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North South University

Submitted By:
Spring 2014
Muntasir Mamun Chowdhury


BIO 103

Md Salah Uddin 1020210030

Section: 7

Munasif Hassan 1010235030

Group 5

Nayem Uddin Khan 1130892020

Submitted To:
Dr. S. M. Mostafa Kamal Khan (SKK)
Associate Professor
Department of Biochemistry & Microbiology,
Date of Submission: March 30, 2014

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Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder (neurological disorder) in which the nerve cell
activity in brain is disturbed, causing of seizure during which we experience abnormal behavior,
symptoms and sensations, including loss of consciousness. The International League Against
Epilepsy and the International Bureau for Epilepsydefine epilepsy in their 2005 joint statement
as "a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic
seizures and by the neurobiological, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences of this

In most cases the cause is unknown, although some people develop epilepsy as the result of brain
injury, stroke, brain cancer, and drug and alcohol misuse, among others. Epileptic seizures are
the result of excessive and abnormal cortical nerve cell activity in the brain. Epilepsy can often
be confirmed with an electroencephalogram. Epilepsy cannot be cured, but seizures are
controllable with medication in about 70% of cases. Not all cases of epilepsy are lifelong, and a
substantial number of people improve to the point that medication is no longer needed.

The world's oldest description of an epileptic seizure comes from a text in Akkadian (a language
used in ancient Mesopotamia) and was written around 2000 BCE. The oldest known detailed
record of the disorder itself is in the Sakikk, a Babylonian cuneiform medical text from 1067
1046 BCE. Around 900 BCE, Punarvasu treya described epilepsy as loss of consciousness; this
definition was carried forward into the Ayurvedic text of Charaka Samhita (about 400 BCE). The
ancient Greeks had contradictory views of the disease. They thought of epilepsy as a form of
spiritual possession, but also associated the condition with genius and the divine.
Instead of referring to it as the sacred disease, he used the term great disease, giving rise to the
modern term grand mal, used for generalized seizures.
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Signs and symptoms

Epilepsy is a group of related disorders characterized by a tendency for recurrent seizures. There
are different types of epilepsy and seizures. Epilepsy drugs are prescribed to control seizures, and
rarely surgery is necessary if medications are ineffective. While many types of repetitive
behavior may represent a neurological problem, a doctor needs to establish whether or not they
are seizures.

Seizure attacked

Figure: a seizure attacked

Generalized seizures: All areas of the brain are involved in a generalized seizure.
Sometimes these are referred to as grand mal seizures.

The person experiencing such a seizure may cry out or make some sound, stiffen
for several seconds to a minute and then have rhythmic movements of the arms
and legs. Often the rhythmic movements slow before stopping.

Eyes are generally open.

The person may appear to not be breathing and actually turn blue. This may be
followed by a period of deep, noisy breathes.

The return to consciousness is gradual and the person may be confused for quite
some time minutes to hours.

Loss of urine is common.

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The person will frequently be confused after a generalized seizure.

Partial or focal seizures: Only part of the brain is involved, so only part of the body is

If the part of the brain controlling movement of the hand is involved, then only
the hand may show rhythmic or jerky movements.

If other areas of the brain are involved, symptoms might include strange
sensations like a full feeling in the stomach or small repetitive movements such as
picking at one's clothes or smacking of the lips.

Bitten tip of tongue
Figure: Someone who has
bitten the tip of their tongue
while having a seizure

Sometimes the person with a partial seizure appears dazed or confused. This may
represent a complex partial seizure. The term complex is used by doctors to
describe a person who is between being fully alert and unconscious.

Absence or petit mal seizures: These are most common in childhood.

Impairment of consciousness is present with the person often staring blankly.

Repetitive blinking or other small movements may be present.

Typically, these seizures are brief, lasting only seconds. Some people may have
many of these in a day

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Causes of seizures
The underlying cause of epilepsy may be identified as genetic or as due to structural or metabolic
problems, but in 60% of cases the cause is unknown

Genetics: Genetics is believed to be involved in the majority of cases, either directly or


Secondary: Epilepsy may occur as a result of a number of other conditions including: tumors,
strokes, head trauma, previous infections of the central nervous system, genetic abnormalities,
and as a result of brain damage around the time of birth.

Peoples prejudice about Epilepsy and reality

Following are six common myths that still linger on, and that the Epilepsy Association of the
Eastern Shore wants to erase forever:

Epilepsy is contagious

The reality is, it is not contagious.

You can swallow your tongue during a seizure

It's physically impossible to swallow your tongue. In fact, you should never force something into
the mouth of someone having a seizure.

People with epilepsy are disabled and can't work

People with the condition have the same range of abilities and intelligence as the rest of us. Some
have severed seizures and cannot work; others are successful and productive in challenging

People with epilepsy look different

Unless someone with epilepsy is actually having a seizure there is no way that his or her
condition can be detected.
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Epilepsy is a form of mental illness

Epilepsy is an umbrella term covering about twenty different types of seizure disorders. It is a
functional, physical problem, not a mental one.

With today's medication, epilepsy is largely a solved problem

Epilepsy is a chronic medical problem that for many people can be successfully treated.
Unfortunately, treatment doesn't work for everyone and there's a critical need for more research.

Remedy and applications

In many cases epilepsy are not preventable, efforts to reduce head injuries, provide good care
around the time of birth, and reduce environmental parasites such as the pork tapeworm may be
effective. Epilepsy is usually treated with daily medication once a second seizure has occurred.
In some cases, a special diet, the implantation of a neurostimulator, or neurosurgery may be
required. Neurostimulation may be another option in those who are not candidates for surgery.
Epilepsy surgery may be an option for people with focal seizures that remain a problem despite
other treatments. These other treatments include at least a trial of two or three medications. The
goal of surgery is total control of seizures and this may be achieved in 6070% of cases

Epilepsy is a group of long-term neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures,
seizures tend to recur, and have no immediate underlying cause are not deemed to represent
epilepsy while seizures occurred. Epilepsy cannot be cured, but medication, provide good care
around the time of birth, and reduce environmental parasites and can control seizures effectively
in about 70% of cases.

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Magiorkinis E, Kalliopi S, Diamantis A (January 2010). "Hallmarks in the history of epilepsy:
epilepsy in antiquity". Epilepsy & behavior : E&B 17 (1): 103108.
Chang BS, Lowenstein DH (2003). "Epilepsy". N. Engl. J. Med. 349 (13): 125766.
"Epilepsy". Fact Sheets. World Health Organization. October 2012. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
Brodie, MJ; Elder, AT, Kwan, P (November 2009). "Epilepsy in later life". Lancet neurology 8
(11): 101930.
Berg, AT (2008). "Risk of recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure". Epilepsia. 49 Suppl 1:
Duncan, JS; Sander, JW, Sisodiya, SM, Walker, MC (1 April 2006). "Adult epilepsy.". Lancet
367 (9516): 1087100.
Perucca, P; Gilliam, FG (September 2012). "Adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs.". Lancet
neurology 11 (9): 792802.

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