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Mech 448

QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY

Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY

Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

MECH448

HYPERSONIC FLOW

September, 2011

September, 2011

Mech 448

INTRODUCTION:

Hypersonic flow was loosely defined in the

Introduction as flow in which the Mach number is greater

than about 5. No real reasons were given at that point as to

why supersonic flows at high Mach numbers were

different from those at lower Mach numbers.

Mech 448

been associated with the reentry of orbiting and other

high altitude bodies into the atmosphere. For example, a

typical Mach number against altitude variation for a

reentering satellite is shown in the following figure. It will

be seen from this figure that because of the high velocity

that the craft had to possess to keep it in orbit, very high

Mach numbers - values that are well into the hypersonic

range exist during reentry.

Mech 448

really defines hypersonic flow, i.e., hypersonic flows are

flows at such high Mach numbers that phenomena arise

that do not exist at lower supersonic Mach numbers. The

nature of these hypersonic flow phenomena and,

therefore, the real definition of what is meant by

hypersonic flow will be presented in the next section.

Mech 448

Typical Variation

of Mach Number

with Altitude

during Reentry

Mech 448

Mech 448

As mentioned above, hypersonic flows are usually

loosely described as flows at very high Mach numbers, say

greater than roughly 5. However, the real definition of

hypersonic flows are that they are flows at such high Mach

numbers that phenomena occur that do not exist at low

supersonic Mach numbers. These phenomena are

discussed in this section.

Mech 448

presence of an interaction between the oblique shock wave

generated at the leading edge of the body and the

boundary layer on the surface of the body. Consider the

oblique shock wave formed at the leading edge of wedge in

a supersonic flow as shown in the following figure.

Mech 448

As the Mach number increases, the shock angle

decreases and the shock therefore lies very close to the

surface at high Mach numbers. This is illustrated in the

following figure.

Shock Angle

at Low and

High

Supersonic

Mach Number

Flow Over a

Wedge.

Flow Over a Wedge

Mech 448

Because the shock wave lies close to the surface at

high Mach numbers, there is an interaction between the

shock wave and the boundary layer on the wedge surface.

In order to illustrate this shock wave-boundary layer

interaction, consider the flow of air over a wedge having a

half angle of 5 degrees at various Mach numbers. The

shock angle for any selected value of M can be obtained

from the oblique shock relations or charts. The angle

between the shock wave and the wedge surface is then

given by the difference between the shock angle and the

wedge half-angle. The variation of this angle with Mach

number is shown in the following figure.

Mech 448

Variation of

Angle Between

Shock Wave

and Surface

with Mach

Number for

Flow Over a

Wedge.

Mech 448

It will be seen from the above figure that, as the

Mach number increases, the shock wave lies closer and

closer to the surface. Now hypersonic flow normally only

exists at relatively low ambient pressures (high altitudes)

which means that the Reynolds numbers tend to be low

and the boundary layer thickness, therefore, tends to be

relatively large. The boundary layer thickness also tends to

increase with increasing Mach number.

Mech 448

Mech 448

In hypersonic flow, then, the shock wave tend to lie

close to the surface and the boundary layer tends to be

thick. Interaction between the shock wave and the

boundary layer flow, as a consequence, usually occurs,

the shock being curved as a result and the flow resembling

that shown in the following figure.

Mech 448

The above discussion used the flow over a wedge to

illustrate interaction between the shock wave and the

boundary layer flow in hypersonic flow. This interaction

occurs, in general, for all body shapes as illustrated in the

following figure.

Hypersonic Flow Over a Wedge.

Mech 448

temperatures that are generated behind the shock waves in

such flows. In order to illustrate this, consider flow through

a normal shock wave occurring ahead of a blunt body at a

Mach number of 36 at an altitude of 59 km in the

atmosphere. The flow situation is shown in the following

figure.

Hypersonic Flow Over a Curved Body

Mech 448

Normal Shock

Wave in Situation

Considered.

Mech 448

Mech 448

the conditions that occurred

during the reentry of some

of

the

earlier

manned

spacecraft, the flow over

such a craft being illustrated

in the figure. The flow

situation shown in the

previous figure is therefore

an approximate model of the

situation shown in this

figure.

wave at a Mach number of 36 give:

T2

= 253

T1

But at 59 km in atmosphere T = 258K (i.e., 15o C) . Hence,

the conventional normal shock wave relations give the

temperature behind the shock wave as:

Mech 448

Mech 448

At temperatures as high as these a number of socalled high temperature gas effects will become important.

For example, the values of the specific heats cp and cv and

their ratio change at higher temperatures, their values

depending on temperature. For example, the variation of the

value of of nitrogen with temperature is shown in the

following figure. It will be seen from this figure that changes

in may have to be considered at temperatures above

about 500oC

Mech 448

that, at ambient conditions, air is made up mainly of

nitrogen and oxygen in their diatomic form. At high

temperatures, these diatomic gases tend to dissociate into

their monatomic form and at still higher temperatures,

ionization of these monatomic atoms tends to occur.

Variation of

Specific Heat

Ratio of

Nitrogen with

Temperature

Mech 448

Dissociation

circumstances:

occurs

under

the

following

O2 2O

i.e., the oxygen molecules break down to O molecules.

For 4000 K < T < 9000 K :

N2 2N

i.e., the nitrogen molecules break down to N molecules.

Mech 448

When such dissociation occurs, energy is

absorbed. It should also be clearly understood the range

of temperatures given indicates that the not all of the air is

immediately dissociated once a certain temperature is

reached. Over the temperature ranges indicated above the

air will, in fact, consist of a mixture of diatomic and

monatomic molecules, the fraction of monatomic

molecules increasing as the temperature increases.

Mech 448

At still higher temperatures, ionization of the

monatomic oxygen and nitrogen will occur, i.e.,:

O O + + e

N N + + e

When ionization occurs, energy is again absorbed.

As with dissociation, ionization occurs over a range of

temperatures the air in this temperature range consisting

of a mixture of ionized and non-ionized atoms, the fraction

of ionized atoms increasing as the temperature increases.

Mech 448

Mech 448

temperatures, e.g., there can be a reaction between the

nitrogen and the oxygen to form nitrous oxides at high

temperatures. This and the other effects mentioned above

are illustrated by the results given in the following figure.

This figure shows the variation of the composition of air

with temperature.

Mech 448

the temperature rise across a normal shock may be high

enough to cause specific heat changes, dissociation and,

at very high Mach numbers, ionization. As a result of these

processes, conventional shock relations do not apply, e.g.,

as a result of this for the conditions discussed above, i.e.,

for a normal shock wave at a Mach number of 36 at an

altitude of 59 km in the atmosphere, the actual temperature

behind the shock wave is approximately 11,000K rather

than the value of 65,200K indicated by the normal shock

relations for a perfect gas.

Variation of

Equilibrium

Composition of Air

with Temperature

Mech 448

associated with high Mach number flow and whose

existence help define what is meant by a hypersonic flow.

For example, as mentioned above, since most hypersonic

flows occur at high altitudes the presence of low density

effects such as the existence of slip at the surface, i.e., of

a velocity jump at the surface (see the following figure) is

often taken as an indication that hypersonic flow exists.

Mech 448

Mech 448

NEWTONIAN THEORY:

Although the details of the flow about a surface in

hypersonic flow are difficult to calculate due to the

complexity of the phenomena involved, the pressure

distribution about a surface placed in a hypersonic flow can

be estimated quite accurately using the approximate

approach discussed below. Because the flow model

assumed is essentially the same as one that was incorrectly

suggested by Newton for the calculation of forces on

bodies in incompressible flow, the model is referred to as

the Newtonian model.

Surface Slip in Low-density Flow

Mech 448

Mech 448

an angle to a hypersonic flow. This flow situation is shown

in the following figure. Only the flow over the upstream face

of the surface will, for the moment, be considered.

Mech 448

Because the shock waves lie so close to the surface in

hypersonic flow, the flow will essentially be unaffected by

the surface until the flow reaches the surface, i.e., until it

strikes the surface, at which point it will immediately

become parallel to the surface. Hence, the flow over the

upstream face of a plane surface at hypersonic speeds

resembles that shown in the following figure.

Mech 448

In order to find the pressure on the surface, consider

the momentum balance for the control volume shown in the

following figure.

Newtonian Model of Hypersonic Flow Over a Plane Surface

Mech 448

Mech 448

to the surface at the surface, no momentum leaves the

control volume in the n direction so the force on the control

volume in this direction is equal to the product of the rate

mass enters the control volume and the initial velocity

component in the n direction i.e. is given by:

surface, the net force acting on the control volume in the n

direction is given by:

In deriving this result, it has been noted that since the flow

is not effected by the surface until it effectively reaches the

surface, the pressure on ABCDE (see previous figure) is

everywhere equal to p and that the forces on BC and DE

are therefore equal and opposite and cancel.

Here, A is the area of the surface.

Mech 448

pA p A

Mech 448

( p p ) A = V2 A sin 2

i.e. : p p = V sin

2

coefficient, defined as before by:

Cp =

Using this gives:

p p

1

V2

2

the pressure coefficient is determined only by the angle of

the surface to the flow. The above analysis was for flow

over a flat surface. However, it will also apply to a small

portion of a curved surface such as that shown in the

following figure.

C p = 2sin 2

Mech 448

Mech 448

will be given as before by:

Cp =

p p

= 2sin 2

1

V2

2

Curved Surface.

p p

=

p

p

2 2

V sin

Mech 448

Mech 448

Hence, since:

a2 =

p p

= M 2 sin 2

p

pressure distribution on the upstream faces ( e.g. faces AB

and BC of the two-dimensional wedge shaped body shown

in the following figure) of a body in a hypersonic flow to an

accuracy that is acceptable for many purposes. To find the

net force acting on a body it is also necessary to know the

pressures acting on the downstream faces of the body ( e.g.,

face AC of the body shown in the following figure).

Two-Dimensional

Flow Over a

Wedged-Shaped

Body in

Hypersonic Flow

i.e.,:

p

= 1 + M 2 sin 2

p

Mech 448

Mech 448

effectively only when the flow reaches the surface that it is

influenced by the presence of the of the surface. The flow

that does not reach the surface is therefore unaffected by

the body. The flow leaving the upstream faces of the body

therefore turns parallel to the original flow as shown in the

following figure.

Mech 448

direction and since the pressure in the outer part of the flow

that was not effected by the presence of the body is p , the

pressure throughout this downstream flow will be p. From

this it follows that the pressure acting on the downstream

faces of body in Newtonian hypersonic flow is p . This is

illustrated in the following figure. The downstream faces on

which the pressure is p are often said to lie in the shadow

of the freestream.

Mech 448

the Newtonian model, the pressure will, therefore, be

assumed to be p on the downstream or shadowed

portions of the body surface. There are more rigorous and

elegant methods of arriving at this assumption but the

above discussion gives the basis of the argument.

Mech 448

Mech 448

calculated using the Newtonian approach, consider again

flow over a two-dimensional wedge shaped body shown in

the following figure.

pAB l where l is the length of AB. This contributes pAB l sin

to the drag. But l sin is equal to W / 2, i.e., equal to the

projected area of face AB. Hence the pressure force on AB

contributes pAB W / 2 to the drag. Because the wedge is

symmetrically placed with respect to the freestream flow,

the pressure on BC will be equal to that on on AB so the

pressure force on BC will also contribute pAB W / 2 to the

drag.

Mech 448

Mech 448

which the pressure is assumed to be p , the drag on the

wedge per unit width is given by:

p W

D = 2 AB

2

pW = ( p AB p )W

considered is defined by:

CD =

normal to the freestream flow direction is equal to W

hence:

CD =

Mech 448

D

1

2

V x Projected Area

2

D

( p p )W ( p AB p )

= AB

=

1

1

1

V2 W

V2 W

V2

2

2

2

Mech 448

MODIFIED NEWTONIAN THEORY:

gives the pressure drag on the surface. In general, there

will also be a viscous drag on the body. However, if the

body is relatively blunt i.e. if the wedge angle is not very

small, the pressure drag will be much greater than the

viscous drag.

arbitrary shape such as is shown in the following figure.

the same basic approach and the analysis of such

situations will not be discussed here.

Mech 448

Mech 448

is given by:

p p = V2 sin 2

Hence:

therefore, sin = 1, the pressure, pS , is given by:

pS p = V2

pS p

=2

1

V2

2

by:

C pS = 2

Mech 448

Mech 448

distribution about the surface can be written as:

Cp

C pS

= sin 2

the stagnation point. However, the shock wave in this region

is, as previously discussed, effectively a normal shock wave

and, therefore, the pressure on the surface at the stagnation

point can be found using normal shock relations and then

the Newtonian relation can be used to determine the

pressure distribution around the rest of the body.

or as:

p p

= sin 2

pS p

Mech 448

Mech 448

Cp

C pSN

= sin

2

point as given by the normal shock relations. This is,

basically, the modified Newtonian equation.

give:

pS

=

p

+ 1 2 1

2 M

2

1 1

2

+ 1 M + 1

p

1

p p

p

= 2

Cp =

1

M

V2

2

2

10

Mech 448

Mech 448

C pSN

+ 1 2 1

M 2

=

1 /

1

2

2

1 1

2

M

+ 1

+ 1

For = 1.4 this equation gives the limiting value of CpSN for

large values of M as 1.839. Hence, assuming a perfect

gas and a large freestream Mach number, the modified

Newtonian theory gives:

C p = 1.839 sin 2

C pSN =

+ 1 1

2

1

2 1

+ 1 2

Mech 448

Mech 448

Mach number is very large, the temperature behind the

normal shock wave in stagnation point region becomes so

large that high-temperature gas effects become important

and these affect the value of CpSN . The relation between the

perfect gas normal shock results, the normal shock results

with high-temperature effects accounted for and the

Newtonian result is illustrated by the typical results shown

in the following figure.

with Mach Number.

Mech 448

results for other situations indicate that the stagnation

pressure coefficient given by the the high Mach number

form of the normal shock relations for a perfect gas applies

for Mach numbers above about 5 and that it gives results

that are within 5% of the actual values up to Mach numbers

in excess of 10. Therefore, the modified Newtonian

equation using the high-Mach number limit of the perfect

gas normal shock to give the stagnation point pressure

coefficient will give results that are of adequate accuracy

for values of M up to more than 10.

Mech 448

equation gives more accurate results. Of course, the

modified Newtonian equation with the stagnation pressure

coefficient determined using high-temperature normal

shock results will apply at all hypersonic Mach numbers.

11

Mech 448

Mech 448

p p

1 2 2

= C pS

V sin

2 p

p

i.e. again using:

p

a =

gives:

p p

= C pS M 2 sin 2

2

p

i.e.,:

CONCLUDING REMARKS:

In hypersonic flow, because the temperatures are

very high and because the shock waves lie close to the

surface, the flow field is complex. However, because the

flow behind the shock waves is all essentially parallel to

the surface, the pressure variation along a surface in a

hypersonic flow can be easily estimated using the

Newtonian model. The calculation of drag forces on

bodies in hypersonic flow using this method has been

discussed.

= 1 + C pS M 2 sin 2

p

2

Mech 448

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