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Lecture Presentations

PGE368
Fall 2003 Semester
November 13 and 18

Principles and Interpretation of


Borehole Sonic Measurements
Carlos Torres-Verdn, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor

Course Plan, II
Electrical Resistivity of Rocks

Saturation
Electrical Resistivity Tools:
Induction and Laterolog

Active Nuclear
Logging

Invasion
Core
Data

Bulk Density Logging

Porosity

Neutron Logging

Invasion
Sonic Logging

Gas

Lithology

Objectives:
To understand the physical principles
behind the operation of sonic logging
tools,
To understand the principles behind the
interpretation of sonic logs, and
To understand the limitations of sonic
borehole measurements.

Complementary Reading Assignment:


1. Bassiouni, Z., 1994, Theory, Measurement, and
Interpretation of Well Logs, Chapter 3: Acoustic
Properties of Rocks.

APPLICATIONS:
Mechanical Property Analysis
Formation Evaluation
Geophysical Prospecting (Seismic
Exploration)

Stress and Strain

Stress and Strain

Mechanical Properties and Petrophysics

Units and Conversions

P and S WAVES

BASIC PRINCIPLES

Logging Tools
RESISTIVITY

LATEROLOG

40 cm

NEUTRON
RADIOACTIVITY

GAMMA RAY
DENSITY

ACOUSTIC

SONIC
MICRO RESISTIVITY

RESISTIVITY

MICROLOG
DIPMETER

250 cm

200

150

100

80 cm

50

DEPTH OF INVESTIGATION

30 cm
20 cm
60 cm
5 cm
2 cm
0 cm
0 cm

RESOLUTION

80 cm

INDUCTION LOG

Traditional Monopole Tool

Single Transmitter-Single Receiver Tool

Single Transmitter-Dual Receiver Tool

EARLIER TOOLS
Single Transmitter Dual Receiver

EARLIER TOOLS
Dual Transmitter Dual Receiver
(Borehole Compensation)

Synthetic Compensation

Monopole in a Fast Formation

Different Waves, Different Velocities

MONOPOLE WAVEFORM

BOREHOLE WAVES

HARD FORMATION, MONOPOLE EXCITATION

SOFT FORMATION, MONOPOLE EXCITATION

CYCLE SKIPPING

Typical Ranges of Velocities

P-WAVE VELOCITIES OF GASES

P- and S-WAVE VELOCITIES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

Typical Ranges of Velocities

Relationship with Depth

Relationship with Pressure

Formation Over-Pressure

Influence of Saturating Fluids

Influence of Gas and Water Saturation

Qualitative Summary

DIPOLE FLEXURAL WAVE

Sonic Porosity
1. The porosity from the sonic slowness is different from that of
the density or neutron tools.
2. Sonic porosity reacts to primary porosity only, i.e. it does not
see the fractures or vugs.
3. The difference between the sonic porosity and the neutrondensity porosity gives a Secondary Porosity Index (SPI) which
is an indication of how much of this type of porosity there is in
the rock.

Intuitive Model

Sonic Porosity
The basic equation for sonic porosity is the Wyllie Time Average
Formula (strictly speaking, an empirical formula):

t log = t f + (1 ) t ma

tlog t ma
=
t f t ma
This is very simple with the inputs of a matrix
slowness and a fluid slowness

Theory and Measurements

Compaction Effects

Sonic Porosity
There is another possibility for transforming slowness
to porosity, called Raymer Gardner Hunt
This formula tries to take into account some
irregularities seen in the field
the basic equation is

1 (1 )

=
+
t ma
t f
t c
2

a simplified version used on the CSU and Maxis is

=C

tlog tma
tlog

C is a constant usually taken as 0.67

Synthetic Seismogram (cont.)


Applications
Well Tie & Correlation
Allow to correlate log
data with surface
seismic data

Surface
Seismic
Acoustic
Impedance
Synthetic
Seismogram

BOREHOLE DIPOLE SOURCE

SOFT FORMATION, DIPOLE EXCITATION

DIPOLE WAVEFORMS:
Fast Formation

DIPOLE SONIC
ARRAY TOOL

EXAMPLE:
Ultra Slow Compressional Wave

EXAMPLE:
Ultra Slow Dipole Shear Response

STONELEY PERMEABILITY

FRACTURE
EVALUATION

LOGGING FOR MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

CROSS-DIPOLE:
In-Situ Stress

In-Situ Stress

SANDING MODEL DIAGRAM

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Baker Atlas
Schlumberger