You are on page 1of 12

Mech 448

Mech 448

QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science
Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science
Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

MECH448
HYPERSONIC FLOW

Introduction to Compressible Fluid Flow

September, 2011

September, 2011

Mech 448
INTRODUCTION:
Hypersonic flow was loosely defined in the
Introduction as flow in which the Mach number is greater
than about 5. No real reasons were given at that point as to
why supersonic flows at high Mach numbers were
different from those at lower Mach numbers.

Mech 448

Hypersonic flows have, up to the present, mainly


been associated with the reentry of orbiting and other
high altitude bodies into the atmosphere. For example, a
typical Mach number against altitude variation for a
reentering satellite is shown in the following figure. It will
be seen from this figure that because of the high velocity
that the craft had to possess to keep it in orbit, very high
Mach numbers - values that are well into the hypersonic
range exist during reentry.

Mech 448

However, it is the very existence of these difference that


really defines hypersonic flow, i.e., hypersonic flows are
flows at such high Mach numbers that phenomena arise
that do not exist at lower supersonic Mach numbers. The
nature of these hypersonic flow phenomena and,
therefore, the real definition of what is meant by
hypersonic flow will be presented in the next section.

Mech 448

Typical Variation
of Mach Number
with Altitude
during Reentry

Mech 448

Mech 448

CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPERSONIC FLOW:


As mentioned above, hypersonic flows are usually
loosely described as flows at very high Mach numbers, say
greater than roughly 5. However, the real definition of
hypersonic flows are that they are flows at such high Mach
numbers that phenomena occur that do not exist at low
supersonic Mach numbers. These phenomena are
discussed in this section.

Mech 448

One of the characteristics of hypersonic flow is the


presence of an interaction between the oblique shock wave
generated at the leading edge of the body and the
boundary layer on the surface of the body. Consider the
oblique shock wave formed at the leading edge of wedge in
a supersonic flow as shown in the following figure.

Mech 448
As the Mach number increases, the shock angle
decreases and the shock therefore lies very close to the
surface at high Mach numbers. This is illustrated in the
following figure.
Shock Angle
at Low and
High
Supersonic
Mach Number
Flow Over a
Wedge.
Flow Over a Wedge

Mech 448
Because the shock wave lies close to the surface at
high Mach numbers, there is an interaction between the
shock wave and the boundary layer on the wedge surface.
In order to illustrate this shock wave-boundary layer
interaction, consider the flow of air over a wedge having a
half angle of 5 degrees at various Mach numbers. The
shock angle for any selected value of M can be obtained
from the oblique shock relations or charts. The angle
between the shock wave and the wedge surface is then
given by the difference between the shock angle and the
wedge half-angle. The variation of this angle with Mach
number is shown in the following figure.

Mech 448

Variation of
Angle Between
Shock Wave
and Surface
with Mach
Number for
Flow Over a
Wedge.

Mech 448
It will be seen from the above figure that, as the
Mach number increases, the shock wave lies closer and
closer to the surface. Now hypersonic flow normally only
exists at relatively low ambient pressures (high altitudes)
which means that the Reynolds numbers tend to be low
and the boundary layer thickness, therefore, tends to be
relatively large. The boundary layer thickness also tends to
increase with increasing Mach number.

Mech 448

Mech 448
In hypersonic flow, then, the shock wave tend to lie
close to the surface and the boundary layer tends to be
thick. Interaction between the shock wave and the
boundary layer flow, as a consequence, usually occurs,
the shock being curved as a result and the flow resembling
that shown in the following figure.

Mech 448
The above discussion used the flow over a wedge to
illustrate interaction between the shock wave and the
boundary layer flow in hypersonic flow. This interaction
occurs, in general, for all body shapes as illustrated in the
following figure.

Interaction Between Shock Wave and Boundary Layer in


Hypersonic Flow Over a Wedge.

Mech 448

Another characteristic of hypersonic flows is the high


temperatures that are generated behind the shock waves in
such flows. In order to illustrate this, consider flow through
a normal shock wave occurring ahead of a blunt body at a
Mach number of 36 at an altitude of 59 km in the
atmosphere. The flow situation is shown in the following
figure.

Interaction Between Shock Wave and Boundary Layer in


Hypersonic Flow Over a Curved Body

Mech 448

Normal Shock
Wave in Situation
Considered.

Mech 448

Mech 448

These were approximately


the conditions that occurred
during the reentry of some
of
the
earlier
manned
spacecraft, the flow over
such a craft being illustrated
in the figure. The flow
situation shown in the
previous figure is therefore
an approximate model of the
situation shown in this
figure.

Now, conventional relationships for a normal shock


wave at a Mach number of 36 give:

T2
= 253
T1
But at 59 km in atmosphere T = 258K (i.e., 15o C) . Hence,
the conventional normal shock wave relations give the
temperature behind the shock wave as:

T2 = 258 x 253 = 65, 200K

Flow Over Reentering Spacecraft.

Mech 448

Mech 448

At temperatures as high as these a number of socalled high temperature gas effects will become important.
For example, the values of the specific heats cp and cv and
their ratio change at higher temperatures, their values
depending on temperature. For example, the variation of the
value of of nitrogen with temperature is shown in the
following figure. It will be seen from this figure that changes
in may have to be considered at temperatures above
about 500oC

Mech 448

Another high-temperature effect arises from the fact


that, at ambient conditions, air is made up mainly of
nitrogen and oxygen in their diatomic form. At high
temperatures, these diatomic gases tend to dissociate into
their monatomic form and at still higher temperatures,
ionization of these monatomic atoms tends to occur.

Variation of
Specific Heat
Ratio of
Nitrogen with
Temperature

Mech 448
Dissociation
circumstances:

occurs

under

the

following

For 2000 K < T < 4000 K :


O2 2O
i.e., the oxygen molecules break down to O molecules.
For 4000 K < T < 9000 K :
N2 2N
i.e., the nitrogen molecules break down to N molecules.

Mech 448
When such dissociation occurs, energy is
absorbed. It should also be clearly understood the range
of temperatures given indicates that the not all of the air is
immediately dissociated once a certain temperature is
reached. Over the temperature ranges indicated above the
air will, in fact, consist of a mixture of diatomic and
monatomic molecules, the fraction of monatomic
molecules increasing as the temperature increases.

Mech 448
At still higher temperatures, ionization of the
monatomic oxygen and nitrogen will occur, i.e.,:

For T > 9000 K :


O O + + e
N N + + e
When ionization occurs, energy is again absorbed.
As with dissociation, ionization occurs over a range of
temperatures the air in this temperature range consisting
of a mixture of ionized and non-ionized atoms, the fraction
of ionized atoms increasing as the temperature increases.

Mech 448

Mech 448

Other chemical changes can also occur at high


temperatures, e.g., there can be a reaction between the
nitrogen and the oxygen to form nitrous oxides at high
temperatures. This and the other effects mentioned above
are illustrated by the results given in the following figure.
This figure shows the variation of the composition of air
with temperature.

Mech 448

It will be seen, therefore, that at high Mach numbers,


the temperature rise across a normal shock may be high
enough to cause specific heat changes, dissociation and,
at very high Mach numbers, ionization. As a result of these
processes, conventional shock relations do not apply, e.g.,
as a result of this for the conditions discussed above, i.e.,
for a normal shock wave at a Mach number of 36 at an
altitude of 59 km in the atmosphere, the actual temperature
behind the shock wave is approximately 11,000K rather
than the value of 65,200K indicated by the normal shock
relations for a perfect gas.

Variation of
Equilibrium
Composition of Air
with Temperature

Mech 448

There are several other phenomena that are often


associated with high Mach number flow and whose
existence help define what is meant by a hypersonic flow.
For example, as mentioned above, since most hypersonic
flows occur at high altitudes the presence of low density
effects such as the existence of slip at the surface, i.e., of
a velocity jump at the surface (see the following figure) is
often taken as an indication that hypersonic flow exists.

Mech 448

Mech 448

NEWTONIAN THEORY:
Although the details of the flow about a surface in
hypersonic flow are difficult to calculate due to the
complexity of the phenomena involved, the pressure
distribution about a surface placed in a hypersonic flow can
be estimated quite accurately using the approximate
approach discussed below. Because the flow model
assumed is essentially the same as one that was incorrectly
suggested by Newton for the calculation of forces on
bodies in incompressible flow, the model is referred to as
the Newtonian model.
Surface Slip in Low-density Flow

Mech 448

Mech 448

First, consider the flow over a flat surface inclined at


an angle to a hypersonic flow. This flow situation is shown
in the following figure. Only the flow over the upstream face
of the surface will, for the moment, be considered.

Hypersonic Flow Over a Plane Surface

Mech 448
Because the shock waves lie so close to the surface in
hypersonic flow, the flow will essentially be unaffected by
the surface until the flow reaches the surface, i.e., until it
strikes the surface, at which point it will immediately
become parallel to the surface. Hence, the flow over the
upstream face of a plane surface at hypersonic speeds
resembles that shown in the following figure.

Mech 448
In order to find the pressure on the surface, consider
the momentum balance for the control volume shown in the
following figure.

Control Volume Considered.


Newtonian Model of Hypersonic Flow Over a Plane Surface

Mech 448

Mech 448

Because the flow is all assumed to be turned parallel


to the surface at the surface, no momentum leaves the
control volume in the n direction so the force on the control
volume in this direction is equal to the product of the rate
mass enters the control volume and the initial velocity
component in the n direction i.e. is given by:

Now if p is the pressure acting on the upstream face of the


surface, the net force acting on the control volume in the n
direction is given by:

mass flow rate x velocity in n-direction =

In deriving this result, it has been noted that since the flow
is not effected by the surface until it effectively reaches the
surface, the pressure on ABCDE (see previous figure) is
everywhere equal to p and that the forces on BC and DE
are therefore equal and opposite and cancel.

( V A sin )V sin = V2 A sin 2


Here, A is the area of the surface.

Mech 448

pA p A

Mech 448

Combining the above two results then gives:

( p p ) A = V2 A sin 2
i.e. : p p = V sin
2

This result can be expressed in terms of a dimensionless pressure


coefficient, defined as before by:

Cp =
Using this gives:

p p
1
V2
2

From the above analysis it, therefore, follows that


the pressure coefficient is determined only by the angle of
the surface to the flow. The above analysis was for flow
over a flat surface. However, it will also apply to a small
portion of a curved surface such as that shown in the
following figure.

C p = 2sin 2

Mech 448

Mech 448

Therefore, the local pressure acting at any point on the surface


will be given as before by:

Cp =

p p
= 2sin 2
1
V2
2

This equation can be written as:

Control Volume Considered in Dealing With Flow Over a


Curved Surface.

p p
=
p
p

2 2
V sin

Mech 448

Mech 448

Hence, since:

a2 =

the above equation gives:

p p
= M 2 sin 2
p

FORCES ON A BODY: The Newtonian model gives the


pressure distribution on the upstream faces ( e.g. faces AB
and BC of the two-dimensional wedge shaped body shown
in the following figure) of a body in a hypersonic flow to an
accuracy that is acceptable for many purposes. To find the
net force acting on a body it is also necessary to know the
pressures acting on the downstream faces of the body ( e.g.,
face AC of the body shown in the following figure).
Two-Dimensional
Flow Over a
Wedged-Shaped
Body in
Hypersonic Flow

i.e.,:

p
= 1 + M 2 sin 2
p

Mech 448

Mech 448

Now, as discussed above, in hypersonic flow, it is


effectively only when the flow reaches the surface that it is
influenced by the presence of the of the surface. The flow
that does not reach the surface is therefore unaffected by
the body. The flow leaving the upstream faces of the body
therefore turns parallel to the original flow as shown in the
following figure.

Shadowed Areas of a Body in Hypersonic Flow.

Mech 448

Since the flow is then all parallel to the original flow


direction and since the pressure in the outer part of the flow
that was not effected by the presence of the body is p , the
pressure throughout this downstream flow will be p. From
this it follows that the pressure acting on the downstream
faces of body in Newtonian hypersonic flow is p . This is
illustrated in the following figure. The downstream faces on
which the pressure is p are often said to lie in the shadow
of the freestream.

Mech 448

In calculating the forces on a body in hypersonic flow using


the Newtonian model, the pressure will, therefore, be
assumed to be p on the downstream or shadowed
portions of the body surface. There are more rigorous and
elegant methods of arriving at this assumption but the
above discussion gives the basis of the argument.

Mech 448

Mech 448

To illustrate how the pressure drag force on a body is


calculated using the Newtonian approach, consider again
flow over a two-dimensional wedge shaped body shown in
the following figure.

The force on face AB of the body per unit width is equal to


pAB l where l is the length of AB. This contributes pAB l sin
to the drag. But l sin is equal to W / 2, i.e., equal to the
projected area of face AB. Hence the pressure force on AB
contributes pAB W / 2 to the drag. Because the wedge is
symmetrically placed with respect to the freestream flow,
the pressure on BC will be equal to that on on AB so the
pressure force on BC will also contribute pAB W / 2 to the
drag.

Pressures Acting on Faces of Wedged-Shaped Body

Mech 448

Mech 448

Therefore, since AC is a shadowed surface surface on


which the pressure is assumed to be p , the drag on the
wedge per unit width is given by:

p W
D = 2 AB
2

pW = ( p AB p )W

Now the drag coefficient for the type of body being


considered is defined by:

CD =

But since unit width is being considered, the projected area


normal to the freestream flow direction is equal to W
hence:

CD =

Mech 448

D
1
2
V x Projected Area
2

D
( p p )W ( p AB p )
= AB
=
1
1
1
V2 W
V2 W
V2
2
2
2

Mech 448
MODIFIED NEWTONIAN THEORY:

It must be stressed that the above analysis only


gives the pressure drag on the surface. In general, there
will also be a viscous drag on the body. However, if the
body is relatively blunt i.e. if the wedge angle is not very
small, the pressure drag will be much greater than the
viscous drag.

Consider hypersonic flow over a symmetrical body of


arbitrary shape such as is shown in the following figure.

The drag on an axisymetric body is calculated using


the same basic approach and the analysis of such
situations will not be discussed here.

Form of Body Being Considered

Mech 448

Mech 448

At any point on the surface, as shown above, the pressure


is given by:

p p = V2 sin 2

Hence:

Hence at the stagnation point where = 90o and where,


therefore, sin = 1, the pressure, pS , is given by:

pS p = V2

pS p
=2
1
V2
2

i.e., the pressure coefficient at the stagnation point is given


by:

C pS = 2

Mech 448

Mech 448

From these relations it follows that the pressure


distribution about the surface can be written as:

Cp
C pS

= sin 2

Now the Newtonian theory does not really apply near


the stagnation point. However, the shock wave in this region
is, as previously discussed, effectively a normal shock wave
and, therefore, the pressure on the surface at the stagnation
point can be found using normal shock relations and then
the Newtonian relation can be used to determine the
pressure distribution around the rest of the body.

or as:

p p
= sin 2
pS p

Mech 448

Mech 448

This means that the previous equation can be written as:

Cp
C pSN

= sin
2

where CpSN is the pressure coefficient at the stagnation


point as given by the normal shock relations. This is,
basically, the modified Newtonian equation.

Now it will be recalled that the normal shock relations


give:

pS
=
p

+ 1 2 1
2 M

2
1 1
2
+ 1 M + 1

It is also noted that:

p
1
p p
p
= 2
Cp =
1
M
V2
2
2

10

Mech 448

Mech 448

Combining the above equations then gives:

C pSN

+ 1 2 1

M 2
=
1 /

1
2
2
1 1
2
M

+ 1
+ 1

For = 1.4 this equation gives the limiting value of CpSN for
large values of M as 1.839. Hence, assuming a perfect
gas and a large freestream Mach number, the modified
Newtonian theory gives:

C p = 1.839 sin 2

If M is very large the above equation tends to:

C pSN =

+ 1 1
2
1

2 1


+ 1 2

Mech 448

Mech 448

As discussed in the first section of this chapter, when the


Mach number is very large, the temperature behind the
normal shock wave in stagnation point region becomes so
large that high-temperature gas effects become important
and these affect the value of CpSN . The relation between the
perfect gas normal shock results, the normal shock results
with high-temperature effects accounted for and the
Newtonian result is illustrated by the typical results shown
in the following figure.

Typical Variation of Stagnation Point Pressure Coefficient


with Mach Number.

Mech 448

The results shown in the above figure and similar


results for other situations indicate that the stagnation
pressure coefficient given by the the high Mach number
form of the normal shock relations for a perfect gas applies
for Mach numbers above about 5 and that it gives results
that are within 5% of the actual values up to Mach numbers
in excess of 10. Therefore, the modified Newtonian
equation using the high-Mach number limit of the perfect
gas normal shock to give the stagnation point pressure
coefficient will give results that are of adequate accuracy
for values of M up to more than 10.

Mech 448

At higher values of M, the unmodified Newtonian


equation gives more accurate results. Of course, the
modified Newtonian equation with the stagnation pressure
coefficient determined using high-temperature normal
shock results will apply at all hypersonic Mach numbers.

11

Mech 448

Mech 448

It should be noted that:

p p
1 2 2
= C pS
V sin
2 p
p
i.e. again using:

p
a =

gives:

p p

= C pS M 2 sin 2
2
p
i.e.,:

CONCLUDING REMARKS:
In hypersonic flow, because the temperatures are
very high and because the shock waves lie close to the
surface, the flow field is complex. However, because the
flow behind the shock waves is all essentially parallel to
the surface, the pressure variation along a surface in a
hypersonic flow can be easily estimated using the
Newtonian model. The calculation of drag forces on
bodies in hypersonic flow using this method has been
discussed.

= 1 + C pS M 2 sin 2
p
2

Mech 448

12