K

is an isomorphism of K in . But contains the algebraic closure of

K and hence K = K. Since KL is generated by K and L, it follows

that KL KL. Hence KL/L is a galois extension. (KL/L is already

separable since elements of K are separable over k).

KL

rr

r

r

rrr

K MMM

MMM

M

LL

LL

LL

L

L

r

rrr

r

r

r

KL

k

We now prove the

G(KL/L) G(K/K L)

Proof. In the first place, we shall prove that K and L are linearly disjoint

over K L. For this, it is therefore enough to prove that every finite set

y1 , . . . , ym of elements of L which are linearly independent over K L,

are also so over K.

P

If possible, let y1 , . . . , ym be dependent over K so that xi yi = o,

xi K. Let us assume that y1 , . . . , ym are dependent over K but no

5. Composite extensions

100

are different from zero.

We may assume x1 = 1. Let be an element of G(KL/L). Then

115

X

X

0 = (

xi yi ) =

xi yi

i

X

0=

(xi xi )yi

i,1

G(KL/L), it follows that xi L. But xi K. Thus y1 , . . . , ym are linearly

dependent on K L which is a contradiction. Hence K and L are linearly

disjoint over K L.

Therefore, KL is isomorphic to the Kronecker product of K and L

over K L.

Suppose is any L-automorphism of KL. Its restriction to K is

an automorphism of K and leaves K L fixed. Consider the mapping

If

is identity element of G(K/K L), then is identity on K. Since it is

already identity on L, it is identity on KL. Thus, G(KL/L) is isomorphic

to a subgroup of G(K/K L). To see that this isomorphism is onto

G(K/K L), let G(K/K L). Any element of KL may be written

(since K and L are linearly disjoint) in the from,

X

x y

This expression is unique. Extend to in G(KL/L) by defining

X

X

x y =

y (x ).

116

linearly independent over K L, {(x )} are also linearly independent

3. Applications

101

over K L and since K and L are linearly disjoint over K L, all y are

zero. Thus is an automorphism of KL/L.

Our theorem is thus proved.

In particular, if K and L are both galois extensions of k and K L = k

then, by above,

G(KL/L) G(K/k)

G(KL/K) G(L/k)

k) of KL in . Since its restrictions on K and L are auto morphisms, it

follows that KL/k is a galois extension. We now prove

Theorem 8. G(KL/k) is isomorphic to the direct product of G(K/k) and

G(L/k).

Proof. G(K/k) and G(KL/L) are isomorphic and for every element in

G(K/k), by the previous theorem, we have the extension ,

an element

of G(KL/L) determined uniquely by . Similarly, if G(L/k),

denotes its unique extension into an element of G(KL/k).

KL

K

tt

tt

tt

L

ttt

t

t

ttt

(, )

Suppose is an element of G(KL/k). Its restriction to K is an 117

element of G(K/k). Consider 1 . Now 1

1 is identity on K. By the

5. Composite extensions

102

of G(L/k). Hence

= 1 1 .

Thus the mapping above is a mapping of the direct product G(K/k)

G(L/k) onto G(KL/k). We have only to prove that is a homomorphism

to obtain the theorem. It is clearly seen that is identity if and only if

1 and 1 are identity.

Let , be two elements of G(K/k) and , in G(L/k). Let and

be the unique elements in G(KL/k) defined by

=

,

= , .

to L is . Thus

=

which proves that the mapping is a homomorphism.

The theorem is now completely proved.

Chapter 6

1 Roots of unity

118

characteristic p. If p = o, then xm 1 is a separable polynomial over

k, whereas if p , o, the derivative of xm 1 is mxm1 which is zero,

if p divides m. If p m, then xm 1 is a separable polynomial over

k. Therefore, let m > o be an arbitrary positive integer, if k has characteristic zero and m, an integer prime to p, if k has characteristic p , 0.

Then xm 1 is a separable polynomial over k and it has m roots in , an

algebraic closure of k. We call these m roots, the mth roots of unity.

If and are mth roots of unity then m = 1 = m . Therefore

()m = m m = 1, (1 )m = (m )1 = 1 which shows that the mth roots

of unity from a group. This group Gm is abelian and of order m.

Let now d/m. Any root of xd 1 in is also a root of xm 1.If is

an mth root of unity such that d = 1, then is a root of xd 1. Since

xd 1 has exactly d roots in , it follows that Gm has the property that

for every divisor d of m, the order of Gm , there exist exactly d elements

of Gm whose orders divide d. Such a group Gm is clearly a cyclic group.

Hence

The mth roots of unity form a cyclic group Gm of order m.

119

There exists, therefore, a generator of Gm . is called a primitive

mth root of unity. Clearly, the number of primitive mth roots of unity is

103

104

(m). All the primitive mth roots of unity are given by a with 1 a <

m, (a, m) = 1, a fixed primitive mth roots of unity.

Let be an algebraically closed field. Let m and n be two positive

integers which are arbitrary, if has characteristic zero and, prime to p,

if has characteristic p , o. If is an mth root of unity and an nth

root of unity, then

()mn = mn mn = 1,

so that is an mn th root of unity. This shows that the roots of unity in

form a group H(). We now determine the structure of H.

Theorem 1. If has characteristic zero, then H is isomorphic to the

additive group of rational numbers mod 1, whereas, if has characteristic p , o, H is isomorphic to the additive group of rational numbers

a

, (a, b) = 1, p b, mod 1.

b

Proof. Let R denote the group (additive) of rational numbers and 1 <

2 < 3 the sequence of natural numbers, if has characteristic

zero, whereas, if has characteristic p , o, let R denotes the rational

a

numbers , (b, a) = 1, p b and 1 < 2 < 3 the sequence of

b

natural numbers prime to p. Put

n = 1 n .

120

integer m(p m, if has characteristic p) divides some n , if follows

that

[

H=

Hn .

n

that

n+1

n = n+1

.

2. Cyclotomic extensions

105

mapping as follows

a

where a is an integer. Define the

n

x = an ,

so that is a function on R with values in H. The mapping is well

b

, then m a = n b. Suppose m > n; then

defined: for if x =

m

b = an+1 m

n+1 m

= an by choice of n . We now verify that is a

so that bm = a

m

a

b

homomorphism of R on H. If x , y =

are in R and m n, then

n

m

(x + y) = (

an+1 m + b

n+1 m +b

) = a

m

m

a

Hn , it is of the form an so that, for x = , x = an . We have, therefore,

n

to determine the kernel of the homomorphism. It is the set of x in R such

that

x = 1.

a

If x = , then 1 = x = an so that |n |a and so x is an integer. The 121

n

converse being trivial, it follows that the kernel is precisely the additive

group of integers and our theorem is established.

2 Cyclotomic extensions

Let k be a field and xm 1 a separable polynomial in k[x]. This implies,

in case k has characteristic p , o, that p does not divide m. Let

be a primitive mth root of unity in , an algebraic closure of k. Then

K = k() is the splitting field of xm 1 in . Therefore, K/k is a

separable, normal extension. Let G be its galois group. If G, is

determined by its effect on . Since is a primitive mth root of unity, so

is . For,

()m = (m ) = 1;

106

an automorphism, it follows that t = 1 or m/t. Thus

= , (, m) = 1.

If , are in G, let = , (, m) = 1 and = (, m) = 1.

Then

() = () = ( ) =

which shows that = or that G is abelian.

Consider now the mapping

g:

122

the multiplicative group prime residue classes mod m. The kernel of

the mapping g is set of with = .

But then t = t for all t K, so that by, galois theory, is the

identity.

Let us call extension K = k() a cyclotomic extension of k. We then

have proved the

Theorem 2. The Cyclotomic extension k()/k is an abelian extension

whose galois is isomorphic to a subgroup of the group of prime residue

classes mod m where m = 1 and is a primitive mth root of unity.

Let be the prime field contained in k. Then () is a subfield of

k() = K. Let G be the galois group K/k.

K = k()

k

qq

qqq

q

q

q

p

ppp

p

p

pp

()

Let be in G and

the restriction of to (). Since is identity

on k and is again a primitive root of unity, it follows that

is an

2. Cyclotomic extensions

107

is an

isomorphism of G into the galois group of ()/.

We shall therefore confine ourselves to studying the galois group of

()/.

First, let be the rational number field and a primitive mth root of

unity. Let () be the cyclotomic extension. Let f (x) be the primitive

integral polynomial which is irreducible in [x] an which satisfies.

Then f (x) is a monic polynomial. For, since f (x) divides xm1 ,

xm 1 = f (x)(x).

a

(x) has rational coefficients and so (x) = 1 (x) where 1 (x) is a 123

b

primitive integral polynomial and a and b are integers. From the the

theorem of Gauss on primitive polynomials it follows that f (x) is monic.

Let p be a prime not dividing m. Let (x) be the minimum polynomial (which is monic and integral) of p . We assert that f (x) = (x).

For, if not, f (x) and (x) are coprime and so

xm 1 = f (x) (x) h(x).

for some monic integral polynomials h(x).

Consider the polynomial (x p ). It has as a root and so f (x) divides

(x p ). Hence

(x p ) = f (x)g(x),

g(x), again, a monic and integral polynomial. Considering the above

mod p we get

f (x)g(x) (x p ) ((x)) p (mod p)

so that f (x) divides ((x)) p ( mod p). If t(x) is a common factor of

f (x) and ((p)( mod p) then (t(x))2 divides xm 1 mod p, which is

impossible, since p m and xm 1 does not have x as a factor. Thus our

assumption f (x) , (x) is false.

This means that, for every prime p m, p is a root of f (x). If

(, m) = 1, then = p1 p2 p1 where p1 , . . . , p1 are primes not dividing

108

1, is a root of f (x). Therefore

Y

m (x) =

(x )

(1)

(,m)=1

124

that f (x) = m (x). We have proved the

Theorem 3. If is the field of rational numbers and is a primitive mth

root of unity, then the galois group of the cyclotomic extension ()/

is isomorphic to the group of prime residue classes mod m. The irreducible polynomial m (x) of is given by (1).

m (x) is called the cyclotomic polynomial of order m. Its degree is

(m). In order to be able to obtain an expression for m (x) in terms of

polynomials over , we proceed thus.

We introduce the Mobius function defined as follows:

It is a function (n) defined for all positive integers n such that

1) (1) = 1

2) (p1 pt ) = (1)t where p1 , . . . , pt are distinct primes.

3) (m) = o if p2 /m, p being a prime.

From this, one deduces easily

4) (m) (n) = (mn) for (m, n) = 1.

p s and q s are all distinct primes. Then (m) = (1)t , (n) = (1)1

and (mn) = (1)t+1 .

We now prove the following simple formula

5)

X

(d) = o if m > 1

d|m

= 1 if m = 1

125

2. Cyclotomic extensions

109

pa11 pat t be the prime factor decomposition of m. Any divisor d of m

is of the form pb11 pbt t where o bi ai , i = 1, . . . , t. In view of (3),

it is enough to consider divisors d of m for which o bi 1. In that

case,

t

X

X

(d) =

(ti )(1)i = o.

i=o

d|m

in a multiplicative abelian group. Let g(n) also be such a function. We

then have the Mobius inversion formula,

Q

Q

n

f (d) = g(n) f (n) = (g(d))( d )

d|n

Suppose

Q

d|n

d|n

Y

( ng )

(g(d))

YY

di | dn

d|n

d|n

(d)

f (d1 )

.

Y

X

(d);

f (d1 )

d1 |n

d| dn

using formula (5), we obtain the inversion formula. The converse follows in the same way.

Consider now the integers mod m. Divide them into classes in the

following manner. Two integers a, b are in the same class if and only if

(a, m) = (b, m).

Let d/m and Cd , the class of integers a ( mod m) with (a, m) = d. 126

m

m

Then a is of the form d where (, ) = 1. Thus Cd has ( ) elements.

d

d

The classes Cd , for d|m, exhaust the set of integers mod m. If is a

primitive mth root of unity, then

xm 1 =

m

Y

(x t ).

t=1

110

YY

t

m

(x ) .

x 1=

tCd

d|m

m

m

But if t Cd , t = d , (, ) = 1 and so t is a primitive th root

d

d

of unity. Using the definition of m (x), if follows that

Y

xm 1 =

d (x)

d|m

m (x) =

d|m

(xd 1)( d )

(m) =

X

d|m

X (d)

m

d( ) = m

.

d

d

d|m

prime number. Then

p (x)

xp 1

= x p 1 + + x + 1.

x1

pq (x) =

127

(x pq 1)(x 1)

.

(x p 1)(xq 1)

Let us now consider the case when is the prime filed of p elements.

Obviously, ()/ is a cyclic extension. If we define the cyclotomic

polynomial as before, it is no longer irreducible over [x]. For instance,

let p = 5 and m = 12. Then

12 (x) =

(x12 1)(x2 1)

= x4 x2 + 1.

(x6 1)(x4 1)

2. Cyclotomic extensions

111

Also

x4 x2 + 1 = (x2 2x 1)(x2 + 2x 1) (mod 5).

Therefore, ()/ has degree < (m). It is obvious since ()/

is cyclic, that, for m (x) to be irreducible, the group of prime residue

classes mod m should be cyclic. We shall prove

Theorem 4. If is the prime filed of characteristic p , o and p m,the

cyclotomic polynomial m (x) is irreducible, if and only if the group of

prime residue classes mod m is cyclic and p is a generator of this cyclic

group.

Proof. We already know that ()/ is cyclic. If m (x) is irreducible,

then ()/ has order (m). Let be the Frobenius automorphism of

()/. Then

= p ,

The (m) automorphisms

1, , 2 , . . . , (m)1 are distinct. Hence

2

(m)1

, p , p , . . . , p

Therefore, p is a generator of the multiplicative group of prime residue

classes mod m.

The converse is trivial.

The theorem is true, if, instead of being the prime filed of p ele- 128

ments, is a finite filed of q elements. Then q has to be a generator of

the group of prime residue classes mod m.

If Rm denotes the group of prime residue classes mod m, then Rm

is cyclic, if and only if

m = 2a , a = 1, 2

or

m = qb

or

2qb ,

We now use the irreducibility of m (x) over the rational number field

to prove a theorem of Wedderburn.

112

Proof. Let D be the division ring and k its centre. Then k is a field. D

being finite, let k have q elements. If D is of rank n over k, then D has

qn elements. We shall prove that n = 1.

Let D1 be a subalgebra of D over k. Let D1 have rank m over k.

Then D1 has qm elements. But D1 is a sub group of D so that qm 1

divides qn 1. This means that m|n. For, if n = tm + , o < m; then

qn 1 = q (qtm 1) + (q 1)

129

subalgebra of D has rank d dividing n.

Let x D. Consider the y D such that xy = yx. They form a

subalgebra over k. Therefore, the number of y in D which commute

with x form a group of order qd 1, for some d dividing n. This group

is the normaliser of x. Hence, the number of distinct conjugates (in the

sense of group theory) of x in D is

qn 1|qd 1.

For the finite group D , we have

D = k +

Dx ,

Dx

ments on both sides

X

qn 1 = q 1 +

qn 1/qd 1

d

Since n (x)|xn 1, we see that n (q), which is an integer, divides

n

q 1. Also n (x) divides xn 1|xd 1 for any d|n, d , n. Therefore,

n (q) divides q 1. But

n (q) > (q 1)(n)

which shows that n 1.

This proof is due to Ernst Witt.

3. Cohomology

113

3 Cohomology

Let G be a finite group and A an abelian group on which G acts as a

group of left operators. Let A be a multiplicative group. We denote elements of G by , , , . . . , and elements of A by a, b, c, . . .. We denotes

by a the effect of on a. Then

(ab) = a b

(a ) = a

130

product of G with itself n times.

A function on Gn with values in A is said to be an n dimensional

Cochain or, simply, an n cochain. This function f (x1 , . . . , xn ) has values

in A. We denote by a 1 , . . . , n the element in A which is the value

taken by the n cochain for values 1 , . . . , n of its variables. We denote

the function also, by a1 , . . . , n . If a1 , . . . , n and b1 , . . . , n are

two functions, we define their product by

o1 ,...,n = a1 ,...,n b1 ,...,n .

Similarly

o1 ,...,n = (a1 ,...,n )1

is called the inverse of a1 ,...,n . With these definitions, the n cochains

form a group C n (G, A) or simply C n .

We define C o (G, A), the zero dimensional cochains, to be the group

of functions with constant values, that is functions a on G such that

a = a

is the same for all G. It is then clear that C o is isomorphic to A.

We now introduce a coboundary operator in the following manner.

(= n ) is a homomorphism of C n into C n+1 defined by

a1 ,...,n+1 = a1 ,...,n

114

= a12 ,...,n+1

n

Y

n+1

i

(a1 ,...,i1 ,i i+1 ,...,n+1 )(1) (a1 ,...,n )(1) .

n=1

the following manner. Z n (G, A) is the kernel of the homomorphism

n

of Z n (G, A) are called n dimensional cocycles or n-cocycles and the

elements of Bn+1 (G, A) are n + 1-dimensional coboundaries or n + 1

coboundaries. The homomorphism has the property

= identity

(2)

which proves that Bn+1 (G, A) is a subgroup of Z n+1 (G, A) and we can

form for every n > o the factor group H n (G, A) the n-dimensional cohomology group. We verify (2) only in case n = o and 1 which are the

ones of use in our work.

The coboundary of a zero cochain is a one cochain given by

a = a =

a

.

a

(3)

a = a, =

a a

.

a

We define the zero coboundary, that is the elements in Bo (G, A), to

be the function with value 1 on all G. Thus Bo (G, A) consists only

of the identity. An element in Z o (G, A) will be the constant function a

with

a = a

132

H o (G, A) is isomorphic with the set of a A with the property a =

a for all G.

A one dimensional cocycle is a function a for which a = 1. But

a =

a a

.

a

131

3. Cohomology

115

a a = a .

A one coboundary is, already, a function a of the form a /a. It is,

certainly, a one cocycle.

For our purposes, we shall need also the additive cohomology, instead of the multiplicative cohomology above. We regard now A+ as

an additive, instead of a multiplicative, group. Then C n (G, A+ ) is an

additive abelian group. We define the coboundary operator as

a1 ,...,n+1 = a1 ,...,n

= a12 ,...,n+1 +

n

X

i=1

a = a = a a.

A one cochain a is a cocycle if

a = 0

which is the same thing as

a + a = a .

Exactly as before, we see that H o (G, A), the zero dimensional additive cohomology group is isomorphic to the set of elements a in A+ with 133

a = a for all .

We now consider the case when G is a cyclic group. Let be a generator of G so that 1, , 2 , . . . , n1 are all the elements of G. Taking

multiplicative cohomology, if a is a one cocycle, then

a = a a

or a = a /a . Substituting for successively 1, , . . . , n1 we get

n1

a1+++

= 1.

116

n1

We denote a1+++

a is a cocycle, then,

Na = 1.

n1 =1

Na = a1++..+

= 1.

some . Put

1

a = a1+++ .

1

a a = a1+++ (a1+++

1 + +++ 1

= a1+++

= a .

134

where a is a cocycle. If G is cyclic, on substituting 1, , . . . , n1 for

, we get

n1

S a = a + a + + a = o.

We call S a the spur or trace of a . If a is any element of A, with

n1

trace S a = a + a + + a = o, then the cocycle

1

a = a + a + + a

where = , has the property

a = a.

K/k is a finite galois extension with galois group G. Then G acts on

K and also the additive group K + as a group of operators. We might,

therefore, consider the cohomology groups H o (G, K ), H 1 (G, K ), . . .

and H o (G, K + ), H 1 (G, K + ) . . . etc. As before, H o (G, K ) and H o (G, K + )

are isomorphic to subgroups of K and K + with a = a for all . This,

by galois theory, shows

3. Cohomology

117

to k+ .

But what we are interested in, is the following important theorem

due to Artin.

Theorem 7. The group H 1 (G, K ) and H 1 (G, K + ) are trivial.

Proof. Let us first consider multiplicative cohomology. If a is a cocycle, we have to prove that it is a coboundary. The elements , , . . . of

G are independent k-linear mappings of K into , the algebraic closure.

Hence, if (a ) are elements of K ,

X

a

in K such that

X

a , o.

Put b1 =

a =

a . Then

(b1 ) =

a .

Therefore

a X

=

a a .

b

X

a X

=

a

=

a = b1 .

Thus

a =

which is a coboundary.

b

= b1

b

118

Consider now the additive cohomology. K/k being finite and separable, there exists a K such that

X

= S K/k = 1.

Put now

b =

X

b =

a .

But a = a 1 =

a b =

136

so that

(a + a ) =

a = b

Our theorem is completely proved.

We apply the theorem in the special case where G is cyclic. Let

be a generator of G. If a is a cocycle then, in multiplicative theory

n1

a1+++

=1

n1

a + a + + a

=o

or S K/k a = o.

Using theorem 7, we obtain theorem 90 of Hilbert.

Theorem 8. If K/k is a finite cyclic extension, , a generator of the

galois group of K/k and a and b two elements of K with NK/k a = 1 and

S K/k b = 0 respectively, then

a = c1

b = d d

for two elements c, d in K.

4. Cyclic extensions

119

4 Cyclic extensions

Let K/k be a cyclic extension of degree m. Put m = npa , (n, p) = 1 if p

is the characteristic of k; otherwise, let m = n.

Let G be the galois group of K/k. It has only one sub-group of order

pa . Let L be its fixed field. Then K/L is cyclic of degree pa and L/k is

cyclic of degree n prime to p. Let be a primitive nth root of unity and

k() the cyclotomic extension. The composite F = Lk() is cyclic over

k() and of degree prime to p. We shall see that K over L and F over

k() can be described in a simple manner.

We shall, therefore, consider the following case, first.

K/k is a cyclic extension of degree m and p m, if k has character- 137

istic p , o; otherwise, m is an arbitrary integer. Also, k contains all the

mth roots of unity. We then have the theorem of Lagrange.

Theorem 9. K = k(w) where wm k.

Proof. Let be a primitive mth root of unity. is in k.

NK/k = m = 1.

By Hilberts theorem, therefore, if is a generator of the galois

group of K/k, then there is an K such that

1 = .

2

and are conjugates of . Hence our theorem.

satisfies a polynomial xm a, a k. If K = k( ), where also

satisfies a polynomial xm b, b k,then

= + ,

where t is a primitive mth root of unity and so (t, m) = 1.

Now

!

t

= t

=

t

t t

120

which shows that

= t c,

c k.

Corollary . If k() = K = k( ), where and are roots of normed

polynomials, then

= t c,

138

We consider the special case, m = q, a prime number. Let K/k be a

cyclic extension of degree q. Let K = k() and let 1 = (), 2 , . . . , q

be the irreducible polynomial of over k. Suppose is a generator of

the galois group of K/k.

Let notation be so chosen that

1 = 2 , 2 = 3 , . . . , q1 = q , q = 1 .

Since k contains the qth roots of unity and every qth root of unity

, 1 is primitive, we construct the Lagrange Resolvent.

= (, ) = 1 + 2 + + q1 q .

Then

= 2 + 3 + + q2 q + q1 1

(q ) = q

In particular, if k has characteristic , 2, and K/k has degree 2, then

K = k( d)

for d k.

The polynomial xq a for a k is, thus, either irreducible and, then,

a root of it generates a cyclic extension, or else, xq a is a product of

linear factors in k.

4. Cyclic extensions

139

121

o and K/k is a cyclic extension of degree pt , t 1.

We first consider cyclic extensions of degree p.

Let K/k be a cyclic extension of degree p and , a generator of the

galois group of K/k. Let be a generic element of the prime field

contained in k.

Introduce the operator P x = x p x. Then

P(x + ) = P x.

Also, the only in k satisfying P = o are the elements of and

these are all the roots of P x = o.

The element 1 in k has the property

S K/k 1 = o,

so that by Hilberts theorem, there is an K such that

1 = .

Therefore, since K/k has degree p,

K = k().

In order to determine the polynomial of which is a root, consider

P.

(P) = P = P( + 1) = P

which shows that P k. If we put P = , then is a root the

irreducible polynomial

xp x

in k[x]. is a root of the polynomial and = + 1. Since is a

generator of the galois group of K/k, the roots of x p x are , +

1, . . . , + p 1.

A polynomial of the type x p x , k is called a normed

polynomial.

Suppose K = k( ) where also satisfies a normed polynomial. 140

122

So

= + h, o < h p 1.

Now h satisfies

( h) = h = + h h h = h

which shows that h k. We have, hence, the

Theorem 10. If K/k is cyclic of degree p and , a generator of the galois group of K/k, then K = k() where satisfies a normed polynomial

x p x in k[x] and = + 1. If K = k( ) and also satisfies a

normed polynomial, then

= + a,

and a k.

In order to be able to construct , we proceed thus. Let be an

element in K with

S K/k = 1.

Let 1 (= ), . . . , p be the roots of the irreducible polynomial which

satisfies over k. Construct the resolvent

= 1 + 22 + + (p 1) p1 + p p .

Let notation be so chosen that

1 = 2 , 2 = 3 , . . . , p1 = p , p = 1 .

Then

= 2 + 23 + + (p 1) p

141

t in k. This gives the normed polynomial.

It should be noticed that, here, we use additive cohomology whereas,

in case K/k has degree m prime to p, we used multiplicative cohomology. Furthermore, in the second case, when K/k is of degree p, the

4. Cyclic extensions

123

elements of serve the same purpose as the roots of unity in the first

case.

If k has characteristic 2 and K/k is a separable extension of degree

2, then

K = k()

where 2 k.

Observe, also, that any polynomial x p x , for k, is either

irreducible over k and so generates a cyclic extension over k, or splits

completely into linear factors in k. For, if is a root of x p x then,

for , + is also a root.

by

, a root of x p x . It is obvious that

is p valued and if is

P

P

one value of

P

, + 1, . . . , + p 1.

We now study the case of cyclic extension of degree pn , n 1.

Let K/k be a cyclic extension of degree pn and , a generator of

the galois group G of K/k. Since G is cyclic of order pn , it has only

one subgroup of order p and hence, there exists a unique subfield L of K

such that K/L is cyclic of degree p and L/k is cyclic of degree pn1 = m.

Let us assume that n 2.

m is of order p and hence is a generator of the galois group of K/L. 142

Thus K = L() where

m = + 1

and satisfies P = L.

Put = . Then m = (m ) m = which shows that

L. Also,

m1

S L/k = + + + .

Substituting the value of , we get

S L/k = ( ) + (2 ) + + (m m1 )

= m = 1.

124

Hence has the property

S L/k = 1.

It is easy to see that is not k. For,

P = (P) P =

and in k would mean P = o or . This means that S L/k = o.

We now proceed in the opposite direction. Let L be cyclic of degree

pn1 > 1 over k. We shall construct an extension K which is cyclic over

k and contains L as a proper subfield. Let be a generator of the galois

group of L/k.

Let us choose L, such that

S L/k = 1.

Now S L/k (P) = P(S L/k ) = o which shows that

P =

143

xp x

(4)

reducible in L. Let be a root of x p x in L. Then

p = + .

This means that

P( ) = (P) P = = P.

Thus

P( ) = o

or = . Since S L/k () = o and S L/k = o, it follows that

S L/k = o, which is a contradiction. Thus for k, (4) is irreducible

4. Cyclic extensions

125

K = L()/L is cyclic of degree p.

Let

denote an extension of to an isomorphism of K/k in , the

algebraic closure of k. Then

is not identity on L. Since P = +

and k, we get

(P)

= + .

Now

P(

) = (P)

P = = P

and, again, we have

P(

) = o

or that

= + + which shows that

is an automorphism of K/k.

If t is any integer,

t1

t = + + + +

+ t.

144

n1

,

2, . . . ,

p

have all different effects on ,

so that they are distinct automorphisms of K/k. But, since K/k has

degree pn , it follows that K/k is cyclic of degree pn . We have, hence,

the important

Theorem 11. If k is a field of characteristic p and admits a cyclic extension K of k containing L and of degree pm , m > n, for every m.

In fact, if k is an infinite field, we may very over k and obtain

an infinity of extensions K over k with the said property. It follows

theorem 10.

Corollary. If k is a field of characteristic p and admits a cyclic extension

of degree pn for some n 1, then its algebraic closure is of infinite

degree over it.

126

5 Artin-Schreier theorem

We had obtained, in the previous section, a sufficient condition on a field

so that its algebraic closure may be of infinite degree over it. We would

like to know if there are fields K which are such that their algebraic

closures are finite over them. The complete answer to this question is

given by the following beautiful theorem due to Artin and Schreier.

Theorem 12. If it an algebraically closed field and K is a subfield

such that

1 < ( : K) <

145

degree over K. This shows that /K is a finite separable extension.

Since it is is trivially normal, it is galois extension. Let n be the order

of the galois group G of /K.

2) If p is the characteristic of K, then p n (if p , o). For, if p/n, then

G has a subgroup of order p generated by an element . Let L be

the fixed field of this subgroup. Then /L is a cyclic extension of

degree p. By corollary of theorem 11 it follows that /L has infinite

degree. This is a contradiction.

Therefore, the order n of G is prime to the characteristic of K, if

different from zero.

3) Let q be a prime dividing n. Then q , p. Let L now be the fixed field

of a cyclic subgroup of G, of order q.

Then /L is cyclic, of order q. Now L contains the primitive qth root

of unity. For, if not since satisfies an irreducible polynomial of

degree q 1, it follows that L()/L has degree q 1. But

(L() : L)|( : L)

which means that L() = L. By theorem 9, therefore

= L(1 )

5. Artin-Schreier theorem

127

where 1 = L.

4) Any irreducible polynomial over L is either linear or of degree q. 146

For, if t is its degree and , a root of it then t = (L() : L) divides

q. Thus, every polynomial in L[x] splits in L into product of linear

factors and of factors of degree q.

2

2

xq = (x

q2

(5)

2

polynomial xq has, in L[x], an irreducible factor of degree q.

Since this factor is formed by q of the linear factors on the right of

(5), this factor is of the form

xq + + ,

being a q2 th root of unity. We assert that this is a primitive q2 th

root of unity. For if not, it is either 1 or a primitive qth root of unity.

= L().

5) Let be the prime field contained in L. Consider the field ().

Let () contain the q th but not q+1 roots of unity. This integer

certainly exists. For, if L has characteristic zero = 2. If L has

characteristic p (and this is different from q, from (2)), then ()

contains p f elements where f is the smallest positive integer with

p f 1( mod q2 ). If q is the largest power of q dividing p f 1 then

() contains the q th, but not the q+1 the roots of unity.

147

Let be a primitive qv+1 th root of unity. Then satisfies a polynomial of degree q(irreducible) over L. Thus () is of degree q over

() L. Now, being a primitive q+1 th root of unity q is a q th

root of unity and so is contained in (). But all the roots of xq q

are qv+1 th roots of unity. Thus xq q is the irreducible polynomial

128

of over (). Hence

sss

sss

() O

OOO

OOO

() L

() L

LLL

LLL

L

oo

ooo

o

o

oo

If is a finite field, then (()/ is cyclic and it cannot have two

distinct subfields () and ()L over which it has the same degree.

Since < L, it follows that () and () L are distinct and so,

has characteristic zero. In this case, if q is odd, ()/ is cyclic and

the same thing holds. Thus q = 2. We know, then that = 2. If i

denotes a fourth root of unity, then

= L(i).

6) Form above, it follows that n = 2t for some t and K does not contain

the 4th root of unity. Now t = 1, for if not, let t > 1. Let M be a

subfield of L such that (L : M) = 2. Then ( : M(i)) = 2 and, by

above considerations, M(i) cannot contain 1 which is a contradiction.

So

K(i) = .

148

6 Kummer extensions

We now study the structure of finite abelian extensions of a field k. We

use the following notation:k is a field of characteristic p, not necessarily > o.

n is a positive integer not divisible by p if p , o, otherwise arbitrary.

, the group of non-zero elements of k. A generic element of will

also be denoted, following Hasse and Witt, by .

6. Kummer extensions

129

, a subgroup of containing n and such that

( : n ) < .

(6)

Let k contain the nth roots of unity. We shall establish a(1, 1) correspondence between abelian extensions of k of exponent dividing n and

subgroups of satisfying (6).

Let K be an extension field obtained from k by adjoining to k the nth

roots of all the elements of . We shall obtain some properties of K.

Since /n is a finite group, let 1 , . . . , t in , form a system of

generators of mod n . Then any is of the form

ai n

= a1

1 , . . . , t

i , i = 1, . . . , t. Then i is

uniquely determined up to multiplication by an nth root of unity, which

is already in k. This means that

K = k(1 , . . . , t ).

149

Therefore

1) K/k is a finite extension.

Each i is a root of a polynomial of the form xn i . This polynomial, by the condition on n, is separable over k. Also, xn i splits

completely in K. Thus

2) K/k is a finite galois extension and is the splitting field of the polynomial

t

Y

f (x) =

(xn i )

i=1

over k[x].

Let us denote by the group generated by 1 , . . . , t and . Let G

denote the galois group of K/k. In the first place,

130

n . The kernels in and are both the same. Since is taken to

by this homomorphism, it follows that / /n . Incidentally,

therefore, / is a finite group.

We shall now prove the important property,

4) G is isomorphic to /n .

(This proves that K/k is a finite abelian extension.)

In order to prove this, consider the pairing, (, ) of G and , given

by

(, ) = 1 ,

(7)

150

G, . Because of definition of ,

(, )n =

n

= 1.

(n )

!

(, ) = = = = = (, ) (, ).

Furthermore,

(, ) =

=

,

= (, )(, ).

( )

Let Go be the subgroup of G consisting of all with (, ) = 1, for

all . Since is generated by 1 , 2 , . . . , t , we get

i = i .

But 1 , . . . , t generate K. Therefore, = for all K.

By galois theory, = 1. Thus Go = (1).

Let o be the subgroup of all with (, ) = 1, for all . For

the same reason as before, o = . Thus, by theorem on pairing, G is

isomorphic to / . (4) is thus proved.

6. Kummer extensions

131

whose exponent divides n.

We shall now prove

Theorem 13. Let K/k be a finite extension with abelian galois group G

/ n finite.

denote the group of non-zero elements of K with the prop- 151

Proof. Let

n

Then, by considering the homomorphism

erty for .

n , it follows that

/ / n,

where =

In order to prove this,

it suffices to prove that

G / n.

(8)

n

For, in that case, construct

n the field k( ). Because of the properties

of K, it follows that K k( ).

k) = order of / n = order of G.

Hence

K = k( n ).

We shall, therefore, prove (8).

define the function

Let G denote the dual of G. For every in ,

() = 1

Since n , it follows that () is an nth root of unity.

on G into .

Also,

!

= = () ()

() = =

so that is a character of G.

132

n () = 1 for all . Therefore, () is an nth root of unity and hence is

an element of k. Also, since is a character of G,

() = ()()

152

() = 1

for K. But (())n = 1 so that

n = (n )

that .

homomorphism. By above, it is a homomorphism onto. The kernel of

the homomorphism is set of for which () = 1 for all . That is

=

for all . By galois theory . But every element in satisfies this

condition. Thus is precisely the kernel, and

/ G .

We call a finite abelian extension K/k, a Kummer extension if

1) k contains the nth roots of unity, p n, if p(, o) is characteristic of

k,

2) K/k has a galois Galois group of exponent dividing n.What we have

then proved is

Theorem 14. The Kummer extensions of k stand in (1, 1) correspondence with subgroups of with / n finite.

133

153

P x = x p x.

Let k be a field of characteristic p and denote by k+ the additive

group of k. Then P is a homomorphism of k+ into itself. The

kernel of the homomorphism is precisely the set of elements in , the

prime field of characteristic p, contained in k.

If k, we denote by

P

Obviously

is p valued. Also,

P

+

=

+

.

P

P P

(9)

k+ . Let be a subgroup of k+ with the properties,

k+ Pk+

/Pk+ is finite.

Let K be the extension field of k, formed by adjoining to k all the

, fro . We denote

elements

P

K = k(

).

P

1) K/k is a finite abelian extension.

2) The galois group G of K/k is isomorphic with /Pk+ .

3) G is an abelian group of exponent p. For the proofs, we have to use

additive, instead of multiplicative, pairing and the property (9).

134

Suppose, now, on the other hand, K/k is a finite abelian extension of 154

exponent p, where p is the characteristic of k.

Then

K = k( ),

P

+

where is a subgroup of k with /Pk+ finite. For the proof of this,

we have to use additive instead of multiplicative, cohomology. For, let

G be the galois group of K/k and G its character group. Denote, by

the additive subgroup of K + formed by elements with P k+ .

,

Then

Denote, by , the group P .

/k+ /Pk+

Define () by

() = .

Then

P( ()) = P (P) ).

But, P k+ by definition. Hence, P( ()) = o.

Therefore, () is an element of . The rest of the proof goes

through in the same way and we have the

Theorem 15. If k has characteristic p , o, the finite abelian extensions

K/k of exponent p stand in a(1, 1) correspondence with subgroups of

).

k+ such that /Pk+ is finite, and then K = k( P

8 Solvable extensions

155

equations, namely the solution of algebraic equations by radicals

k will denote a field of characteristic p,(p = o or p , o), will be its

algebraic closure and n, n1 , n2 , . . . integers > o which are prime to p, if k

has characteristic p , o, otherwise arbitrary. An element will be

said to be a simple radical over k if n k, for some integer n. k()/k

is then said to be a simple radical extension. k()/k is clearly separable.

If is a root of x p x a, for a k, is called a simple pseudo radical

8. Solvable extensions

135

is a cyclic extension over k. This situation occurs, only if p , o.

An extension field K/k is said to be a generalized radical extension

if it is a finite tower

k = Ko K1 K2 Km = K

where Ki /Ki1 is either a simple radical or a simple pseudo radical extension. Every element it K is called a generalized radical. A typical

element would be

s

r

a3

n1

n2

a1 +

a2 +

+ ..

P

Clearly, K/k is a separable extension. A generalized radical extension is called a radical extension if Ki /Ki1 is a simple radical extension

for every i. A typical element of K would, then be

q

n1

a1 + n2 a2 + .

its splitting field. Then K/k is a galois extension. The galois group

G of K/k is called the group of the polynomial f (x). The polynomial

f (x) is said to be solvable by generalized radicals, if K is a subfield 156

of a generalized radical extension. It is, then, clear that the roots of

f (x) are generalized radicals. In order to prove the main theorem about

solvability of a polynomial by generalized radicals, we first prove some

lemmas.

Lemma 1. Every generalized radical extension is a subfield of a generalized radical extension which is galois, with a solvable galois group.

Proof. Let K/k be a generalized radical extension so that

k = Ko K1 Km = K,

where Ki /Ki1 is a simple radical or simple pseudo radical extension.

Let Ki = Ki1 (i ). Then either ni Ki1 for some ni or Pi Ki1 .

Let (K : k) = n. Put N = n, if k has characteristic zero; otherwise, let

n = N pa ,

136

K1 = Ko (1 ), put L2 = Ko (, 1 ). Then L2 is the splitting field of the

polynomial (xN 1)(xn1 a1 ) or (xN 1)(P xa1 ) depending on whether

1 is a simple radical or a simple pseudo radical. In any case, L2 /Ko is

a galois extension. Furthermore

L2 = L1 (1 )

157

the requisite roots of unity. Let 1 , . . . , be the distinct automorphisms

of L2 /Ko . Put

Y

f (x) =

(xn2 ai

2 ),

if 2 is a simple radical with

i=1

n2

2 =

f (x) =

a2 , and

Y

(P x a2 i ),

i=1

Then f (x) is a polynomial in k[x]. Let L3 be its splitting field. Then

L3 is galois over k. Also, L3 is splitting field of f (x) over L3 so that

L3 /L2 is either a Kummer extension or else, an abelian extension of

exponent p. In this way, one constructs a galois extension T of k such

that

Lo = k L1 L2 L3 Lm1 T = Lm ,

where Li /Li1 is either a kummer extension or an abelian extension of

exponent p. Clearly, Li /Li1 and, hence, T/k is a generalized radical

extension. Let Gi , i = o, 1, 2, . . . , m be the galois group of T/Li . Then

G = Go G1 . . . . . . Gm = (e)

is a normal series. Further, by our construction, Gi1 /Gi is the galois

group of Li /Li1 and hence, abelian. Thus, G is a solvable group. The

lemma is thus proved.

8. Solvable extensions

137

generalized extension over k.

Proof. Let G be the galois group of K/k and G solvable. Let n be the

order of G and put

n = pa N

with the same connotation, as before. Let be a primitive Nth root of 158

unity and L = k(). Then L/k is a simple radical extension. Let M be

a composite of K and L. Then M/L is a galois extension with a galois

group which is isomorphic to a subgroup of G and hence, solvable. Let

Go be the galois group of M/L and let it have a composition series

Go G1 Gm = (e).

Then Gi /Gi+1 is a cyclic group of prime degree. Let Lo = L,

L1 , . . . Lm = M be the fixed fields of Go , G1 , . . . , Gm respectively. Then

Li /Li1 is a cyclic extension of prime degree. Since Li1 contains the

requisite roots of unity, Li is a simple radical or a simple pseudo radical

extension of Li1 . Then M/k is a generalized radical extension and our

lemma is proved.

We are, now, ready to prove

Theorem 16. A separable polynomial f (x) k[x] is solvable by generalized radicals if and only if its group is solvable.

Proof. Let K be the splitting field of f (x) and G the galois group of

K/k. Suppose f (x) is solvable by generalized radicals. Then K L

where L/k is galois and by lemma 1, has solvable galois group H. Let

Go be the galois group of L/K Then H/Go is isomorphic to G and so G

is solvable.

Let, conversely, G be solvable. Then, by lemma 2, K is contained

in a generalized radical extension and so f (x) is solvable by generalized

radicals.

We can easily prove

159

138

if and only if its splitting field has a solvable galois group of order prime

to the characteristic of k, if different from zero.

Let k be a field. The polynomial

f (x) = xm x1 xm1 + x2 xm2 + (1)m xm ,

where x1 , . . . , xm are algebraically independent over k, is said to be the

general polynomial of the mth degree over k. It is so called, because

every monic polynomial of degree m over k is obtained by specializing

the values of x1 , . . . , xm to be in k. Let L = k(x1 , . . . , xm ). Let y1 , . . . , ym

be roots of f (x) over L. Then

f (x) = (x y1 ) (x ym )

and y1 , . . . , ym are distinct. The splitting field k(y1 , . . . , ym ) of f (x) over

L is a galois extension whose galois group is isomorphic to S m . Hence,

the general polynomial of the mth degree over k has a group isomorphic

to the symmetric group on m symbols.

But,S m is not solvable, if m > 4, so that in virtue of theorem 16, we

have the theorem of Abel.

Theorem 17. The group of the general polynomial f (x) of the mth degree is isomorphic to the symmetric group S m on m symbols and hence,

for m > 4, f (x) is not solvable by generalized radicals.

160

We shall now explicitly show how to obtain the roots of a polynomial of degree 4 in terms of generalized radicals.

Let f (x) be a general polynomial of degree m over k and let K be

the splitting field. K/k has the group S m . Let y1 , . . . , ym be the roots of

f (x). Put

Y

(yi y j )2 .

D=

i< j

D k.

D)

is

a gaIf we assume that the characteristic

of

k

is

,

2,

then

k(

8. Solvable extensions

139

polynomial f (x).

Let us, first, consider the general polynomial of the second degree

f (x) = (x y1 )(x y2 ) = x2 x1 x + x2 .

Then

y1 + y2 = x1 , y1 y2 = x2 .

Suppose, now, that k has characteristic , 2. Then

D = (y1 y2 )2 = (y1 + y2 )2 4y1 y2 = x21 4x2 .

Also, y1 + y2 = x1 , y1 y2 = D so that

x1 D

x1 + D

, y2 =

y1 =

2

2

Let, now, k have characteristic 2. Then x1 , o, since f (x) is separay1

x2

ble. Put x1 x instead of x. Then the polynomial x2 x + 2 has roots

x1

x1

x2

y2

, then

161

and . But this is a normal polynomial so that if =

x1

x12

y1 = x1

, y2 = x1

+ x1

P

P

P

f (x).

We shall now study cubic and biquadratic polynomials.

Let, first, k have characteristic , 2 or 3. Let m = 3 or 4 and

f (x) = xm x1 xm1 + + (1)m xm

be the polynomial of the mth degree whose roots are y1 , . . . , ym .

x1

instead of x, we get a polynomial whose roots are

If we put x +

m

x1

x1

y1 , . . . , ym

and which lacks the terms in xm1 .

m

m

140

f (x) = xm + x2 xm2 + . . . + (1)m xm .

If y1 , . . . , ym are the roots, then

y1 + y2 + . . . + ym = o.

Also , Dm =

i< j

D3 = 4x32 27x23

and

D4 = 16x42 x4 4x32 x23 128x22 x24 + 144x2 x23 x4

27x43 + 256x34 .

162

is the fixed field of the alternating group Am and L( D)/L is a radical extension. In order to study the extension K/L( D), let us, first,

take the case m = 3. The symmetric group on 3 symbols, S 3 , has the

composition series

S 3 A3 (e).

of degree 3. Let be a primitive

cube root of unity and let M = L( D, ). Let N = K M be a composite

of K and M. Then K M/M has degree 1 or 3, according as is in K or

not. In the first case, M = K. In the second case, K M/M is a cyclic

extension of degree 3 over K and M contains the cube roots of unity.

use Lagranges method.

K M is the splitting field over M of the polynomial x3 + x2 x x3 . Let

y1 , y2 , y3 be roots of this polynomial. Put

= y1 + y2 + 2 y3

= y1 + 2 y2 + y3 .

8. Solvable extensions

141

27

x3 + 3 D( 12 ). Changing into 2 we get 3 .

Then 3 =

2

Hence

r

1

a 3 27

x3 + 3 D( )

=

2

2

and we have a similar expression for . Here a o. In order to determine a, we use the fact that = 3x2 and so, choosing the root

of unity a for arbitrarily, the root of unity in the expression for is

uniquely determine. Now

y1 + y2 + y3 = o

y1 + y2 + 2 y3 =

y1 + 2 y2 + y3 =

and since the matrix

1 1 1

2

1

1 2

a radical of L and contains K.

Consider, now, the polynomial of the fourth degree

f (x) = x4 + x2 x2 x3 x + x4

whose roots are y1 , y2 , y3 , y4 with y1 + y2 + y3 + y4 = o. The galois group

of the splitting field K/k is S 4 . This has the composition series

S 4 A4 B4 C4 (e).

Let K1 , Kb , Kc be the fixed fields of A4 , B4 and C4 respectively. Now

A4 is the alternating group, B4 the group consisting of the permutations

(1), (12)(34), (13)(24), (14)(23)

and C4 is the group of order 2 formed by

(1), (12)(34).

142

and is cyclic. Hence Kb = Ka () where K is an element fixed by B4

but not by A4 . Such as elements, for instance, is

1 = (y1 + y2 )(y3 + y4 ).

1 has 3 conjugates 1 , 2 , 3 obtained from 1 by operating on 1 , by

representatives of cosets of A4 /B4 . Thus

2 = (y1 + y3 )(y2 + y4 )

3 = (y1 + y4 )(y2 + y3 ).

164

(x) = (x 1 )(x 2 )(x 3 ).

It is fixed under A4 and so, its coefficients are in Ka . A simple computation shows that

(x) = x3 2x2 x2 + (x22 4x4 )x + x23 .

(x) is called the reducing cubic or the cubic resolvent. By the

method adopted for the solution of the cubic, if is a primitive cube

root of unity and M = Ka (), then Kb M, the composite, is a radical

extension of k in which 1 , 2 , 3 lie.

Kc /Kb is of degree 2 and so Kc = Kb () where is fixed under B4 ,

but not by C4 . such as element is

= y1 + y2 .

Now

2 = (y1 + y2 )2 = (y1 + y2 )(y3 + y4 ) = 1 . Thus Kc =

containing . Put now

T = Kd (, )

K. The indeterminacy signs in taking the square roots of 1 and 3

can be fixed by observing that

(y1 + y2 )(y1 + y3 )(y1 + y4 ) = x3 .

8. Solvable extensions

143

we now have

p

p

1 , y3 + y4 = 1

p

p

y1 + y3 = 2 , y2 + y4 = 2

p

p

y1 + y4 = 3 , y2 + y3 = 3 .

y1 + y2 =

Theorem 18. If K has characteristic , 2 or 3, then the cubic and biquadratic polynomials over k can be radicals.

Let us, now, assume that k has characteristic 3. Let x3 + x1 x2 + x2 x+

x3 be a cubic polynomial and K, its splitting field. K/k has the galois

group S 3 . Let L be the fixed field. K/k has the galois group S 3 . Let L

be the fixed field of A3 . Then

L = k( D)

where

D = (y1 y2 )2 (y2 y3 )2 (y3 y1 )2 .

K/L is now a cyclic extension of degree 3 and since k has characteristic 3, K = L(), where

3 = o

for some L. Thus K is a generalized radical extension. We shall

now determine and and therefrom, y1 , y2 and y3 .

In order to do this, we have to consider two cases, x1 = o, and

x1 , o.

Let, first, x1 = o. Then y1 + y2 + y3 = o. Let be a generator of the

galois group fo K/L and let notation be so chosen that

y1 = y2 , y2 = y3 , y3 = y1 .

2

in K such that

y1 = .

165

144

Also

166

X

2

2

x2 = y1 y2 + y2 y3 + y3 y1 =

( )( ) = ( + + )2 .

x2 = t2 , for some t L. The polynomial, therefore, has the form

x3 t2 x + x3 .

y1

Put now tx for x. Then the polynomial x3 x + x3 /t3 has roots ,

t

y2 y3

, . Let = x3 /t3 . Then

t t

+ t, y3 = t

+ 2t

y1 = t , y2 = t

P

P

P

and thus the roots are all obtained.

The indeterminacy in the sign of t does not cause any difficulty; for,

=

, we see that

P

P

y1 = t

, y3 = t

t, y2 = t

+t

P

P

P

We now consider the case x1 , o.

Put x + a instead of x. Then the new polynomial is

x3 + x1 x2 + x(x2 + 2x1 a) + x3 + x2 a + a2 + a3 .

Choose a so that x2 + 2x1 a = o. For this value of a, = x3 + x2 a +

+ a3 , o; for, otherwise, the polynomial will be reducible and the

roots are o, o, x1 . The roots of this new polynomial are y1 a, y2 a,

y3 a.

1

Let now be written for x, then the polynomial is reduced to x3 +

x

1

1

x1 1

x+ . We are in the previous case. The roots, now, are

,

,

y1 a y2 a

1

x1

1

. If t2 = , t L and = 3 , then K = L( ) and the roots

y3 a

P

t

a2

167

8. Solvable extensions

145

y1 , y2 , y3 are given by

y1 = a +

tP

, y2 = a +

1

1

, y3 = a +

t + tP

2t + t P

in the form

x4 + x2 x2 + x3 x + x4 .

The proof is similar to the old one except

that Kb /Ka is a cyclic

extension of degree 3 and so Kb = Ka

for a suitable in Ka . To

P

find , we use the foregoing method. One finds that K is a generalized

radical extension.

We now consider the case where k has characteristic 2. In this case,

the cubic polynomial cab be taken in the form, x3 + x2 x + x3 . Let y1 , y2 ,

y3 be the roots. Then

y1 + y2 + y3 = o

and therefore y21 + y22 = y23 and so on. Put

y1 y2 y3

+

+ ,

y2 y3 y1

y2 y3 y1

+

+ .

=

y1 y2 y3

=

Then

+ =

= 1,

y1 y2 y3

which shows that < k, because ,then, it will be symmetric and equal

to . Thus k() is a quadratic subfield of K. A simple computation

shows that and = + 1 are roots of

x2 x + x32 .

K/k() is cyclic of degree 3 and one uses the method of Lagrange 168

to obtain a generalized radical extension.

146

x4 + x1 x3 + x2 x2 + x3 x + x4 . We have to consider two cases. Let, first,

x1 = o. Then the roots y1 , y2 , y3 , y4 satisfy

y1 + y2 + y3 + y4 = o.

As before, put

1 = (y1 + y2 )(y3 + y4 ),

2 = . . . , 3 =

(x) = x3 + x22 x + x3 .

Furthermore 1 + 2 + 3 = o. Put now

=

1 2 3

+

+ .

2 3 1

simple pseudo radical extension.

Now Kb /Ka is a cyclic extension of degree 3 and has to be solved

by Lagranges methods. Further, Kc /Kb is of degree 2. Put now

1 =

y3

,

y1 y2 y4

1 =

y4

.

y1 y2 y3

Then

1 +

y23 + y24

(y1 + y2 )(y3 + y4 ) 1

=

=

= .

y1 y2 y3 y4

y1 y2 y3 y4

x4

2 =

169

x4 1

,

1

1 =

x4 1

,

1

then 2 + 2 = 1 and Kc = Kb (2 ).

In similar manner, K = Kc (3 ) where

3 =

x4

,

2

y1

.

y2 y3 y4

8. Solvable extensions

147

Kb . In order to exhibit Kc as a pseudo radical extension of Kb , observe

that y1 + y2 is fixed under C4 but not under B4 . Also

(y1 + y2 )2 = (y1 + y2 )(y3 + y4 + x1 ) = 1 + x1 (y1 + y2 )

which shows that

Kc = Kb

!

y1 + y2

.

x1

!

y1 + y3

.

x1

Our contentions are completely established.

Similarly, K = Kc

Chapter 7

1 Ordered rings

170

> (greater than) such that

(1) for every a R, a > o, a = o or a > o.

(1) a, b R, a > o, b > o a + b > o, ab > o.

We may then define a > b by a b > o. If a > b, then, for any c in

R, a + c > b + c and if c > o, ac > bc.

If a > o, we shall say a is negative and if a > o, a said to be

positive. We denote a is negative by a < o.

Let us denote, by P, the set of elements a R with a o. Then,

from the definition or ordered ring, we have

A1 )P + P P

A2 )P P P

A3 )P (P) = (o)

A4 )P (P) = R,

P denotes the set of elements a, a P P shall be called the set of

149

150

171

and negative is zero. Clearly, if R is a any subset P of R satisfying the

four conditions above again determine an order on R.

Two elements a, b R, a , o , b are said to have the same or

opposite signs according as ab > o or ab < o.

Let now R be an ordered ring with unit element 1. Let a R, a , o.

Then a2 = a a = (a) (a), so that a2 > o for a , o in R. More

generally, every finite sum of squares of elements of R is positive. These

elements will be contained in the set of non-negative elements in every

order of R.

Since R has a unit element 1 and 12 = 1, we have 1 > o. Also,

n 1 = 1 + 1 + 1, n times so n > o. This proves

1) An ordered ring with unit element has characteristic o.

Let a , o, b , o be elements of R. Then a or a is positive.

Similarly b or b is positive. Hence ab or ab is positive which

proves that ab , o. Therefore

2) An order ring is an integrity domain.

We define an ordered field to be an ordered ring whose non-zero

elements form a multiplicative commutative group. We have

3) If k is an ordered field, its positive elements form a multiplicative

group.

For, if x k, x > o; then xx1 > o. If x1 > o, then xx1 > o

which contradicts x1 x > o. Thus x1 > o and (3) is proved.

Suppose R and R are two rings, R R . If R is ordered, clearly

R is ordered by means of the induced order. If however, R is

ordered, it may not be possible, in all cases, to extend this order

to R . However, in case, it is always possible, namely

4) If K is the quotient field of an ordered ring R then the order in R

can be uniquely extended to K.

172

a

x K is of the form x = , a, b R, b , o. Let x , o. Then a , o.

b

1. Ordered rings

151

place, the definition does not depend on the way x is expressed in the

a

a

form . Suppose x = . Then ab = a b. Since b , o, multiplying

b

b

both sides of this equality by bb , we have

ab b2 = a b b2 .

a

Since ab > o, b2 > o, b2 > o, it follows that a b > o, that is > o.

b

a

> o and

In order to prove that A1 , . . . , A4 are satisfies, let x =

b

a

y = > o. Then ab > o and a b > o.

b

x+y =

ab + a b

bb

> o, b2 > o, it follows that (ab + a b)bb > o or x + y > o. In similar

manner, xy > o.

Suppose x o and y o and x + y = o; then x = o, y = o. For, if

c

ad + bc

a

= o, so that

x = , y = , then ab o, cd o and x + y =

b

d

bd

ad + bc = o. Thus abd2 + cdb2 = o, which means that since all elements

are in R, ab = o, cd = o, i.e. a = o = c.

ab

If x R, than x =

. If x = o, then ba2 = o or b = o, so that the

a

order coincides on R with the given order in R.

That the extension is unique can be, trivially, seen.

Since every ordered field has characteristic zero, it contains a sub- 173

field isomorphic to , the rational number field has thus induced order.

We shall now prove

b2

For, if Z denotes the set of integers, then is the quotient field of Z.

On Z, there is only one order since 1 > o and hence n = 1+1+ +1 > o.

Thus, all natural integers have to be positive.

152

2 Extensions of orders

Hereafter, we consider ordered fields k. Our main task will be the study

of extensions of orders in k to extension fields K of k. For this purpose,

we introduce the notion of a positive form on k.

m

P

Let k be an ordered field. A polynomial ai x2i , ai k, is said to be

i=1

m-ary form is said to represent a k, if there exist 1 , . . . , m in k such

that

X

ai 2i = a.

i

k be an ordered field and K/k, an extension field. We shall prove

every positive form over k is still positive in K.

174

Proof. We have only to prove the sufficient. To this end, consider the

family M of subsets {M } of K having the following properties. Denote,

by S , the set of elements in K of the form

X

ai 2i ,

i

Then

1)

3)

M S

M M M

2) M + M M

4) M (M ) = (o).

This family is not empty, since S satisfies this condition. In the usual

way, we make M a partially ordered set and obtain a maximal set P. We

have now to show that

P (P) = K

and then P will determine an order. Let x , o be an elements of K which

is not in P. Define

Q = P xP

2. Extensions of orders

153

(1). To see that Q satisfies (2), observe that if a xb, c xd are in Q

then

(a xb) + (c xd) = (a + c) x(b + d);

but a, b, c, d being in P which is an element of M, a + c, b + d are

in P. In a similar way Q satisfies (3). That Q satisfies (4) can be seen

as follows: Let a xb and c xd be in Q with a, b, c, d, in P. Let

(a + c) x(b + d) = o. Then b + d = o. For, if b + d , o, then

x=

1

a+c

= (a + c)(b + d)

b+d

(b + d)2

and, therefore, a + c = 0. Since a, b, c, d are all in P, it follows that

a = b = c = d = 0. Thus Q M. But Q P so that, by maximality of

P, Q = P. This means that x P or x P. The theorem is therefore

proved.

If is the field of rational numbers and n is a positive integer, then

a

n = 1 + 1 + + 1. If r = is a positive rational number, then

b

a ab 1 + 1 + 1

=

=

,

b b2

b2

so that every positive rational number is a sum of squares. This shows

that every positive form over can be put in the form x21 + + x2n .

P

If k is an ordered field then 2i = 0, i k implies that i = 0,

i

P

i = 1, . . .. On the other hand, if k has the property that 2i = 0, i k

implies i = 0, then n = 1+1+ +1 , 0 so that k has characteristic zero.

Since every positive form over is essentially of the type x21 + + x2n ,

we have the

P

Theorem 2. k is ordered if and only if 2i = 0, i = k implies i = 0,

i

i = 1, 2, . . ..

P

i

zero, then

1 =

X

i

i 2,

154

176

i k. A field in which 1 is not a sum of squares is called a formally real field. From theorem 2, it follows that formally real fields are

identical with ordered fields.

We shall, now, prove the following application of theorem 1.

Theorem 3. Let k be a formally real field with a given order and f (x),

an irreducible polynomial in k[x]. Let a, b be two elements in k such that

f (a) f (b) < 0. Suppose is a root of f (x) in , an algebraic closure of

k. Then K = k() is ordered with an order which is an extension of the

given order in k.

Proof. Let f (x) be of degree n. Then every element in k() is a polynomial in of degree n 1 with coefficients in k. If k() is not ordered

with an order extending that in k, then there is a positive form in k which

represents 1. That is,

X

1 =

ai {i ()}2 ,

i

X

1+

ai {i (x)}2 = f (x)(x).

i

Since f (x) has degree n and left side has degree 2n 2, (x) has,

at most, the degree n 2.

We now use induction on n. If n = 1, these is nothing to prove.

Assume theorem proved for n 1 instead of n. Let g(x) be in irreducible

factor of (x). Then g(x) has degree n 2. Now

X

ai {i (a)}2 = f (a)(a)

0<1+

0<1+

i

X

i

177

ai {i (b)}2 = f (b)(b).

Since f (a) f (b) < 0, it follows that (a)(b) < 0. Therefore, at least

one irreducible factor, say g(x), of (x) has the property g(a)g(b) < 0.

2. Extensions of orders

155

hypothesis, k() has an order extending the given order in k. Hence

X

0=1+

ai {i ()}2 > 0,

i

Suppose k is an ordered field, let us denote, by |a|, the absolute value

of a k by

0

if a = 0

|a| =

a

if a > 0

a if a < 0.

It is then easy to prove that

|a + b| |a| + |b|.

Let f (x) = xn + a1 xn1 + + an be a polynomial in k[x]. Put

M = max(1, |a1 | + + |an |). If t , 0 k and |t| > M, then

tn f (t) = 1 + a1 t1 + + an tn > 0

which shows that tn and f (t) have the same sign.

Suppose now f (x) is irreducible and of odd degree. Then, if M is

defined as above,

f (M) f (M) < 0.

Therefore, by theorem 3, if is a root of f (x) in an algebraic closure of

k, then k() has an order extending that in k.

If a k and a > 0, then the polynomial x2 a changes sign in k. 178

For, (a + 1)2 > a and a < 0. Thus

((a + 1)2 a)(0 a) < 0.

156

We had seen above that, under certain circumstances, an order in a field

k can be extended to a finite algebraic extension of k. We shall consider,

now, a class of fields called real closed fields defined as follows: k is

said to be real closed, if

1) k is ordered

2) k has no proper algebraic extension K with an order extending that

in k.

Before we establish the existence of such fields, we shall obtain

some of their properties. We first prove

Theorem 4. For a formally real field k, the following properties are

equivalent:

1) k(i) is algebraically closed, i being a root of x2 + 1.

2) k is real closed.

3) Every polynomial of odd degree over k has a root in k and every

positive element of k is a square in k.

179

fields, so that, k being ordered, and k(i) being algebraically closed, k has

no ordered algebraic extension.

2 3. Suppose f (x) is a polynomial of odd degree. Then it

changes sign in k. Hence an irreducible factor of f (x), also of odd degree, changes sign in k. If is a root of this irreducible factor, then k()

is ordered with an order extending that in k. Hence k. If a > 0 in k,

3 1. The poof of this part consists of three steps. Firstly, every

element of K = k(i) is a square. For, let a + bi be an element of K, a,

b k. Put

a + ib = (c + id)2

157

we get

c2 d2 = a, 2cd = b.

Therefore, (c2 + d2 )2 = a2 + b2 . But a2 + b2 > 0 in k and, since every

positive element is a square, there is a > 0 in k such that

c2 + d2 = .

Solving for c2 and d2 , we have

c2 =

+a

,

2

d2 =

a

.

2

a

+a

0,

0. Therefore

2

2

r

r

+a

a

c=

, d=

2

2

exist in k. The arbitrariness in the signs of c and d can be fixed from the

fact that 2 cd = b.

This proves that every quadratic polynomial over k has a root in 180

2

K. For,

if ax + bx + c k[x], then, in an algebraic closure of K,

b b2 4ac

are its roots (a , 0). But b2 4ac K.

2a

The second step consists in showing that every polynomial in k[x]

has a root in K. Let f (x) be in k[x] and let N be its degree N = 2n q, q

odd. We shall use induction on n. If n = 0, then N = q, and so whatever

odd number q be, f (x) has a root already in k. Let us, therefore, assume

proved that every polynomial of degree 2n1 q , where q is odd, with

coefficients in k has a root in K. Let f (x) be of degree N = 2n q, q odd.

Let 1 , . . . , t be the distinct roots of f (x) in an algebraic closure of K.

Let k be an element to be suitably chosen later. Put

i j () = i j = i + j + i j i, j = 1, . . . , t, i , j.

158

Consider now the polynomial

(x) =

Y

(x i j ).

i, j

181

N(N 1)

This has degree

= 2n1 q , q odd. Also, by every per2

mutation of the symbols 1, . . . , t, the polynomial goes over into itself.

Thus (x) k[x]. Since its degree satisfies the induction hypothesis,

for every k, there is an i and a j such that i j () K. Since k is

an infinite field, there exist , , , and both in k such that i j ()

and i j ( ) for two integers i and j are in K. This means that i j and,

hence, i + j are in K. The polynomial x2 x(i + j ) + i j is a

polynomial in K[x]. By what we proved above, both its roots are in K.

Thus our contention is proved.

The third step consists in proving that every polynomial in K[x],

has a root in K. For, let f (x) be a polynomial in K[x]. Let be the

generating automorphism of K/k. It is of order 2. Denote by f (x)

the polynomial obtained from f by applying on the coefficients of f .

Then = f (x) f (x) is a polynomial in k[x]. The second step shows that

has a root in K. Furthermore if is a root of , is also a root of

, so that either is a root of f (x) or is a root of f (x).

We have thus proved theorem 4 completely.

We deduce from this an important corollary due to Artin and

Schreier.

Corollary 1. If is an algebraically closed field and K a subfield such

that 1 < ( : K) < , then K is real closed.

Proof. We had already proved that K(i) = and that K has characteristic zero. By virtue of theorem 4, it is enough to prove that K is formally

real. Every element of is of the form a + ib, a, b K. Also

a + ib = (c + id)2 ,

for c, d in K, since is algebraically closed. Thus

a2 + b2 = (c2 + d2 )2 .

159

squares is a square. Therefore

X

1 =

a2i

i

182

This proves that the real closed fields are those and only those which

are such that their algebraic closures are finite over them.

We have again

Corollary 2. A real closed field has only one order.

For, the set of positive elements coincides with the set of squares of

the elements of the field.

This shows that, if on ordered field has two distinct orders, it has

algebraic extensions which are ordered. It must be remembered that if

a field has only one order, it is not necessarily real closed. The rational

number field, for example, has only one order.

Suppose k is a real closed field. Then every irreducible polynomial

in k[x] is of degree one or two. Suppose f (x) is a polynomial in k[x] and

a, b in k such that

f (a) f (b) < 0.

Then one of the irreducible factors (x) of f (x) must have the property

that (a)(b) < 0. If is a root of (x), then k() is ordered. But,

k being real closed, k. (x) must be a linear polynomial. Thus

(x) = x and

(a )(b ) < 0

which means that lies between a and b. Hence the

Theorem 5. If k is a real closed field, f (x) a polynomial in k[x], a, b in

k such that f (a) f (b) < 0, then there is a root of f (x) in k between a

and b.

Furthermore, we had seen that there is an M in k depending only 183

on the coefficients of f (x) such that f (a) has the same sign as an , n =

deg f (x), if |a| > M. This shows

160

Let k be a real closed field and f (x) a polynomial in k[x]. Let f (x)

be its derivative. Put 0 = f , 1 = f . Since k[x] is a Euclidean ring,

define, by the Euclidean algorithm, the polynomials

0 = A 1

1 2

1 = A 2

...

2 3

...

r1 = Ar

r .

and 1 . The sequence 0 , 1 , . . . , r of polynomials in k[x], is known as

the Sturmian polynomial sequence.

Let a k be such that 0 (a) , 0. Then r (a) , 0. Consider the

set of elements 0 (a), 1 (a), . . . , r (a) in k. The non-zero ones among

them have a sign. Denote, by (a), the number of changes of sign in the

sequence of elements,

0 (a), 1 (a), . . . , r (a),

in this order, taking only the non-zero elements. A very important theorem due to Sturm is

184

0 (c) , 0. Let (b) and (c) denote the number of changes of sign in

the Sturmian sequence for the values b and c. Then f (x) has precisely

(b) (c) distinct roots in k between b and c.

Proof. Since r (b) , 0, r (c) , 0, we may divide all the Sturmian

polynomials by r (x) and obtain the sequence 0 (x), 1 (x), . . . r1 (x),

r (x)(= 1). Now 0 (x) has no multiple roots. For, if is a root of f (x)

of multiplicity t, then

0 (x) = (x )t 1 (x),

t1

1 (x) = t(x )

1 () , 0

1 (x) + (x )t 1 (x)

161

Hence

0 (x) = (x )2 (x)

2 (x) and 3 (x) being polynomials over k. Note that 1 (x) is not the

derivative of 0 (x). We shall drop the bars on the s and write them

as 0 , 1 , . . . , r1 , r = 1 and 0 having no multiple roots. Note that

(b) or (c) is not altered by doing the above.

The finite number of polynomials 0 , 1 , . . . , r1 have only finitely

many roots between b and c. By means of these roots, we shall split the

interval (b, c) into finitely many subintervals, the end points of which

are these roots. We shall study how the function (a) changes as a runs

from b to c.

1) No two consecutive functions of the Sturmian series 0 (x), 185

1 (x), . . . , r1 (x) can vanish at one and the same point, inside the

interval (b, c). For, suppose b < a < c and i (a) = 0 = i+1 (a),

0 < i + 1 < r. Then

i (x) = Ai i+1 (x) i+2 (x)

so that i+2 (a) = 0, and, so on, finally r (a) = 0. But r (a) = 1.

2) Inside any one of the intervals, each function keeps a constant sign;

for, if any function changed sign then, by theorem 5, there would be

a zero inside this interval.

Let d denote an end point of an interval and L and R the intervals to

the left of d and to the right of d, having d as a common end point.

3) Suppose d is a zero of 1 for 0 < 1 < r. Then

l1 = Al l l+1 ,

so that l1 (d) = l+1 (d) and none of them is zero by (1). Because

of (2), l1 has in L the same sign as at d. Similarly in R. The same

162

function (a) remains constant when a goes from L to R crossing a

zero of l , 0 < 1 < r.

4) Let now d be a zero of 0 . Then d is not a zero of 1 . We have

0 (x) = (x d)(x)

where m is an integer > 0, (x) and 1 (x) are polynomials over k,

and (d) , 0. At d, 1 (d) has the same sign as (d).

186

0 has the sign of (a). In L, 1 (a) has the same sign as (d). Also

(x) has no zero in L. Hence 1 (a) has the same sign as (a). Therefore

in L, 0 and 1 have opposite signs. In R, exactly the opposite happens,

namely 0 (a) = (a d). (d), a d > 0. Hence 0 and 1 have the

same sign in R. Thus (a) is lessened by 1, whenever a crosses a zero

of 0 (x) and remains constant in all other cases.

Our theorem is, thus, completely proved.

We make the following remark.

Remark. Suppose k is a formally real field and

f (x) = xn + a1 xn1 + + an ,

a polynomial in k[x]. Let, as before, M = max(1, |a1 | + + |an |).

Suppose there exists a real closed algebraic extension K of k with an

order which is an extension of the given order in k. f (x) can, then, be

considered as a polynomial in K[x] and, as seen earlier, f (x) has no

roots in K outside the interval (M, M). The number of these distinct

roots is thus independent of K.

We now prove

Theorem 7. Let k be an ordered field, its algebraic closure. Suppose

there exist two real closed subfields K, K of /k with orders extending

the given order in k. Then K and K are k isomorphic.

187

163

roots of f (x) in K. Let 1 , . . . , t be the distinct roots of f (x) in

K . Put L = k(1 , . . . , t ) and L = k(1 , . . . , t ). Since L/k is

finite, L = k() for some in K. Suppose (x) is the minimum

polynomial of in k[x]. Let be a root of (x) in K . Then k() and

k( ) are k-isomorphic. If is this isomorphism, then = . But

k() = L = k(1 , . . . , t ). Hence 1 , . . . , t will be distinct roots

of f (x) in K . Thus L = k( ). Hence

L L .

2) Suppose (x) is any polynomial in k[x], 1 , . . . , s its distinct roots

in K. Let 1 , . . . , s be the corresponding roots in K . Consider all

the positive quantities among i j , i , j. Their square roots exist

in K. Let (x) be a polynomial in k[x], among whose roots are these

square roots and let 1 , . . . , g be the roots of (x) in K, 1 , . . . , g

the corresponding roots in K . Then, from above,

F = k(1 , . . . , s ,

k(1 , . . . , s ,

1 , . . . , g )

1 , . . . , g ) = F .

(i ) = i

(i ) = i .

Suppose i > j . Then i j > 0 so that i j = 2t , for some t.

Also, (i j ) = i j . But

(i j ) = (2t ) = 2

t .

2

i > j .

The isomorphism between F and F preserves order between the 188

roots of (x) in K.

164

remark that any such isomorphism has to preserve order. For, if is

this isomorphism and > in K, then = 2 so that

( ) = (2 ) = (())2 > 0

so that > . We shall, therefore, construct an order preserving

map which we shall show to be an isomorphism.

4) Let be an element in K, h(x) its minimum polynomial over k. Let

1 , . . . , t be the distinct roots of h(x) in K and let notation be so

chosen that , < 2 < . . . < t . Let = i . Let 1 , . . . , t be the

distinct roots of h(x) in K and, again, let the notation be such that

1 < 2 < . . . < t .

Define, now, on K by

= i .

Let and be two elements of K and let f (x) be a polynomial in

k[x]n whose roots in K are , , + , , . . .. Construct the fields

F and F and the k-isomorphism of F on F . Since preserves

order of roots of f (x), it preserves order of roots of the factor of f (x)

which has as its root. Similarly of the factor having as a root.

Hence

() = (),

() = (), ( + ) = ( + ), () = ().

189

K. Thus is identity on K . Hence K and K are k-isomorphic.

Corollary. The only automorphism of K over k is the identity.

We shall now prove the theorem regarding the existence of real

closed fields, namely

165

Theorem 8. If k is an ordered field with a given order and , its algebraic closure, there exists in , upto k-isomorphism, only one real

closed field K with an order extending the given order in k.

Proof. Let V be the family of formally real subfields of /k which have

an order extending that in k. V is not empty, since k V. We partially

order V by inclusion. Let {k } be a totally ordered subfamily of V. Let

S

K0 = k . Then K0 is a field which is contained in V. This can be

K has an order extending the order in k. To prove that K is real closed, let

f (x) be a polynomial of odd degree over K. It changes sign. Therefore

there is an irreducible factor, also of odd degree, which changes sign

in K. This factor must have a root in K. Else, by theorem 3 there

exists an algebraic extension with an order extending that in k. This will

contradict maximality of K. In a similar way, every positive element of

K is a square. By theorem 4, K is real closed. If K and K are two real

closed subfields with orders extending that in k, then, by theorem 7, they 190

are k-isomorphic.

Suppose now that k is a perfect field and , its algebraic closure.

Let G be the galois group of /K. If G has elements of finite order (not

equal to identity), let K be the fixed field of the cyclic group generated

by one of them. Then ( : K) is finite and by Artin-Schreier theorem

this order has to be two. Thus any element of finite order in G has to

have the order two. Furthermore, in this case, k is an ordered field.

On the other hand, if k is an ordered field and , its algebraic closure, there exists, then by theorem 8, a real closed subfield of /k, say

K. This means that G has an element of order 2. Moreover no two elements of order 2 commute. For if , are of order 2 and commute, then

1, , , is a group order 4 which must have a fixed field L such that

( : L) = 4. This is impossible, by Artin-Schreier theorem. Hence the

Theorem 9. If k is a perfect field, its algebraic closure and G the

galois group of /k then G has elements of finite order if and only if k

is formally real. Also, then, all these elements have order 2 and no two

of them commute.

166

Let k be a formally real field with a given order. We had defined a

function | | on k with values in k such that

|ab| = |a| |b|,

|a + b| |a| + |b|.

This implies that

|a| |b| |a b|.

191

Also a |a| is a homomorphism of k into the set of positive elements of k. The function | | defines a metric on the field k. We define

a Cauchy sequence in k to be a sequence (a1 , . . . , an , .) of elements of k

such that for every > 0 in k, there exists n0 , an integer such that

| an am |< , n, m > n0 .

Obviously, if m > n0 + 1,

|am | = |am ano ano | < + |an0 |,

so that all elements of the sequence from n0 onwards have a value less

than a certain positive element of k.

A Cauchy sequence is said to be a null sequence if, for every > 0

in k, there is an integer n0 = n0 () such that

| an |< ,

n > n0 .

The sum and product of two Cauchy sequence is defined as follows:(a1 , a2 , . . .) + (b1 , b2 , . . .) = (a1 + b1 , a2 + b2 , . . .)

(a1 , a2 , . . .) (b1 , b2 , . . .) = (a1 + b1 , a2 + b2 , . . .)

and it is easy to verify that the Cauchy sequences in k form a ring R and

the null sequences, an ideal Y of R. We assert that Y is a maximal

167

sequence. Then there exists a > 0 in k and an integer n such that

| am |> , m > n.

(1)

For, if not, for every > 0 and integer n, there exist an infinity of 192

m > n for which | am |< . Since (a1 , . . .) is a Cauchy sequence, there

exists n0 = n0 () such that

|am1 am2 | < ,

m1 , m2 > n0 .

Let m0 > n0 such that |am0 | < . Then, for all m > m0 ,

|am | |am am0 | + | am0 < 2

which proves that (a1 , . . .) is a null sequence, contradicting our assumption.

Let 1 be the unit element of k. Then the sequence (1, 1, . . .) is a

Cauchy sequence and is the unit element in R. Let c = (a1 , . . .) be in

R but not in Y . Let m be defined as in (1). Then c1 = (0, 0, . . . 0, a1

m ,

a1

,

.

.

.)

is

also

a

Cauchy

sequence.

For,

let

>

0

and

n,

an

integer

so

m+1

that

n1 , n2 > n0 .

| an1 an2 |< ,

Then

1

1

1

=

an1 an2

|an1 | |an2 |

that cc1 (1, 1, 1, . . . (modY ). This proves that Y is a maximal ideal

and, therefore,

1) R/Y is a field k.

k is called the completion of k under the given order. For every

a k, consider the Cauchy sequence a = (a, a, . . .). Then a a is a

isomorphic to k. We shall identify it with k itself.

168

(2) k is an extension field of k.

extension of the order in k. To this end, define a sequence c = (a1 , . . . , )

of R to be positive if there is an > 0 and an n0 = n0 () such that

an > ,

n > n0 .

|bn | < /2 ,

n > m = m().

a p + b p > /2

which shows that a + b is also a positive sequence. The definition of

positive sequence, therefore, depends only on the residue class mod Y .

Let P denote the set of residue classes containing the positive sequences and the null sequence. We shall show that P determines an

order in k

First, let c1 and c2 be two positive sequences. There exist 1 > 0,

2 > 0 and two integers n1 and n2 such that

a p > E1 ,

p > n1 ,

b p > E2 ,

p > n2 ;

a p + b p > 1 + 2 ,

194

PP P.

Let now c = (a1 , . . .) be not a null sequence. Then c and c cannot

both be positive. For then, there exist , both positive and integers n,

n such that

p>n

a p > ,

a p > , p > n.

169

0 = a p a p > + > 0,

which is absurd. Thus P (P) = (0).

Suppose now that c = (a1 , . . .) is not a null sequence. Suppose it

is not positive. Then c = (a1 , a2 , . . .) is a positive sequence. For,

otherwise, for every and every n,

a p < ,

p > n.

a p < ,

p > n1 .

|a p aq | < ,

p, q > n0 .

|a p | |a p aq | + |aq | < 2

which means that c is a null-sequence. This contradiction proves that

P (P) = k.

We therefore see that

195

We shall denote the element (a1 , . . .) in k by a and write

a = lim an .

n

Then, clearly, given any > 0, there exists n0 such that the element

a (an0 ) in k has all its elements, from some index on, less than in

absolute value. This justifies our notation. One clearly has

lim an + lim bn = lim an + bn .

170

lim an

an

= lim ,

lim bn

bn

if (b1 , b2 , . . .) is not a null sequence.

If is the rational number field, it is ordered and the completion

under this unique order is called the real number field.

This method of construction of the real number field goes back to

Cantor.

Ordered fields can be put into two classes.

A field k is said to be archimedian ordered if, for every two elements

a, b in k, a > 0, b > 0 there exists an integer n such that

nb > a

196

We may state equivalently that, for every a > 0, there is an integer n

with

n > a.

A field k is said to be non-archimedian ordered if there exists a > 0

such that

a>n

for every integer n.

, the rational number field is archimedian ordered. Consider, now,

the ring [x] of polynomials. For

f (x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + + an , a0 , 0

define f (x) > 0, if a0 > 0 as a rational number. That this is an order can

be verified easily. Also the order is non-archimedian because

x2 + 1 > n,

171

This examples shows that an archimedian order in k can be extended

into a non-archimedian order in an extension field which is transcendental over k. That this is not possible in algebraic extensions is shown by

Theorem 10. If k is archimedian ordered and K/k is algebraic with

an order extending the order in k, the extended order in K is again

archimedian.

Proof. Let be > 0 in the extended order in K. Let f (x) = xn + a1 xn1 +

an be the minimum polynomial of in k[x]. Consider the quantities 197

1ai , i = 1, . . . , n. They are in k and since k and is archimedian ordered,

there exists an integer t > 0 such that

t > 1 ai , i = 1, . . . , n.

We now assert that < t. For if t, then

0 = f () = n + a1 n1 + . . . + an

n + (n1 + . . . +)(1 t)

n + (n1 + . . . + 1)(1 ) = 1,

which is absurd. Our theorem is proved.

We had already introduced the real number field. It is clearly archimedian ordered. In fact, the completion of an archimedian ordered field

is archimedian. We can prove even more, as shown by

Theorem 11. Every complete archimedian ordered field is isomorphic

to the field of real numbers.

Proof. Let K be an archimedian ordered field. It has a subfield isomorphic to , the field of rational numbers. We shall identify it with it

self. Let k be the completion of k. Then

k .

172

198

In order to prove the inequality the other way round, let R be the

ring of Cauchy sequences in k and Y , the maximal ideal formed by

null sequences. We shall show that every residue class of R/Y can be

represented by a Cauchy sequence of rational numbers. Therefore, let

c = (a1 , a2 , . . .) be a positive Cauchy sequence in k. Since k is archimedian ordered, there exists, for every n greater than a certain m, an integer

n such that

n < nan < 1 + n

which means that

a n < 1 .

n n n

m m+1

,

, . . .) be a sequence of rational numLet d = (0, 0, 0, . . .

m m+1

bers. Let > 0 be any positive quantity in k. There exists, then, an

integer t such that t > 1, since k is archimedian ordered. Then, for

n > t and m,

an n <

n

We shall now prove the important

Theorem 12. The real number field is real closed.

Proof. We shall show that every polynomial which changes sign in

has a root in .

with

f (b) > 0 and f (c) < 0. We define two sequences of rational numbers

b0 , b1 , b2 , . . . and c0 , c1 , c2 , . . . in the following way. Define the integers

0 , 1 , 2 , . . . inductively in the following manner. 0 = 0, and having

defined 0 , 1 , . . . , n1 , n is defined as the largest integer such that

(c b)n

) 0.

2n

(c b)n

We shall put bn = b +

and since we want bn to be an

2n

increasing sequence, we shall, in addition, require that

n

n1 + 1.

2

f (b +

173

199

cn = bn +

cb

.

2n

b bn bn+1 cn+1 cn c.

Also (bn ) and (cn ) are Cauchy sequences; for,

| bn+1 bn |<

cb

.

2n+1

cn = bn =

cb

2n

= lim bn = lim cn .

By definition of n , f (cn ) < 0 and f (bn ) o.

Therefore

f () = lim f (bn ) 0, f () = lim f (cn ) < 0.

This shows that f () = 0. Hence is real closed.

We have the

is algebraically closed.

Corollary. (i)

is the complex number field. We have thus proved the funda(i)

mental theorem of algebra.

The algebraic closure of in is called the field of real algebraic

numbers and is real closed.

Chapter 8

Valuated fields

1 Valuations

200

in the real number field satisfying

(1) | 0 |= 0

(2) | a |> 0, if a , 0

(3) | ab |=| a | | b |

(4) | a + b || a | + | b |

where a and b are elements in k. It follows that a | a | is a homomorphisms of k into the multiplicative group of positive real numbers. If

we denote by 1 the unit element of k, then

| 1 |=| 12 |=| 1 |2 =| 1 | | 1 |

so that | 1 |= 1. If is a root of unity, say an n say an n th root of unity,

then

1 =| n |=| |n

and so | |= 1. Thus means that | 1 |= 1 and so, for a k,

| a |=| a | .

175

8. Valuated fields

176

Also, since a = a b + b, we get

| a | | b | a b | .

Two valuations | |1 and | |2 are said to be equivalent if for every a , 0

in k,

| a |1 < 1 | a |2 < 1,

| a |1 = 1 | a |2 = 1.

201

It is obvious that the above relation between valuations is an equivalence relation. All valuations equivalent to a given valuation form an

equivalence class of valuations.

If | | is a valuation then, for 0 c 1, | 1 |c is also a valuation. We

shall now prove

Theorem 1. If ||1 and ||2 are equivalent valuations, there exists a real

number c > 0 such that

| a |1 =| a |c2

for all a k.

Proof. Let us assume that ||1 is non-trivial. Then ||2 is also non-trivial.

Also, there exists a b k such that | b |1 > 1, | b |2 > 1. Let a k, a , 0.

Then | a |1 and | b |1 being positive real numbers.

| a |1 =| b |1

where =

log | a |1

.

log | b |1

m

by means of rational numbers. Let < . Then

n

| a |1 >| b |m/n

1

2. Classification of valuations

177

an

which means that | m |1 > 1. Since ||1 and ||2 are equivalent, this means

b

that

| a |2 >| b |m/n

.

2

In a similar manner, if p/q > , then

p/q

| a |2 <| b |2

This means that if

.

202

m

p

and ,then

n

q

| a |2 =| b |2 .

Therefore =

Putting c =

log | a |2

log | a |1

log | b |2

. This shows that

=

.

log | b |2

log | a |2

log | b |2

log | b |1

and observing that c > 0, our theorem follows.

log | b |2

2 Classification of valuations

A valuation is said to be archimedian if for every a k, there exists an

integer n = n(a) (that is ne, if e is the unit element of k) such that

| a |<| n | .

(Compare this with archimedian axiom in ordered fields).

A valuation of k which is not archimedian is said to be non-archimedian. We shall deduce a few simple consequences of these definitions.

1) || is archimedian there exists an integer n in k such that | n |> 1.

Proof. If || is archimedian, there exists a k with | a |> 1 and an

integer n with | n |>| a |. This means that

| n |> 1.

8. Valuated fields

178

element of k. If | a | 1, then clearly | a |< |n |. Let | a |> 1. Since

archimedian axiom holds in real number fields, we have an integer

m with

| a |<| n | m.

203

log m

( =

> 0). Let be a positive integer greater than . Then

log | n |

m <| n | =| n |. Therefore

| a |<| n | m <| n |+1

and our assertion is proved.

We deduce

2) || non-archimedian | n | 1, for every integer n in k.

This shows at once that

3) All the valuations of a field of characteristic p are non-archimedian.

We now prove the important property

4) || is an non-archimedian valuation if and only if for every a, b in k

| a + b | Max(| a |, | b |).

Proof. If || is a non-archimedian valuation, then for every integer

n, | n | 1. Let m be any positive integer. Then

m1

(a + b)m = am + (m

b + . . . + bm

1 )a

so that

| a + b |m | a |m + | a |m1 | b | + . . . + | b |m

(m + 1)Max(| a |m , | b |m ).

2. Classification of valuations

179

| a + b | Max(| a |, | b |).

The converse is trivial, since | n |=| 1 + + 1 | 1.

We deduce easily

204

| a + b |= Max(| a |, | b |).

Proof. Let, for instance, | a |>| b |. Then

| a + b | Max(| a |, | b |) =| a |

Also a = a + b b, so that

| a | Max(| a + b |, | b |).

But, since | a |>| b |, | a + b || b |. Thus | a || a + b | and our

contention is proved.

More generally, we have, if | a1 |>| a j |, j , 1, then

| a1 + a2 + . . . an |=| a1 | .

In the case of non-archimedian valuations, many times, the so-called

exponential valuation is used. It is defined thus: If ||0 is an non-archimedian valuation, define the function || by

| a |= log | a |0 ,

a , 0.

which has the property

+=

+a=

8. Valuated fields

180

a

=0

1) | 0 |=

2) | a | is a real number

3) | ab |=| a | + | b |

4) | a + b | Min (| a |, | b |).

205

if |a| = 0 for a , 0. For two valuations ||1 and ||2 which are equivalent

|a|1 = c|a|2 ,

ci0 being a real number.

3 Examples

First, let be the finite field of q elements. Every element of satisfies

the polynomial xq1 1. Therefore, any valuation | | on is trivial.

Let now be the field of rational numbers.

Let | | be an archimedian valuation on . It is enough to determine its

effect on the set of integers in . There is an integer n such that |n| > 1.

Let m be any positive integer. Then

n = a0 + a1 m + + at mt ,

"

#

log n

where t

, 0 ai < m. Therefore |ai | ai < m so that

log m

|n| m(t + 1) max(1, |m|t ).

3. Examples

181

1

1

log n

+ 1) r max(1, |m|t ).

|n| m r (r

log m

Making r , we get

log n

This proves that, since |n| > 1,

log n

|n| |m| log m

and |m| > 1.

206

Now we can repeat the argument with m and n interchanged and

thus obtain

log n

log

m

|m| |n|

Combining the two inequalities we get

log |n| log |m|

=

.

log n

log m

Since m is arbitrary, it follows that

|m| = mC

where c > 0 is a constant. Obviously, the valuation is determined by

its effect on positive integers. From the definition of equivalence, || is

equivalent to the ordinary absolute value induced by the unique order in

.

Let now || be a non-trivial non-archimedian valuation. It is enough

to determine its effect on Z, the ring of integers.

Since | | is non-trivial, consider the set Y of a Z with |a| < 1. Y

is an ideal. For,

|a| < 1, |b| < 1 |a + b| Max(|a|, |b|) < 1.

8. Valuated fields

182

Also, if |a| < 1 and b Z, then

|ab| = |a| |b| < 1.

|b| 1, since valuation is non-archimedian. Hence |a| < 1 which means

that Y is a prime ideal. Thus g = (p) generated by a prime p. Since, by

definition of Y , M < 1 p/n, we have, if n = p n1 , (n1 , p) = 1,

|n| = |p| .

207

a

If we denote |p| by c, 0 < c < 1, then for any rational number , the

b

value is

a = c

b

a

a

where = p where (a , p) = 1 = (b , p) and a rational integer.

b

b

This valuations is called the p-adic valuation.

Thus with every non-archimedian valuation, there is associated a

prime number. Conversely, let p be any prime number and let n be any

integer, n = p n1 , 0, where (n1 , p) = 1. Put

|n| = |p|

and q are distinct primes, then the associated valuations are inequivalent.

For, if | | p and | |q are the valuations, then

|q| p = 1,

|q|q < 1.

we have the

Theorem 2. The ordinary absolute valuation and the p-adic valuation

by means of primes p form a complete system of in-equivalent valuations

of the rational number field.

3. Examples

208

183

Let us consider the case of a function field K over a ground field

k and let L be the algebraic closure of k in K. L is called the field of

constants of the function field K. The valuations on K that we shall

consider shall always be such that

|a| = o

for a k. (We consider exponential valuation). Hence valuations of

function fields are always non-archimedian, since the prime field is contained in k.

Let, now, be in L. Then satisfies the equation

n + a1 n1 + + an = o

where a1 , . . . , an k. If || is a valuation of K then

||n min(||n1 , . . . , |1|).

From this, it follows that || 0. Also, since 1/ is algebraic,

|| 0. Hence for all L

|| = 0.

Thus the valuation is trivial on the field of constants.

We shall consider the simple case where K = k(x), x transcendental

over k. Here L = k. Let || be a valuation and let |x| < 0. Let f (x) =

a0 xn + + an be in k[x]. Then

f (x) min(|x|n , |x|n1 , . . . , |1|).

Therefore

f (x) = n|x|.

This means that, if R(x) =

g(x)

is an element of K, then

h(x)

We denote this valuation by || .

8. Valuated fields

184

Suppose now that |x| 0. As in the case of rational integers, consider the subset Y of k[x] consisting of polynomials f (x) with | f (x)| >

0. Then, since for every (x) in k[x], |(x)| 0, it follows that Y is a

maximal ideal generated by an irreducible polynomial p(x). As in the 209

case of the rational number field

|R(x)| = |p(x)|

A(x)

where A(x) and B(x) are prime to p(x) and

B(x)

is a rational integer. If we denote, by || p(x) , this valuation and put

= ord p(x) R(x), then

where c = |p(x)| p(x) > 0. Every irreducible polynomial also gives rise to

a valuation of this type. Hence

Theorem 3. A complete system of inequivalent valuations of k(x) is

given by the valuations induced by irreducible polynomials in k[x] and

the valuation given by the difference of degrees of numerator and denominator of f (x) in k(x).

4 Complete fields

Let k be a field and || a valuation of it. The valuation function defines

on k a metric and one can complete k under this metric. The method is

the same as in the previous chapter and we give here the results without

proofs.

A sequence (a1 , a2 , . . .) of elements of k is said to be a Cauchy sequence if for every > 0, there exists an integer n = n() such that

|an1 an2 | <

, n1 , n2 > n.

|am | < ,

m > n.

4. Complete fields

185

210

The Cauchy sequences form a commutative ring R and the null sequences a maximal ideal Y , therein. The quotient k = R/Y is called

the completion of k under ||. The mapping a (a, a, a, . . .) is an isomorphism of k in k and we identify this isomorphic image with k itself.

We extend to k the valuation || in k, in the following manner. The real

number field is complete under the valuation induced by the unique

then a = (a1 , a2 , . . .), a Cauchy sequence of

order on it. So, if a k,

elements of k. Put

|a| = lim |an |

n

Also, the extend valuation is archimedian or non-archimedian, according as the valuation in k is archimedian or non-archimedian.

For instance, if || on k is non-archimedian and

a = (a1 , a2 , . . .)

b = (b1 , b2 , . . .)

then

are two elements of k,

a + b = (a1 + b1 , a2 , +b2 , . . .)

and

|a + b| Max(|a|, |b|) = lim (|an + bn | Max(|an |, |bn |))

n

which is certainly 0,

k is thus a complete valuated field.

It may also be seen that the elements of k are dense in k in the topol- 211

ogy induced by the metric.

We denote by S n the partial

Let c1 + c2 + c3 + be a series in k.

sum

S n = c1 + c2 + + cn .

We say that c1 + c2 + + cn + is convergent if and only if the

sequence of partial sums S 1 , S 2 , . . . , S n , . . . converges. This means that,

for every > 0, there exists an integer n = n() such that

|S m S m | = |cm+1 + + cm | < , m, m > n.

8. Valuated fields

186

In case the valuation is non-archimedian, we have the following

property:1) The series c1 + c2 + + cn + is convergent if and only if

c1 , c2 , . . . is a null sequence.

Proof. We have only to prove the sufficiency of the condition. Suppose

that cn 0; then, for large n and m,

|S n S m | = |cm+1 + cm+2 + + cn |

max(|cm+1 |, . . . , |cn |)

and so tends to zero. This proves the contention.

212

Let k be a field and || a valuation on it. a |a| is a homomorphism

of k into multiplicative group of positive real numbers. Let G(k) denote

this homomorphic image. This is a group which we call the value group

of k for the valuation. If k is the completion of k by the valuation in k,

is value group of k.

then G(k)

Suppose || is an archimedian valuation. Then k has characteristic

zero and contains , the rational number field as a subfield. On , || is

the field of real numbers,

the ordinary absolute value. Since k contains ,

it follows that

is the multiplicative group of all positive real numbers.

1) G(k)

Also, because of the definition of the extended valuation, it follows

We shall now assume that || is a non-archimedian valuation. We consider the exponential valuation. Then G(k) is a subgroup of the additive group of all real numbers. We shall now prove

= G(k).

2) G(k)

Then a = (a1 , . . .) is a Cauchy sequence,

Proof. For, let 0 , a k.

not a null sequence in k. By definition,

|a| = lim |an |

n

4. Complete fields

187

Now an = an a + a so that

|an | min(|an a|, |a|).

But, for n large, |an a| > |a| so that |an | = |a| and our contention is

established.

G(k) being an additive subgroup of the real number field is either

dense or discrete. The valuation is then called dense or discrete accordingly. In the second case, there exists in k with smallest pos- 213

itive value || || is then the generator of the infinite cyclic group

G(k) is called a uniformising parameter. It is clear that is not

unique. For, if u k with |u| = 0, then |u| = || and u is also a

uniformising parameter.

Consider in k the set O of elements a with |a| o.O is then an

integrity domain. For,

|a| 0, |b| 0 |a + b| Min(|a|, |b|) 0.

Also |ab| = |a| + |b| 0. We call O the ring of integers of the

valuation. Consider the set Y of elements a k with |a| > 0. Then

Y is a subset of O and is a maximal ideal in O. For, if a r and

b Y , then |ab| = |a| + |b| > 0. Also, if a r but not in Y , then

|a| = 0 and |a1 | = 0 so that if U is an ideal in O containing Y , then

U = Y or U = r. We call Y , the prime divisor of the valuation.

Since Y is maximal, r/Y is a field. We call /Y the residue class

field.

We denote by O the

Exactly the same notions can be defined for k.

hence the set of a k with

|a| 0.Y is the maximal ideal in O,

Y = Y r

We now have

8. Valuated fields

188

2) Every a k(k)

This is evident since if a < O(O),

1

a Y (Y ).

3) O(O)

which is a root of a

Proof. We should prove that every in k(k)

n

n1

is

polynomial of the type x + a1 x + + an , a1 , . . . , an O(O),

n + a1 n1 + + an = o

Then 1 Y (Y ). Therefore

and < O(O).

1 = (a1 1 + a2 2 + + an n )

and so

o = |1| min(|a1 1 |, . . . |an n ) > o

which is absurd

conversely.

a1 , . . . , an , . . . in k. Then, as

Proof. Let a = (a1 , . . . , an , . . .) be in O,

we saw earlier, for sufficiently large n

|an | = |a|.

But |a| 0 so that |an | 0. Thus, for sufficiently large n, all an s are

in O. Converse is trivial.

We now prove

Y .

5) There is a natural isomorphism of O/Y on O/

4. Complete fields

215

189

now make correspond to a + Y the residue class a + Y . Then a + Y

Y . The mapping a + Y a + Y is a homomoris an element of O/

Y . Since both are fields, this

phism (non-trivial) of O/Y into /

is an isomorphism into. In order to see that it is an isomorphism of

Y , let a + Y be any residue class in O/

Y . By (4)

O/Y onto O/

therefore, given any N > 0, there exists a with

|a a| > N > 0

or a a Y . If we then take a + Y , then a + Y is the image of

a + Y . This proves that the mapping is an isomorphism onto.

Y ,

(5) enables us to choose, in k itself, a set of representatives of /

the residue class field. We shall denote this set by R and assume that

it contains the zero element of O. Also it has to be observed that, in

general, R is not a field. It is not even an additive group.

We now assume that | | is a discrete valuation. Let in O be a uniformising parameter. Then clearly

Y = ()

Then |a|/|| is a rational integer, since

is a principal ideal. Let a k.

G(k) is an infinite cyclic group. Put |a|/|| = t. Then |at | = 0. If

we call elements u in k with |u| = 0, units, then

a = t u

where u is a unit.

Then

Let R be the set defined above and a .

a a0 (

mod Y )

(a a0 )1 a1 (modY ),

216

8. Valuated fields

190

where a1 R. Then

a a0 + a1 (modY 2 )

In this way, one proves by induction that

a a0 + a1 + + am m (mod)Y m+1 )

where a0 , a1 , . . . , am R. Put bm = a0 + a1 + + am m .

Then a bm (modY m+1 ) which means that

|a bm | m + 1

Consider the series

b0 + (b1 b0 ) + (b2 b1 ) +

Then, since bm+1 bm = am+1 m+1 , we see that |bm+1 bm | increases

indefinitely. Hence the above series converges. Also, since its elements are integers,

b = b0 + (b1 b0 ) + (b2 b1 ) +

is an element of O.

Since b0 + (b1 b0 ) + + (bm bm1 ) = bm , it follows that

b = lim bm .

m

Thus we have

a = lim bm = a0 + a1 + a2 2 +

m

217

once we have chosen R and .

at O for some rational integer t. Hence we have

If a k,

4. Complete fields

191

a=

an n

n=t

If t > 0, we shall call

h(a) =

1

X

an n

n=t

We now study the two important examples of the rational number

field and the rational function field of one variable.

Let be the field of rational numbers. We shall denote by || the

ordinary absolute value and by || p the p-adic value for p, a prime. If

a is an integer, a = p n1 , (p, n1 ) = 1.

We put

|a| p = log p

and

|a| = absolute value of a.

It is then clear that each of the non-archimedian valuations of is

discrete. Let us denote by the completion of by the archimedian

valuation and by p the completion of by the p-adic valuation.

is clearly the real number field.

If O p denotes the set of integers of p and Y the prime ideal of the

valuation then

Y = (p)

A set of representatives of O p mod Y is given by the integers 0, 1, 2, 218

. . . , p 1 as can be easily seen. Hence, by (6),

8. Valuated fields

192

7) Every a p is expressed uniquely in the form

a=

an pn

n=t

where ai = 0, 1, 2, . . . , p 1.

The elements of p are called the p-adic numbers of Hensel.

As before, we denote, by h p (a), the principal part of a at p. Clearly

a h p (a) is a p-adic integer.

b

Let a be a rational number, a p |a| p 0, that is a = ,

c

(b, c) = 1 and c is prime to p. Since only finitely many primes divide

b and c, it follows that a p for almost all p, that is except for a

finite number of p. Hence h p (a) = 0 for all except a finite number of

primes. Hence for any a

X

h p (a)

p

inator is prime to p. Hence a h p (a) is a rational number whose

p

X

a

h p (a) 0(mod1).

p

number.

219

of rational functions of one variable x. All the valuations are nonarchimedian. Every irreducible polynomial of k[x] is linear and of

the form x a. With every a k there is the valuation ||a associated,

which is defined by

| f (x)|a = ,

4. Complete fields

193

|| the valuation by degree of f (x), then, for f (x) k[x],

| f (x)| = deg f (x)

Let Ka and K denote the completions, respectively, of K at ||a and

|| . If Oa and O are the set of integers of Ka and K , Ya and Y

the respective prime divisors, then

1

Ya = {x a}, Y = { }.

x

It is clear, then, that a /Ya and /Y are both isomorphic to k and

since K contains k, we may take k itself as a set of representatives of

the residue class field. Any element f in Ka is uniquely of the form

f =

n=t

an (x a)n ,

an k. Similarly, if K ,

=

bn xn .

n=t

f K for the two valuations, then

X

ha ( f ) + h ( f )

a

If we define K to be regular ar a() if a ( ), then for 220

f K,

X

f

ha ( f )

a

where a may be infinity also, is regular at all, a k and also for the

valuation || . Such an element, clearly, is a constant. Hence

8. Valuated fields

194

9) If f K then

ha ( f ) = constant

Conversely, it is easy to see that there exists, up to an additive constant, only one f K which is regular for all a k except a1 , . . . , an

(one of which may be also) and with prescribed principal parts at

these ai . 9) gives the partial fraction decomposition of the rational

function f .

non-archimedian valuated field

We shall study the following problem. Suppose k is compute under a

valuation ||. Can this valuation be extended, and if so in how many

ways, to a finite algebraic extension K of k ?

We prove, first

Lemma 1. Let k be a field complete under a valuation ||, and K a finite

algebraic extension of k. Let 1 , . . . , n be a basis of K/k. Let || have

an extension to K and

n

X

=

aiv i , aiv k,

i=1

221

are Cauchy sequence in K.

Proof. We consider the Cauchy sequence {v },

v =

m

X

i=1

aiv i , aiv , k

We use induction on m. Clearly, if m = 1,

v = aiv 1

and {v } is a Cauchy sequence in K if and only if {aiv } is a sequence in

k.

195

Write

m1

X

v =

aiv i + amv m .

i=1

in K and induction hypothesis works. Let us assume that amv is not a

Cauchy sequence in k. This means that there exists a > 0 and for every

v, an integer v such that

> v

and

|am v amv | > .

Consider now the sequence {v } in K with

v =

K.

v v

.

amv amv

Now

v m =

m1

X

i=1

!

ai v aiv

i

am v amv

works and so, if

!

aiv aiv

= bi ,

lim

v amv amv

then

m =

X

i=1

bi i ,

bi k.

k. Therefore {amv } is a Cauchy sequence and our Lemma is thereby

proved.

We shall now prove the following theorem concerning extension of 223

valuation.

8. Valuated fields

196

finite extension K, then this extension is unique and K is complete under

the extended valuation.

Proof. That K is complete under the extended valuation is easy to see.

For, if {v } is a Cauchy sequence in K and

X

v =

aiv i , aiv k.,

i

lim aiv = bi k,

then

lim =

X

i

1 lim aiv =

v

bi i

which is again in K.

From the lemma, it follows that if {v } is a null sequence in K and

P

v = aiv i , aiv k, then the aiv s are null sequences in k.

i

P

|| in k, then , 2 , 3 , . . . is a null sequence in K. If m = a(m)

1 i ,

1

a(m)

k, then ai(m) , i = 1, . . . , n are null sequence in k.

i

P

If = xi i is a general element of x1 , . . . , xn . Put

X

t =

x(t)

i i ;

i=1

t

then NK/k t is the same polynomial in x(t)

t , i = 1, . . . , n as N K/k is in

x1 , . . . , xn . If now || < 1, is an extended valuation, then the {x(i t)} are

null sequences. Hence N, N2 is a null sequences in k, But Nt =

(N)t so that (N), (N)2 , . . ., is s a null sequence in k. This means that

|N| < 1. We have, thus, proved that if in K is such that || < 1 is an

extended valuation, then |N| < 1 in k.

197

1 || = 1.

n

where n = (K : k)

Let now be in K and write =

N

(N)n

Then N =

. Thus

(N)n

|N| = 1.

By the above, it means that || = 1 in the valuation. Hence

p

n

|| = |N|

224

Our theorem is thus completely proved.

In order to prove that an extension of the valuation is possible, we

shall consider the case where k is complete under a discrete

non-archimedian valuation. Let O be the ring of integers Y , the prime

divisor of the valuation and O/Y , the residue class field. We shall now

prove the celebrated lemma due Hensel

Lemma 2. Let f (x) be a polynomial of degree m in O[x], g0 (x), a monic

polynomial of degree r 1 and h0 (x), a polynomial of degree m r

both with coefficients in O such that

1) f (x) go (x)ho (x) (modY )

2) go (x) and ho (x) are coprime mod Y

Then there exists polynomials g(x) and h(x) in O[x] such that

g(x) go (x)

(mod Y ),

h(x) ho (x)

g(x) has the same degree as go (x) and f (x) = g(x) h(x).

go (x), g1 , (x), . . . and ho (x), h1 , (x), . . . satisfying

gn (x) gn1 (x)(

mod Y n )

8. Valuated fields

198

hn (x) hn1 (x)(

mod Y n )

mod Y n+1 )

the polynomials have coefficients in O.

225

ho (x) are already given and satisfy the conditions. Assume now that

go (x), . . . , gn1 (x) and ho (x), . . . , hn1 (x) have been constructed so as

satisfy the requisite conditions.

Since gn1 (x) go (x)(mod Y ) and hn1 (x) ho (x)(mod Y ) and

g0 (x) and ho (x) are coprime mod Y , there exists, for any polynomial

fn (x) in O[x], two polynomials L(x) and M(x) with

fn (x) L(x)gn1 (x) + M(x)hn1 (x) (mod Y ).

L(x) and M(x) are clearly not uniquely determined. We can replace L(x)

by L(x) + (x)hn1 (x) and M(x) by M(x) + (x)gn1 (x).

Let be a generator of the principal ideal Y . By induction hypothesis,

fn (x) = n ( f (x) gn1 (x)hn1 (x))

is an integral polynomial, so in O[x]. Since gn1 (x) has degree r and is

monic and hn1 (x) degree m r, it is possible to choose M(x) and L(x)

so that M(x) has degree < r and L(x) degree m r. Put now

gn (x) = gn1 (x) + n M(x),

hn (x) = hn1 (x) + n L(x).

Then gn (x) is monic and of degree r, since M(x) has degree < r.hn (x)

has degree m r. Now f (x) gn (x)hn (x) = f (x) gn1 (x)hn1 (x)

n (gn1 (x)L(x) + hn1 (x)M(x))( mod Y n+1 ) By choice of L(x) and

M(x), it follows that

f (x) gn (x)hn (x)(mod Y n+1 ).

226

199

Since gn (x) gn1 (x) = 0(modn ), it follows that the corresponding coefficients of the sequence of polynomials g0 (x), g1 (x), . . . form

Cauchy sequences in O. Since k is complete and

g(x) = lim gn (x),

n

way, b(x) [x] and has degree m r.

Also since f (x) gn (x)hn (x) 0(modyn+1 ), it follows that the coefficients of ( f (x) gn (x)hn (x)) form null sequences. Hence

f (x) = lim gn (x)hn (x) = hn (x) = g(x)h(x)

n

We now deduce the following important .

Lemma 3. Let f (x) = xn +a1 xn1 + +an be an irreducible polynomial

k[x] , k satisfying hypothesis of lemma 2. Then f (x) O[x] if and only

if an O.

Proof. It is clearly enough to prove the sufficiency of the condition. Let

an , and if a1 , . . . , an1 (some or all of them) are not in , then there

is a smallest power a , a > 0, of such that

a f (x) = bo xn + b1 xn1 + + bn

is a primitive polynomial in O[x]. Also, now bn 0( mod Y ). and 227

at least one of b0 , . . . , bn1 is not divisible by Y . Let br be the first

coefficient from the right not divisible by Y . Then

a (b0 xr + br )xnr (mod Y )

Since br . 0( mod Y ), Hensels lemma can be applied and we see

that a f (x) is reducible in O[x]. Thus f (x) is reducible in k[x] which

contradicts the hypothesis. The lemma is therefore established.

8. Valuated fields

200

We are now ready to prove the important theorem concerning extension of discrete non-archimedian valuations, namely

Theorem 5. Let k be complete under a discrete non-archimedian valuation || and K a finite algebraic extension over k. Then || can be extended

uniquely to K and then for any in K,

|| =

1

|NK/k |.

(K : k)

defined on K by

1

|NK/k |

|| =

(K : k)

is a valuation function. Clearly , |0| = ; || is a real number for , 0.

Also,

|| = || + ||.

We shall now prove that

| + | min(||, ||).

228

or is 0, it is enough to prove that if || 0, |1 + | 0.

in K over k, Then

N = ((1)m am )(K:k()) .

Also, N(1 + ) = (1)n (1 a1 + am )(K:k()) . If |N 0|,

then |am | 0 which , by lemma 3, means that |a1 |, . . . , |am |. Hence

|N(1 + )| 0. Our theorem is proved.

Incidentally it shows that the extended valuation is discrete also.

201

Suppose k is complete under an archimedian valuation. Then k has characteristic zero and contains, as a subfield, the completion of the rational number field. bar(i) is, then, the complex number field. Every

On ,

we have the

complex number is to the form a + ib, a, b .

the function

ordinary absolute value. Define in (i)

1

|z| = (a2 + b2 ) 2

and prove the theorem of A. Ostrowski.

be the complex number field and let k be a

Theorem 6. Let k (i)

If the valuation in

then k = (i).

Proof. If k , (i),

let a k but not in (i).

Denote by || the valuation in 229

=g

1

b|a z| 0.

2

lim |a zn | = .

n

But zn = zn a + a and so |zn | |zn a| + |a| which shows that the

|zn |, for large n, are bounded. We may therefore, choose a subsequence

zi1 , zi2 , . . . converging to a limit point zo such that

= lim |a zin | = |a zo |

n

such that b = a z0

We have thus proved the existence of a z0 in (i)

|b| = > 0.

8. Valuated fields

202

, by definition, being g.l.b., it follows that

|b z|

for z (i).

Consider the set of complex numbers z with |z| < . Let n > 0 be an

arbitrary rational integer and , a primitive nth root of unity. Then

bn zn = (b z)(b z) . . . (b n1 z).

230

Therefore

|b z|n1 |b z||b z| . . . |b n1 z| = |bn zn |

|z|

|b|n + |z|n = n (1 + ( )n ).

Hence

!

|z|n

|b z| 1 + n .

We therefore have

|z| < |b z| = .

We now prove that for every integer m > 0, |b mz| = if |z| < .

For, suppose we have proved this for m 1 instead of m, then we can

carry through the above analysis with b (m 1)z instead of b, then we

can carry through the above analysis with b (m 1)z instead of b and

then we obtain |b mz| = .

Suppose now that z is any complex number. Then there is an integer

z

m > 0 such that | | < . Therefore

m

b m z = |b z | = .

m

Now z = z b + b and so

|z | |b z | + |b| 2

203

which shows that all complex numbers are bounded in absolute value.

is false .

This is a contradiction. Hence our assumption that a < (i)

The theorem is thereby proved,

Before proving theorem 7 which gives a complete characterization

of all complete fields with archimedian valuation, we shall prove a couple of lemmas.

Lemma 4. Let k be complete under an archimedian valuation || and 231

in k such that x2 + is irreducible in k[x]. Then |1 + | 1.

Proof. If possible, let |1 + | < 1. We construct, by recurrence, the

sequence c0 , c1 , c2 , . . . , in k, defined as follows: -

cn+1

c0 = 1

1+

n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

= 2

cn

It, then, follows that |cn | 1. For, if we have proved it upto cn1 ,

then

|1 + |

|cn | 2

1.

|cn1 |

Thus cn does not vanish for any n. Also,

|cn+1 cn | =

|1 + ||cn cn1 |

|cn cn1 |

|cn ||cn1 |

c0 + (c1 c0 ) + (c2 c1 ) +

converges in k. Let it converge to c in k. Then

c = lim co + + (cn on1 ) = lim cn .

n

1+

. But this means

c

that = c2 + 2c + 1 = (c + 1)2 which contradicts the fact x2 + is

irreducible in k[x].

We now prove the

Therefore, by definition of cn , we get c = 2

8. Valuated fields

204

valuation can be extended to k(i).

232

of k(i) is of the form a + ib, a, b k.

The norm from k(i) to k of = a + ib is

N = a2 + b2 .

By theorem 4, therefore, it is enough to prove that

1

|| = |(a2 + b2 ) 2 |

is a valuation on k(i). By putting =

|a2 + b2 | a2 . Therefore

b2

in the lemma 4, we see that

a2

p

1 + |a2 + b2 | + 2 |a2 + b2 |

p

= (1 + |a2 + b2 |)2 .

|1 + | 1 + ||

fields, namely,

Theorem 7. The only fields complete under an archimedian valuation

are the real and complex numbers fields.

Proof. k has characteristic zero and since it is complete, it contains the

field of real numbers. If k contains properly, then we assert that k

and,

contains i. For, k(i), by lemma 5, is complete and k(i) contains (i)

by theorem 6,

k(i) = (i).

205

Therefore

= k(i) k .

(i)

: )

= 2 so that k = k(i) = (i).

But ((i)

We have thus found all complete fields with archimedian valuation.

Suppose k is a complete field under a valuation || and let be its alge- 233

braic closure. Then || can be extended to by the prescription

1

|| = |N| n ,

where Norm is takes form k() over k and n = (k() : k). It is clear that

it defines a valuation function. For, of K is a subfields of and K/k is

finite and K contains then, by properties of norms,

1

|| = |NK/k | m ,

where m = (K : k). So, if and are in , we may take for K a field

containing and and with (K : k) finite.

Furthermore, defined as such, the valuation on is dense because,

if || > 1, then ||1/n has value as near 1 as one wishes, by increasing n

sufficiently. Also, for every n, 1/n is in .

Also, let be an automorphism of /k, and in . Then, by definition of norm,

N = N()

so that || = ||. Thus all conjugates of an element have the same

value.

We shall now study how one can extend a valuation of an incomplete

field to an algebraic extension.

Let k be a field and K a finite algebraic extension of it. Let || be a

234

valuation of k and k the completion of k under this valuation. Let k , k.

8. Valuated fields

206

uK

uu

u

uu

uu k

uu

u

u

uu

K under this extended valuation. Since K K k, it follows that K

Thus

contains K and k and therefore the composite K k.

K K k.

k is a finite extension, since K/k is finite.

On the other hand, K k/

Since k is complete, K k is complete also. K k contains K and hence its

completion K under this extended valuation. Thus

K = K k.

Thus if the valuation can be extended, then the completion of K by

, then, contains

Suppose now that is an algebraic closure of k.

an algebraic closure of k. We have seen above that the given valuation

of k can be extended to . Let be an isomorphism of K/k into .

The valuation in k can be extended to K k which is a subfield of .

Therefore, there is a valuation on K. Define now, for in K,

||o = ||

235

where || is the extension of || on k to K k,

It is now trivial to see that ||o is a valuation on K and extends || on k.

Hence every isomorphism of K into which is trivial on k, gives

rise to a valuation of K.

We now inverstigate when two isomorphisms give rise to the same

valuation on K. Let and be two isomorphisms of K/k into giving

the same valuation on K. K and K are subfields of and they have

207

Since K k is the completion of K, it follows that is an isomorphism

Hence, if and give rise

of the composite extensions K k and K k.

to the same valuation on K, the corresponding composite extensions are

equivalent.

Suppose now that and are isomorphisms of K into such that

the composite extensions K k and K k are equivalent. There exists then

a mapping of K k on K k which is identity on k and such that

=

induces a valuation ||1 on K such that ||1 = || and induces a

valuation ||2 on K such that ||2 = ||. But is such that = or

and are conjugates over k in . Hence

|| = ||

or ||1 = ||2 which shows that , give the same valuation on K.

We have hence the

Theorem 8. A valuation || of k can be extended to a finite extension K

of k only in a finite number of ways. The number of these extensions of 236

|| to K stand in a (1, 1) correspondence with the classes of composite

extensions of K and k

From what we have already seen, the number of distinct composite

extensions of K and k is at most (K : k).

We apply these to the case where k = , rational number field and

K/ finite so that K is an algebraic number filed. From theorem 2,

it therefore follows that K has at most (K : ) distinct archimedian

valuations and that all the non-archimedian valuations of K, which are

countable in number, are discrete.

In a similar manner, if K is an algebraic function field of one variable

over a constant filed k, then all the valuations of K are non-archimedian

and discrete. This can be seen from the fact that if x K is transcendental over k, then K/k(x) is algebraic and one has only to apply theorems

3 and 8.

Appendix

Abelian groups

1 Decomposition theorem

237

All the groups that we deal with here are abelian. Before proving the

main decomposition theorem for finite abelian groups we shall prove

some lemmas.

Lemma 1. If a, b are elements in G and have orders m and n respectively and (m, n) = 1, then ab has order mn.

Proof. Clearly if t is the order of ab, t|mn, since

(ab)mn = (am )n (bn )m = e,

e being unit element of G. Also at = bt . Thus

e = atm = btm

so that n/t. Similarly m|t. Hence t = mn.

G. Then there is, in G, an element of order p.

Proof. We use induction on n. Let a be an element in G of order m. If

p|m, then am/p has order p and we are through. Suppose p m. Let H

be the cyclic group generated by a G/H has then order n/m which is

n

divisible by p. Since |n, induction hypothesis applies, so that there is

m

a coset Hb of order p. If b has order t then bt = e and so (Hb)t = H

which means that p|t and so bt/p has order p.

209

8. Appendix

210

elements of G. Then

a = e

238

for all a G.

Proof. Let b be an element of order . Let a be any element in G and

let be its order. To prove the lemma, it is enough to prove that |. If

not, there is a prime p which divides to a higher power than it does

. Let pr be the highest power of p dividing and ps the highest power

dividing . Then r > s. We will see that this leads to a contradiction.

Since

order

and

p

pr

. By lemma 1,

ps

c = a pr b p

ps

Lemmas 2 and 3 show that |n where n is the order of the group and

that and n have the same prime factors. is called the exponent of the

finite group G.

A set a1 , . . . , an of elements of a finite group G are said to be independent if

a1x1 anxn = e

has order pr .

239

implies aixi = e, i = 1, . . . , n.

If G is a finite group and is a direct product of cyclic groups G1 ,

. . . , Gn and if ai , i = 1, . . . , n is a generator of Gi , then a1 , . . . , an are

independent elements of G. They are said to form a base of G.

We shall now prove

Theorem 1. Let G be a finite group of order n. Then G is the direct product of cyclic groups G1 , . . . , Gl of orders 1 , . . . , l such that

i |i1 , i = 2, . . . , l, > 1.

G. Let us therefore assume theorem proved for groups of order < n. Let

1. Decomposition theorem

211

is cyclic and there and there is nothing to prove. Let therefore 1 < n.

There is an element a1 of order 1 . Let G1 be the cyclic group generated

n

by a1 . G/G1 has order

< n. Hence induction hypothesis works on

1

G/G1 .

G/G1 is thus the direct product of cyclic groups W2 , . . . , Wl of order

2 , . . . , l respectively and l |l1 | . . . |2 . Let Hi be a generator of Wi .

Then Hi = Gl bi for some bi in the coset Hi . Let the element bi in G have

order ti . Then ti |1 by lemma 3. But

Hiti = btii Gt1i = G1

which proves that i |1 . Thus l |l1 | . . . |1 .

Let now bi i = a1xi . Put xi = yi zi where (yi , 1 ) = 1 and all the prime

factors of zi divide 1 . Choose ui prime to 1 such that

ui yi 1(mod 1 ).

Then bui i i = az1i . Since 1 is the exponent of G,

e = bui i 1 = (az11 )1 /i .

Since a1 has order 1 this means that i |zi , i = 2, 3, . . . , l.

Put now

i /i

.

ai = bui i az

1

Since ui is prime to 1 and so to i , the coset Fi = Gl ai is also a

generator of Wi . Thus G1 a2 , . . . , G1 al is a base of G/G1 .

Let ai have order fi . Then

f

u f

fi zi /i

e = ai i = bi i i ai

u f

f zi /i

bi i i = ai i

240

8. Appendix

212

On the other hand

ai i = bui i i aizi = e.

orders 1 , . . . , l satisfying l |l1 | . . . |1 .

We maintain that a1 , . . . , a1 are independent elements of G. For, if

av11 . . . avl l = e,

241

v2

vl

1

then av22 avl l = av

1 which means that F 2 . . . F l = G 1 . But since

F2 , . . . , Fl are independent, i |vi , i = 2, . . . , l. But this will mean that

av11 = e or 1 |v1 .

Since 1 . . . l = n, if follows that a1 , . . . , al form a base of G and

the theorem is proved.

Let G be a group of group of order n and let G be direct product of

cyclic groups G1 , G2 , . . . , Gl of orders 1 , . . . , l . We now prove

with

a = e

is given by

N() =

(, i ).

i=1

has the form

a = a1x1 alxl .

x

xi 0(mod i ), i = 1, , l. Hence xi has precisely (, i ) possibilities

and our lemma is proved.

We can now prove the

242

orders 1 , . . . , l respectively with l |l1 | |1 and G is also the direct

product of cyclic groups H1 , . . . , Hm of orders 1 , . . . , m respectively

with m |m1 | |1 , then m = 1 and

i = i , i = 1, . . . , l.

213

in the decomposition G1 G2 G1 . Since the number of elements

a with a = e is independent of the decomposition

N() =

(, i ) =

1=1

m

Y

(, j )

j=1

that m

, so that l m. This proves

l = m.

Also it follows that each factor (1 , j ) = or | . Inverting the

roles of and we get

= .

Suppose now it is proved that q+1 = q+1 , . . . , 1 = 1 . Then by

putting = q , we have

N() =

q

q .q+1 1

q

Y

=

(q , j )q+1 .

j=1

therefore, through.

For this reason, the integers 1 , . . . , l are called the canonical invariants of G. From theorems 1 and 2 we have the Corollary Two finite

groups G and G are isomorphic if and only if they have the same canonical invariants.

243

Let G be a group, not necessarily abelian and Z a cyclic group. A homomorphism of G into Z is called a character of G. Thus

(a)(b) = (ab).

8. Appendix

214

(e) = 1.

The character o defined by o (a) = 1 for all a G is called the

Principal character.

If 1 and 2 are two characters, we define their product = 1 2 by

(a) = 1 (a)2 (a)

and the inverse of 1 by

1

1

1 (a) = (1 (a)) .

group G called the character group of G.

Since is a homomorphism, denote by G the kernel of the homomorphism of G into Z. Then G/G is abelian. Denote by H the

subgroup of G given by

\

H=

G ,

G .

244

We call Z an admissible group for G if H consists only of the identity

element. This means first that G is abelian and furthermore that given

any two elements a, b in G there exists a character of G such that, if

a , b,

(a) , (b).

If is a character of G, then can be considered as a character of

G/Go where is trivial on Go , by defining (Go a) = (a), Go a being a

coset of G modulo Go . In particular, the elements of G can be considered as characters of G/H. Moreover Z is now an admissible group for

G/H.

We now prove the

Theorem 3. If G is a finite abelian group and Z is an admissible group

for G, then G is finite and G is isomorphic to G .

215

a character such that

(a) , 1.

If G is of order n, then (an ) = ((a))n = 1 so that (a) in an element

of Z of finite order. Since Z is cyclic it follows that Z is finite.

From this it follows that G is finite.

Since ((a))n = 1 for every and every a, there is no loss in generality if we assume that Z is a cyclic group of order n.

In order to prove the theorem let us first assume that G is a cyclic

group of order n. Let a be a generator of G and b a generator of the

245

cyclic group Z of order n. Define the character 1 of G by

1 (a) = b.

Since a generates G any character is determined uniquely by its effect on a. 1 is an element of order n in G . Let be any character of G.

Let

(a) = b

(a)

= (1 (a)) (a) = b b = 1

which shows that = o is the principal character. Hence G is a cyclic

group of order n and the mapping

a 1

establishes an isomorphism of G on G .

Let now G be finite non-cyclic abelian of order n. G is then a direct

product of cyclic groups G1 , . . . , Gl of orders 1 , . . . , l respectively. Let

ai be a generator of Gi so that a1 , . . . , al is a base of G. Since 1 , . . . , l

divide n, we define l characters 1 , 2 , . . . , l of G by

i (a j ) = 1

j,i

i (ai ) = bi

i = 1, . . . , l,

8. Appendix

216

where bi is an element in Z of order i . These characters are then independent elements of the abelian group G . For, if t11 tll = 0 , then,

for any a G,

t11 (a) . . . tl (a) = 1.

246

are independent.

Let be any character of G. Then is determined by its effect on

a1 , . . . , al . Let (ai ) = si . Since ai i = e, ((ai ))i = 1. But ((ai ))i =

si i . Thus si i = 1. Z being cyclic, there exists only one subgroup of

order i . Thus

(ai ) = si = bi i ,

for some integer i (mod i ). Consider the character = 11 . It

us clear that (a

i ) = 1 for all i so that = o or

= 11 .

Thus G is the product of cyclic group generated by 1 , . . . , 1 . By

Corollary to theorem 2, it follows that G and G are isomorphic.

Corollary. If G is a finite group and G its character group, then whatever may be Z,

OrderG OrderG.

Proof. For, if H is the subgroup of G defined earlier, then G/H is abelian

and finite, since G is finite. Also Z is admissible for G/H. Furthermore

every character of G can be considered as a character of G/H, by definition of H. Hence by theorem 3

247

Let us now go back to the situation where G is finite abelian and Z

ia admissible for G. Then G G . Let us define on G G the function

(a, ) = (a).

For a fixed , the mapping a (a, ) is a character of G and so an

element of G . By definition of product of character, it follows that, for

fixed a, the mapping

a : (a, )

217

denote the character group of G . By Corollary above,

OrderG OrderG = OrderG.

Consider now the mapping

: a a

of G into G . This is clearly a homomorphism. If a is identity, then

(a, ) = 1 for all . But since Z is admissible for G, it follows that a = e.

Hence is an isomorphism of G into G . Therefore we have

Theorem 4. The mapping a a is a natural isomorphism of G on G

Note that the isomorphism of G on G is not natural.

Under the conditions of theorem 3, we call G the dual of G. Then

isomorphic to G. Theorem 4 is called the duality theorem for finite

abelian groups.

Let G and G be two groups, , , . . ., elements of G and , , . . . ,

elements of G . Let Z be a cyclic group. Suppose there is a function 248

(, ) on G G into Z such that for every , the mapping

: (, )

is a homomorphism of G into Z and for every , the mapping

: (, )

is a homomorphism of G into Z, Thus and are characters of G

and G respectively. We then say that G and G are paired to Z and that

(, ) is a pairing.

For every , let G denote the kernel in G of the homomorphism

. Put

\

H =

G

8. Appendix

218

that

(, ) = 1

for all G. Define in a similar way the subgroup H of G.

We are going to prove

Theorem 5. If G/H is finite, then so is G /H and both are then isomorphic to each other.

Proof. From fixed , consider the function

() = (, ).

This is clearly a character of G . By definition of H , it follows that

for each , is a character of G /H .

Consider now the mapping

of G into (G /H ) . This is again a homomorphism of G into (G /H ) .

The kernel of the homomorphism is the set of for which is the

principal character of G /H . By definition of H, it follows that H is the

kernel. Hence

G/H a subgroup of (G /H ) .

(1)

249

In a similar way

(G /H ) a subgroup of (G/H) .

(2)

ord(G/H) ordG/H.

By (2), this means that

order(G /H ) order G/H.

Reversing the roles of G and G we see that G/H and G /H have

the same order. (1) and (2) together with theorem 3 prove the theorem.

If, in particular, we take G for G , then H = (o ) and so we have

219

then

G/H G .

Bibliography

[1] A. A Albert Modern Higher Algebra, Chicago, (1937)

[2] E.Artin Galois Theory, Notre Dame, (1944)

[3] E.Artin Algebraic numbers and Algebraic functions, Princeton

(1951)

[4] E. Artin and 0.Schreier Eine Kennzeichnung der reell

abgeschlossene Korper Hamb, Abhand, Bd 5 (1927) p. 225231

[5] N. Bourbaki Algebra, Chapters 3-6, paris, 1949

[6] C. Chevalley Introduction to the theory of Algebraic functions,

New York, 1951

[7] C. Chevalley Sur la theorie du corps de classes dans les corps finis

et les corps locaux Jour. Faculty of Science, Tokyo, Vol, 2, 1933,P.

365-476

[8] M. Deuring Algebren, Ergebn der Math, Vol.4, 1935

[9] S. Eilenberg and S. Maclane Cohomology theory in abstract

groups, Annals of Mathematics, Vol.48 (1947), P. 51-78

[10] H. Hasse Zahlentheorie, Berlin, 1949

[11] W. Krull Galoissche theorie der unendlicher erweiterungen Math.

Annalen Bd 100 (1928), P.678-698

221

250

222

BIBLIOGRAPHY

No.8 (1948)

251

[13] A. Ostrowski Untersuchugen zur arithmetischen Theorie der Korper Math. Zeit, Bd 39 (1935), P.269-404

[14] G. Pickert Einfuhrung in die Hohere Algebra,Gottingen 1951

[15] B.Steinite Algebraische Theorie der Korper Crelles Jour. Bd 137

(1910), P. 167-309

[16] B.L Van-der-Waerden ModerneAlgebra, Leipzing, 1931

[17] A. Weil Foundations of Algebraic gemetry New York, 1946

[18] E.Witt Uber die commutativitat endlicher Schiefkorper Hamb. Abhand, Vol 8, (1931), P.413

[19] E. Witt Der existenzsatz fur Abelsche Funktionekorper Crelles

jour. Bd 173 (1935), P 43-51

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