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INTRODUCTION

Article II Section 1 of the Philippine


Constitution states, The Philippines is a
democratic
and
republican
State.
Sovereignty resides in the people and all
government authority emanates from them,
people choose their leaders by means of an
election. In most democracies, political
dynasties are prevalent like Mexico,
Argentina, India, Indonesia, and the
Philippines. Querubin (2010) stated in his
paper that these dynasties exemplify a form
of political elite persistence.
Political dynasty refers to the situation
wherein members of the same family are
occupying elected positions either in
sequence for the same position or
simultaneously across different positions.
Analysts regard this situation as a signal of
weak political competition, which can lead
to poorer socio-economic outcomes and
chronic poverty. On the other hand, analysts
also note that people may tend to rely on
patron-client relationships as a way to cope
with their poverty, thus creating a demand
for political patrons in public office (Beja
Jr., et al. 2013).
In Nueva Ecija, one of the prevalent
political families are the Josons. Joson
dynasty started when Eduardo N. Joson Sr.
became the governor of Nueva Ecija in
1959 followed by his son Tomas Joson. The
Josons ruled Nueva Ecija for 48 years until
they faced a major setback Mariano Cristino
Joson (Edno Joson) was beaten by Aurelio
Umali in 2007.
Another are Umalis especially
Aurelio M. Umali who beat Edno Joson in
the 2007 polls, Edward Joson in 2010 and
Josie Joson in 2013. The wife of the current
governor of Nueva Ecija, Cherry Umali is
currently the representative of the first
district of Nueva Ecija and brother was a

former member
panlalawigan.

of

the

sangguniang

Other political families are the Violagos of


San Jose, Lacuroms of Nampicuan, Botes of
General Tinio, and Alvarezes family of
Science City of Muoz.

Notable political families in Science City of


Muoz includes the Alvarezes. Their clan
started when Efren L. Alvarez became the
Mayor in 1992-2001 and in 2001, he
encourage his brother Nestor L. Alvarez to
run as Mayor and won. He ran for reelection
in 2004 and 2007 and he won again as
mayor. In 2010 his brother Efren L. Alvarez
decided to run again as mayor, successfully
won, in 2013 Nestor Alvarez replaced him,
and became the Mayor again, his daughter
Tequila Alvarez successfully won as Vice
Mayor.
Political dynasties does not only exist in the
Provinces, municipalities, and cities. In the
Barangay level, dynasties are also prevalent.
There are barangays in which officials are
relatives and ruled for a longer period.
This study aims to identify the determinants
in encouraging relatives to seek elective
office and the conceptual definition of
political dynasties in the select barangays in
Science City of Muoz.
METHODOLOGY
This study used both quantitative and
qualitative data to the conceptual definition
of political dynasty in select barangays in
Science City of Muoz.
A questionnaire was developed by the
research; the first part was designed to
identify
the
socio-demographic
characteristics of the respondents. The
second part was formulated to know the
determinants in encouraging relatives to

seek public office using the indicators listed


by the researcher on the questionnaire .The
third part was a series of open-ended
questions developed to determine the
conceptual definition of political dynasty in
select barangays in Science City of Muoz.
The researcher wrote the questionnaire in
Filipino.
The researcher used the multi stage
sampling method in the study. The
researcher have chosen Science City of
Muoz because of the prevalence of
political families in the city.
All of the Barangays chosen by the
researcher are composed of barangay
officials, which have similar surnames with
the other officials. The respondents were
composed of 40 barangay officials either
elected in the case of chairman and
kagawads or appointed in case of
secretaries and treasurers. However, the
samples were supposed to be 40 but three of
the respondents were unable to be reached
by the researcher despite diligent efforts and
follow-ups.
Data gathered were analyzed using the
following statistical tools:
Frequency Count and percentage- These
were used to analyze the socio demographic
characteristics such as age, civil status,
gender, educational attainment, Profession
besides of becoming a barangay official,
monthly income, family experienced in
public service, relatives serving in the
barangay.
Chi-Square- This was used to determine the
relationship between the socio demographic
characteristics of the respondents to their
concept of political dynasties.
The researcher conducted the study on the
four barangays of Science City of Muoz,

Nueva
Ecija
namely
Cabisuculan,
Matingkis, Naglabrahan and San Antonio.
All of the barangays were purposively
chosen by the researcher for having at least
four barangays officials which have similar
surnames or belongs to the same family.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Socio-demographic characteristics
Most of the respondents were in the
ages of 41-60 (83.3%) mainly because
generally most of the leaders in our country
ranges from that age, 94.4% of the
respondents were married mainly because
majority of them were in the ages 41-60.
Most of the respondents were males
(83.3%) reason for this is that men
dominate Philippine politics. Overall the
study consists of 37 positions in the
barangay, most of the respondents were
Barangay kagawad (73%) The sample of the
study were supposed to compose of 40
respondents but the researcher was unable
to reach three of them. The study was
lacked of one barangay captain, one
kagawad, and treasurer mainly because of
their business engagement and other
important concerns during the conduct of
the study.
Seventy-seven and eight percent (77.8%) of
the respondents serve the barangay from 419 years, many of them were reelected and
able complete their terms.
Most of the respondents were high school
graduates (22.2%) reason for this is that the
officials belong to second and third class
families, while 16.7% of the respondents
were college graduates which can be
considered significant because instead of
pursuing a high paying job or position they
opted to serve the barangay.
Majority of the respondents were farmers
mainly because barangays are situated
mostly in rural areas while 8.33% of the

respondents were full time barangay


officials. Most of the respondents earned a
monthly income of P 5,000 and below,
reason for this is that the honorarium of the
barangay officials ranges from P2000P5000.
Fifty-two and eight percent(52.8) of the
respondents family has experienced in
public service, stated that they have
relatives who serve in the barangay as
Barangay Chairman, kagawad, treasurer
others said that their family was joining
activities in the barangay..

Concept on Political Dynasty


More than half of the respondents stated
that political dynasty is a form of family
rule.
The respondents conceptualized
political dynasty as a family or group of
persons related by blood or affiliation that
hold various public offices simultaneously
or successively.
The first situation occurs when a family
member simultaneously seek elective office
and won on the same election under one
ticket or group while the second situation
occurs when a family member follows the
footsteps of their ascendants in politics with
the permission to run in an elective position
and in the process transferring their power
and influence to the said relative.
One of the respondents cited the case of the
Alvarez in Science City of Muoz in
transferring power the members of the
family.
One out of four respondents perceived that
political dynasty positively by looking into
it as a form of public service. They state that
political dynasty is a continuum in public
service of a family member that is restricted
by the term of office prescribed by law and
necessary to continue serving their

constituents under
development.

one

platform

of

Twelve and ninth percent of the respondents


conceptualize political dynasty as necessary
evil to maintain power within the family.
They perceived political dynasty negatively
because it promotes self-interest, greed, and
monopoly of power.
The study showed that most of the
respondents agreed that political dynasties
brought goodness to their barangay
(45.9%), respondents state that leaders in
their barangay were able to serve the
residents regardless if they belong to a
political dynasty others states that it is
difficult to socialize with other officials who
is not a relative. Respondents who said no
got 37.8%, respondents stated that the
priorities of the barangay officials were in
their cronies others said that it would not
lead to development and others said it is
better if the officials were composed of
different backgrounds and families and to
avoid conspiracy, other said it will left an
image to people . There were respondents
who did not answer the last part of the
questionnaire so there were missing data.
Fifty percent of the respondents want to
prohibit political dynasties; most of the
respondents said that the skills of others
must be shown; there were Barangay
officials in who have similar surnames with
the other officials in the barangay that wants
to prohibit political dynasties. Forty- one
and seven percent (41.7%) do not want to
prohibit mainly because Philippines is a
democratic country it is the people who
choose their leaders and they were elected
in a democratic and legal manner. Other
respondents stated that it should not be
prohibited especially if the leaders were
able to fulfill their duties and to provide
equal access to public service. Some of the
respondents were not able to answer this
part.

From the 50% percent of the respondents


who want to prohibit political dynasties
36.15% wanted to prohibit it in the national
level mainly because others were not given
the chance to lead the barangay and to avoid
extreme corruption, followed by province
and city (5.6%) that ones of the
respondents stated that it is prone to
dynasty, and all levels except the barangay
mainly because there are barangays in
which most of all the residents are mostly
relatives and belong to one clan (2.8%)
Determinants in encouraging relatives to
seek elective office
From the list of the given indicators, most
of the respondent were undecided or based
on situation. The determinants in
encouraging relatives to seek in public
office were Power, Influence and
Organizational Politics.
In first statement(encouraging to gain
power) majority of the respondents cannot
decide whether they agree or disagree, since
their decision is based on the situation, if
their relatives have the skills they might be
encouraged but if not theyll not be
encouraged. In the second statement
(encouraging to change the barangay) most
of the people disagree, reason for this is that
that respondents can change or develop the
barangay alone, most of the respondents
strongly agree in the third statement
encouraging relatives to continue plans for
the barangay reason for this is that elective
positions in the barangay is limited only to
three terms.
Twenty-four and three percent (24.3%) of
the respondents agree on Statement 4(to
encourage relatives to change the quality of
life living in the barangay), reason for this is
that they cannot do it all alone and they will
look for someone, which they can trust to
do it.

Majority of the respondents were


undecided whether they will encourage
relatives to run for their political ideologies,
reason for this is that their ideologies is
different from their relatives. Most of the
respondents agree on the statement
encouraging relatives to learn how to
govern the residents in the barangay reason
for this is that there preparing their relatives
to become leaders. In Statements 7 and 8
most of the respondents agreed gaining 35.1
percent mainly because in becoming a
politician more people will pay more
respect while in statement 8 if the relatives
of the politician are highly successful,
surely, they will give inspiration to the
residents. In Statement 9 most of the
respondents were undecided while in
Statement 10 (Encouraging relatives to
widen political connection) and 11(to get
closer to people) most of the respondents
strongly disagree and in statement,
12(prepare myself for the next election)
most were undecided.
Correlation between socio demographic
characteristics and the determinants in
encouraging relatives to seek elective
office.
There is a significant relationship between
the socio demographic characteristics anf
the determinants in encouraging relatives to
seek elective office.
First, data show a trend that the respondents
that answers that they have no relatives in
the city has a strong agreement in the three
determinants. This significant relationship
means that those barangay officials without
an elective official relative in the higher
position are much motivated to encourage
their
other relatives to seek elective positions
other than those with known relatives. This
shows that since they have no influence or
power in the higher officials, they opt to

concentrate in their own barangays in


increasing their power and influence as well
as widen their political base.
This situation is associated with the
importance of barangay officials in local
elections, with more power, influence and
organization in the barangay level; this will
give them the bargaining power that is
necessary to secure grass root level votes.
Second, respondents with family that has
experience in public service has a strong
agreement with the indicators in the
organizational politics determinant. This
significant relationship reveals a trend that
having exposure in public service gives
more motivation to barangay officials to
encourage their relatives. This might be for
the purpose of either gaining favors from
the city officials and widening of political
connection in preparation to their future
political bid.
CONCLUSION

Based on the results most of the


respondents were married and with ages
ranging from 41-60. Their professions are
mostly farmers, because the locale of the
study is a farming village, earning a
monthly income of P 10,000 below since
plurality of them are high school graduates,
most served the barangay from 4-19 years
and their families have experience in public
service.
The study reveals that these indicators show
no significant relationship with the
determinants encouraging relatives to seek
elective office.
Most of the barangay officials have relatives
also serving in the barangay and their
relationship were mostly cousins.

The study reveals the various responses of


the barangay officials regarding their
concept of political dynasty, which was
thematically interpreted by the researcher
into three categories namely family rule,
public service and power.
Respondents who stated, political
dynasty as a form of family rule
conceptualized political dynasty as a family
or group of persons related by blood or
affiliation that hold various public offices
simultaneously or successively. Others
perceived political dynasties as a form of
public service stated that political dynasty is
a continuum in public service of a family
member that is restricted by the term of
office prescribed by law and necessary to
continue serving their constituents under
one platform of development. While other
respondents conceptualize political dynasty
as necessary evil to maintain power within
the family. They perceived political dynasty
negatively because it promotes self-interest,
greed, and monopoly of power.

After the researcher got the concept of


respondents barangay officials, he
determined their stand on the issue of
political dynasty. Most of the respondents
stated that political dynasties brought
goodness in their barangay especially if the
leaders can fulfill their duties and having
unity to serve. When it comes to the
prohibition of political dynasties most of the
respondents agreed to prohibit political
dynasties significantly some of them has
similar surname with the other officials
stating that political dynasties brought
extreme corruption, conspiracy, self-interest
and manipulation of power. From the
respondents who wanted to prohibit
dynasties half of them wanted to prohibit it
on the national level to give chance to

others and for the development of the


country.
The study reveals that the various indicators
used in the determinants in encouraging
relatives to seek elective office have a
significant relationship between the socio
demographic characteristics in terms of
having relatives in the city and family
experienced in public office.
Having no relatives in the city has a strong
agreement in the three determinants, the
significant relationship means that those
barangay officials without an elective
official relative in the higher position are
much motivated to encourage their other
relatives to seek elective positions other
than those with known relatives since they
have no influence or power in the higher
officials, they opt to concentrate in their
own barangays in increasing their power
and influence as well as widen their
political base. With more power, influence
and organization in the barangay level; this
will give them the bargaining power that is
necessary to secure grass root level votes.

While respondents with family that have,


experience in public service have a strong
agreement with the indicators in the
organizational politics determinant. This
significant relationship reveals a trend that
having exposure in public service gives
more motivation to barangay officials to
encourage their relatives. This might be for
the purpose of either gaining favors from
the city officials and widening of political
connection in preparation to their future
political bid. This trend is associated with
the Filipino culture that those who are
nearer the kitchen receive more favors than
the others do.
Recommendations

1. The future study is recommended which


has more respondents barangays other than
four respondent barangays.
2. Future studies should develop a 4- point
scale to measure the reasons for
encouraging relatives to seek elective office.
3. Future studies should let the respondents
define the various indicators on the
determinants for encouraging relatives to
seek in public office.
4. The prevalence of political dynasty in the
grassroots level call for the legislation to
define and prohibit political dynasty.
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