Six Sigma Yellow Belt Training
Basic Tools of Quality
Improvement
Tools of Quality Improvement
7 Basic
7 Management
7 More..
Ishikawa(1968)
Problem Solving
Mizuno (1979)
General, intermediate,
and detailed planning
Various (1980s)
A few more to
consider
Affinity Diagram
Relationship Diagrams
Tree Diagram
Matrix Diagram
PDPC
Arrow Diagram
Mind Mapping
Force Field Analysis
Questionnaires
Criteria Rating
Weighted Voting
Concentration
Diagrams
Gantt Charts
Check sheet
Process Flow chart
Pareto Analysis
Brainstorming
Cause and effect
diagram
Scatter diagrams
Histogram
The Problem Solving Process
Identify and select problem (Problem Statement
1H5W)
Analyze causes (Root Cause / Actual Cause 5Y)
Potential solutions
Select and plan solution
Implement solution
Evaluate solution
Learn from the process
Basic Tools and Techniques
Check Sheet
Process Flowchart ( Mapping )
Pareto Analysis
Brainstorming
Cause and Effect
Scatter Diagrams
Histograms
Check Sheets
Data recording form (list of items, defects, problems)
that tell how often an event has occurred
Used to record numerical data
Often referred as tally charts
Decisions based on fact not feeling
Team involved in data collection
Types of Check Sheets
Process distribution check sheet
Defect item check sheet
Stratified defects check sheets
Defect location check sheets
Using Check Sheets
Decide data required
Design a check sheet to collect the data
Test the sheet using someone external to its design
Review/revise as necessary
Design a master check sheet
Day
Errors
Start to gather data
Mon
IIII IIII
Total
10
Tue
IIII II
Wed
IIII
Thurs
IIII IIII II
12
Fri
IIII IIII IIII I
16
Process Flowchart
First step for improving a process is to understand it
 so use flowchart
Understand by making our process visible
Flowcharting breaks a repeatable work process
down into its constituent elements
Uses visual display of elements and relationship
Process Flowchart
Serves as a picture of how
and what work is done
Aids understanding of a business process
Gives focus on variability
Identifies measurement
Promotes teamwork
Using Flow Charts
Process model
Symbols
Steps
Interfaces
Critical points
Controls
Exercise
Process Flowchart Definitions
Process  A work process is the movement or flow
of some object through a sequence of steps from
the point of some input to the point of output
Process Flowchart Definitions
A work process is the movement or flow of some
object through a sequence of steps from point of
some input to the point of output
Inputs  (Man, Materials ,
Machines, Instruction,
Drawing, Spec, etc.)
Process flow
Outputs  Product, assembly,
drawing, Operation Manual,
Byproduct, waste, scrap
1. Clean
material
2. Cut material
3. Welding part
AB to CD
continue.
Process Flowchart Definitions
Object is whatever that moves through a flow and is
acted on or changed in some way.
An object can be a report, an idea, metal stock, car
frame, plan, computer chip, invoice or anything that
must be moved or modified to prepare it as an
output for some other process or deliver to internal
or external customer
Process Flowchart Definitions
Transport  refers to movement of object from one step to
the next step
Example in a manufacturing process  movement of
material stock for crankshaft to a lathe machine, and then
moving from there to next station / operation
Example for administrative process  movement of travel
request from clerks desk to a supervisor for signature
Process Flowchart Definitions
Delay  refers to the time that the object flowing
through a process is waiting
Example  when materials are being delivered,
awaiting entering some manufacturing process
Most delay in administrative process at points when
decisions required, additional information must be
added to a report, signatures required
Process Flowchart Definitions
Operations are actions taken to transform an object
form less desirable to more desirable state /
condition
Welding car frame, cutting plates, painting,
Draftsman turn engineers specifications into final
drawings
Tender documents prepared
Process chart symbols
Operation
Transport
Delay
Inspection
Decision
Process Flowchart
Choose suitable starting and ending points of a process Limits defined by an input and some output from that
process
Examples
Preparing and order release
Preparing a budget
Conducting a safety inspection
Conducting a maintenance
Conducting a test
Preparing an engineering design
Steps In Constructing Process Flowchart
1. Select a process
2. Making a working draft of the process
3. Give copies of draft to key people who have knowledge of the
process
4. Work as a team and develop consensus on how the process currently
works
5. Identify obvious opportunities to improve process and make
improvements
6. Make new flowchart of revised process
7. Select suitable charts to monitor the process and track the
performance
Pareto Analysis
Pareto analysis  process of identifying vital few
problems and important many  8020 Rule
Based on principle that 20 % of causes for some
performance problem account for 80% of the impact in
terms of quantity, costs
A process for ranking opportunities to determine which
ones should be pursued first
Used at various stages of quality improvement program
 identify problem, compare before and after, etc.
10
How to construct a Pareto Diagram
1. Collect data  decide problem categories, types of
defects, areas of customer dissatisfaction, etc.
2. Select time interval for the investigation. The time
should be long enough to be representative of typical
performance
3. Determine total occurrence for each category. Calculate
grand total. It several categories which account for a
small part of total, group into others.
4. Compute percentage for each category by dividing
category total with grand total and multiply by 100
How to construct a Pareto Diagram
5. RANK order the categories  from HIGHEST to
LOWEST occurrence
6. Compute cumulative percentage  adding preceding
category percentage
7. Construct a chart with left vertical axis scaled from 0 to
grand total. Label axis. Scale right axis from 0% to
100% same height as grand total on left.
8. Label horizontal axis with category names. Left most
highest followed by next largest and so on.
11
How to construct a Pareto Diagram
9. DRAW bars representing amount of each category. The
height determined from left vertical axis.
10. Draw a line to show cumulative percentage column of
Pareto analysis table. The cumulative percentage line
is determine by right vertical axis.
Brainstorming
A group technique for idea generation
Spontaneous contribution of ideas from team members
Build upon other members idea
No criticism, objective to get as many as possible
Stop when enough ideas obtained
12
Procedure for Brainstorming
Define topic or information target
Go round each member requesting idea
Clarify rules :
One idea at a time
No criticism allowed
Record ideas even though redundant
Review all ideas and clarify  do not eliminate, reword if
possible, combine those that are redundant
Develop final list
Cause and effect
For every effect there must be some causes to it
Need to investigate possible causes of variation and take
action to eliminate them
Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa developed a simple graphical method Cause and effect diagram
A tool to graphically organize and display all knowledge
relating to a particular problem/issue
Also known as Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram
13
Cause and effect
WORK
METHOD
PEOPLE
Lack training
Careless Mistake
Need high force
EFFECT BROKEN PARTS
Carbon content low
Low strength
MATERIALS
Pressure set in
correct
TOOLS /
MACHINE
POSSIBLE CAUSES
EFFECT
Preparing C&E Diagram
1. Select the quality characteristic or problem to be improved
(e.g. delay, error, waste, etc.)
2. Brainstorm to find all possible causes
3. Analyze and organize brainstorming results into main
categories
4. Construct C&E diagram accurately showing relationship of
all data in each category
14
How to prepare C&E Diagram
1. Write a short description of effect/problem on right side
of chart. Draw a line from left to the effect.
2. Write the main cause categories (man, mtl, etc.) above
and below the horizontal line. Think of these as main
branches from main trunk of tree.
3. Add detailed subcauses and and more specific causes
until root cause. Good C&E has many twigs
4. Eliminate those causes that dont fit facts. Circle those
which most likely generating problem. Further
investigation required to verify causes.
Scatter Diagram
A scatter plot is a plot of one variable versus another.
Independent variable  usually shown in horizontal
(bottom) axis
Dependent variable  shown in vertical axis
Used to evaluate cause and effect relationship.
Assumption that independent variable causes a change
in dependent variable
Helps answer Does length of training has anything to
do with amount of scrap an operator makes?
Is there relationship between sand and concrete
strength?
15
How to construct Scatter Diagram
1. Collect paired set of observations, preferably more
than 20 sets. The paired data consists of one
dependent and one independent variable
2. Find smallest and largest number for both
independent and dependent variable
3. Construct the vertical and horizontal axes so that
smallest and largest values can be plotted
4. Plot the data by placing a mark at the point
corresponding to each XY pair (see Example graph)
Plotting points on a Scatter
Diagram
Largest Yvalue
(or larger)
Point representing
XY pair
Yaxis
Yi
Smallest Yvalue
(or smaller)
Smallest Xvalue
(or smaller)
Xi
Xaxis
Largest Xvalue
(or larger)
16
Example of a scatter diagram
No
Raw data for scatter diagram
 days as independent and
the weight as dependent
variables
Days
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
75
76
77
78
79
80
80
81
82
82
83
84
85
85
86
87
88
89
90
90
Weight
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.6
5.0
4.8
4.9
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.5
5.4
5.5
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.8
6.0
6.1
Example of a scatter diagram
No
Find largest and smallest
values for both independent
and dependent variables
Variable
Smallest
Largest
Days
75
90
Weight
4.4
6.1
Days
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
75
76
77
78
79
80
80
81
82
82
83
84
85
85
86
87
88
89
90
90
Weight
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.6
5.0
4.8
4.9
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.5
5.4
5.5
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.8
6.0
6.1
17
Example of a scatter diagram
Draw the axes. Need horizontal axis to cover from 75 to
90. Can use a graph paper
And vertical axis from smallest value of 4.4 grams to
largest weight 6.1 gram
Plot the paired data on the graph paper.
Get a completed scatter diagram
Analyze and interpret for correlation (relationship)
Completed scatter diagram
SCATTER PLOT
6.5
WEIGHT
6.0
5.5
Weight (gram)
5.0
4.5
4.0
70
75
80
85
90
95
DAYS
18
Histogram
A graphical method of displaying data
which is spread over a continuous
range
Not the same as bar charts
Reveal patterns/trends
Facilitate communication
Highlight opportunities
Order data
Using Histogram
19
Problem Solving/Continual
Improvement Approach
1. Process problem identified, select area for improvement,
and reason for doing it
2. Observe current situation: evaluate effectiveness and
efficiency of existing process, collect and analyze data to
discover major problems, a specific problem identified and
objective for improvement set
3. Analysis: root causes of problem identified and verified
Continual Improvement Approach
4. Identification of possible solutions: alternatives solutions
explored. Best solution selected and implemented,
i.e..eliminate and prevent problem form recurring
5. Evaluation of effects: should confirm root cause eliminated
or effects decreased, solution has worked, objective of
improvement has been achieved
6. Implementation and Standardization: replace old process
with improved process/method
7. Evaluate effectiveness  can it be implemented other place
in organization, monitor, continue next project
20
DATA FOR HISTOGRAM EXERCISE
Group Size
Data
x min
x1
x2
x3
x4
77.84
78.04
78.08
77.90
78.18
78.16
78.12
78.10
78.10
78.28
78.14
78.04
78.16
78.12
77.98
78.12
78.30
78.20
78.08
78.18
78.08
78.00
77.88
78.04
78.26
78.20
78.14
78.16
77.96
78.00
77.92
78.06
78.24
78.14
78.04
78.12
10
78.10
78.48
78.10
78.46
11
78.32
77.96
78.20
77.98
12
78.08
77.98
77.98
78.18
13
78.44
78.12
78.20
78.06
14
78.00
78.36
78.12
78.02
15
78.16
78.06
78.18
78.14
16
78.12
78.22
78.10
78.02
17
78.14
78.00
77.86
78.08
18
77.94
77.96
78.04
78.10
19
78.06
78.16
78.08
78.14
20
78.26
78.28
78.22
78.56
21
78.06
78.18
78.02
78.06
22
78.02
78.16
78.10
78.12
23
78.42
78.38
78.04
78.12
24
78.24
78.08
78.14
78.18
25
78.10
78.14
78.12
78.08
x max
YOU ARE REQUIRED
TO ANALYSE THESE
DATA USING
STATISTICAL
METHOD
Max. value = _____________________
Min. value = ______________________
1. Decide on the process measure variable data like
pressure, dimensions, temperature, weight,
speed, time,viscosity.
2. Data collection collect 50 ~ 100 data points over
a specified period (use historical data to set
base line)
3. Prepare a frequency table:
3.1 Count the number of data points, n.
3.2 Determine the range for the
entire sample:
R = Xmax Xmin
21
FREQUENCY TABLE
No
Class
Midvalue
Frequency, f
Total
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Total
3.3 Determine the number of classes
Method 1
Square root of number of data points and
round up to the nearest number
K=
100 = 10
Method 2 (use table)
Number of
Readings (N)
Under 50
50 100
100 250
Over 250
Number of
Classes (K)
57
6 10
7 12
10 20
22
3.4 Determine the class interval, H
H
= R/K
= (Xmax Xmin) / K
3.5
Determine the class boundaries or end
point
Lower Boundary Value of 1st Class =
Xmin (Smallest Unit of Measurement) / 2
3.5
Determine the class boundaries or end
point
Upper Boundary Value of 1st Class = Lower
Boundary Value of 1st Class + Class Interval
3.6
Determine the midvalue for each class
Midvalue of the class = (Lower Boundary
Value + Upper Boundary Value) / 2
3.7
Count the frequency of data and construct the
frequency table
23
4.0
Decide the scale and draw the histogram
Enter references onto diagram like:
 type of product, duration of data
collection, data, name of person,
specification limits, etc.
5.0
Interpret your chart
TABLE FOR X AND S CALCULATION
No
Class
Midvalue
Frequency
f (1)
x
(2)
fx
(3)=(1) x (2)
fx2
(4) = (2) x (3)
77.835 ~ 77.907
77.871
3
12
36
77.907 ~ 77.979
77.943
2
18
36
77.979 ~ 78.051
78.015
20
1
20
20
78.051 ~ 78.123
78.087
34
78.123 ~ 78.195
78.159
18
18
18
78.195 ~ 78.2671
78.231
14
28
78.267 ~ 78.339
78.303
27
78.339 ~ 78.411
78.375
12
48
78.411 ~ 78.483
78.447
25
10
78.483 ~ 78.560
78.552
36
14
274
Total
100
24
XBAR FORMULA
XBAR = X0 + fx x h
n
Where :
x0 = Midvalue of Class with x = 0
h = Class interval
(0.072)
fx = total fx
( 14)
n = number of data
(78.087)
(100)
78.097
STANDARD DEVIATION (S), FORMULA
S=hx
fx2 { ( fx )2 / (Number of Data) }
( Number of Data ) 1
Where :
h = Class interval
(0.072)
fx = total fx
14
fx2 = total fx2
274
n = number of data
100
0.119
25
PROCESS CAPABILITY INDEX (CP) FORMULA
C P = SU S L
6S
Where :
SU = Upper Standard Limit
SL = Lower Standard Limit
S = Standard Deviation
BIAS MODIFIED PROCESS CAPABILITY INDEX (CPK )
FORMULA
CPK = ( 1 K ) X CP
Where :
K = Biasness Degree
= ( SU + SL ) / 2 X(BAR)
(SU SL) / 2
0.343
26
Given:
Upper Limit , SU = 78.50
Lower Limit, SL = 77.90
Calculate :
Cp and Cpk value
0.84
0.552
Case study
65.7
65.3
64.8
63.9
64.7
64.9
64.9
65.6
63.9
64.8
65.2
66.1
65.1
65.7
64.7
65.4
65.1
64.7
65.1
65.4
64.5
65.6
64.6
65.0
65.0
64.9
64.6
65.3
65.4
63.0
64.0
65.6
64.1
64.6
66.0
65.2
65.0
65.6
64.0
65.9
64.8
65.0
Machine One
63.8 65.4
64.4 65.1
64.4 64.5
64.2 65.1
65.3 65.3
65.4 65.5
64.9 64.9
64.6 64.1
64.9 65.8
65.3 65.1
64.8 64.1
65.9 64.9
64.9 64.7
65.3 64.5
65.2
65.5
65.2
65.5
64.9
65.4
65.0
66.4
64.5
64.3
65.3
64.9
65.6
64.4
65.3
64.3
66.2
65.8
65.2
64.9
64.9
65.3
63.5
66.3
64.1
65.3
66.2
64.2
65.7
64.7
64.7
64.8
65.2
64.3
64.9
64.8
64.7
65.7
65.5
65.1
65.4
65.0
65.2
65.3
64.7
64.9
64.8
64.9
64.9
64.4
64.9
65.3
65.3
64.9
64.7
64.8
65.0
64.3
64.4
64.5
64.4
64.9
65.2
65.4
65.2
65.2
64.9
65.3
64.0
65.0
65.0
64.9
63.9
64.6
65.2
65.2
64.8
65.5
65.1
64.7
Machine Two
65.1 64.8
64.8 65.5
65.6 64.8
65.2 65.0
65.2 64.8
65.0 65.1
65.1 65.4
65.0 65.4
65.7 65.3
65.0 65.4
64.9 65.3
65.2 64.7
64.6 64.9
64.7 64.5
65.2
64.8
64.3
65.0
64.5
64.1
64.8
64.4
64.9
65.2
65.5
65.2
64.7
65.5
64.5
64.9
64.8
64.7
64.2
64.2
65.1
65.3
64.7
65.1
65.5
65.6
64.8
64.9
64.6
64.3
64.5
64.9
65.1
65.3
65.0
64.8
65.1
65.0
27
Case study
a. Prepare histograms of all the data and
the data of each machine
b. Calculate the mean values (xbar) and
the standard deviations (s) for all the
data, and the data of each machine.
c. Given, Upper limit = 66.2 mm and
Lower limit = 63.6 mm, calculate Cp
and Cpk for all data and each machine.
d. Discuss the result.
JADUAL KEKERAPAN UNTUK MESIN 1
No
SEMPADAN
KELAS
NILAI
PENENGAH
KEKERAPA
Nf(1)
x
(2)
fx
(3)=(1) x (2)
fx2
(4) = (2) x
(3)
62.95 ~ 63.25
63.1
6
6
36
63.25 ~ 63.55
63.4
5
5
25
63.55 ~ 63.85
63.7
4
4
16
63.85 ~ 64.15
64.0
3
24
72
64.15 ~ 64.45
64.3
2
16
32
64.45 ~ 64.75
64.6
15
1
15
15
64.75 ~ 65.05
64.9
24
65.05 ~ 65.35
65.2
22
22
22
65.35 ~ 65.65
65.5
14
28
56
10
65.65 ~ 65.95
65.8
24
72
11
65.95 ~ 66.25
66.1
16
64
12
66.25 ~ 66.55
66.4
10
50
30
460
Total
108
28
JADUAL KEKERAPAN UNTUK MESIN 2
No
SEMPADAN
KELAS
NILAI
PENENGAH
KEKERAPA
Nf(1)
x
(2)
fx
(3)=(1) x (2)
fx2
(4) = (2) x
(3)
62.95 ~ 63.25
63.1
6
63.25 ~ 63.55
63.4
5
63.55 ~ 63.85
63.7
4
63.85 ~ 64.15
64.0
3
9
27
64.15 ~ 64.45
64.3
2
18
36
64.45 ~ 64.75
64.6
16
1
16
16
64.75 ~ 65.05
64.9
37
65.05 ~ 65.35
65.2
29
29
29
65.35 ~ 65.65
65.5
13
26
52
10
65.65 ~ 65.95
65.8
11
65.95 ~ 66.25
66.1
12
66.25 ~ 66.55
66.4
15
169
Total
108
HISTOGRAM FOR MACHINE ONE
n = 108
30
x = 64.983
s = 0.616
25
Cp = 0.703
Cpk =0.658
Frequenc y
20
15
10
0
62.95  63.25
63.25  63.55
63.55  63.85
63.85  64.15
64.15  64.45
64.45  64.75
64.75  65.05
65.05  65.35
65.35  65.65
65.65  65.95
65.95  66.25
66.25  66.55
Cutting Size (mm)
29
HISTOGRAM FOR MACHINE TWO
n = 108
40
x = 64.942
s = 0.375
35
Cp = 1.156
Cpk =1.119
30
Frequenc y
25
20
15
10
0
62.95  63.25
63.25  63.55
63.55  63.85
63.85  64.15
64.15  64.45
64.45  64.75
64.75  65.05
65.05  65.35
65.35  65.65
65.65  65.95
65.95  66.25
66.25  66.55
Cutting Size (mm)
INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM THE STUDY
ITEM
MACHINE ONE
MACHINE TWO
Mean Value and
Standard Deviation
X = 64.983
S = 0.616
X = 64.942
S = 0.375
Type of Distribution
Normal Type
Normal Type
Capability
Cp = 0.703
Cpk = 0.658
Cp = 1.156
Cpk = 1.119
Overall: Defects are occuring in Machine One. The center of
Machine Two are located at about the middle of the standard
and therefore there are no problem. Machine One, however,
has a broad spread and it is therefore, necessary to find out
the cause and take action to rectify them.
30
CASE STUDY
To fire the statapult and record the
distance for each of the launches. The
measured distance will be from the back
base of the launcher to the point where
the ball hits the floor. Record the data in
the checksheet that you formatted
Rules:1. Every shot will be launched
from the pullback angle of 135 with the
peg position in the second hole from the
top. Each person will perform an
equitable number of launches.
Launching means pulling back and
releasing.
Histogram
30
25
20
15
10
0
28.7
28.9
29.1
29.3
29.5
29.7
29.9
30.1
30.3
30.5
30.7
30.9
31.1
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
28.7
28.9
29.1
29.3
29.5
29.7
29.9
30.1
30.3
30.5
30.7
30.9
31
CONTROL CHARTS :
TOOLS FOR PROCESS
CONTROL
PROCESS IMPROVEMENT USING CONTROL CHART
1. COLLECTION:
 Gather data and plot on a chart
2. CONTROL
 Calculate trial control limits from process data
 Identify special causes of variation and act upon them
3. ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT
 Quantify common cause variation, take action to
reduce it
THESE THREE PHASES ARE REPEATED FOR CONTINUAL PROCESS
IMPROVEMENT
32
BENEFITS OF CONTROL CHARTS
PROPERLY USED, CONTROL CHARTS CAN:
Be used by operators for ongoing control of a process
Help the process perform consistently, predictably, for
quality and cost
Allow the process to achieve
 Higher quality
 Lower unit cost
 Higher effective capacity
Provide a common language for discussing the
performance of the process
Distinguish special from common causes of variation, as
a guide to local action or action on the system
TYPES OF CONTROL CHARTS
1.
2.
CONTROL CHARTS VARIABLE DATA (MEASURED VALUES)

XBAR CONTROL CHART
R CONTROL CHART
XMEAN CONTROL CHART
X CONTROL CHART
XMR CONTROL CHART
CONTROL CHART FOR ATTRIBUTE DATA
 pn CONTROL CHART
 p CONTROL CHART
 c CONTROL CHART
 u CONTROL CHART
33
SELECTION FOR USE OF CONTROL CHART
DETERMINE
CHARACTERISTICS
TO BE CHARTED
NO
ARE
THE DATA
VARIABLE?
IS THE INTEREST
IN NONCONFORMING
UNITS I.E. PERCENT
BAD PARTS
NO
IS THE INTEREST
IN NONCONFORMITIES
I.E. DISCREPANCIES /
PARTS?
YES
YES
YES
IS THE
SAMPLE SIZE
CONSTANT?
NO
USE p
CHART
IS THE SAMPLE SIZE
CONSTANT?
NO
USE u
CHART
A
YES
YES
USE np OR
p CHART
USE c OR u
CHART
SELECTION FOR USE OF CONTROL CHART
IS IT HOMOGENEOUS IN
NATURE OR NOT CONDUCIVE
TO SUBGROUP SAMPLING
e.g. CHEMICAL BATH, PAINT
BATCH,ETC.?
NO
CAN
SUBGROUP AVERAGES
BE CONVENIENTLY
COMPUTED?
NO
USE MEDIAN
CHART
YES
IS THE
SUBGROUP SIZE
9 OR MORE?
NO
USE Xbar R
CHART
YES
YES
USE CHART FOR
INDIVIDUALS : XMR
IS THE BILITY
TO CONVINIENTLY
COMPUTE s FOR EACH
SUBGROUP?
NO
USE Xbar R
CHART
YES
USE Xbar S
CHART
34
CONTROL CHARTS
XBAR R CHARTS
CONDITION : A controlled state has been
achieved
Creating a X(bar) / R Control Chart
1. Sample method and plan
 Collect 2025 subgroups of sample. Each
subgroup is between 210
CONTROL CHARTS
XBAR R CHARTS
2.
Tabulate the sub groups
3.
Calculate the mean (xbar) of each subgroup
x(bar) = x / n
n = number of data in subgroup
= subgroup total
35
CONTROL CHARTS
XBAR R CHARTS
4.
Calculate the range in each of subgroup
R=x
5.
max
min
Calculate the overall mean (xbarbar) of
each subgroup
x(barbar) = x(bar) / N
x(bar) = sum of all the means of the
subgroups
N = total number of subgroups
CONTROL CHARTS
XBAR R CHARTS
6.
Calculate the mean of the range
(Rbar)
Rbar = R / N
R = sum of all the range
36
CONTROL CHARTS
XBAR R CHARTS
7.
Calculate the control limit lines of Xbar chart
Center = x(barbar)
Upper Control Limit (UCL) = x(barbar)
+ A2R(bar)
Lower Control Limit (LCL) = x(barbar) A2R(bar)
A2 = refer to table 3, constants for
x(bar)R Charts
CONTROL CHARTS
XBAR R CHARTS
8.
Calculate the control limit lines of R
chart
Center (CL) = R(bar)
Upper Control Limit (UCL = D4R(bar)
Lower Control Limit (LCL) = D3R(bar)
D3 and D4 = refer to table 3, constants
for x(bar)R Charts
37
CONTROL CHARTS
XBAR R CHARTS
9.
Plot the control lines, with the
x(bar) control chart directly above
the R control chart.
SubGroup
Size
Data
x1
x2
x3
x4
77.84
78.04
78.08
77.90
78.18
78.16
78.12
78.10
78.10
78.28
78.14
78.04
78.16
78.12
77.98
78.12
78.30
78.20
78.08
78.18
78.08
78.00
77.88
78.04
78.26
78.20
78.14
78.16
77.96
78.00
77.92
78.06
78.24
78.14
78.04
78.12
10
78.10
78.48
78.10
78.46
11
78.32
77.96
78.20
77.98
12
78.08
77.98
77.98
78.18
13
78.44
78.12
78.20
78.06
14
78.00
78.36
78.12
78.02
15
78.16
78.06
78.18
78.14
16
78.12
78.22
78.10
78.02
17
78.14
78.00
77.86
78.08
18
77.94
77.96
78.04
78.10
19
78.06
78.16
78.08
78.14
20
78.26
78.28
78.22
78.56
21
78.06
78.18
78.02
78.06
22
78.02
78.16
78.10
78.12
23
78.42
78.38
78.04
78.12
24
78.24
78.08
78.14
78.18
25
78.10
78.14
78.12
78.08
Ave.
Range
x(bar)
Total
38
Xbar/R Chart
1
78.35
Sample Mean
UCL=78.28
78.25
78.15
Mean=78.12
78.05
5
77.95
Subgroup
LCL=77.96
10
15
20
Sample Range
0.5
25
UCL=0.4928
0.4
0.3
R=0.216
0.2
0.1
0.0
LCL=0
CONTROL CHARTS
n
2
A2
1.880
D3
0
D4
3.267
1.023
2.574
0.729
2.282
0.577
2.114
0.483
2.004
0.419
0.076
1.924
0.373
0.136
1.864
0.337
0.184
1.816
10
0.308
0.223
1.777
39
CONTROL CHARTS
X/MR CHARTS
Variable Control Chart
2 Charts
 X shows individual data variation
 MR shows sample to sample
variation
The sample size is one
CONTROL CHARTS
X/MR CHARTS
1.
2.
Collect data on specified frequency and
plot the X value
 Specific parameter
 Sample size is one
Calculate the MR for each sample
and plot
 MR = X large X small
(between current sample and
previous sample)
40
CONTROL CHARTS
X/MR CHARTS
3. Calculate centre line and draw
X bar = (X1 + X2 + X3 + Xk ) /
(Total number of sample)
MR bar = (MR1 + MR2 + MRk) /
(Total number of sample)
4. Calculate control limits and draw
X Chart
UCL = X(bar) + E2MR(bar)
LCL = X(bar) E2MR(bar)
CONTROL CHARTS
X/MR CHARTS
5.
Interpret the Control Chart. Detect
if there is any outofcontrol
condition. First analyse MR Chart
then X Chart.
41
Subgroup
Data, x
Number
Shifting Range
Subgroup
(MR)
Number
Data, x
Shifting Range
(MR)
418
16
429
433
17
490
420
18
479
448
19
451
412
20
430
481
21
424
444
22
419
457
23
442
418
24
433
10
445
25
427
11
426
26
428
12
461
13
445
14
439
15
437
CONTROL CHARTS
Subgroup Size, n
E2
2. 659
1.772
1.457
1.290
1.184
1.109
1.054
1.010
10
0.975
42
CONTROL CHARTS
Attribute Control Chart
Control Chart for proportion defective
Proportion defective (P) bar = Number
of defective/Sample size
The sample size can vary
CONTROL CHARTS
1.
Collect data on specified frequency
and plot
 Number defect
 Sample size
2.
Calculate P for each sample and plot
P = Number Defective in the sample /
Sample size
43
CONTROL CHARTS
3. Calculate the centre line P and draw the line
 Total number defective
 Total sample size
 P(bar) = Total Defective / Total Sample size
4. Calculate control limit and draw
UCL = P(bar) + 3 X (sqrt((Pbar)(1Pbar)/n)
LCL = P(bar)  3 X (sqrt((Pbar)(1Pbar)/n)
CONTROL CHARTS
5.
Interpret the Control Chart.
Detect if there is any outofcontrol
condition.
44
CONTROL CHARTS
1. Collect 2025 subgroups of samples.
Each subgroup is >50 and is constant
( For np chart, subgroup is constant; for
n chart, sub group varies)
2. Tabulate the data as per given data
CONTROL CHARTS
3. Calculate the average nonconforming of
all subgroups (pbar)
p(bar) = pn / n
pn = total number of defectives in subgroups
n = total in all subgroups
45
CONTROL CHARTS
4. Calculate the average fraction nonconforming per subgroup (pbar.n)
pbar.n = pbar x n
pbar =
n
average nonconforming of
all subgroups
number in each subgroups
CONTROL CHARTS
5. Calculate the control limit lines of np
chart
Central Line, CL = p(bar) x n
Upper Control Limit, UCL = pbar.n + 3 X
(sqrt((pbar.n)(1pbar)
Lower Control Limit, LCL = pbar.n  3 X
(sqrt((pbar.n)(1pbar)
6. Plot the control lines on the np chart
46
CONTROL CHARTS
Draw npChart base on the data
given
Sub Group Size
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Small Group Size
n
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
No. of Defect
pn
11
9
7
12
8
9
6
15
6
11
21
13
24
8
3
14
8
9
8
3
6
5
26
3
8
9
7
20
6
8
Total
47
CONTROL CHARTS
The C Chart is a special type of
attribute control chart which uses the
number of defects instead of the
number of defectives.
CONTROL CHARTS
The distinction between defect and
defective is as follows:
A defect is an individual failure to meet a
single requirement.
A defective is a unit of product which contain
many defects but still be counted as one
defective
It is possible for a unit of product to contain
many defects but still be counted as one
defective
48
CONTROL CHARTS
1.
Collect data on specified frequency and
plot
 Number defective
2. Calculate centre line and draw
 Total number defect
 Count number of samples
 C(bar) = Total Number of Defects /
Total Number of Samples
CONTROL CHARTS
3.
Calculate control limit and draw
 UCL = C(bar) + 3xsqrt(Cbar)
 LCL = C(bar)  3xsqrt(Cbar)
4. Interpret the control Chart. Detect if there
is any outofcontrol condition
49
CONTROL CHARTS
While C chart is count of nonconformities
chart, U Chart is a count of nonconformities
per unit chart.
U = Total Number of Defects / Total number of
samples
Ubar = U1 + U2 + Un / Total number of
samples
CONTROL CHARTS
Upper Control Limit
UCL = Ubar + 3 ( sqrt Ubar/n)
Lower Control Limit
UCL = Ubar  3 ( sqrt Ubar/n)
50
CONTROL CHARTS
Test 1 One Point Beyond Zone A
UCL
A
B
CL
C
C
LCL
B
A
Test 1 One Point Beyond Zone A
When points are above or below the control limits, it is
obvious that something is out of control
Require an investigation into the assignable cause and
corrective action to be taken
51
Test 2 Nine Points In A Row In Zone C or Beyond
UCL
A
B
CL
C
C
LCL
B
A
Test 2 Nine Points In A Row In Zone C or Beyond (Run of
nine)
When several points occurs in a row on the central line, it
is referred to as a run
If a run of nine points happens, this contradicts the laws
of probability thus, indicating some abnormality
occurring.
Test 3 Six Points In A Row Steadily Increasing or Decreasing
UCL
A
B
CL
C
C
LCL
B
A
Test 3 Six Points In A Row Steadily Increasing or Decreasing
A series of points showing a continuous rise or fall is known as
a trend
Under the law of probability, six points is the key number that
would indicate an abnormality exists.
Immediate investigation and corrective actions need to be taken
to prevent the trend to continue until it goes out of control.
52
Test 4 Fourteen Points In A Row Alternating Up and Down
UCL
A
B
CL
C
C
LCL
B
A
Test 4 Fourteen Points In A Row Alternating Up and Down
One of the characteristics of a natural pattern is that the pointtopoint fluctuation is unsystematic or unpredictable
 When fourteen consecutive points alternate up and down, the
pattern becomes predictable (i.e. not natural), thus, some
assignable cause must be present.
Test 5 Two Out Of Three Points In A Row In Zone A
UCL
A
B
CL
C
C
LCL
B
A
Test 5 Two out of three points in a row in Zone A or beyond
 When the above pattern occurs in a control chart, it is unusual
as it does not conform to the normal conditions and deserve
further investigation for its occurrence
53
Test 6 Four Out Five Points In A Row In Zone B or Beyond
UCL
A
B
CL
C
C
LCL
B
A
Test 6 Four Out of Five points in a row in zone B or beyond
 When the above pattern occurs in a control chart, it is unusual
as it does not conform to the normal conditions and deserve
further investigation for its occurrence
Test 7 Fifteen points in a row above and below central line in
Zone C
UCL
A
B
CL
C
C
LCL
B
A
Test 7 Fifteen points in a row above and below central line in
Zone C
When fifteen consecutive points lie above and below central line
in Zone C it reflects a process having a significantly small
variation.
This is unusual and very likely there is some abnormality
occurring.
54
Test 8 Eight Points In A Row On Both Sides Centre Line With None
In Zone C
UCL
A
B
CL
C
C
LCL
B
A
Test 8 Eight Points In A Row On Both Sides Of Central Line With None In
Zone C
When the points tend to fall near the high and low edges of the control
limits with an absence of normal fluctuation near the middle, obviously
some abnormality is occurring.
This test shows when the observation have been taken from two (or more)
sources with different means.
Xbar/R Chart
78.35
Sample Mean
UCL=78.28
78.25
78.15
Mean=78.12
78.05
5
77.95
Subgroup
Sample Range
0.5
LCL=77.96
10
15
20
25
UCL=0.4928
0.4
0.3
0.2
R=0.216
0.1
0.0
LCL=0
55
Test Results for Xbar Chart
TEST 1. One point more than 3.00 sigmas from center line.
Test Failed at points: 10 20
TEST 5. 2 out of 3 points more than 2 sigmas from center line
(on one side of CL).
Test Failed at points: 8
Test Results for R Chart
N P C h a rt fo r C 1
30
1
1
Sample Count
20
U C L = 1 9 .3 9
N P = 1 0 .1
10
L C L = 0 .8 0 9 7
0
0
10
20
30
S a m p le N u m b e r
56
NP Chart: C1
TEST 1. One point more than 3.00 sigmas
from center line.
Test Failed at points: 11 13 23 28
SPC SUMMARY
PARETO CHART
o PURPOSE : TO CATERGORIZE TYPES OF DEFECTS
o KEY FEATURES : CAN BE USED ON TABLES OR
INDIVIDUAL DATA
CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM
o PURPOSE : USED TO ENUMERATE POTENTIAL
CAUSES OF DEFECTS
o KEY FEATURES : CAN BE USED ON ORGANIZE
THOUGHT ABOUT POTENTIAL CAUSES FOR
DEFECTS
57
SPC SUMMARY
Xbar R CHART
o PURPOSE : USED TO LOOK AT THE STABILITY OF A
PROCESS, WHEN RATIONAL SUBGROUPS CAN BE
SELECTED
o KEY FEATURES : USED FOR VARIABLE DATA,
ALLOW THE SEPARATION OF WITHIN AND BETWEEN
GROUP VARIATION, CAN BE USED TO BENCHMARK
PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS USING HISTORICAL DATA
SPC SUMMARY
pn CCONTROL CHART
o PURPOSE : USED TO LOOK AT THE DEFECTIVE
ITEMS
o KEY FEATURES : USED FOR ATTRIBUTE DATA FOR
A FIXED SUBGROUP SIZE
58
Xbar/R Chart
1
78.35
Sample Mean
UCL=78.28
78.25
78.15
Mean=78.12
78.05
5
77.95
Subgroup
LCL=77.96
10
15
20
25
Sample Range
0.5
UCL=0.4928
0.4
0.3
R=0.216
0.2
0.1
0.0
LCL=0
Xbar/R Chart
78.35
Sample Mean
UCL=78.28
78.25
78.15
Mean=78.12
78.05
5
77.95
Subgroup
Sample Range
0.5
LCL=77.96
10
15
20
25
UCL=0.4928
0.4
0.3
0.2
R=0.216
0.1
0.0
LCL=0
59
N P C h a rt fo r C 1
30
1
1
Sample Count
20
U C L = 1 9 .3 9
N P = 1 0 .1
10
L C L = 0 .8 0 9 7
0
0
10
20
30
S a m p le N u m b e r
STANDARDS FOR JUDGEMENT OF PROCESS CAPABILITY
SL
Cp > 1.67
SU
More than enough
process capability
TREATMENT
Xbar
Cp = (SUSL) / 6s
There is nothing to worry
about even if the spread of the
product quality becomes a
little broader. Think of a way
of making control simple and
cost effective.
60
STANDARDS FOR JUDGEMENT OF PROCESS CAPABILITY
1.67>Cp > 1.33
SL
SU
Enough process
capability
TREATMENT
This is the ideal situation.
Maintain it.
Xbar
Cp = (SUSL) / 6s
STANDARDS FOR JUDGEMENT OF PROCESS CAPABILITY
1.33>Cp > 1.00
SL
SU
Process capability cannot
be said to be enough but
is SOSO.
TREATMENT
Xbar
Cp = (SUSL) / 6s
Carry out process control firmly
and keep it in a controlled
condition. When Cp gets closer to
1, then there is fear that the
number of defects will increase.
Therefore treat them when
necessary.
61
STANDARDS FOR JUDGEMENT OF PROCESS CAPABILITY
1.00>Cp > 0.67
SL
SU
Not enough process
capability
TREATMENT
Defect are occuring. Screening
inspection and process control
and improvement are necessary.
Xbar
Cp = (SUSL) / 6s
STANDARDS FOR JUDGEMENT OF PROCESS CAPABILITY
0.67>Cp
SU
SL
Process capability is
lacking
TREATMENT
Xbar
Cp = (SUSL) / 6s
The situation just cannot satisfy
quality. Carry out quality
improvement and investigate to
find out the causes. Urgent
countermeasures and a review of
the standard are needed.
62