You are on page 1of 62

Six Sigma Yellow Belt Training

Basic Tools of Quality


Improvement

Tools of Quality Improvement

7 Basic

7 Management

7 More..

Ishikawa(1968)
Problem Solving

Mizuno (1979)
General, intermediate,
and detailed planning

Various (1980s)
A few more to
consider

Affinity Diagram
Relationship Diagrams
Tree Diagram
Matrix Diagram
PDPC
Arrow Diagram

Mind Mapping
Force Field Analysis
Questionnaires
Criteria Rating
Weighted Voting
Concentration
Diagrams
Gantt Charts

Check sheet
Process Flow chart
Pareto Analysis
Brainstorming
Cause and effect
diagram
Scatter diagrams
Histogram

The Problem Solving Process


Identify and select problem (Problem Statement
1H5W)
Analyze causes (Root Cause / Actual Cause- 5Y)
Potential solutions
Select and plan solution
Implement solution
Evaluate solution
Learn from the process

Basic Tools and Techniques

Check Sheet
Process Flowchart ( Mapping )
Pareto Analysis
Brainstorming
Cause and Effect
Scatter Diagrams
Histograms

Check Sheets
Data recording form (list of items, defects, problems)
that tell how often an event has occurred

Used to record numerical data


Often referred as tally charts
Decisions based on fact not feeling
Team involved in data collection

Types of Check Sheets

Process distribution check sheet


Defect item check sheet
Stratified defects check sheets
Defect location check sheets

Using Check Sheets

Decide data required


Design a check sheet to collect the data
Test the sheet using someone external to its design
Review/revise as necessary
Design a master check sheet
Day
Errors
Start to gather data
Mon
IIII IIII

Total
10

Tue

IIII II

Wed

IIII

Thurs

IIII IIII II

12

Fri

IIII IIII IIII I

16

Process Flowchart
First step for improving a process is to understand it
- so use flowchart
Understand by making our process visible
Flowcharting breaks a repeatable work process
down into its constituent elements
Uses visual display of elements and relationship

Process Flowchart
Serves as a picture of how
and what work is done

Aids understanding of a business process


Gives focus on variability
Identifies measurement
Promotes teamwork

Using Flow Charts

Process model
Symbols
Steps
Interfaces
Critical points
Controls
Exercise

Process Flowchart Definitions


Process - A work process is the movement or flow
of some object through a sequence of steps from
the point of some input to the point of output

Process Flowchart Definitions


A work process is the movement or flow of some
object through a sequence of steps from point of
some input to the point of output

Inputs - (Man, Materials ,


Machines, Instruction,
Drawing, Spec, etc.)

Process flow

Outputs - Product, assembly,


drawing, Operation Manual,
By-product, waste, scrap

1. Clean
material
2. Cut material
3. Welding part
AB to CD
continue.

Process Flowchart Definitions


Object is whatever that moves through a flow and is
acted on or changed in some way.
An object can be a report, an idea, metal stock, car
frame, plan, computer chip, invoice or anything that
must be moved or modified to prepare it as an
output for some other process or deliver to internal
or external customer

Process Flowchart Definitions


Transport - refers to movement of object from one step to
the next step
Example in a manufacturing process - movement of
material stock for crankshaft to a lathe machine, and then
moving from there to next station / operation
Example for administrative process - movement of travel
request from clerks desk to a supervisor for signature

Process Flowchart Definitions


Delay - refers to the time that the object flowing
through a process is waiting
Example - when materials are being delivered,
awaiting entering some manufacturing process
Most delay in administrative process at points when
decisions required, additional information must be
added to a report, signatures required

Process Flowchart Definitions


Operations are actions taken to transform an object
form less desirable to more desirable state /
condition
Welding car frame, cutting plates, painting,
Draftsman turn engineers specifications into final
drawings
Tender documents prepared

Process chart symbols


Operation
Transport
Delay
Inspection
Decision

Process Flowchart
Choose suitable starting and ending points of a process Limits defined by an input and some output from that
process
Examples

Preparing and order release


Preparing a budget
Conducting a safety inspection
Conducting a maintenance
Conducting a test
Preparing an engineering design

Steps In Constructing Process Flowchart


1. Select a process
2. Making a working draft of the process
3. Give copies of draft to key people who have knowledge of the
process
4. Work as a team and develop consensus on how the process currently
works
5. Identify obvious opportunities to improve process and make
improvements
6. Make new flowchart of revised process
7. Select suitable charts to monitor the process and track the
performance

Pareto Analysis
Pareto analysis - process of identifying vital few
problems and important many - 80-20 Rule
Based on principle that 20 % of causes for some
performance problem account for 80% of the impact in
terms of quantity, costs
A process for ranking opportunities to determine which
ones should be pursued first
Used at various stages of quality improvement program
- identify problem, compare before and after, etc.

10

How to construct a Pareto Diagram


1. Collect data - decide problem categories, types of
defects, areas of customer dissatisfaction, etc.
2. Select time interval for the investigation. The time
should be long enough to be representative of typical
performance
3. Determine total occurrence for each category. Calculate
grand total. It several categories which account for a
small part of total, group into others.
4. Compute percentage for each category by dividing
category total with grand total and multiply by 100

How to construct a Pareto Diagram


5. RANK order the categories - from HIGHEST to
LOWEST occurrence
6. Compute cumulative percentage - adding preceding
category percentage
7. Construct a chart with left vertical axis scaled from 0 to
grand total. Label axis. Scale right axis from 0% to
100% same height as grand total on left.
8. Label horizontal axis with category names. Left most
highest followed by next largest and so on.

11

How to construct a Pareto Diagram


9. DRAW bars representing amount of each category. The
height determined from left vertical axis.
10. Draw a line to show cumulative percentage column of
Pareto analysis table. The cumulative percentage line
is determine by right vertical axis.

Brainstorming

A group technique for idea generation


Spontaneous contribution of ideas from team members
Build upon other members idea
No criticism, objective to get as many as possible
Stop when enough ideas obtained

12

Procedure for Brainstorming


Define topic or information target
Go round each member requesting idea
Clarify rules :
One idea at a time
No criticism allowed
Record ideas even though redundant

Review all ideas and clarify - do not eliminate, reword if


possible, combine those that are redundant
Develop final list

Cause and effect


For every effect there must be some causes to it
Need to investigate possible causes of variation and take
action to eliminate them
Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa developed a simple graphical method Cause and effect diagram
A tool to graphically organize and display all knowledge
relating to a particular problem/issue
Also known as Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram

13

Cause and effect

WORK
METHOD

PEOPLE

Lack training
Careless Mistake

Need high force

EFFECT BROKEN PARTS

Carbon content low


Low strength

MATERIALS

Pressure set in
correct

TOOLS /
MACHINE

POSSIBLE CAUSES

EFFECT

Preparing C&E Diagram


1. Select the quality characteristic or problem to be improved
(e.g. delay, error, waste, etc.)
2. Brainstorm to find all possible causes
3. Analyze and organize brainstorming results into main
categories
4. Construct C&E diagram accurately showing relationship of
all data in each category

14

How to prepare C&E Diagram


1. Write a short description of effect/problem on right side
of chart. Draw a line from left to the effect.
2. Write the main cause categories (man, mtl, etc.) above
and below the horizontal line. Think of these as main
branches from main trunk of tree.
3. Add detailed sub-causes and and more specific causes
until root cause. Good C&E has many twigs
4. Eliminate those causes that dont fit facts. Circle those
which most likely generating problem. Further
investigation required to verify causes.

Scatter Diagram
A scatter plot is a plot of one variable versus another.
Independent variable - usually shown in horizontal
(bottom) axis
Dependent variable - shown in vertical axis
Used to evaluate cause and effect relationship.
Assumption that independent variable causes a change
in dependent variable
Helps answer Does length of training has anything to
do with amount of scrap an operator makes?
Is there relationship between sand and concrete
strength?

15

How to construct Scatter Diagram


1. Collect paired set of observations, preferably more
than 20 sets. The paired data consists of one
dependent and one independent variable
2. Find smallest and largest number for both
independent and dependent variable
3. Construct the vertical and horizontal axes so that
smallest and largest values can be plotted
4. Plot the data by placing a mark at the point
corresponding to each X-Y pair (see Example graph)

Plotting points on a Scatter


Diagram

Largest Y-value
(or larger)

Point representing
X-Y pair

Y-axis
Yi
Smallest Y-value
(or smaller)
Smallest X-value
(or smaller)

Xi

X-axis

Largest X-value
(or larger)

16

Example of a scatter diagram


No

Raw data for scatter diagram


- days as independent and
the weight as dependent
variables

Days
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

75
76
77
78
79
80
80
81
82
82
83
84
85
85
86
87
88
89
90
90

Weight
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.6
5.0
4.8
4.9
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.5
5.4
5.5
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.8
6.0
6.1

Example of a scatter diagram


No

Find largest and smallest


values for both independent
and dependent variables

Variable

Smallest

Largest

Days

75

90

Weight

4.4

6.1

Days
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

75
76
77
78
79
80
80
81
82
82
83
84
85
85
86
87
88
89
90
90

Weight
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.6
5.0
4.8
4.9
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.5
5.4
5.5
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.8
6.0
6.1

17

Example of a scatter diagram


Draw the axes. Need horizontal axis to cover from 75 to
90. Can use a graph paper
And vertical axis from smallest value of 4.4 grams to
largest weight 6.1 gram
Plot the paired data on the graph paper.
Get a completed scatter diagram
Analyze and interpret for correlation (relationship)

Completed scatter diagram


SCATTER PLOT
6.5

WEIGHT

6.0
5.5
Weight (gram)
5.0
4.5
4.0
70

75

80

85

90

95

DAYS

18

Histogram

A graphical method of displaying data


which is spread over a continuous
range
Not the same as bar charts
Reveal patterns/trends
Facilitate communication
Highlight opportunities
Order data

Using Histogram

19

Problem Solving/Continual
Improvement Approach
1. Process problem identified, select area for improvement,
and reason for doing it
2. Observe current situation: evaluate effectiveness and
efficiency of existing process, collect and analyze data to
discover major problems, a specific problem identified and
objective for improvement set
3. Analysis: root causes of problem identified and verified

Continual Improvement Approach


4. Identification of possible solutions: alternatives solutions
explored. Best solution selected and implemented,
i.e..eliminate and prevent problem form recurring
5. Evaluation of effects: should confirm root cause eliminated
or effects decreased, solution has worked, objective of
improvement has been achieved
6. Implementation and Standardization: replace old process
with improved process/method
7. Evaluate effectiveness - can it be implemented other place
in organization, monitor, continue next project

20

DATA FOR HISTOGRAM EXERCISE


Group Size

Data

x min

x1

x2

x3

x4

77.84

78.04

78.08

77.90

78.18

78.16

78.12

78.10

78.10

78.28

78.14

78.04

78.16

78.12

77.98

78.12

78.30

78.20

78.08

78.18

78.08

78.00

77.88

78.04

78.26

78.20

78.14

78.16

77.96

78.00

77.92

78.06

78.24

78.14

78.04

78.12

10

78.10

78.48

78.10

78.46

11

78.32

77.96

78.20

77.98

12

78.08

77.98

77.98

78.18

13

78.44

78.12

78.20

78.06

14

78.00

78.36

78.12

78.02

15

78.16

78.06

78.18

78.14

16

78.12

78.22

78.10

78.02

17

78.14

78.00

77.86

78.08

18

77.94

77.96

78.04

78.10

19

78.06

78.16

78.08

78.14

20

78.26

78.28

78.22

78.56

21

78.06

78.18

78.02

78.06

22

78.02

78.16

78.10

78.12

23

78.42

78.38

78.04

78.12

24

78.24

78.08

78.14

78.18

25

78.10

78.14

78.12

78.08

x max

YOU ARE REQUIRED


TO ANALYSE THESE
DATA USING
STATISTICAL
METHOD

Max. value = _____________________

Min. value = ______________________

1. Decide on the process measure variable data like


pressure, dimensions, temperature, weight,
speed, time,viscosity.
2. Data collection collect 50 ~ 100 data points over
a specified period (use historical data to set
base line)
3. Prepare a frequency table:
3.1 Count the number of data points, n.
3.2 Determine the range for the
entire sample:
R = Xmax Xmin

21

FREQUENCY TABLE
No

Class

Mid-value

Frequency, f

Total

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Total

3.3 Determine the number of classes


Method 1
Square root of number of data points and
round up to the nearest number
K=

100 = 10

Method 2 (use table)


Number of
Readings (N)
Under 50
50 100
100 250
Over 250

Number of
Classes (K)
57
6 10
7 12
10 20

22

3.4 Determine the class interval, H


H

= R/K
= (Xmax Xmin) / K

3.5

Determine the class boundaries or end


point
Lower Boundary Value of 1st Class =
Xmin (Smallest Unit of Measurement) / 2

3.5

Determine the class boundaries or end


point
Upper Boundary Value of 1st Class = Lower
Boundary Value of 1st Class + Class Interval

3.6

Determine the mid-value for each class


Mid-value of the class = (Lower Boundary
Value + Upper Boundary Value) / 2

3.7

Count the frequency of data and construct the


frequency table

23

4.0

Decide the scale and draw the histogram


Enter references onto diagram like:
- type of product, duration of data
collection, data, name of person,
specification limits, etc.

5.0

Interpret your chart

TABLE FOR X AND S CALCULATION


No

Class

Mid-value

Frequency
f (1)

x
(2)

fx
(3)=(1) x (2)

fx2
(4) = (2) x (3)

77.835 ~ 77.907

77.871

-3

-12

36

77.907 ~ 77.979

77.943

-2

-18

36

77.979 ~ 78.051

78.015

20

-1

-20

20

78.051 ~ 78.123

78.087

34

78.123 ~ 78.195

78.159

18

18

18

78.195 ~ 78.2671

78.231

14

28

78.267 ~ 78.339

78.303

27

78.339 ~ 78.411

78.375

12

48

78.411 ~ 78.483

78.447

25

10

78.483 ~ 78.560

78.552

36

14

274

Total

100

24

X-BAR FORMULA

X-BAR = X0 + fx x h
n
Where :
x0 = Mid-value of Class with x = 0
h = Class interval

(0.072)

fx = total fx

( 14)

n = number of data

(78.087)

(100)

78.097

STANDARD DEVIATION (S), FORMULA

S=hx

fx2 { ( fx )2 / (Number of Data) }


( Number of Data ) 1

Where :
h = Class interval

(0.072)

fx = total fx

14

fx2 = total fx2

274

n = number of data

100

0.119

25

PROCESS CAPABILITY INDEX (CP) FORMULA

C P = SU S L
6S
Where :
SU = Upper Standard Limit
SL = Lower Standard Limit
S = Standard Deviation

BIAS MODIFIED PROCESS CAPABILITY INDEX (CPK )


FORMULA

CPK = ( 1 K ) X CP
Where :
K = Biasness Degree
= ( SU + SL ) / 2 X(BAR)
(SU SL) / 2
0.343

26

Given:
Upper Limit , SU = 78.50
Lower Limit, SL = 77.90
Calculate :
Cp and Cpk value
0.84

0.552

Case study
65.7
65.3
64.8
63.9
64.7
64.9
64.9
65.6
63.9
64.8
65.2
66.1
65.1
65.7

64.7
65.4
65.1
64.7
65.1
65.4
64.5
65.6
64.6
65.0
65.0
64.9
64.6
65.3

65.4
63.0
64.0
65.6
64.1
64.6
66.0
65.2
65.0
65.6
64.0
65.9
64.8
65.0

Machine One
63.8 65.4
64.4 65.1
64.4 64.5
64.2 65.1
65.3 65.3
65.4 65.5
64.9 64.9
64.6 64.1
64.9 65.8
65.3 65.1
64.8 64.1
65.9 64.9
64.9 64.7
65.3 64.5

65.2
65.5
65.2
65.5
64.9
65.4
65.0
66.4
64.5
64.3
65.3
64.9
65.6
64.4

65.3
64.3
66.2
65.8
65.2
64.9
64.9
65.3
63.5
66.3
64.1
65.3
66.2
64.2

65.7
64.7
64.7
64.8
65.2
64.3
64.9
64.8
64.7
65.7

65.5
65.1
65.4
65.0
65.2
65.3
64.7
64.9
64.8
64.9
64.9
64.4
64.9
65.3

65.3
64.9
64.7
64.8
65.0
64.3
64.4
64.5
64.4
64.9
65.2
65.4
65.2
65.2

64.9
65.3
64.0
65.0
65.0
64.9
63.9
64.6
65.2
65.2
64.8
65.5
65.1
64.7

Machine Two
65.1 64.8
64.8 65.5
65.6 64.8
65.2 65.0
65.2 64.8
65.0 65.1
65.1 65.4
65.0 65.4
65.7 65.3
65.0 65.4
64.9 65.3
65.2 64.7
64.6 64.9
64.7 64.5

65.2
64.8
64.3
65.0
64.5
64.1
64.8
64.4
64.9
65.2
65.5
65.2
64.7
65.5

64.5
64.9
64.8
64.7
64.2
64.2
65.1
65.3
64.7
65.1
65.5
65.6
64.8
64.9

64.6
64.3
64.5
64.9
65.1
65.3
65.0
64.8
65.1
65.0

27

Case study
a. Prepare histograms of all the data and
the data of each machine
b. Calculate the mean values (x-bar) and
the standard deviations (s) for all the
data, and the data of each machine.
c. Given, Upper limit = 66.2 mm and
Lower limit = 63.6 mm, calculate Cp
and Cpk for all data and each machine.
d. Discuss the result.

JADUAL KEKERAPAN UNTUK MESIN 1


No

SEMPADAN
KELAS

NILAI
PENENGAH

KEKERAPA
Nf(1)

x
(2)

fx
(3)=(1) x (2)

fx2
(4) = (2) x
(3)

62.95 ~ 63.25

63.1

-6

-6

36

63.25 ~ 63.55

63.4

-5

-5

25

63.55 ~ 63.85

63.7

-4

-4

16

63.85 ~ 64.15

64.0

-3

-24

72

64.15 ~ 64.45

64.3

-2

-16

32

64.45 ~ 64.75

64.6

15

-1

-15

15

64.75 ~ 65.05

64.9

24

65.05 ~ 65.35

65.2

22

22

22

65.35 ~ 65.65

65.5

14

28

56

10

65.65 ~ 65.95

65.8

24

72

11

65.95 ~ 66.25

66.1

16

64

12

66.25 ~ 66.55

66.4

10

50

30

460

Total

108

28

JADUAL KEKERAPAN UNTUK MESIN 2


No

SEMPADAN
KELAS

NILAI
PENENGAH

KEKERAPA
Nf(1)

x
(2)

fx
(3)=(1) x (2)

fx2
(4) = (2) x
(3)

62.95 ~ 63.25

63.1

-6

63.25 ~ 63.55

63.4

-5

63.55 ~ 63.85

63.7

-4

63.85 ~ 64.15

64.0

-3

-9

27

64.15 ~ 64.45

64.3

-2

-18

36

64.45 ~ 64.75

64.6

16

-1

-16

16

64.75 ~ 65.05

64.9

37

65.05 ~ 65.35

65.2

29

29

29

65.35 ~ 65.65

65.5

13

26

52

10

65.65 ~ 65.95

65.8

11

65.95 ~ 66.25

66.1

12

66.25 ~ 66.55

66.4

15

169

Total

108

HISTOGRAM FOR MACHINE ONE


n = 108
30

x = 64.983
s = 0.616

25

Cp = 0.703
Cpk =0.658

Frequenc y

20

15

10

0
62.95 - 63.25

63.25 - 63.55

63.55 - 63.85

63.85 - 64.15

64.15 - 64.45

64.45 - 64.75

64.75 - 65.05

65.05 - 65.35

65.35 - 65.65

65.65 - 65.95

65.95 - 66.25

66.25 - 66.55

Cutting Size (mm)

29

HISTOGRAM FOR MACHINE TWO


n = 108
40

x = 64.942
s = 0.375

35

Cp = 1.156
Cpk =1.119

30

Frequenc y

25

20

15

10

0
62.95 - 63.25

63.25 - 63.55

63.55 - 63.85

63.85 - 64.15

64.15 - 64.45

64.45 - 64.75

64.75 - 65.05

65.05 - 65.35

65.35 - 65.65

65.65 - 65.95

65.95 - 66.25

66.25 - 66.55

Cutting Size (mm)

INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM THE STUDY


ITEM

MACHINE ONE

MACHINE TWO

Mean Value and


Standard Deviation

X = 64.983
S = 0.616

X = 64.942
S = 0.375

Type of Distribution

Normal Type

Normal Type

Capability

Cp = 0.703
Cpk = 0.658

Cp = 1.156
Cpk = 1.119

Overall: Defects are occuring in Machine One. The center of


Machine Two are located at about the middle of the standard
and therefore there are no problem. Machine One, however,
has a broad spread and it is therefore, necessary to find out
the cause and take action to rectify them.

30

CASE STUDY
To fire the statapult and record the
distance for each of the launches. The
measured distance will be from the back
base of the launcher to the point where
the ball hits the floor. Record the data in
the checksheet that you formatted
Rules:1. Every shot will be launched
from the pull-back angle of 135 with the
peg position in the second hole from the
top. Each person will perform an
equitable number of launches.
Launching means pulling back and
releasing.

Histogram

30

25

20

15

10

0
28.7

28.9

29.1

29.3

29.5

29.7

29.9

30.1

30.3

30.5

30.7

30.9

31.1

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
28.7

28.9

29.1

29.3

29.5

29.7

29.9

30.1

30.3

30.5

30.7

30.9

31

CONTROL CHARTS :
TOOLS FOR PROCESS
CONTROL

PROCESS IMPROVEMENT USING CONTROL CHART


1. COLLECTION:
- Gather data and plot on a chart
2. CONTROL
- Calculate trial control limits from process data
- Identify special causes of variation and act upon them
3. ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT
- Quantify common cause variation, take action to
reduce it
THESE THREE PHASES ARE REPEATED FOR CONTINUAL PROCESS
IMPROVEMENT

32

BENEFITS OF CONTROL CHARTS


PROPERLY USED, CONTROL CHARTS CAN:
 Be used by operators for ongoing control of a process
 Help the process perform consistently, predictably, for
quality and cost
 Allow the process to achieve
- Higher quality
- Lower unit cost
- Higher effective capacity
 Provide a common language for discussing the
performance of the process
 Distinguish special from common causes of variation, as
a guide to local action or action on the system

TYPES OF CONTROL CHARTS


1.

2.

CONTROL CHARTS VARIABLE DATA (MEASURED VALUES)


-

X-BAR CONTROL CHART

R CONTROL CHART

X-MEAN CONTROL CHART

X CONTROL CHART

X-MR CONTROL CHART

CONTROL CHART FOR ATTRIBUTE DATA


- pn CONTROL CHART
- p CONTROL CHART
- c CONTROL CHART
- u CONTROL CHART

33

SELECTION FOR USE OF CONTROL CHART


DETERMINE
CHARACTERISTICS
TO BE CHARTED

NO

ARE
THE DATA
VARIABLE?

IS THE INTEREST
IN NONCONFORMING
UNITS I.E. PERCENT
BAD PARTS

NO

IS THE INTEREST
IN NONCONFORMITIES
I.E. DISCREPANCIES /
PARTS?

YES

YES
YES

IS THE
SAMPLE SIZE
CONSTANT?

NO
USE p
CHART

IS THE SAMPLE SIZE


CONSTANT?

NO

USE u
CHART

A
YES

YES

USE np OR
p CHART

USE c OR u
CHART

SELECTION FOR USE OF CONTROL CHART

IS IT HOMOGENEOUS IN
NATURE OR NOT CONDUCIVE
TO SUBGROUP SAMPLING
e.g. CHEMICAL BATH, PAINT
BATCH,ETC.?

NO

CAN
SUBGROUP AVERAGES
BE CONVENIENTLY
COMPUTED?

NO

USE MEDIAN
CHART

YES

IS THE
SUBGROUP SIZE
9 OR MORE?

NO

USE X-bar R
CHART

YES
YES

USE CHART FOR


INDIVIDUALS : X-MR

IS THE BILITY
TO CONVINIENTLY
COMPUTE s FOR EACH
SUBGROUP?

NO

USE X-bar R
CHART

YES
USE X-bar S
CHART

34

CONTROL CHARTS
XBAR R CHARTS
CONDITION : A controlled state has been
achieved
Creating a X(bar) / R Control Chart
1. Sample method and plan
- Collect 20-25 sub-groups of sample. Each
sub-group is between 2-10

CONTROL CHARTS
XBAR R CHARTS

2.

Tabulate the sub groups

3.

Calculate the mean (x-bar) of each subgroup


x(bar) = x / n
n = number of data in sub-group
= sub-group total

35

CONTROL CHARTS
XBAR R CHARTS
4.

Calculate the range in each of sub-group


R=x

5.

max

min

Calculate the overall mean (x-bar-bar) of


each sub-group
x(bar-bar) = x(bar) / N
x(bar) = sum of all the means of the
sub-groups
N = total number of sub-groups

CONTROL CHARTS
XBAR R CHARTS

6.

Calculate the mean of the range


(R-bar)
R-bar = R / N
R = sum of all the range

36

CONTROL CHARTS
XBAR R CHARTS
7.

Calculate the control limit lines of Xbar chart


Center = x(bar-bar)
Upper Control Limit (UCL) = x(bar-bar)
+ A2R(bar)
Lower Control Limit (LCL) = x(bar-bar) A2R(bar)
A2 = refer to table 3, constants for
x(bar)-R Charts

CONTROL CHARTS
XBAR R CHARTS
8.

Calculate the control limit lines of R


chart
Center (CL) = R(bar)
Upper Control Limit (UCL = D4R(bar)
Lower Control Limit (LCL) = D3R(bar)
D3 and D4 = refer to table 3, constants
for x(bar)-R Charts

37

CONTROL CHARTS
XBAR R CHARTS

9.

Plot the control lines, with the


x(bar) control chart directly above
the R control chart.

Sub-Group
Size

Data
x1

x2

x3

x4

77.84

78.04

78.08

77.90

78.18

78.16

78.12

78.10

78.10

78.28

78.14

78.04

78.16

78.12

77.98

78.12

78.30

78.20

78.08

78.18

78.08

78.00

77.88

78.04

78.26

78.20

78.14

78.16

77.96

78.00

77.92

78.06

78.24

78.14

78.04

78.12

10

78.10

78.48

78.10

78.46

11

78.32

77.96

78.20

77.98

12

78.08

77.98

77.98

78.18

13

78.44

78.12

78.20

78.06

14

78.00

78.36

78.12

78.02

15

78.16

78.06

78.18

78.14

16

78.12

78.22

78.10

78.02

17

78.14

78.00

77.86

78.08

18

77.94

77.96

78.04

78.10

19

78.06

78.16

78.08

78.14

20

78.26

78.28

78.22

78.56

21

78.06

78.18

78.02

78.06

22

78.02

78.16

78.10

78.12

23

78.42

78.38

78.04

78.12

24

78.24

78.08

78.14

78.18

25

78.10

78.14

78.12

78.08

Ave.

Range

x(bar)

Total

38

Xbar/R Chart
1

78.35

Sample Mean

UCL=78.28

78.25
78.15

Mean=78.12

78.05
5

77.95
Subgroup

LCL=77.96
10

15

20

Sample Range

0.5

25

UCL=0.4928

0.4
0.3
R=0.216

0.2
0.1
0.0

LCL=0

CONTROL CHARTS
n
2

A2
1.880

D3
0

D4
3.267

1.023

2.574

0.729

2.282

0.577

2.114

0.483

2.004

0.419

0.076

1.924

0.373

0.136

1.864

0.337

0.184

1.816

10

0.308

0.223

1.777

39

CONTROL CHARTS
X/MR CHARTS

Variable Control Chart


2 Charts
- X shows individual data variation
- MR shows sample to sample
variation

The sample size is one

CONTROL CHARTS
X/MR CHARTS
1.

2.

Collect data on specified frequency and


plot the X value
- Specific parameter
- Sample size is one
Calculate the MR for each sample
and plot
- MR = X large X small
(between current sample and
previous sample)

40

CONTROL CHARTS
X/MR CHARTS
3. Calculate centre line and draw
X bar = (X1 + X2 + X3 + Xk ) /
(Total number of sample)
MR bar = (MR1 + MR2 + MRk) /
(Total number of sample)
4. Calculate control limits and draw
X Chart
UCL = X(bar) + E2MR(bar)
LCL = X(bar) E2MR(bar)

CONTROL CHARTS
X/MR CHARTS

5.

Interpret the Control Chart. Detect


if there is any out-of-control
condition. First analyse MR Chart
then X Chart.

41

Subgroup

Data, x

Number

Shifting Range

Subgroup

(MR)

Number

Data, x

Shifting Range
(MR)

418

16

429

433

17

490

420

18

479

448

19

451

412

20

430

481

21

424

444

22

419

457

23

442

418

24

433

10

445

25

427

11

426

26

428

12

461

13

445

14

439

15

437

CONTROL CHARTS
Subgroup Size, n

E2

2. 659

1.772

1.457

1.290

1.184

1.109

1.054

1.010

10

0.975

42

CONTROL CHARTS

Attribute Control Chart


Control Chart for proportion defective
Proportion defective (P) bar = Number
of defective/Sample size

The sample size can vary

CONTROL CHARTS

1.

Collect data on specified frequency


and plot
- Number defect
- Sample size

2.

Calculate P for each sample and plot


P = Number Defective in the sample /
Sample size

43

CONTROL CHARTS

3. Calculate the centre line P and draw the line


- Total number defective
- Total sample size
- P(bar) = Total Defective / Total Sample size
4. Calculate control limit and draw
UCL = P(bar) + 3 X (sqrt((Pbar)(1-Pbar)/n)
LCL = P(bar) - 3 X (sqrt((Pbar)(1-Pbar)/n)

CONTROL CHARTS

5.

Interpret the Control Chart.


Detect if there is any out-of-control
condition.

44

CONTROL CHARTS

1. Collect 20-25 sub-groups of samples.


Each sub-group is >50 and is constant
( For np chart, sub-group is constant; for
n chart, sub group varies)
2. Tabulate the data as per given data

CONTROL CHARTS

3. Calculate the average non-conforming of


all sub-groups (p-bar)
p(bar) = pn / n
pn = total number of defectives in subgroups
n = total in all sub-groups

45

CONTROL CHARTS

4. Calculate the average fraction nonconforming per sub-group (p-bar.n)


p-bar.n = p-bar x n
p-bar =
n

average non-conforming of
all sub-groups
number in each sub-groups

CONTROL CHARTS

5. Calculate the control limit lines of np


chart
Central Line, CL = p(bar) x n
Upper Control Limit, UCL = p-bar.n + 3 X
(sqrt((pbar.n)(1-pbar)
Lower Control Limit, LCL = p-bar.n - 3 X
(sqrt((pbar.n)(1-pbar)
6. Plot the control lines on the np chart

46

CONTROL CHARTS

Draw np-Chart base on the data


given

Sub Group Size


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Small Group Size


n
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200

No. of Defect
pn
11
9
7
12
8
9
6
15
6
11
21
13
24
8
3
14
8
9
8
3
6
5
26
3
8
9
7
20
6
8

Total

47

CONTROL CHARTS

The C Chart is a special type of


attribute control chart which uses the
number of defects instead of the
number of defectives.

CONTROL CHARTS

The distinction between defect and


defective is as follows:
A defect is an individual failure to meet a
single requirement.
A defective is a unit of product which contain
many defects but still be counted as one
defective
It is possible for a unit of product to contain
many defects but still be counted as one
defective

48

CONTROL CHARTS

1.

Collect data on specified frequency and


plot
- Number defective

2. Calculate centre line and draw


- Total number defect
- Count number of samples
- C(bar) = Total Number of Defects /
Total Number of Samples

CONTROL CHARTS

3.

Calculate control limit and draw


- UCL = C(bar) + 3xsqrt(Cbar)
- LCL = C(bar) - 3xsqrt(Cbar)

4. Interpret the control Chart. Detect if there


is any out-of-control condition

49

CONTROL CHARTS
While C chart is count of nonconformities
chart, U Chart is a count of nonconformities
per unit chart.
U = Total Number of Defects / Total number of
samples
U-bar = U1 + U2 + Un / Total number of
samples

CONTROL CHARTS

Upper Control Limit


UCL = U-bar + 3 ( sqrt U-bar/n)

Lower Control Limit


UCL = U-bar - 3 ( sqrt U-bar/n)

50

CONTROL CHARTS

Test 1 One Point Beyond Zone A


UCL

A
B

CL

C
C

LCL

B
A

Test 1 One Point Beyond Zone A


-When points are above or below the control limits, it is
obvious that something is out of control
-Require an investigation into the assignable cause and
corrective action to be taken

51

Test 2 Nine Points In A Row In Zone C or Beyond


UCL

A
B

CL

C
C

LCL

B
A

Test 2 Nine Points In A Row In Zone C or Beyond (Run of


nine)
-When several points occurs in a row on the central line, it
is referred to as a run
-If a run of nine points happens, this contradicts the laws
of probability thus, indicating some abnormality
occurring.

Test 3 Six Points In A Row Steadily Increasing or Decreasing


UCL

A
B

CL

C
C

LCL

B
A

Test 3 Six Points In A Row Steadily Increasing or Decreasing


-A series of points showing a continuous rise or fall is known as
a trend
-Under the law of probability, six points is the key number that
would indicate an abnormality exists.
-Immediate investigation and corrective actions need to be taken
to prevent the trend to continue until it goes out of control.

52

Test 4 Fourteen Points In A Row Alternating Up and Down


UCL

A
B

CL

C
C

LCL

B
A

Test 4 Fourteen Points In A Row Alternating Up and Down


-One of the characteristics of a natural pattern is that the pointto-point fluctuation is unsystematic or unpredictable
- When fourteen consecutive points alternate up and down, the
pattern becomes predictable (i.e. not natural), thus, some
assignable cause must be present.

Test 5 Two Out Of Three Points In A Row In Zone A


UCL

A
B

CL

C
C

LCL

B
A

Test 5 Two out of three points in a row in Zone A or beyond


- When the above pattern occurs in a control chart, it is unusual
as it does not conform to the normal conditions and deserve
further investigation for its occurrence

53

Test 6 Four Out Five Points In A Row In Zone B or Beyond


UCL

A
B

CL

C
C

LCL

B
A

Test 6 Four Out of Five points in a row in zone B or beyond


- When the above pattern occurs in a control chart, it is unusual
as it does not conform to the normal conditions and deserve
further investigation for its occurrence

Test 7 Fifteen points in a row above and below central line in


Zone C
UCL
A
B
CL

C
C

LCL

B
A

Test 7 Fifteen points in a row above and below central line in


Zone C
-When fifteen consecutive points lie above and below central line
in Zone C it reflects a process having a significantly small
variation.
-This is unusual and very likely there is some abnormality
occurring.

54

Test 8 Eight Points In A Row On Both Sides Centre Line With None
In Zone C
UCL
A
B
CL

C
C

LCL

B
A

Test 8 Eight Points In A Row On Both Sides Of Central Line With None In
Zone C
-When the points tend to fall near the high and low edges of the control
limits with an absence of normal fluctuation near the middle, obviously
some abnormality is occurring.
-This test shows when the observation have been taken from two (or more)
sources with different means.

Xbar/R Chart
78.35

Sample Mean

UCL=78.28

78.25
78.15

Mean=78.12

78.05
5

77.95
Subgroup

Sample Range

0.5

LCL=77.96
10

15

20

25

UCL=0.4928

0.4
0.3
0.2

R=0.216

0.1
0.0

LCL=0

55

Test Results for Xbar Chart


TEST 1. One point more than 3.00 sigmas from center line.
Test Failed at points: 10 20

TEST 5. 2 out of 3 points more than 2 sigmas from center line


(on one side of CL).
Test Failed at points: 8

Test Results for R Chart

N P C h a rt fo r C 1
30
1
1

Sample Count

20

U C L = 1 9 .3 9

N P = 1 0 .1

10

L C L = 0 .8 0 9 7

0
0

10

20

30

S a m p le N u m b e r

56

NP Chart: C1

TEST 1. One point more than 3.00 sigmas


from center line.
Test Failed at points: 11 13 23 28

SPC SUMMARY
PARETO CHART
o PURPOSE : TO CATERGORIZE TYPES OF DEFECTS
o KEY FEATURES : CAN BE USED ON TABLES OR
INDIVIDUAL DATA
CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM
o PURPOSE : USED TO ENUMERATE POTENTIAL
CAUSES OF DEFECTS
o KEY FEATURES : CAN BE USED ON ORGANIZE
THOUGHT ABOUT POTENTIAL CAUSES FOR
DEFECTS

57

SPC SUMMARY
Xbar R CHART
o PURPOSE : USED TO LOOK AT THE STABILITY OF A
PROCESS, WHEN RATIONAL SUBGROUPS CAN BE
SELECTED
o KEY FEATURES : USED FOR VARIABLE DATA,
ALLOW THE SEPARATION OF WITHIN AND BETWEEN
GROUP VARIATION, CAN BE USED TO BENCHMARK
PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS USING HISTORICAL DATA

SPC SUMMARY
pn CCONTROL CHART
o PURPOSE : USED TO LOOK AT THE DEFECTIVE
ITEMS
o KEY FEATURES : USED FOR ATTRIBUTE DATA FOR
A FIXED SUBGROUP SIZE

58

Xbar/R Chart
1

78.35

Sample Mean

UCL=78.28

78.25
78.15

Mean=78.12

78.05
5

77.95
Subgroup

LCL=77.96
10

15

20

25

Sample Range

0.5

UCL=0.4928

0.4
0.3
R=0.216

0.2
0.1
0.0

LCL=0

Xbar/R Chart
78.35

Sample Mean

UCL=78.28

78.25
78.15

Mean=78.12

78.05
5

77.95
Subgroup

Sample Range

0.5

LCL=77.96
10

15

20

25

UCL=0.4928

0.4
0.3
0.2

R=0.216

0.1
0.0

LCL=0

59

N P C h a rt fo r C 1
30
1
1

Sample Count

20

U C L = 1 9 .3 9

N P = 1 0 .1

10

L C L = 0 .8 0 9 7

0
0

10

20

30

S a m p le N u m b e r

STANDARDS FOR JUDGEMENT OF PROCESS CAPABILITY

SL

Cp > 1.67

SU

More than enough


process capability
TREATMENT

X-bar

Cp = (SU-SL) / 6s

There is nothing to worry


about even if the spread of the
product quality becomes a
little broader. Think of a way
of making control simple and
cost effective.

60

STANDARDS FOR JUDGEMENT OF PROCESS CAPABILITY

1.67>Cp > 1.33


SL

SU

Enough process
capability

TREATMENT

This is the ideal situation.


Maintain it.
X-bar

Cp = (SU-SL) / 6s

STANDARDS FOR JUDGEMENT OF PROCESS CAPABILITY

1.33>Cp > 1.00


SL

SU

Process capability cannot


be said to be enough but
is SO-SO.
TREATMENT

X-bar

Cp = (SU-SL) / 6s

Carry out process control firmly


and keep it in a control-led
condition. When Cp gets closer to
1, then there is fear that the
number of defects will increase.
Therefore treat them when
necessary.

61

STANDARDS FOR JUDGEMENT OF PROCESS CAPABILITY

1.00>Cp > 0.67


SL

SU

Not enough process


capability

TREATMENT

Defect are occuring. Screening


inspection and process control
and improvement are necessary.

X-bar

Cp = (SU-SL) / 6s

STANDARDS FOR JUDGEMENT OF PROCESS CAPABILITY

0.67>Cp
SU

SL

Process capability is
lacking
TREATMENT

X-bar

Cp = (SU-SL) / 6s

The situation just cannot satisfy


quality. Carry out quality
improvement and investigate to
find out the causes. Urgent
countermeasures and a review of
the standard are needed.

62