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# Manitoba HVDC Research Centre Inc.

## 244 Cree Crescent

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3J 3W1
T 204 989 1240 F 204 989 1277

## Introduction to PSCAD and

Applications
Training Course Presented by the Manitoba
HVDC Research Centre

Course Date:
Location:

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TUTORIALS

## Getting Started and Basic Features

Prepared by:
Date:
Revision:
Date:

Dharshana Muthumuni
August 2005
3
March12, 2007

2 / 72

## Getting Started - Tutorial 1

Objective(s):
Getting familiar with PSCAD.
Getting familiar with different sections of the Master Library.
Different ways to access the master library.
Creating a simple case.
Data entry.
Plotting and control.
Interactive controls.

T1.1 Create a new case by using either the Menu or Toolbar. A new case should appear
in the Workspace settings entitled noname [psc]. Right-click on this Workspace settings
entry and select Save As and give the case a name.
NOTE: Do not use any spaces in the name!
Create a folder called c:/PscadTraining/Tutorial_01. Save the case as case01.psc
T1.2 Open the main page of your new case. Build a case to study the inrush phenomena
when energizing a transformer. The component data is as shown. The transformer is rated
66/12.47 kV.
RL
RRL
Ia

66 kV BUS

66 kV,60 Hz Source
Z+ = 3.9Ohms / 75.58 deg
Z0 = 14.95 Ohms / 80.46 deg

BRK

E_66

BRK

#2

#1

Y-Y Transformer
7.5 MVA
Z = 6.14 %
Full load loss = 0.3%
No load loss = 0.5%
No load current 1 %

Timed
Breaker
Logic
Open@t0

1e6

## Fig.1 Transformer energizing circuit.

T1.3 Plot the currents (Ia) and voltages (E_66) on the HV side of the transformer. Note:
Ia and Ea contains the three waveforms of the three phases.
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## Fig.2 Basic steps to create a graph with a selected signal.

T1.4 The LV side of the transformer is not connected to a load or any other system
equipment. The breaker is closed at 0.5 s to energize the transformer 66 kV side.
Inrush is related to core saturation. Verify that saturation is included in the model used
for this simulation.
Ask your instructor to explain the large resistance connected to the HV side.
Inrush current magnitude depends on the point on wave switching conditions. Use a
manual switch to operate the breaker. Note the point on wave dependency of the inrush
peak.
Main ...
BRK_Control
C

BRK

## Fig.3 Two state switch attached to a control panel.

4 / 72

T1.5 Modify the case to include a 12.47 kV/0.5 MVA (Wound rotor type) induction
machine. This case will be used to study the process of starting an Induction motor. The
component data is as shown.
12.47 kV BUS

81m U/G
54m OH

Main ...
R_C1

Capacitor
800 KVars per phase

R_C1

42.5 [uH]

40.94 [uF]

R_C1

Ib
Feeder

EN484

C OU PLED

PI
S E C TIO N

## Short line of 7.4 km

Z+ = 0.2 E-4 + j0.3 E-3 Ohms/m
Z0 = 0.3 E-3 + j0.1 E-2 Ohms/m
Use default values for the capacitances

B_mot

Etrv

Emot
N

B_mot

Timed
Breaker
Logic
Open@t0

0.001
IM

## This block models the mechanical

characteristics of a typical load.

TL

*
0.8

X2

Mechanical Torque
TIN
0 .0

0 .0

## 500 kVA Induction machine.

Squerriel Cage Type.
13.8 kV(L-L) 7.697 kV
(Phase)
Irated = 0.02804 [kA]
Inertia = 0.7267 [s]
Stator resistance = 0.005 PU
Rotor Resistance = 0.008

TIN

## You may use the wire mode to connect different components.

T1.6 Enter the component data.
Note: Use typical data for the machine.
T1.7 Plot the currents on either side of the transformer (ia and ib).
T1.8 The input torque to the machine is equal to 80% of the square of the speed. Derive
this signal using control blocks. i.e

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Tm 0.8 w 2

## Use control blocks to implement the above equation.

Your instructor will explain the calculation program structure of EMTDC and the
definition of electric and control type models.
T1.9 The breaker (initially open) should be closed at 0.2s to start the motor.
T1.10 Plot the machine speed, the mechanical torque and the developed electric torque.
Note: Some variables can be measured from within the component. These are normally
listed under the parameter section Internal output variables

If time permits

T1.11 Add a load of 1 MVA at 0.8-power factor at 12.47 kV. The same transformer
supplies this load. Does the load see an unacceptable voltage sag during motor start?

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Data:
Motor
500 kVA Induction machine.
Wound rotor Type.
13.8 kV(L-L) 7.697 kV (Phase)
Irated = 0.02804 [kA]
Inertia = 0.7267 [s]
Stator resistance = 0.005 PU
Rotor Resistance = 0.008 PU

Short Line
Short line of 7.4 km
Z+ = 0.2 E-4 + j0.3 E-3 Ohms/m
Z0 = 0.3 E-3 + j0.1 E-2 Ohms/m
Use default values for the capacitances

## Mechanical Load model

This block models the mechanical
characteristics of a typical load.
Mechanical Torque
2
X

*
0.8

TIN

Capacitor leg
Capacitor
800 KVars per phase
R_C1

42.5 [uH]

40.94 [uF]

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## PSCAD ESSENTIAL TRAINING

Tutorials 1 6
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Initializing a simulation
Switching study
Transformers and inrush
Transmission lines
Power electronic switching
Induction machine dynamics
Synchronous Machines and controls
Wind farms and doubly fed machines

## Prepared by: Dharshana Muthumuni

Date: August 2005
Revision:
2
Date:
Feb 16, 2007

8 / 72

flow.
intheWorkspacesettingsentitlednoname[psc].RightclickonthisWorkspacesettings
entryandselectSaveAsandgivethecaseaname.
NOTE:Donotuseanyspacesinthename!
T1.2Openthemainpageofyournewcase.Buildacaserepresentingasimplifiedtwo
area power system as shown in the figure below. A 55 km transmission line connects
StationAtoa100MWwindfarm.AllotherconnectionstoStationAarerepresentedby
state fault study at 60 Hz. The line is represented by its series reactance. The
transformerisrepresentedbyitsimpedance,referredtothe230kVside.

Station A
55 km line

230 kV

0.14

0.074

RRL

## 230 kV Eq. source

RRL

Wind Farm

Z_positive = 10 Ohms at 88
deg.
Z_zero = 7 Ohms at 82 deg.

Q1

RL

RL

P1

P2
Q2

Q2

## Fig1. Two area system

T1.3Thewindfarmisalsorepresentedbyanetworkequivalence.Thepositivesequence
impedanceofthissourceat33kVis1Ohmat89deg.
NOTE: Referredtothe230kVsidetheimpedancevalueAns:48.577at890

T1.4Thevoltagebehindtheequivalentimpedanceatthewindfarmis35kV.Thephase
angleis7degrees.Determinethepowerflowacrosstheline.
Note:Convertedtothe230kVside,theequivalentvoltageis243.939kVat7deg

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T1.5Plotthepowerandreactivepowerflowatbothendsoftheline.Thesesignalscan
beobtainedfromthevoltagesourcemodelsasinternaloutputs.
T1.6UseproperscalefactorsinsidetheOutputChannelstoconvertPUvaluestoMW
andMVar.Verifytheresults.
T1.7Howdoyouchangethetimestep,thesimulationtimeandtheplottime?Howdo
youdeterminethesimulationtimestep?
T1.8Canyousaveresultstoexternaloutputfilesforpostprocessing?
T1.9Ifyouspecifiedtowritedatatooutputfiles,wherearetheylocated?

Savethecase!

ThecaseshouldbesavedasT_01_b.pscbeforeproceeding.
Different parts of the simulation model can be arranged inside page modules. PSCAD
allows nested page modules. If you make a change to your existing case, PSCAD will
identify the page modules where changes took place. Only these modules will be re
compiled.(Timesavingsinlargecases)
T1.10Createapagemoduleandincludetheequivalentsourceforthewindfarminside
this module as shown in the figures 2 and 3. What is the use of the XNODE
component?
Note:Yourinstructorwillbrieflydiscusstheuseofsignaltransmitterswhichcanalso
beusedtotransmit(control)signalsfromapagetoanother.

a
0.074
RRL

0.14

RL

Wind
Farm

P2
Q2

Q2

Fig.2Mainpage

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RRL
RL

P1
Q1

Fig.3.Subpage

Savethecase!
ThecaseshouldbesavedasT_01_c.pscbeforeproceeding.
paneltospecifythesevalues.Canthevaluesbechangedduringasimulation?
Note: Make sure that the angle is specified in degrees (parameter setting inside the
sourcemodel)
Note:Observetheeffectofvaryingthevoltageangle/magnitudeonPandQflow

Ph

Main : Controls

RRL

V230
250

90

220

-90

230

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

60.0
V
RL

Fig.4.Externalcontrolofthesourceparameters.

T1.12 Modify the circuit to include breakers, breaker controls, meters and the PSCAD
fault component. The case should look like as shown in figure 5. Plot, E1, I1 and the
rmsvalueofE1.

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Wind
Farm

BRK2

BRK1

I1
E1

Timed
Breaker
Logic
Closed@t0

Q2

60.0
BRK1
BRK3
BRK2

Timed
Fault
Logic

Timed
Breaker
Logic
Closed@t0

RL

Q2

P2

A
V

E1

RRL

Timed
Breaker
Logic
Closed@t0

BRK3

I1
0.074 [H]

Ph

0.14 [H]

## Fault inception - 0.4 s and at 0.404 s

E1

0 = No Fault
1 = Phase A to Ground
2 = Phase B to Ground
3 = Phase C to Ground
4 = Phase AB to Ground
5 = Phase AC to Ground
6 = Phase BC to Ground
7 = Phase ABC to
Ground
8 = Phase AB
9 = Phase AC
10 = Phase BC
11 = Phase ABC

V230

Main : Controls
Ph230

250

90

220

-90

230

FTYPE
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Fig.5.Meters,breakersandfaults.
T1.13SimulateanAGfault.Thefaultinceptiontimeis0.4s.Thefaultdurationis0.5s.
NotethedcoffsetofI1.
(ThedcoffsetcancausemaloperationofprotectionduetoCTsaturation.Wewillstudy
thisinlateronasaseparateexample.)

T1.14Whatfactorsinfluencetheinitialdcoffsetanditsrateofdecay?Changethefault
inceptiontimeto0.404sandobservetheresults.
T1.15 Breaker 3 is initially closed. Open and close this breaker at 0.5 s and 0.65 s
respectively.
Savethecase!
ThecaseshouldbesavedasT_01_d.pscbeforeproceeding.
T1.16 Include a FFT block in your simulation cases shown in figure 6. Convert I1 to its
sequence components. Verify the results of the FFT for different fault types. Add a
polymetertoobservethefrequencyspectrum.
Note:Theinstructorwilldemonstratetheuseofthephasormeter.

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2
I1
1

XA

XB

XC

I1
I1

## Mag+ Mag- Mag0

(31) (31) (31)
Ph+
(31)
FFT
Ph(31)
F = 60.0 [Hz]
dcA

dcB

Ph0
(31)
dcC

Fig.6.FFTBlock.
Studythesequencerunitsavailabletodefineaseriesoftimedevents.
Savethecase!

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Tutorial2CapacitorSwitchingStudy:
T2.1 Create a folder called c:/PscadTraining/T_02. Save the case T_01_e.psc as
T_02_a.psc.
the 230 kV bus voltage. A transient study is required to design equipment of this
installation.
Calculations and simulations are required to determine the values/ratings of the
associatedlimitingreactors(inrushandoutrush)
Modifythesimulationcasetoincludeasubpageasshowninfig.1.
GT230

230 kV
Voltage support
Cap. Bank

Ph
F

RRL

60.0
V
RL

Fig.1CapacitorbanksatStationA.
The circuit inside the sub page represents a 230 kV capacitor bank with 4 steps per
phase (see attached diagrams). Each step is rated at 25 Mvar/phase. The capacitor
banks are solidly grounded. The inrush and the outrush reactors sizes are to be
determinedsothattheswitchingtransientsdonotexceedthebreakercapabilitiesand
arewithintheIEEEstandards.
The values of the outrush/inrush reactors have been determined using IEEE
C37.06.2000.
T2.2UsemanualbreakercontrolstoswitchthebreakersR1,R2andR4.Alsomeasure
thecurrentsinthebreakers.
Note:DiscusswithyourinstructorthepurposeofmakingR3operationcontrollable.

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T2.4 Add meters to measure the currents and voltages on the system side of the
outrushreactor.
T2.5RunthecasewithR1closed,R2andR4open,andR3settocloseat0.2s.
T2.6ObservethepeakvalueandfrequencyofoscillationofthecurrentinR3.
T2.7Observethepeakvalueandfrequencyofoscillationofthecurrentattheoutrush
reactor.
T2.8Notethedifferencesbetween(7)and(8).Discusstheresults.
Important: Ensure that you are using the proper time step and for visualization
purposes,theproperplotstep!
T2.9 A Peak inrush current depends on POW switching. This should be studied to
ensurethatthebreakermeetstheTRVanddi/dtcapabilities.
T2.10UsetheMultipleRuncomponenttocontroltheR3closingtime.Alsorecordthe
currentsinBreakerR3andmainfeedercurrent.
Setthemultipleruntoswitchfor5sequentialpointsonthewave.
Canwedorandomswitchingoveracycle?
Canweoptimizetherunlengthusingasnapshot?
Take a snapshot at 0.199sec and the run multiple run for 20 sequential points on the
wave.
Compare your results with IEEE standard results. Can the simulation time step be
changedwhenthecaseisrunfromasnapshotfile?
T2.11 What are some considerations for the selection of timestep for this type of
simulation?

T2.12 EXTRA: Check the impedance spectrum using the Harmonic Impedance
thecapacitorscangiverisetosystemresonancesthatarenotacceptable.
Isthiscircuitappropriatetocheckforsystemresonances?Why?(notenoughdetailsof
thesystemaroundtheStationAbusisincludedtocapturethefrequencyeffects)

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1.00E-06
1.00E-06
1.00E-06
1.00E-06
1.00E-06

Series1

1.00E-06
1.00E-06
1.00E-06
1.00E-06
1

11 13

15

17 19

Savethecase!

ThecaseshouldbesavedasT_02_b.pscbeforeproceeding.
T2.13Modifythecircuitasshowninfigure2toincludesurgearrestors.
The surge arrestors should protect the capacitors from switching over voltages. Re
strike of capacitors breaker can cause large overvoltage transients and is usually the
criteriafortheselectionofMOVs.DiscussthedataentryfortheMOVmodel.

16 / 72

0.00317

0.05635 [MW]
-3.988e-005 [MVAR]

Closed@t0
Logic
Breaker
Timed

0.09202 [MW]
-79.7 [MVAR]

R3

R2
R2

MOV

0.05635 [MW]
-3.988e-005 [MVAR]

R2

0.08013 [MW]
-79.82 [MVAR]

R1
R1

kJoules
Imov

Closed@t0
Logic
Breaker
Timed

Outrush
Reactors
MOV

R3

R4
R4

Fig.2.Surgearresters.
T2.13 Breaker R3 is initially closed. It is opened at 0.204 s but restrikes at 0.2124 s.
Observe the energy accumulation in the MOV of phase A. can the MOV handle this
energy?IsastatisticalstudyrequiredtodesigntheMOVratings?
Savethecase!

ThecaseshouldbesavedasT_03_a.pscbeforeproceeding.

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Tutorial3Inrushcurrentandlineenergizing.
T3.1 Create a folder called c:/PscadTraining/T_03. Save the case T_02_b.psc as
T_03_a.psc.
Open the capacitor main breaker R3. Keep all other breakers closed. Make the fault
componentinactive.
Mosttransientstudiesrequiretheaccuratemodelingoftransformersandtransmission
lines. Transformer inrush requires the accurate modeling of the nonlinear iron core.
Switching transient studies require the modeling of transmission lines to include the
effectsfrequencydependentlineparametersandtravelingwavephenomena.
T3.2 Use detailed models to represent the 33/230 kV transformer and the 55 km
transmission line. The transformerhas a YY configuration and consists of three single
0.002purespectively.
The conductor arrangement of the line is as shown below. Use the frequency
dependentphasemodeltorepresenttheline.

G1
10 [m]

C2
5 [m]

C1

G2
10 [m]
C3
10 [m]

30 [m]

Tower: 3H5
Conductors: chukar
Ground_Wires: 1/2"HighStrengthSteel
0 [m]

Fig.1.230kVTransmissiontower.

18 / 72

Timed
Breaker
Logic
Open@t0
Timed
Breaker
Logic
Open@t0
Wind
Farm

I2 BRK1A

Three Phase
RMS Voltage Meter
BRK1B
3 Phase
RMS
BRK1C

GT230

BRK2
#1

Cap. Bank

Line_01

BRK3
I1

#2

E1

Ph

E2
Line_01 Line_01

RL

Timed
Breaker
Logic
Open@t0
E1

60.0
V

Q2

I1
E1

Timed
Breaker
Logic
Open@t0

BRK3

RRL

P2
Q2

230 kV
Voltage support

Timed
Fault
Logic
BRK2
Fault inception - 0.4 s and at 0.404 s

Fig.2.Twoareasystemmodelforatransientstudy.

InrushStudy:
thebreaker#1.Closebreaker1at0.15sandobservetheinrushcurrents.
T3.4 Add a 1 Ohm resister in series with the 33 kV winding and observe the results.
Whateffectdoestheresistancehaveonthedecayoftheinrushcurrent?
T3.5 Does the breaker closing instant influence the magnitude of inrush? Close the
breakerat0.1535sandobservethecurrentonphaseA.
T3.6Enablethesinglepoleoperationmodeofthebreaker.Closethepolesatinstants
whenthevoltageoftherespectivephaseisatamaximum.Observeresults.
T3.7Whatsituationwouldcausethetransformertosaturateonbothhalvesofavoltage
cycle?
Savethecase!

ThecaseshouldbesavedasT_03_b.pscbeforeproceeding.

19 / 72

LineEnergizingStudy:
T3.8Closebreaker#1andopenbreaker#3.Includethemultipleruncomponentto
controltheoperationofbreaker#2whichisinitiallyopen.TheclosinginstantB1derived
fromthemultiplerun.

E1

1 Ch. 1
overvoltage.out

Meas-Enab
.
V1
.
B1
.

0.15

B2

F
B1

Multiple
Run

Fig.3.Multipleruncomponentforbreakercontrol.
T3.9 The breaker closing instant (B1) should be changed for each run. The breaker is
opened0.15safteritsclosingoperation.Setthemultipleruntoswitchfor10sequential
pointsona60Hzwaveform.RecordthepeakvoltageE1atthereceivingend.
Savethecase!
ThecaseshouldbesavedasT_03_c.pscbeforeproceeding.
Linesonthesamerightofway:
A 130 km transmission line connects the Generating Station C and Station A. This line
runs parallel to the 55 km line between Station A and the Wind Farm for 20 km from
Station A. The generating voltage is stepped up to the transmission level through an
11/230kV,YYbank.
T3.10Extendthemodeltoincludethe130kmlineandthegeneratorasshowninfigure
4.Thetransmissionlinesarearrangedinasubpageasshowninfigure5.
Savethecase!

20 / 72

Station C
11/230 kV, 500MVA
Z=0.08 PU

RRL

RL

#1

#2

## Zpos = 0.01 Ohms at 89 deg.

Zzero = 0.011Ohms and 80 deg.

Line_03

BRK3
T lines
Timed
Breaker
Logic
Closed@t0

Three Phase
RMS Voltage Meter

Timed
Breaker
Logic
Closed@t0
GT230

Line_01
Line_02
Line_03

BRK2

3 Phase
RMS

230 kV
Voltage support
Cap. Bank

BRK3
I1

E2

BRK4

Line_01 Line_02

Ph

E1

BRK2

I4

60.0
V

E4

Timed
Fault
Logic

Fig.4.Threeareasystem
1
Line_01

Line_02

Line_01
Line_02

Line_03

Line_03

Fig.5.Linearrangementinsidethesubpage.
T3.11 The voltage behind the equivalent source impedance of the voltage source
representingthe4generatorsatStationCis12kVat21degrees.
T3.13Changetheconfigurationof the11/230 kVtransformertorepresentaDY unit.

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Tutorial4WindGeneratormodelandaSoftStartmechanism
fortheGenerator.
T4.1 Create a folder called c:/PscadTraining/T_04. Save the case T_03_c.psc as
T_04_a.psc.
Thewindturbinesinthewindfarmaredrivinginductiongeneratorsoperatingat33kV.
modelofaninductiongenerator.Assumeallgeneratorsatthewindfarmareoperating
underidenticalconditions.Theinductiongeneratorconnectionisshowninfigure1.
External rotor
resistance

Rrotor
+

Wind...
Rrotor

Rrotor
+

DIST

Rrotor

TIME

10

Q1

StoT

WIN

1.0

P1

A
P
Power
Q
B

ohm

Rrotor

W
S

IM

Iabc

StoT

a
TL

-0.8

-0.5

TIN
Ctrl = 1

Ctrl
340 [uF]

DIST

Fig.1.Inductiongenerator.

T4.2Closebreaker#1at2s.Keepallotherbreakersclosed.Assumethemachinespeed
isat1pubeforeclosingbreakerA.Hasthepowerflowchanged?
T4.3 Calculate the value of the shunt capacitance required to maintain the original
T4.4 Will the system be stable if a sudden wind gust causes the input torque to the
machinetoincreaseby60%(or80%)?

Savethecase!
ThecaseshouldbesavedasT_03_b.pscbeforeproceeding.

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T4.5Discusshowasmallwindgeneratormaybeconnectedtothesystem.
UsingBRKAappropriately,connectthewindgeneratortothesystemat1s.
T4.6Notethelinecurrentsonthesystemsidewhenthewindfarmisconnectedtothe
system. Change the initial speed of the machine to 0.6 pu and re run the simulation.
Notethecurrenttransients.
ASoftStartershowninfigure2isusedtolimitthestartingcurrentswhenconnecting
theinductiongeneratorstothesystem.Thebacktobackthyristorsareusedtocontrol
the voltage applied to the machine while its speed builds up. The firing angle
characteristicsaregiveninthetableinthefilesoftstart.txt.Modelthecircuitshownin
figure2.Thefiringcontrolsforthethyristorsareshowninfigure3.

FP1

[Windfarm] ANG

ANG
BRK_SW

T
2

FP3
2

FP2

1
BRK_SW

TIME

BRK_SW
T
A
ANG

FP5
2

FP4
180.0

Ctrl = 1

Ctrl

ANG1

BRKA
BRK_SW
T
2
FP6

Ea

BRKA
NA

Eb
Timed
Breaker
Logic
Open@t0

BRKA

NB

Ec

Fig.2.SoftStarter.

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## THYRISTOR FIRING PULSE

CONTROL CIRCUIT

ANG_2
ANG_1

2
FP1

Vc
Ec

180.0

Va
Eb
PLL

ANG_1
theta

Vb
Ec

2
FP6

180.0

180.0
Vb
Eb

H
L

D + +

2
FP4

Va
Ea

ANG_3

H
L

D + +

2
FP2

2
FP5

H
L

2
FP3
ANG1
ANG_2

ANG1

ANG1

H
L

ANG_1

ANG_3

Va
Ec
PLL

ANG_2
theta

Vc
Ea

Vb
Ea

PLL

ANG_3
theta

Vc
Eb

Fig.3.Firingcontrols.
T4.7Observethestartingcurrentswithandwithoutsoftstart.

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Tutorial5Includingamachinemodelinasimulation.
T5.1 Create a folder called c:/PscadTraining/T_05. Save the case T_04_c.psc as
T_05_a.psc.
T5.2 Use the methods discussed in the supplementary exercises to replace the 11 kV
T5.3 Enter the ratings of the machine to reflect the 500 MVA, 11 kV unit. (This may
representanumberofidenticalunitsoperatinginparallel).
T5.4Includethegeneratorcontrolsinthesimulation.
T5.5 The voltage magnitude and the phase angle of the 11 kV source are used to
initialize the machine. Observe the power flow and explain the reasons for minor
differences.
values.
T5.7Howdowemodelathermalgenerator?

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Tutorial6Doublyfedinductionmachinemodel.
T6.1 Create a folder called c:/PscadTraining/T_06. Load the library file
dqo_new_lib.psl. Load the cases T_06_a andT_06_b.psc given to you with the course
material.SavethisfileinyourT_06folder.
T6.2Understandthebasicconceptofthedoublefedconnection.
T6.3Identifytheroleofdifferentcontrolblocksinthemodel.
T6.4 Are all models in the control system found in the master library? Can the user
definecustomcomponentsandusethenalongwithstandardmodelsfromthemaster
library?
T6.5Verifytheoperationofthetwocases.

D
+
Va
C
Isa

*
0.037

alfa
D +
Vb
C

Isb

*
0.037

Isc

*
0.037

1
sT

D
+
Vc
C

Valfa

B 3 to 2
Transform
beta Vbeta
C

1
sT

phisx
sT
G
1 + sT

G sT
1 + sT

mag
r to p
Y

Vsmag

phsmag

phi
phis

phisy

slpang
alfa
Rotor
to Stator
Q
beta
D

A
alfa
2 to 3 B
Transform
beta
C

Ira_ref Iraa
Irb_ref Irbb
Irc_ref Ircc

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## Transient Recovery Voltage Across

Breaker Poles
(TRV)

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## Breaker TRV Studies - Tutorial 1

Objective:
Fundamental aspects of Breaker TRV
Selection of time step
Influence of stray capacitance
Influence of loads and losses (resistance)
IEEE defined breaker capability curves
TRV under fault and normal switching conditions and use of multiple run
T1.1 Open the case T_03_a.psc that was completed in Tutorial 3. Rename this as
T_03_a_trv.psc. Keep breakers #1, #2 and #3 closed and the capacitor banks open. Run
the case and make sure the power flow is as expected.
T1.2 Apply a three phase fault to ground at 0.4s. The duration is 1s.
T1.3 Open breaker #3 at 0.44 s. Observe the voltage across the breaker poles.
T1.4 Discuss the reason for TRV. Now lower the time step to 2 us and observe the
results. This will make clear that for TRV studies, a small time step is necessary.

20

TRV_ENV(+)

TRV_ENV(-)

Ea

20.0

TRV_ENV(+)

TRV_ENV(-)

Ea

15.0

10

10.0
5.0

0
y

0.0
-5.0

-10
-10.0
-15.0

-20

-20.0

-30
0.0200

-25.0

0.0220

0.0240

0.0260

0.0280

0.0300

0.0320

0.0340

0.021820

0.021825

0.021830

0.021835

0.021840

0.021845

0.021850

## Fig.1. Breaker TRV and the IEEE TRV limits

T1.5 In TRV studies, the stray capacitances near the breaker must be modeled
adequately. How do we determine these values?
T1.6 IEEE standards (IEEE C37.011) define the TRV capability curves for different
breakers. These limits depend on a number of factors.

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## Actual fault level

Open the two PSCAD included with the course material. The two cases are
TRV_Case_01.psc and TRV_Case_02.psc. TRV_Case_02.psc is from a low voltage
distribution system of a utility in Florida. It was used to identify TRV issues and to
identify corrective measures.
T1.7 Observe how the IEEE TRV limits are simulated.
T1.8 What are the measures available to reduce TRV levels?

29 / 72

## Large Industrial Loads Induction

Motor Transients
Objectives:
Induction motor starting
Motor data
Voltage dips and fluctuations - Flicker
Motor starting methods
Soft starting
Reading data from external files
Control blocks
Power electronic switches

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30 / 72

## Induction Machine Dynamics/Transients - Tutorial 1

T1.1 Connect a 13.8 kV, 15 kA induction motor to an infinite bus through a transformer
and a breaker. The infinite bus voltage is 66 kV.

P
A

Power
Q
B

Pmot Qmot

0.0

0.0

IM
#1

#2

Is
BRK

0.001

TL
TIN
13.8 kV,2.2 kA motor
50.19 MVA, Inertia(J)= 2.2 pu

BRK

TIN

T1.2 The load torque applied to the motor is related to the motor speed. Derive a control
block that will generate a torque signal that is proportional to the speed. (TIN = k*w)
T1.3 The motor is to be switched on to the supply using a breaker. Use a two state
switch to send a signal to the breaker.
T1.4 Observe the starting characteristics. Plot the line current, speed, Electric and
mechanical torque and the terminal voltage at the machine.
T1.5 What could cause the motor be driven into a generating mode.
T1.6 Load the case ind_motor_starting_01.psc.
This case models the loads of an industrial plant. Identify different components in the
model.
T1.7 Note the voltage dip during motor starting. Is this a power quality concern?
T1.8 What methods can be employed to limit starting transients?
T1.9 What could cause the motor be driven into a generating mode.

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T1.10 Induction motor transients can lead to serious power quality issues. The simulation
example in case ind_motor_starting_01.psc illustrates the voltage dips seen by the other
loads connected to the transformer. Load and run this case.
a) Does additional rotor resistance affect the starting transients?
b) See the effect of rotating inertia and mechanical damping on the transients.
c) What are the typical loads types (characteristics) that are encountered in
industry applications?
T1.11 Load the case ind_motor_starting_02.psc. Note the load torque profile. Observe
the voltage variation at the load terminal.

FP1

BRK_SW
T
2

FP3

FP2

BRK_SW
T
2

FP5

FP4

BRK_SW
T
2
FP6
BRK
a1

b1

c1

Ea
Eb
Ec

a2
b2
c2

## Fig.2. Soft starter

T1.12 Soft starting methods such as that shown in Fig 2 are used to limit the starting
current of large induction machines. Discuss the current limiting mechanism of this
scheme. Load the case ind_motor_starting_03.psc.
a) What is the role of the PLL?
b) How are signals transmitted from the main page to the sub page?
c) Can PSCAD read data from external files? List a few applications where this
can be useful?
Verify the operation of the soft switch.

32 / 72

## Fast Front Studies

Lightening Strike
Objectives:
Representing stray capacitances
Representing arresters
Representing Bus-bars
Representing long lines
Positioning of Arresters

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## Fast front studies - Tutorial 1

T1.1 The circuit shown below represents the arrangement of a transformer sub-station.
This model is used to study the over voltages at a transformers terminal during a
lightning strike on a station bus bar.

0.0003

0.0003

0.0006

TA1

TA1

bYC1

bYC1

Va

bYC1

bYC2

bYC2
bYC2

Vtf

350.0

350.0

TA1

350.0

10 m Station Bus

0.0027

0.0027

90 m Station Bus
1

0.0027

0.0006

0.0006

1 km Transmission Line

0.0003

Stray capacitance
of equipment

Stray capacitance
of equipment

Approximate surge
impedance
line termination

Steep Front
Surge
Arrester
N

B
-

TIME

+
e Bx

*
1.02

Lightning Current

## To account for the fundamental

frequency voltage component,
the dc source is set to peak
ac volts.

0.5

e Bx

## Winding Capacitance for

220 kV Autotransformer
(approximate)

Arrester 192 kV

## Simple Lightning Surge 1.2*50 Usec:

I = 1.02*I1 * [ EXP(-13000 * t) - EXP(-4.4E6 * t) ]

## Fig.1. Circuit for lightening study

T1.2 Identify different components of the model
T1.3 How do you represent the transformer? Where do you obtain the data?
T1.4 How are transmission lines and cables represented for the purpose of this study?
Can we justify this representation?
T1.5 Does the position of the arrester have an impact on the over-voltage at the
transformer? Place the arrester at the transformer terminal and observe the over-voltage.
T1.6 What does the dc source represent?
T1.7 How do we model the lightening surge? How do we define parameters for the
surge?

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Ferro-Resonance Investigation

Objectives:
Transformer parameters
Saturation
Selection of the simulation time step

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Ferro-resonance - Tutorial 1

T1.1 Open the case ferroresonance.psc. This case is used to study a ferro resonance
event during a breaker malfunction.
30MVA Distribution Transformer
230kV/13.2kV, Delta/Wye-Gnd
Ztx=7.65%

System Equivalent
Source Representation
3 Phase
Eq. Source
with
z1 and z0

VbusA

A
B
C

A
LINEA

VbusB

COUPLED
PI
SECTION

A
B

LINEB

VbusC

VPriA
VPriB
VPriC

A
B
C

30 [MVA]
#1
230.0

#2
13.2

B
C

VSecA
VSecB
VSecC

LINEC

BRKA

0.0015
BRKB

0.0015

## 1.5mH Outrush Reactor

0.0015
BRKC

50 MVAr @ 230kV

LINEA

LINEB
2.51

2.51

2.51

LINEC

Timed
Breaker
Logic
Closed@t0
Timed
Breaker
Logic
Closed@t0

Disable saturation
and re run
Timing for Line Breaker
Phase A: Closed (stuck)
Phase B: Opens at 100mSec
Phase C: Closed (stuck)

Output Voltages

0.350 [MW]

Timed
Breaker
Logic
Closed@t0

## Fig.1. Circuit for Ferro resonance Case Study

T1.2 Check the data entry for transformer saturation. What do different entries represent?
T1.3 Include transformer losses. Do you see a change in results?
T1.4 Open the capacitor banks. Are the results different?
T1.5 Change the line length and observe the results?
T1.6 What effect does the load have on the over voltage transients?
T1.7 Are the transients sensitive to the transformer core characteristics?

36 / 72

## Faults and Current Transformers and

Relays

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37 / 72

## Faults and Current Transformers and relays - Tutorial 1

Objective
Getting familiar with models related to fault simulation.
Getting familiar with different CT models.

T1.1 Create a new case by using either the Menu or Toolbar. A new case should appear
in the Workspace settings entitled noname [psc]. Right-click on this Workspace settings
entry and select Save As and give the case a name.
NOTE: Do not use any spaces in the name!
Create a folder called c:/PscadTraining/Faults. Save the case as case01.psc
T1.2 Open the main page of your new case. The single line diagram shown below is a
part of a substation feeding a shunt reactor. The reactor is modeled in two parts to enable
a falut at point B, inside the turns. The component data is as shown. (make the
transformer losses zero to limit the number of nodes if using the student version)
Station 115 kV
bus
Short line
RL

RRL

#1

#2
0.005

Ea

Y-D Transformer
Z = 8%
Full load loss = 0.3%
No load loss = 0.5%

Station 13.8 kV
bus

Ir2

IL

REACTORS

EL

## 115 kV,50 Hz Source

Z+ = 1.1Ohms / 88 deg
Z0 = 2 Ohms / 86 deg

0.1

Ir1
0.0125

0.0125

## You may use the wire mode to connect different components.

T1.3 Build the case in PSCAD and enter the component data.
T1.3 Plot the current IL and the voltage EL.
T1.4 Use the fault component to simulate a phase A to ground falut at location A at 0.1s.

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Timed
Fault
Logic

T1.5 Observe the fault curent, IL. What is the reason for the presence of the initial DC
exponential component?
T1.6 What affects the rate of decay of the DC components. Change the resistance of the
short line to 1 Ohm and observe the results.
T1.7 Does the instant of the fault inception have an effect on the DC offset.?
T1.8 What negative impacts can the DC offset have on the system protection.?
T1.9 Connect the phase A line current at point A to the CT model as shown below. The
CT ratio is 5:400. The CT burden is 0.15 Ohms in series with 0.8mH. Plot the secondary
current and the flux density.
IL1

Burden resistance
1 and 0.1 Ohms

T1.10 Increase the burden resistance to 4 Ohms and observe the results. Note the half
cycle saturation effects due to the dc offset in the primary current.
T1.11 The reactor is protected by a differential relay scheme. Use the 2-CT model in
PSCAD to connect one phase of the reactor protection scheme.
Ir11
Ir21

T1.12 Verify the burden current in the differential CT connection for faults at A and B.
T1.13 Does the impedance of the connection leads have an effect on the results.? How is
this impedance accounted for.?
T1.14 Open the case ftdiff.psc. Check the performance of the differential relay during
transformer energization.

39 / 72

## Faults and Current Transformers and relays - Tutorial 2

Objective:
Getting familiar with models in the Relay section of the master library.
T2.1 Create a new case by using either the Menu or Toolbar. A new case should appear
in the Workspace settings entitled noname [psc]. Right-click on this Workspace settings
entry and select Save As and give the case a name.
NOTE: Do not use any spaces in the name!
Create a folder called c:/PscadTraining/Faults. Save the case as case02.psc
T2.2 Open the main page of your new case. Construct the simple two area system shown
in the diagram. The voltage sources are set to 230 kV. The inputs to the page module
Relay are all real data inputs.
0.1

0.1

I1
E

8.0

0.08

2.0

ABC->G

0.02

Timed
Fault
Logic

Ic
I1

2
Ia

Ic

3
Ib

Ic

Ib
Ib

Ia

1
Ea

Ia

Relay

## Expand this page to view the

relay components

Ea
Ea

T2.3 Use the modules in the relay section of the master library to construct a simple
distance relay. The different modules are shown below.

40 / 72

## FFTto extract the

fundamental

FFT
Ea
F = 60.0 [Hz]

FFT
Ia
F = 60.0 [Hz]
Ia
B

FFT

+
IbD + +
F
Ic

F = 60.0 [Hz]

Mag
(7) 1

Impedance calculation

Ph
(7) 1

EaM

dc

EaP

Mag
(7) 1
Ph
(7) 1

IaM

dc

IaP

VM
EaM VP
EaP IM
IaM IP
IaP I0M
I0M I0P
I0P

Va
I + kI
a

R
X R
N
X
376.99

N/D
D

Mag
(7) 1
Ph
(7) 1

I0M

dc

I0P

R
X

Ia

21

Mho
Characteistics

Ib
Ic
Ea

## T2.4 Identify the function of each module.

T2.5 Verify the operation of the relay.

41 / 72

Power Quality

Date:
February 2007
Revision:
Date:

42 / 72

## Electric arc furnace model

The developed EAF model is based on the non-linear differential equations as outlined in
[1], which models the non-linear characteristics of the electric arc as pictured in Fig. 1a.
The equations representing the arc voltage (v) to arc current (i) are shown below, where r
is the arc radius:
dr
n
k 2
k1 r k 2 r dt r m32 i
v

k
r

3
m 2

The parameters ki, r and n characterize the arc under a given operating condition. In
reality, this V-I characteristic shows much more noise due to the unpredictable and
chaotic nature of the load. Fig. 1b shows a more realistic EAF V-I characteristic.
Main : XY Plot
X Axis

Y Axis

I2

V2

100

+y

75

50

25

-x

+x

-25

-50

-75

-100
-1.50

-1.00

-0.50

-y
0.00

Aperture

(a) Ideal

0.50

1.00

1.50

Width 2.5550660793
0.000s

20.000s

Position 11.661

(b) Actual

## Fig. 1 Ideal and actual V-I characteristic of an EAF

Arc Data Setting:
Parameters k1 to k3 can be selected to obtain the EAF settings, such as active power,
reactive power and power factor close to what were measured in the practical system. As
the EAF model is sensitive to the system connected, parameters k1 to k3 may need to be
re-tuned if the system configuration changes. The EAF model is designed to be able to
take the inputs parameters as variables so the optimization routines of PSCAD can be
used to expedite the process.
Modulation Type setting:
The randomness feature of the EAF model is simulated by adding certain sinusoidal and
Gaussian noise. The magnitude/frequency of sinusoidal modulation and the standard

43 / 72

## deviation of Gaussian function can be specified. Each phase can be independently

controlled.

It is important to note that it is impossible to get a simulation case to match the observed
results perfectly due to the nature of the problem. The important thing is to capture the
essential features and the trends of a practical arc furnace.
Reference:
[1] A Harmonic Domain Computational Package for Non-Linear Problems and its
Application to Electric Arcs, E. Acha, A. Semlyen, N. Rajakovic. IEEE Transactions on
Power Delivery,Vol 5, No.3, July 1990.

44 / 72

FACTS DEVICES

Active Filters
Instantaneous Reactive Power Method
Synchronous Reference Frame Method

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45 / 72

## Facts Devices - Tutorial - l

Objective:
Getting familiar with power electronic firing models
Getting familiar with control system building block models
Active filter theory

T14.1 Open the two PSCAD cases provided with the course material. The two cases are:
Activefilter_SRF.psc
Activefilter_IRP.psc
They are located in the folder named Active_filter
T14.2 The main loads on both these case produce significant harmonics. Study the
different models used in the control circuit for the variable speed drive in
Activefilter_IRP.psc.
T14.3 Study the control technique used in both IRP and SRF methods.
T14.4 Study how the current reference PWM is implemented to in the active filter bridge.
What is the function of the interpolated firing pulse module?

0.002
1
2
3
4
5
6

(1)
H_on

6
6

H_off

6
6

H (2)
ON
L (3)
H (4)
OFF
L (5)
(6)

2
2
2
2
2
2

G11
G21
G31
G41
G51
G61

## Fig.1. Integrated firing pulse module

T14.5 Change the parameters of the filters in the control circuit of the active filter and
see the change in response. Can we use FFT to extract the frequencies of interest?

46 / 72

## PSCAD BASIC TRAINING

Synchronous Machines
Exercises 1 - 2

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47 / 72

Exercise 1
One machine infinite bus case
E1.1 Open the case case_01_startup.psc.
Tim er

3 Phas e
RMS

LRR
Tim er
S2M

60.0

IF

EF

17.32

0.01

Tm

Iffa

Iffb

Iffc

Ph

Te

HydroGener

Ef0 Ef If

w Tm Tm 0
W

TM

0.495

E1.2 How do you start the machine as a voltage source. How do you switch from a
voltage source to a machine rotating at a fixed speed? How do you enable the rotational
dynamics of the machine ?

E1.3 What are the functions of signals Ef0 and Tm0 of the synchronous machine model.

E1.4 Set the machine initial voltage magnitude to 1.04 pu and the phase to 0.75 rad.

E1.5 Run the case and note the Power and Reactive Power levels at steady state. Also
measure the input torque Tm and the field voltage Ef at steady state.

E1.6 Start the machine in the normal machine mode and observe the results.

E1.7 Use the steady state Tm and Ef values in E5.5 as inputs to Tm and Ef. Start the
machine in the machine mode. Observe results.

48 / 72

Exercise 2
Initializing the machine to a load flow
E2.1 Open the case Gen_Pqini_startmetds_01.psc.
S/H
in out
hold
S2M

Vref0

Vref

3 Phas e
R MS

Exciter_(AC 1A)
VT
Ef0
IT 3
Ef
If

IF

EF

0.01

Iffb

Iffc

Te
Tm

Iffa

Ef0 Ef If VT 3
IT A
HydroGener

w Tm Tm 0
TM

W
w

Hydro Gov 1
z0
Wref

Tm s tdy
z

Tm

Hydro Tur 1
zi
Wref

1.0

E2.2 Make sure the machine is rated at 150 MVA, 17.32 kV. It should be connected to an
infinite bus rated at the same voltage through a transmission line of inductance 0.01 H.
E2.3 Calculate the machine terminal voltage in PU and the phase angle in radians, if the
steady state power and reactive power flow is 54 MW and 27 MVar respectively.
E2.4 Set the machine initial conditions so that the simulation will give the correct steady
state P and Q flow.
E2.5 How are the governor, turbine and the exciter initialized?
E2.6 Start the machine as a source and simulate the case.
E2.7 Start the simulation with the machine in the normal machine mode. What
additional initial conditions are to be supplied to the machine?

49 / 72

## Synchronous Machine Application Studies

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50 / 72

## Two area power system:

Twoarea_system.psc
This case shows two hydro generators connected through a tie line. When the system load
changes, the tie line power is determined by the governor droop settings.
Check if the machine inertia affects the results.
Changes the droop settings to see the effects.
Small signal stability:
Ex_Smallsignal.psc
Ex_Smallsignal_exciter.psc
(The machine parameters and the system parameters are as given in the book, Power
System Stability and Control by Prabha Kundur.
The steady state P and Q values are 0.9 and 0.3 respectively.
The oscillation frequency, upon a small disturbance is around 1 Hz and agrees with the
Eigen Value calculation.)

These cases illustrate the oscillations in a system when a small disturbance is applied.
The oscillation frequencies are in agreement with frequency domain Eigan value
calculations.
Does machine parameters affect the oscillation frequency?
Does the machine inertia affect the oscillation frequency?
Does the load flow condition effect the oscillation frequency?

## Critical clearing time for faults:

Ex_fault_exciter.psc
Critical clearing time for this fault is 0.1 if the regulator gain is over 400. For values less
than 400, the system becomes unstable. Try different fault clearing times and exciter
gains to see how they are related.
Power System Stabilizer:
Ex_pss_tune.psc
The system shown in this case is unstable if run without a power system stabilizer. Run
the case with a constant field voltage and see if the system is stable. This will verify that
the instability is due to the exciter action.
Can we make the system stable by reducing the exciter gain?
Design a power system stabilizer (PSS) to minimize the speed change upon a disturbance.
Use the optimization method of PSCAD to design the PSS parameters.

51 / 72

## CONVERSION OF LOAD FLOW

DATA FILES
Direct Conversion of PSS/E Files for PSCAD
Model Building

Date:
Feb. 2006
Revision:

52 / 72

## Conversion of load flow dats files Tutorial -1

Direct conversion of PSS/E files

Objectives:
Getting familiar with building large systems in PSCAD
Using E-TRAN to convert PSS/E data files
Guidelines to determine detailed network for EMT study
Validation of developed model

T1.1 Create two cases with E-TRAN for the IEEE 39 bus systems: one using only the
.raw file and the other including the dynamic data .dyr file.
- Practice with the selection of zone/area/bus/proximity/
- Network equivalences
- Manual modifications required for EMT study purpose

## Fig. 1.Single line diagram of IEEE 39 bus system

53 / 72

T1.2 E-TRAN Runtime Library for PSCAD and custom substitution libraries
- Series components (Tline/Transformer) and shunt components (generator)
- Use of the sample substitution library
EnabExc
VREF
VCT Enab Vref
IEEET1

0.0
VS

VS

Ef0

3
VT
3IT

EF0 E

EF
IF
Ef
If
Ef0
A
Ef If
V
E

G
1 + sT

Exciter VREF
is loadflow term inal voltage...
E
VREF

0.9972
Volts (pu)
4.1825
Angle(deg)
632.0 / 1.0 Pout(MW)

TE

1 VT

Vm
G
1 + sT

Te
E

GENROU
Tm
w Tm
E Wpu TM

## 109.911 / 1.0 Qout(MVAR)

Initial Conditions from Loadflow

Tm 0

G
1 + sT

TM0

TM
TM0
IEEEG1

EnabGov

1.0

Enab
E Wref
WRef

Fig. 2: Detailed machine mode in the substitution library for EMT study
T1.3 Method to determine the kept system (frequency scan)

## Fig. 3 Frequency scan results at interested bus

T1.4 Model verification.
- Comparison of P, Q, V
- Short circuit data
54 / 72

## Converting a Solved PSS/E Case to PSCAD for Transient Simulations

Many utilities have their power systems modeled in load flow programs. A great deal of
effort is required to re-enter network data for transient simulation studies in
Electromagnetic Transient (EMT) type programs. This application note describes the use
a new tool that allows for an automated setup of PSCAD simulation cases by directly
importing data from solved PSS/E load flow cases, thus maximizing the simulation
engineer productivity. Some helpful tips are also provided on how to ensure the validity
of the transient study by effectively selecting the size of the subsystem to be simulated in
PSCAD. Some key points addressed here are:

## Direct conversion of the PSS/E file: Basic steps

E-TRAN Runtime Library for PSCAD and E-TRAN custom substitution libraries

Network equivalences

Model validation

## Importing dynamic data from the PSS/E *.dyr file

The IEEE 39-bus system (see Figure 1) is used as the base case to illustrate the PSS/E to
PSCAD conversion process. The IEEE 39-bus system is a standard system used for
testing new power systems simulation methodologies. It was created based on a
simplified model of the New England power system. The 39-bus system has 10
generators, 19 loads, 36 transmission lines and 12 transformers.
The conversion of the system into PSCAD is achieved through E-TRAN, a program
developed by Electranix Corporation. In addition to converting PSS/E data into PSCAD
cases, this program offers many powerful features that could be manipulated by the
simulation engineer to reduce the time spent on a study. The softwares most relevant
features are outlined in this document.

55 / 72

BUS29
T
E_26_29_1

A
V

100.0
P,Q
25.0

A
V

GEN
6

BUS24

100.0
P,Q
25.0

T
E_16_24_1

VBUS27
BUS27

100.0
P,Q
25.0

VBUS18

100.0
P,Q
25.0

T
E_2_3_1

VBUS35

T
E_3_18_1

VBUS16

T
E_16_19_1

VBUS3

BUS17

100.0
P,Q
25.0

VBUS15

BUS19

A
V

P = 662.4
Q = 133.8
V = 1.007

230.0 : 230.0
1
GEN
7

BUS34

A
V

P = 535.2
Q = 164.5
V = 1.018

VBUS34

BUS13

T-Line
Line1

T-Line
Line1

VBUS13

VBUS31
BUS10

VBUS10

A
V

230.0 : 230.0
1

VBUS9

BUS32

Slack Bus

VBUS32
A
V

GEN
2

P = 697.9
Q = 226.8
V = 0.9918

P = 529.7
Q = 235.7
V = 0.9961

100.0
P,Q
25.0

230.0 : 230.0
1

230.0 : 230.0
1

BUS31

BUS36

VBUS36

GEN
5

BUS11

VBUS11

100.0
P,Q
25.0

BUS9

100.0
P,Q
25.0

T
E_8_9_1

230.0 : 230.0
1

T
E_6_11_1

100.0
P,Q
25.0

100.0
P,Q
25.0

T
E_9_39_1

100.0
P,Q
25.0

VBUS12

T
E_6_7_1

BUS7

VBUS8

BUS12

T
E_7_8_1

230.0 : 230.0
1

T-Line
Line1

BUS6

VBUS33

GEN
4

T
E_13_14_1

VBUS6
T
E_5_8_1

VBUS23

BUS33

VBUS20

VBUS5

BUS23

230.0 : 230.0
1

E
BUS20

25.0
P,Q
100.0

BUS5

T
E_22_23_1

100.0
P,Q
25.0

BUS14

VBUS14

VBUS1

230.0 : 230.0
1

T
E_14_15_1

T
E_4_5_1

BUS8

T
E_21_22_1

VBUS19

100.0
P,Q
25.0

VBUS39

BUS22

VBUS21

T
E_4_14_1

BUS39

VBUS22
BUS21

BUS15

T
E_3_4_1

VBUS4

T
E_1_39_1

T
E_16_21_1

T
E_15_16_1

BUS4

BUS1

100.0
P,Q
25.0

T
E_16_17_1

VBUS17

100.0
P,Q
25.0

T
E_1_2_1

T
E_17_27_1

T
E_17_18_1

BUS3

A
V

BUS35

BUS16

VBUS2

P = 743.8
Q = 114.2
V = 1.029

VBUS24

230.0 : 230.0
1
E

BUS18

100.0
P,Q
25.0

230.0 : 230.0
1
E

T
E_2_25_1

BUS2

GEN
1

GEN
9
T
E_23_24_1

100.0
P,Q
25.0
VBUS28

A
V

T
E_26_27_1

BUS25

VBUS26

A
V

T
E_25_26_1

P = 681.8
Q = 235.6
V = 1.059

VBUS37

VBUS25

VBUS38

VBUS29
100.0
P,Q
25.0

230.0 : 230.0
1

P = 253.9
Q = 163.6
V = 1.052

T
E_28_29_1

BUS26

P = 573.7
Q = 101.5
V = 0.06819

P = 551.2
Q = 22.96
V = 1.04

T
E_26_28_1

BUS38

BUS30

VBUS30

A
V

BUS28

BUS37

GEN
10

P = 975.2
Q = 54.56
V = 1.026

230.0 : 230.0
1
E

GEN
8

GEN
3

## Figure 1 Single line diagram of the IEEE 39 bus system in PSCAD

Converting the base PSS/E Case to PSCAD
When converting a case from the PSS/E load flow data file (*.raw) and dynamic data file
(*.dyr), E-TRAN allows for several options that provide enhanced flexibility to the final
user.
To convert the *.raw/*.dyr files, start the E-TRAN program. The pop-up dialog will
prompt the user through the conversion steps (see Error! Reference source not found.).
The user will have to specify the location of the *.raw/*dyr data files and the target *.psc
file. In the next dialog, the user will specify if the entire network is to be kept or if only
a specific part is kept and the rest equivalenced. In most transient studies there is no
added benefit in modeling the details of the network beyond a few buses away from the
location of main interest. E-TRAN allows for the system to be partially or fully converted
(all its nodes) into PSCAD.
.

56 / 72

## Figure 2 E-TRAN dialog boxes

The conversion process will generate a PSCAD (*.psc) file in the specified location. The
network equivalent sources will have their magnitudes and phase angles automatically set
for the same power flow as in the original PSS/E file.

57 / 72

## E-TRAN Runtime Library for PSCAD

The E-TRAN Runtime Substitution Library (see Figure 3) contains a series of models
specially developed for PSS/E-PSCAD conversions that translates PSS/E component
information into equivalent PSCAD component information. The E-TRAN Runtime
Substitution Library is provided with the program and contains the models that will
appear in the converted PSCAD case. To run the converted PSCAD case:

## Custom Substitution Libraries and data entry

Load flow programs represent the power system network using simplified models
consisting of resistances, inductances and capacitances. When converted to a PSCAD
case, these components can be replaced by more detailed models to represent the
respective unit. Therefore, depending on the user needs, some of the models
automatically substituted from the E-TRAN substitution library may require additional
data or may have to be replaced by more complex models from the PSCAD master

58 / 72

library. Fortunately, E-TRAN allows the user to create a user substitution library where
any additional information will have to be entered by the users only once, when the
component is used the first time.
An example that calls for the use of the custom substitution library could be a
transmission line, where the PI section or the Bergeron models used to represent it may
have to be replaced by a more accurate frequency dependant model, which will require
specific information on the tower, conductor and right of way dimensions.
In the custom substitution library the user can predefine the substitution of a specific
system component to be done with a pre-filled out PSCAD master library component (or
a user built component) by referencing to the bus number they are connected to (see
Figure 4)
E

Source1
Syncronous m achine
at bus 159

T
B_456_ B_822_T1

## A detailed frequency dependant TLine

From bus 456 to bus 822, Circuit T1

## Figure 4 Examples of custom substitution library components

You can save detailed device data in this library, and E-TRAN will use this data (substituting it for the simple load
flow data) every time a region of the network is converted into PSCAD. The goal is to eventually have all detailed
model data entered into this library. Once this is achieved, this library can be used to generate PSCAD cases for any
location of your system.
The models in the Substitution Library can also be custom written components, or even page components. A page
component can also have as many layers of sub-pages as required. Each page can also contain sliders, plots, graphs,
control-panels etc... When E-TRAN copies the data from your Substitution Library, it will also replace initial condition
information. For example, E-TRAN will modify synchronous machine data to replace the data for the terminal voltage,
angle, P and Q.

The construction of the custom library will require a significant investment of time for
large networks. However, once it is completed, you can convert any part of your network
without having to do any manual data entry. This was identified as a key time saving
feature by large utilities and consultants who are required to work on different parts of
large networks when undertaking different projects.

59 / 72

## Deciding on the Part of the Network to be Kept

A transient study would require the detailed modeling of a small part of the network
around the main point of interest. Typically, this would be about 2 or 3 buses away from
this point. E-TRAN allows the users to efficiently decide and check if the kept network
details are adequate for a given study. The following steps are recommended. This makes
use of the network frequency scan component of PSCAD (see Figure 5).

Convert the PSS/E file to PSCAD, keeping the details 2 or 3 buses away from the
main point of interest and equivalencing the rest.

Use the frequency scan component of PSCAD to plot the impedance vs.
frequency characteristic of this system at the bus concerned.

Reconvert the PSS/E file, this time, keeping the details of one more bus away
than in the earlier step.

Plot the impedance vs. frequency characteristics of this system at the bus
concerned and compare with the first plot.

Repeat the process until the differences in frequency characteristics are minor in
the frequency range of interest. Adding more details of the network beyond this
point is unlikely to improve results.
Z(f)

## Figure 5 PSCAD Frequency Scan component

60 / 72

Figure 6 Frequency scans 2, 3, 6 buses away at bus No. 15 for the system under study

Figure 6 shows the use of the frequency scan feature. Here different network equivalents
were constructed using E-TRAN for the IEEE 39 bus system at bus No. 15 for 2, 3, 6
buses away (with 6 buses away comprising the whole network). These network
equivalents were created using the load flow data file only (*.raw). It can be observed
that the frequency spectrums of the equivalent networks start providing a good
approximation for the whole network starting at 4 buses away.
Validation
A quick method to validate the simplified equivalent system provided by E-TRAN is to
compare the values calculated by PSCAD for node voltages, transmission line load flows
or P, Q flows at generation busses with the ones previously calculated by PSS/E. For
such purpose, use the multi-meter to display the voltage at the node of concern and the P
and Q flows in the respective transmission line. Then, display the same information for
such node in the PSS/E load flow utility. The converted PSCAD case will have auto
generated labels that display the P, Q flows at generation buses. Figure 7 shows the
PSS/E and PSCAD results for the voltage magnitude and angle at node 15 as well as the
P and Q flows for the nodes 15 to 16 transmission line.

61 / 72

BUS

15

LBUS15

345

AREA

CKT
1

TO

16

LBUS16

345

MW

MVAR

MVA

%I

350.31KV

-314.7 -151.7

349.3

P1 : ...
V15 Angle
V15_Ang

Z(f)

LBUS15
N15

P = -314.7
Q = -151.7
V = 1.015
A
V

-7.74857
T
E_15_16_1

## Figure 7 Comparison of load flow results between PSCAD and PSS/E

Short-circuit level calculation at certain buses for the converted PSCAD case is also
recommended. The short-circuit results can be compared to those from the PSS/E study
or utility system data for validation purpose. Once the PSCAD system has been validated,
it is ready to be used for transient studies.
Importing Dynamic Data from the .dyr File
During the conversion process the user can specify to import dynamic data from the
PSS/E *dyr file. If this option is selected, all generators in the kept part of the network
will be replaced by detailed machine models (see Figure 8). The machine controls and
related models (exciter, governor, PSS, turbine) will also be included in the PSCAD
model. All information necessary to initialize these models will either be imported from
the *raw/*dyr files or be computed by E-TRAN. Thus, the simulation will automatically
come to the specific steady state after a few cycles of simulation time.

62 / 72

EnabExc
VREF
VCT Enab Vref
IEEET1

0.0
VS

VS

Ef0

3
EF0 E
VT
EF
IF 3IT
Ef
If
Ef0
A
Ef If
V
E

G
1 + sT

Exciter VREF
is loadflow term inal voltage...
E
0.9972

Volts (pu)

VREF

TE

1 VT

Vm
G
1 + sT

Te
E

GENROU

4.1825
Angle(deg)
/
1.0
632.0
Pout(MW)

Tm
w Tm

Wpu

TM

Tm 0

G
1 + sT

TM0

TM
TM0
IEEEG1

EnabGov

1.0

Enab
E Wref
WRef

## Figure 8 Detailed synchronous machine model automatically generated by E-TRAN with

parameters taken from the PSS/E *.dyr and *.raw files

63 / 72

LBUS01
N1

T
E_1_2_1

LBUS02
N2

T
E_2_3_1

LBUS03
N3

T
E_3_4_1

LBUS04
N4

500.0
P,Q

322.0
P,Q
2.4
T
E_3_18_1

T
E_2_25_1

LBUS25
N25

T
E_25_26_1

LBUS18
N18
LBUS26
N26

158.0
P,Q
30.0
139.0
P,Q
17.0

224.0
P,Q
47.2
345.0 : 22.0
1
E
345.0 : 22.0
1
E
T
E_1_39_1

GBUS39
N39

T
E_9_39_1

GBUS30
N30
VN30
LBUS09
N9

VN39

E
250.0
146.154

GBUS37
N37
VN37

E_30_0_1
LBUS08
T
N8

E_8_9_1

540.0
0.445

~
E_37_0_1

P = 522
Q = 176
522.0
P,Q
A
V

1104.0
P,Q
1000.0 E
88.281

E_39_0_1

Figure 9 IEEE 39 bus system converted to PSCAD for bus No. 1 (3 nodes away)
A subsequent validation document will discuss the conversion process in more detail.
This will include a discussion on importing dynamic devices, saturation and comparison
of low frequency transients with transient stability results.
References
[1] Electranix Corporation E-TRAN V1.1: Electrical Translation Program for Power
Systems. Users Manual February 2003
Prepared by:
Juan Carlos Garcia
Dharshana Muthumuni
Pei Wang

64 / 72

## Tutorial on Creating Custom Components

Prepared by:
Date:
Revision:
Date:

Dharshana Muthumuni
August 2005
2
Feb 16, 2007

65 / 72

## PSCAD Advanced Training - Tutorial 1

Purpose:
To get familiar with the Component Workshop (or the design editor).
Create input/output nodes.
Get familiar with the graphic, Parameters and the script sections of the editor.

## Create a library file.

Use the component workshop to create a simple control block to do the following
computation.

K1 A K 2 B C
A and B - External inputs
K1 and K2 Internal parameters
C Output
Include the component in a case and verify its accuracy
Modify the component so that K1 and K2 can be entered as variables.
Verify the modified component.

A

66 / 72

## PSCAD Advanced Training - Tutorial 2

Integrator
Purpose:
Calling external subroutines.
Storing data for computations in following (future) time steps.
The block should perform the following function
y xdt

x input
y output
To keep things simple, use rectangular integration.
y (t ) y (t t ) x (t ) t

## This will require the storage of past value of y.

Allow for the input of initial value of y.
Use an external FORTRAN Subroutine to do the calculations.

Integrator
x

67 / 72

## PSCAD Advanced Training - Tutorial 3

Electrical Component Transformer (coupled wires)
Purpose:
Design an electrical component.
Using branch and transformer sections of the script

## Design a model of two magnetically coupled wires.

The model is to be interfaced with other electrical components in the master library.
The inductances and resistances are the inputs.
va La Mab d ia Ra o ia
vb Mab Lb dt ib o Rb ib

Use the transformers section to enter the L and R values.
Connect the model to a source and verify the model.
a1

a2

b1

b2

Two coupled
wires with capacitance

Use the Branch section to add stray capacitance between the wires on the input side.

68 / 72

## PSCAD Advanced Training - Tutorial 4

Electrical Component A simple DC Machine
Purpose:
Interface an electric component as a voltage source. (Branch based interface)

## Design a simple model of a DC machine.

Field circuit - Series L and R
Armature circuit A series branch of L, R and a voltage source of magnitude Eb.
Eb k _ w
w speed
150
k _
1 e if / kf
188.5
if Field current
kf Input parameter (constant)
The inductances and resistances are the other inputs.

f1

f2

a1
a2

Simple
DC Machine
w

69 / 72

FORTRAN CODES
Integrator:
!
SUBROUTINE INTEGRATOR(x,y,YINI)
!
! Purpose - integration of a real signal
! Language - Fortran 77/90
! Date ! Author !
! Include Files
! ------------INCLUDE 'nd.h'
INCLUDE 's1.h'
INCLUDE 'emtstor.h'
!
! Variable Declarations
! --------------------REAL x,y,YINI
REAL YOLD
INTEGER ISTORF
!
! Program begins
! -------------!
ISTORF = NSTORF
NSTORF = NSTORF + 1
! it is good to assign NSTORF to ISTORF and
! have all the user assigned STORx locations at the
! top, then you can even use the other functions
! available in EMTDC in your code without worrying
! about which STORx locations are
! used by them
YOLD = STORF(ISTORF)
! here NSTORF points to the first STORF location
! used in the routine, in the old method in V2, NEXC
! pointed to the last STOR location in the previously
! called subroutine/function.
Y = x*DELT + YOLD
! output at time zero
IF (TIMEZERO) THEN
Y = YINI
ENDIF
! save the data for next time step
STORF(ISTORF) = y
!
RETURN
END

70 / 72

Simple DC Machine:

!
!

SUBROUTINE SIMPLEDC(Kf,w,A1A2,F1F2,SS)
!
Dharshana : 04 Aug 2002
INCLUDE 'nd.h'
INCLUDE 's0.h'
INCLUDE 's1.h'
INCLUDE 's2.h'
INCLUDE 'branches.h'

REAL Kf,Ifld,w,k_pi
INTEGER A1A2,F1F2,SS

!
!

## Activate the source on branch A1A2

SOURCE(A1A2,SS)=.TRUE.

Read the field current and the armature current during the previous time step
Ifld=CBR(F1F2,SS)*1000

!
!
!

## Define the noload excitation charactersitics for the machine

k_pi = (150/188.5)*(1 -EXP(-Ifld/Kf))

!
EBR(A1A2,SS)=-k_pi*w/1000
!
RETURN
END
!

71 / 72

## Manitoba HVDC Research Centre Inc.

244 Cree Crescent
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3J 3W1
T 204 989 1240 F 204 989 1277

## That concludes the Introduction to PSCAD and Applications course. Thank

you for your attention and participation. As you work with PSCAD in the
future, please remember we are available to provide assistance with any
simulation or modeling difficulties you may encounter. Please do not